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Sample records for casearia sylvestris sw

  1. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw exhibitsin vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities andin vivo hypolipidemic effect in rats

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    J. ESPINOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae is a shrub that occurs in forests of Southern Brazil; its leaves are widely used in folk medicine as a depurative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic agent. The objective of this study was to perform the phytochemical description and to evaluate the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EE of C. sylvestris Sw. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of the EE ofC. sylvestris Sw on the glucose levels and lipid profile in blood serum of rats submitted to a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and Methods: In vitro assay: the detection of chemical groups was done through chemical reactions with the development of color or precipitate and by chromatographic profile; the antioxidant activity was measured by the method of reduction of DPPH free radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, and the Minimum Bactericide Concentration and the Minimum Fungicide Concentration were performed in Petri dishes; the cytotoxic activity was measured by the Artemia salina test. In vivo assay: diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with EE of C. sylvestris Sw (300 mg/kg for 45 days, and the glycaemia and lipid profile were analyzed. Results: The EE showed a Lethal Dose50 of 724.76 μg.mL-1 and important antioxidant, fungicide and fungistatic activities. The EE showed better antimicrobial activity regarding the microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andSalmonella setubal. Conclusion: The EE of C. sylvestris Sw produces a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL levels without any significant alteration in the glycaemia. The EE of C. sylvestris Sw presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and it exhibits a potent hypolipidemic effect.

  2. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

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    Pereira, Flaviane G; Marquete, Ronaldo; Domingos, Levy T; Rocha, Marco E N; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Mansur, Elisabeth; Moreira, Davyson L

    2017-01-01

    Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as "guaçatonga", "erva-de-tiú", "cafezinho-do-mato". In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  3. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

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    FLAVIANE G. PEREIRA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Casearia genus (Salicaceae is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as “guaçatonga”, “erva-de-tiú”, “cafezinho-do-mato”. In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%. These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8% and α-copaene (8.5% and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8% were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  4. Alelopatia de Joanesia princeps Vell. e Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

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    Rafael Aguiar Capobiango

    Full Text Available Metabólitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de folhas de Joanesia princeps e Casearia sylvestris na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Brassica oleracea cv. capitata, Lactuca sativa cv. grand rapids e Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram testadas seis concentrações de cada extrato (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100% além do controle água destilada. Os extratos aquosos de J. princeps e C. sylvestris reduziram e, ou inibiram significativamente o percentual de geminação das sementes, o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas as espécies cultivadas e causaram severas anormalidades nas plântulas. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de J. princeps e C. sylvestris.

  5. Short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of Casearia sylvestris

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    Cleide A.S. Tirloni

    Full Text Available Abstract Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in Brazil for the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. This species was included as of interest by Brazilian Unified Health System. Although preclinical studies described cardiovascular protective effects and apparent absence of toxicity, no studies have evaluated its carcinogenic potential. In this study, we proposed a short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats, aiming to check the safety of this species to use it as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System. C. sylvestris leaves were obtained and the crude extract was prepared by maceration from methanol/water. Wistar rats were orally treated for 12 weeks with 50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1 of crude extract or vehicle. Body weight, daily morbidity and mortality were monitored. Blood and bone marrow samples were collect for micronucleus test, comet assay and tumor markers evaluation. Vital organs were removed to macro and histopathological analyses. The crude extract did not induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects and no alterations were observed in important tumor markers. Finally, no detectable signs of injury through gross pathology or histopathological examinations were observed. Our results certify the absence of the crude extract toxicity, indicating its safety, even at prolonged exposure as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System.

  6. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

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    Prieto, A.M. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil); Santos, A.G. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Natural Principles and Toxicology, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, km 01, Araraquara (Brazil); Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil); Arbex, M.A. [UNIFESP — Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 720, São Paulo (Brazil); Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil); Cavalheiro, A.J.; Silva, D.H.S.; Bolzani, V.S. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Organic Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil); Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  7. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Casearia sylvestris Sw on human cancer cells and erythrocytes Avaliação citotóxica do óleo essencial de Casearia sylvestris Sw sobre células tumorais humanas e eritrócitos

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    Saulo Luís da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae é uma planta popularmente conhecida como "guaçatonga" e é usada por povos indígenas da América do sul (Brasil, Peru e Bolivia no tratamento de muitas doenças, incluindo câncer. Estudos citotóxicos mostraram que esta planta apresenta um possível e interessante potencial antitumoral devido à presença de moléculas chamadas casearinas. Além disso, a composição do óleo essencial mostrou uma alta concentração de sesquiterpenos de alto potencial citotóxico. Neste trabalho, nós verificamos que o óleo essencial da C. sylvestris apresentou uma boa citotoxicidade seletiva contra as linhagens de células tumorais HeLa, A-549 and HT-29 (CD50 63,3, 60,7 e 90,6 µg.ml-1, respectivamente quando comparada às células não-tumorais Vero (CD50 210,1 µg.ml-1 e macrófagos de camundongos (CD50 234,0 µg.ml-1. Além disso, o óleo causou hemólise em sete diferentes tipos de eritrócitos, indicando que a C. sylvestris precisa ser usada com cuidado. Também foram testados padrões de β-cariofileno e α-humuleno que mostraram citotoxicidade similar àquelas apresentadas pelo óleo, indicando que estes compostos podem ser os responsáveis pelos efeitos tóxicos que foram observados neste estudo.Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae is a plant popularly known as "guaçatonga" and it is used by indigenous population from South America (Brazil, Peru and Bolivia in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Cytotoxic studies showed that it presents an interesting antitumoral potential due to the presence of casearins and the essential oil showed a high percentage of potent cytotoxic sesquiterpenes (β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. In this work, we verified that the essential oil of C. sylvestris presents a good selective cytotoxicity against HeLa, A-549 and HT-29 tumor cells (CD50 63.3, 60.7 and 90.6 µg.ml-1, respectively when compared to non-tumoral cells Vero (CD50 210.1 µg.ml-1 and mice macrophages

  8. Avaliação da Atividade Acaricida de Óleos Essenciais de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) O. Kuntze, Casearia sylvestris Sw e Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq., em Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae)

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    Becker, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    O uso de compostos químicos sintéticos para o controle de pragas é amplamente utilizado no cultivo de plantas, os quais desfavorecem a estabilidade ecológica de sistemas naturais. Por serem menos agressivos e possuírem mais de um princípio ativo, os pesticidas naturais de origem vegetal podem minimizar as conseqüências indesejadas. Avaliou-se no presente trabalho o potencial acaricida dos óleos essenciais das espécies vegetais Acanthospermum australe, Casearia sylvestris e Pothomorphe umbella...

  9. DESENVOLVIMENTO DO POTENCIAL TECNOLÓGICO DE Casearia sylvestris

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    Lana Grasiela Alves Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise prospectiva é uma importante ferramenta na identificação das oportunidades e das necessidades mais relevantes em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P & D bem como das intervenções planejadas em sistemas de inovação. Este trabalho escolheu o gênero Casearia, epíteto sylvestris conhecida como "guaçatonga", para estudar seu potencial tecnológico, fazendo uso do Software Vantage Point - tratamento bibliométrico, geração dos dados quantitativos e identificação de indicadores científicos. Observou-se que as quantidades de publicações no Brasil (135 artigos indexados são bastante relevantes, embora indiquem um gargalo nos registros das patentes.

  10. Antimicrobial potential of Casearia sylvestris against oral bacteria

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    Amanda Henriques CAVALHEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to obtain Casearia sylvestris leave extracts by different extractive methods, including the obtention of essential oil, in order to compare their antimicrobial activities to conventional mouthwash chlorhexidine against oral bacteria. Material and method For this evaluation, extracts from the leaves were obtained by different methods of extraction (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation using different solvent systems: water 100%, ethanol 100%, methanol 100%, water: ethanol 3:7; water: ethanol 7:3; water: methanol 7:3 and water: methanol 3:7. The essential oil, which corresponds to a volatile fraction, was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger modified apparatus. The microdilution broth method was used to determine the values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, S. mitis ATCC 49456, S. sanguinis ATCC 10556, S. salivarius ATCC 25975, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 11578 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC4082. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as a positive control. Result All extracts evaluated in the used protocol displayed MIC values higher than 400 µg/mL and few showed bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was higher than the activity of the extracts, and the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were obtained against L. casei (MIC of 0.023 µg/mL and MBC of 0.046 µg/mL and S. mutans (MIC of 25 µg/mL and MBC of 50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Casearia sylvestris has significant antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms.

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the Casearia sylvestris extract on HTC and V79 cells by the comet assay.

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    Maistro, E L; Carvalho, J C T; Mantovani, M S

    2004-06-01

    Casearia sylvestris is common in tropical America growing wild in Brazil in the states of Amazonas and São Paulo. Its leaves are used in Brazilian folk medicine for several diseases. The present investigation was carried out to examine the genotoxic effects of a C. sylvestris crude ethanolic extract on Hepatoma Tissue Culture (HTC cells) of Rattus norvegicus and Chinese hamster V79 cells in culture, using the comet assay. For the genotoxic evaluation the cells were treated with three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml) of extract prepared from a 25 mg/ml aqueous solution. The positive control was cyclophosphamide for HTC cells and methyl methanesulfonate for V79 cells. The duration of the treatment was 2 h. The results showed that the extract of C. sylvestris presented no genotoxic effects and not modified effect inducing DNA damage by alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and methyl methanesulfonate in HTC and V 79 cells respectively.

  12. Identificação de diterpenos clerodânicos em diferentes órgãos de Casearia sylvestris Swartz

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    Elisângela Simões de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

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    Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae é uma espécie vegetal arbórea ou arbustiva, disseminada pelo território brasileiro e bastante utilizada em nossa medicina popular. Diversos diterpenos clerodânicos bioativos típicos do gênero Casearia foram isolados desta espécie (ex. casearinas e casearvestrinas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de diterpenos clerodânicos em diferentes órgãos de C. sylvestris, utilizando técnicas analíticas cromatográficas e espectroscópicas. Os extratos dos diferentes órgãos foram analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos e ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H. Nas análises cromatográficas foram utilizados diterpenos clerodânicos isolados de C. sylvestris como padrões, incluindo rel-19S-acetóxi- 18R- butanoilóxi-18,19- epóxi -6S -hidróxi -2R- (2 metilbutanoilóxi -5S,8R, 9R, 10S -cleroda-3,13(16,14-trieno, isolado do caule pela primeira vez. Foram obtidos perfis fitoquímicos dos órgãos avaliados. Os resultados indicaram a presença de diterpenos clerodânicos em toda planta, prevalecendo em maior número nas folhas. Além disso, os resultados também indicam que em caules, flores e raízes há predomínio de diterpenos clerodânicos com padrão diênico diferente daqueles obtidos de folhas de C. sylvestris. Palavras-chave: Casearia sylvestris. Diterpenos clerodânicos. Salicaceae. Flacourtiaceae. Cromatografia. ABSTRACT Identification of clerodane diterpenes in different organs of Casearia sylvestris Swartz Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae is a tree or shrub distributed widely in Brazil, where it is used in popular medicine. Several bioactive clerodane diterpenes typical of Casearia have been isolated from this species (e.g. casearins and casearvestrins. The main objective of this study was to identify clerodane diterpenes in various organs of C. sylvestris

  13. Chemical composition and cytotoxicity evaluation of essential oil from leaves of Casearia sylvestris, its main compound α-zingiberene and derivatives.

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    Bou, Diego Dinis; Lago, João Henrique G; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Guadagnin, Rafael C; Soares, Marisi G; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2013-08-08

    Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae), popularly known as "guaçatonga", is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. The present work deals with the chemical composition as well as the cytotoxic evaluation of its essential oil, its main constituent and derivatives. Thus, the crude essential oil from leaves of C. sylvestris was obtained using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. This analysis afforded the identification of 23 substances, 13 of which corresponded to 98.73% of the total oil composition, with sesquiterpene a-zingiberene accounting for 50% of the oil. The essential oil was evaluated for cytotoxic activity against several tumor cell lines, giving IC50 values ranging from 12 to 153 mg/mL. Pure a-zingiberene, isolated from essential oil, was also evaluated against the tumor cell lines showing activity for HeLa, U-87, Siha and HL60 cell lines, but with IC50 values higher than those determined for the crude essential oil. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the double bonds of a-zingiberene on the cytotoxic activity, partially hydrogenated a-zingiberene (PHZ) and fully hydrogenated a-zingiberene (THZ) derivatives were obtained. For the partially hydrogenated derivative only cytotoxic activity to the B16F10-Nex2 cell line (IC50 65 mg/mL) was detected, while totally hydrogenated derivative showed cytotoxic activity for almost all cell lines, with B16F10-Nex2 and MCF-7 as exceptions and with IC50 values ranging from 34 to 65 mg/mL. These results indicate that cytotoxic activity is related with the state of oxidation of compound.

  14. Preclinical anticancer effectiveness of a fraction from Casearia sylvestris and its component Casearin X: in vivo and ex vivo methods and microscopy examinations.

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    Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Ferreira, José Roberto de Oliveira; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares de; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Machado, Camila Maria Longo; Chammas, Roger; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de; Pessoa, Claudia

    2016-06-20

    Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) is found in South America and presents antiulcerogenic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive activities. To assess the in vivo and ex vivo antitumor action of a fraction with casearins (FC) and its main component - Casearin X-isolated from C. sylvestris leaves. Firstly, Sarcoma 180 bearing Swiss mice were treated with FC and Cas X for 7 days. Secondly, BALB/c nude animals received hollow fibers with colon carcinoma (HCT-116) or glioblastoma (SF-295) cells and were treated with FC for 4 days. On 5th day, proliferation was determined by MTT assay. FC 10 and 25mg/kg/day i.p. and 50mg/kg/day oral and Cas X 25mg/kg/day i.p. and 50mg/kg/day oral revealed tumor growth inhibition rates of 35.8, 86.2, 53.7, 90.0 and 65.5% and such tumors demonstrated rare mitoses and coagulation necrosis areas. Similarly, FC reduced multiplying of HCT-116 and SF-295 cells when evaluated by the Hollow Fiber Assay (2.5 and 5mg/kg/day i.p. and 25 and 50mg/kg/day oral), with cell growth inhibition rates ranging from 33.3 to 67.4% (p<0.05). Flow cytometry experiments revealed that FC reduced membrane integrity and induced DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization (p<0.05). FC and Cas X were efficient antitumor substances against murine and human cancer cells and caused reversible morphological changes in liver, kidneys and spleens, emphasizing clerodane diterpenes as an emerging class of anticancer molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Casearia sylvestris na permeabilidade gástrica à sacarose em equinos submetidos a protocolo de indução de úlcera gástrica Casearia sylvestris on gastric permeability to sucrose in horses submitted to gastric ulcer induction protocol

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    Sergio da Silva Fialho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em animais de laboratório sugerem um efeito antiulcerogênico do extrato de Casearia sylvestris. Esse extrato ainda não foi estudado para a profilaxia e/ou o tratamento de úlceras gástricas em equinos. Para avaliar a influência do extrato de C. sylvestris na permeabilidade gástrica à sacarose, seis equinos adultos foram submetidos a modelo de indução de úlceras gástricas. Os animais foram submetidos ao teste de permeabilidade à sacarose antes e ao término do protocolo de restrição alimentar intermitente, para detecção de ulceração gástrica. Durante os sete dias da indução, os animais foram submetidos a tratamentos diários via sondagem nasogástrica com extrato de C. sylvestris (9mg kg-1 de peso corpóreo ou veículo (ágar. Após intervalo de 32 dias em piquete, para permitir a cicatrização das úlceras induzidas, cada animal foi submetido novamente ao protocolo de indução de úlcera gástrica, e os tratamentos foram alternados. Dessa forma, cada animal foi submetido a ambos os tratamentos em períodos distintos. A concentração de sacarose na urina foi determinada para cada amostra obtida, por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho e detecção amperométrica pulsátil. Não foram observadas alterações nos exames clínicos e hemogramas. O tratamento com o extrato de C. sylvestris evitou o aumento da concentração de sacarose urinária (PStudies on laboratory animals suggest an antiulcergonic effect of Casearia sylvestris extract. This extract has not yet been tested for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of gastric ulcers in horses. In order to evaluate the influence of C. sylvestris extract on gastric sucrose permeability, six adult horses underwent a protocol of gastric ulcer induction. All animals were submitted to sucrose permeability testing before and at the end of gastric ulcers induction by intermittent feed deprivation, for detection of gastric ulcers. During the seven days of induction, the

  16. Liberação de componentes do extrato de Casearia sylvestris Swartz empregando membranas de látex natural como suporte

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    Alberto Trecco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A membrana de látex natural (NRL – Natural Rubber Latex, manipulada a partir do látex extraído da seringueira Hevea brasiliensis, tem apresentado grande potencial de aplicação no campo da biomedicina e dos biomateriais. Graças a sua biocompatibilidade e baixa taxa de rejeição, ela tem sido utilizada para próteses e enxertos, atuando como estimulante da angiogênese, adesão celular e barreira física a agentes infecciosos. Além dessas aplicações, as membranas são utilizadas como matriz de sistemas de liberação para avaliar o comportamento da liberação de fármacos e extratos de origem vegetal que apresentam propriedades medicinais. O sistema extrato-membrana tem como objeto de estudo uma nova abordagem dessas substâncias no tratamento de feridas visando à cicatrização e regeneração do tecido envolvido. Casearia sylvestris, conhecida popularmente como guaçatonga, pertence à família Salicaceae, conhecida na medicina popular pelos seus efeitos antiulcerogênicos, cicatrizantes, antiofídicos, anti-inflamatórios e antissépticos, propriedades já comprovadas por estudos. Trabalhos recentes demonstraram que a liberação controlada de fármacos e extratos utilizando membranas de látex natural é uma alternativa interessante e promissora para aplicações biomédicas. Assim, o objetivo deste projeto foi estudar a liberação do extrato de Casearia sylvestris incorporado à membrana de látex em soluções com diferentes valores de pH, com o propósito de estudar seu comportamento e sua liberação de forma controlada. A taxa de liberação do extrato do sistema extrato-membrana foi monitorada e analisada utilizando-se o método de espectroscopia ótica (UV. O pH básico age desestabilizando a membrana indicando que o polímero possui a habilidade de proteger o extrato de ser liberado em valores de pH ácidos, direcionando sua aplicação para o sítio de melhor absorção. Além disso, a liberação segue uma função bi

  17. Avaliação da atividade de Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Flacourtiaceae) sobre os níveis séricos de triglicerídeos em ratos

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    Werle,Almeci L. B; Zanetti,Gilberto D.; Ceron,Carla S.; Manfron,Melânia P.

    2009-01-01

    Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação da atividade do extrato aquoso e hidroalcoólico das folhas de Casearia sylvestris Swartz sobre os níveis séricos de triglicerídeos em ratos Wistar. Um dos usos populares dessa planta é como emagrecedor. As análises foram efetuadas após administração via oral de suspensão dos extratos em carboximetilcelulose 0,5% (CMC 0,5%) na dose de 500 mg/kg. Os valores obtidos comparados com os do grupo controle que recebeu apenas CMC 0,5%. Os resultados obtidos...

  18. Estaquia caulinar de guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Swartz nas quatro estações do ano, com aplicação de diferentes concentrações de AIB Stem cuttings of "guaçatonga" (Casearia sylvestris Swartz in the four seasons of the year with the use of different IBA concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spandre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae ou guaçatonga é uma árvore nativa do México, da América Central, e da América do Sul, com grande importância ecológica, farmacológica, e comercial. No entanto, como a maioria das espécies nativas de interesse medicinal no Brasil, a guaçatonga não é cultivada comercialmente, sendo obtida por extrativismo. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de testar um protocolo de propagação vegetativa de guaçatonga por meio da estaquia, visando identificar qual a melhor estação do ano para o enraizamento de estacas e avaliar o efeito da utilização do regulador vegetal ácido indolbutírico (AIB. No outono, inverno e primavera de 2007, e no verão de 2008, estacas caulinares semilenhosas de 12-14 cm de comprimento e com duas folhas foram preparadas e tratadas com AIB (0, 1000, 2000 e 3000 mg L-1, em solução alcoólica, através da imersão rápida por 10 segundos da base das estacas, e foram plantadas em tubetes contendo substrato Plantmax HT® em casa-de-vegetação sob nebulização intermitente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições, 4 tratamentos, e 16 estacas por parcela. Todos os experimentos foram avaliados após 90 dias, sendo que para dois deles (primavera 2007 e verão 2008 prolongou-se o tempo de permanência em casa-de-vegetação para melhor desenvolvimento das raízes. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, porcentagem de estacas vivas (com calos e sem raízes, sem calos e sem raízes, porcentagem de folhas retidas, porcentagem de estacas mortas, número de raízes, comprimento das três maiores raízes (cm, e média da massa seca das raízes (mg. Não ocorreu enraizamento nas estacas retiradas no outono e no inverno. Com as estacas retiradas na primavera obteve-se 39,1% de enraizamento. Estacas coletadas no verão não responderam como o esperado, apresentando, após 240 dias, 6,3% de

  19. Growth inhibition and antioxidative response of wood decay fungi exposed to plant extracts of Casearia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, T S; Torres, L M B; Fialho, M B; Bononi, V L R

    2014-01-01

    Ligninolytic fungi take part in critical processes in ecosystems such as nutrient recycling; however, some fungal species can be pathogenic to forest and urban trees and deteriorate wood products. The tropical flora is an important source of antimicrobial compounds environmentally safer than traditional wood preservatives. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of ethanol plant extracts of Casearia sylvestris and Casearia decandra on the white-rot wood decay basidiomycetes Trametes villosa and Pycnoporus sanguineus. In addition, the effect of the extracts on the fungal antioxidative metabolism was studied. Among the different substances present in the extracts, the phytochemical analyses identified a clerodane diterpenoid (C. sylvestris) and cinnamic acid, hydroquinone and β-sitosterol (C. decandra). The extracts inhibited the fungi up to 70% and caused hyphal morphology changes. The extracts triggered oxidative stress process as indicated by the increased levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione reductase. Therefore, the Casearia extracts are a potential source of natural biocides to control wood decay fungi, and one of the mechanisms of action is the oxidative stress. The Casearia plant extracts exhibited important antifungal activity on wood decay fungi and triggered oxidative stress process, an inhibitory mechanism rarely studied in filamentous fungi exposed to plant extracts. Therefore, a starting point was provided for the development of natural compounds-based products as an alternative to chemical fungicides. In addition, subsidies were given to further studies in order to elucidate in more detail how compounds present in extracts of native tropical plants affect the physiology of fungi. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  1. Reference genomes and transcriptomes of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sierro, Nicolas; Battey, James N D; Ouadi, Sonia; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Bakaher, Nicolas; Peitsch, Manuel C; Ivanov, Nikolai V

    2013-01-01

    .... sylvestris is cultivated largely as an ornamental plant and it has been used as a diploid model system for studies of terpenoid production, plastid engineering, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. N. sylvestris and N...

  2. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated,

  3. Lignan profiles of indoor-cultivated Anthriscus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Batterman, S; van Putten, F.M; Bos, R.; Quax, Wim

    2003-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that different populations of Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae) yield significantly different lignan profiles. In this study we collected the seeds of A. sylvestris from 4 locations, one in England and three in The Netherlands. The seeds germinated and

  4. Chloroplast diversity of Casearia grandiflora in the Cerrado of Piauí State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M F; Pereira, A A; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Araújo, A S F; Gomes, R L F; Valente, S E S; Oliveira, M E A; Lopes, A C A

    2017-02-16

    Casearia grandiflora (Salicaceae) is a typical Cerrado species adapted to disturbed environments, making it useful for restoration projects. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for establishing conservation strategies for this species. This study aimed to compare chloroplast haplotype diversity and structure of C. grandiflora, under the assumption that protected areas hold greater genetic diversity than disturbed areas. The populations studied are from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades Conservation Unit and from the surroundings of the city of Cocal de Telha, both located in the State of Piauí. Molecular analyses were performed with seven chloroplast microsatellite loci. The number of private haplotypes and haplotype diversity were higher in the conservation unit, which reinforces the importance of these areas in maintaining biodiversity. Analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation is found within populations, with a moderate divergence between them (FST = 0.14). The Bayesian analysis and discriminant analysis of principal components suggested that populations are not structured, revealing that a set of individuals from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades were more divergent within populations than between them. Since literature has little information on C. grandiflora, the results of this study provide important contribution to a better understanding of the specie's genetic diversity.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  6. A phytochemical study of lignans in whole plants and cell suspension cultures of Anthriscus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Kubbinga, M.E.; Batterman, S; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Woolley, J.G.; Quax, Wim

    2003-01-01

    In the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris 12 different lignans were detected. Arctigenin, dimethylmatairesinol, dimethylthujaplicatin, podophyllotoxin, 7-hydroxyyatein and 7-hydroxyanhydropodorhizol have not been previously reported to be present in A. sylvestris. In the cell suspension cultures, which

  7. The SW Sex enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, V. S.; Smith, D. A.; Marsh, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties – most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high-time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and He II λ4686 Å emission line...

  8. Larvas de Siderone marthesia nemesis (Illiger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae em cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Caterpillars of Siderose marthesia nemesis (Illiger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in cerrado near Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Morais

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Siderone marthesia nemesis (Illiger, 1802 (Nymphalidae, Charaxinae have been found on Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae, during the second half of the rainy season in an area of cerrado near Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. They occurred at very low density and are cryptic at all instars. The pupal stage does not occur on the host plant. Average duration of the pupa under laboratory conditions is 14.4 days.

  9. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    OpenAIRE

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho; Ary Vieira de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves prev...

  10. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  11. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  12. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Okhotsk Sea in eastern Siberia, and from beyond the sub- arctic forests of northern Scandinavia to arid, mountain- ous southern areas of Spain (Labra et al. 2006; Pyhäjärvi et al. ... in light of global climatic changes. Keywords. genetic diversity; ISSR; RAPD; Pinus sylvestris L. Journal of Genetics Vol. 92, Online Resources.

  14. L’hybride Rorippa amphibia x R. sylvestris en Belgique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawalrée, André

    1971-01-01

    The author briefly discusses and describes the hybrid Rorippa x anceps. Although its occurrence in Belgium was presumed, up till recently no localities were known. A key is given to facilitate distinction of the hybrid from its parents, R. amphibia and R. sylvestris.

  15. The SW Sex enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, V. S.; Smith, D. A.; Marsh, T. R.

    2013-02-01

    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties - most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high-time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and He ii λ4686 Å emission lines that appear to originate from a region in the disc that lies close to, but downstream of, the bright spot. The emission-line light curves are consistent with the finding from X-ray and ultraviolet observations that we predominantly see the flared disc rim and the unobscured back portion of the disc in these systems. In DW UMa, the He ii λ4686 Å emission line originates from close to the white dwarf and exhibits flaring. Such flares have been used to argue for magnetically channelled accretion, as in the intermediate polars, but the lack of a clear periodicity in the flares argues for a simpler model in which we are viewing the central regions of the disc through the non-uniform upper edge of a flared disc rim. We also observe narrow, blueshifted, transient absorption features in the Balmer lines of DW UMa, which we attribute to blobs of material ejected from the system, possibly by a magnetic propeller, that happen to be passing between us and the binary. Our results suggest that the solution to the SW Sex enigma is a combination of dominant bright-spot emission and a self-occulting disc. We also propose a simplified classification scheme for nova-like variables.

  16. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  17. Endobacteria in some ectomycorrhiza of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of cultivable endobacteria associated with four different ectomycorrhizal morphotypes (Suillus flavidus, Suillus variegatus, Russula paludosa and Russula sp.) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of PCR-amplified rDNA intergenic spacer regions and by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Ectomycorrhizal root tip surface-sterilization methods were developed and assessed for their efficiencies. Bacterial communities from surface-sterilized ectomycorrhizal root tips were different from those of ectomycorrhizal root tips without surface-sterilization for all the morphotypes studied. Endobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus were isolated from more than one ectomycorrhizal morphotype, whereas species of Rahnella, Janthinobacterium and Rhodococcus were only isolated from the single morphotypes of S. variegatus, R. paludosa and Russula sp., respectively. Some of the isolated endobacteria utilized fungal sugars more readily than typical plant sugars in carbon utilization assays.

  18. Effects of ammonium and nitrate on mycorrhizal seedlings of Pinus sylvestris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Ket, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate on Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with Paxillus involutus and Suillus bovinus were investigated. Weekly fertilization (26 weeks) positively affected the plant dry weight, but inhibited the mycorrhizal formation and decreased the root

  19. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nasiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris flowershave a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound.

  20. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  1. Malva sylvestris extract protects upon lithium carbonate-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Brahmi, Dalel; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazher

    2016-12-01

    Malva sylvestris has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. We aimed to assess the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract against lithium carbonate induced renal damage in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg of lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection) for 30 days. Malva sylvestris extract was proved to contain large amounts of K+, Na+, Ca++ and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids shown by the obtained HPLC-based analysis. The antioxidant capacities in vitro showed high level of radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The in vivo results showed that intraperitoneal injection of lithium carbonate exhibited a significant increase (pLithium carbonate also induced oxidative damage as indicated by a significant raise in LPO level associated with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the kidney. However, pretreatment with Malva sylvestris extract restored the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that lithium carbonate has induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes and histopathological damage but the supplementation with Malva sylvestris extract has prevented such toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-Oxiflammatory Profile of Date Extracts (Phoenix sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintu Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of date palm (Phoenix sylvestrisL. is edible and used as an anti-geriatric, anti-oxidant ethnomedicine. In this study, three different types ofdateextracts, methanolic, acidic ethanolic and basic ethanolicwere evaluated for their putative in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS, where scavenging of hydroxyl radicals (basic ethanolic>acidic ethanolic>methanolic, superoxide radicals (acidic ethanolic>basic ethanolic>methanolic, DPPH radicals (acidic ethanolic>methanolic>basic ethanolic, nitric oxide (NO (methanolic>acidic ethanolic>basic ethanolic and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (basic ethanolic>acidic ethanolic> methanolic were found to occur in a dose dependent manner. Their flavonoid and phenolic contents proved to be the source of this potent free radical scavenging activity and indicated a direct correlation with their total anti-oxidant capacity. On human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK and murine RAW macrophages, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammation, the date extracts applied therapeutically, inhibit intracellular oxidative stress significantly. This reinstatement of cellular homeostasis presumably occurs via mitochondrial pathways. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(6.000: 297-317

  3. Dynamics of monoterpene emissions in Pinus sylvestris during early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, J.; Hari, P.; Juurola, E. [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, Helsinki (Finland); Kulmala, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The seasonal dynamics of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, which can be related to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols, represent an important but at the present poorly understood linkage between vegetation activity and climate. Although a close relationship between photosynthesis and terpenoid emissions has been proposed, high monoterpene emission rates for Scots pine shoots (Pinus sylvestris) are frequently recorded during spring, in times when photosynthetic activity is strongly inhibited due to inherent seasonal restrictions. We suggest that terpenoid emissions are related to either photosynthesis or photorespiration for precursors for terpenoid biosynthesis. We developed two dynamic models describing temporal fluctuations in Scots pine monoterpene emissions, calculating the emissions by using CO{sub 2} exchange and ambient climate data. The models accurately predicted the measured monoterpene flux, and especially in March-April, during the time when photosynthesis was negligible and ambient temperatures were between -5 and +15 C, a good agreement was found with measured emissions and the model involving photorespiration. (orig.)

  4. Homogeneous Solution for SW Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjoo Kim

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed collected photoelectric light curves for light variations of SW Lac. The method of Fourier analysis was adopted to quantify the light variation from season to season. We found the linear relation between the Fourier coefficient, B1 and the magnitude difference between two maxima. The total light of the system has been decreased as much as 0m.04 during approximately 20 years time interval. Photoelectric parameters including spot parameters for all light curves were obtained by the method of the Wilson and Devinney differential correction in order to secure the variations of parameters from season to season. SW Lac, not like RS CVn type stars, required to adjust all parameters as well as spot parameters for a reasonable fit to the observations of each epoch. A surface temperature of cooler star is one of the most sensitive parameters to affect a shape of light curve of SW Lac. We conclude that the shape of light curve of SW Lac varies even during one season as well as season to season. The light curve is mainly caused by inhomogeneous surface temperature due to strong chromospheric activity of the system.

  5. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... by factors like grazing and human disturbance; II. which climatic factors control shrub growth in SW Greenland and whether these have improved sufficiently over the past century to allow shrub expansion; III. whether growth of A. viridis is promoted by experimental warming; IV. and whether plant genotypes...

  6. Post-fire effects in xylem hydraulics of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Andreas; Nardini, Andrea; Mayr, Stefan

    2017-11-28

    Recent studies on post-fire tree mortality suggest a role for heat-induced alterations of the hydraulic system. We analyzed heat effects on xylem hydraulics both in the laboratory and at a forest site hit by fire. Stem vulnerability to drought-induced embolism and hydraulic conductivity were measured in Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica. Control branches were compared with samples experimentally exposed to 90°C or damaged by a natural forest fire. In addition, xylem anatomical changes were examined microscopically. Experimental heating caused structural changes in the xylem and increased vulnerability in all species. The largest shifts in vulnerability thresholds (1.3 MPa) were observed in P. sylvestris. F. sylvatica also showed heat-induced reductions (49%) in hydraulic conductivity. At the field site, increased vulnerability was observed in damaged branches of P. sylvestris and F. sylvatica, and the xylem of F. sylvatica was 39% less conductive in damaged than in undamaged branches. These results provide evidence for heat-induced impairment of tree hydraulics after fire. The effects recorded at the forest fire site corresponded to those obtained in laboratory experiments, and revealed pronounced hydraulic risks in P. sylvestris and F. sylvatica. Knowledge of species-specific hydraulic impairments induced by fire and heat is a prerequisite for accurate estimation of post-fire mortality risks. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Anti-trypanosomal effect of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae) extract on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal activity of Malva sylvestris (MS) extract in a Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mouse model of sleeping sickness. Methods: Sleeping sickness was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected blood in mice. Confirmation of parasitaemia was ...

  8. Anti-trypanosomal effect of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae) extract on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal activity of Malva sylvestris (MS) extract in a Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mouse model of sleeping sickness. Methods: Sleeping sickness was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of Trypanosoma brucei brucei- infected blood in mice. Confirmation of parasitaemia was ...

  9. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  10. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.V.; McLean, E.H.; Boonman, A.; Visser, E.J.W.; Schranz, M.E.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungi and Pinus sylvestris: aluminium toxicity, base cation deficiencies and exudation of organic anions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: aluminium (Al), base cations, BC:Alratio, magnesium (Mg), organic anions, oxalate, malonate, ectomycorrhizal fungi, Paxillus involutus, Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)The finding of microscopic-small tunnels in mineral grains

  12. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  13. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    , and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... including only undisturbed sites. Shrub cover increased most on E and SE facing slopes, in sites with stable substrate, in areas characterised by human disturbance and in areas without muskoxen grazing. Aspect and human disturbances had the strongest effect on shrub expansion, followed by muskoxen...... locations. A. viridis represents an interesting case to study these effects. SW Greenland is a subarctic to low-arctic region with only limited increases in temperatures during the past decades, and observed climate trends being largely dependent on the observation period. In this region there is limited...

  14. Development and Characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica.

  15. The current state of Pinus sylvestris L. gene pool in Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Ilyinov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three native populations of P. sylvestris, ssp. lapponica (Alakurtti, Gridino, Pjaozero and six native populations of P. s., ssp. sylvestris (Voinitsa, Maslozero, Vodlozero, Zaonezshye, Kivach, Sortavala along with one artificial population – Petrozavodsk seed orchard have been studied using four nuclear microsatellite primers (Spac11.8, Spac12.5, PtTX2123, PtTX2146 to find out the peculiarities of Scotch pine intraspecific diversity in Karelia. In total, 66 alleles were found. All four loci turned out to be polymorphic in all populations. The observed heterozigocity level of all studied Karelian populations was lower than expected, which is evidence of heterozygotes deficiency in Karelian pine populations. Overall, the investigated P. sylvestris populations can be described as having a high level of the genetic variability especially compared to results obtained earlier by isozyme analyses. The Petrozavodsk seed orchard ought to be mentioned as having one of the highest levels of the genetic variability, which gives evidences in favor of good state regarding representativeness of Scotch pine gene pool here. No substantial differences in genetic structure and diversity levels have been found for ss. lapponica populations vs. ss. sylvestris ones. AMOVA analysis showed that despite the significant differences between pine populations, considering both the allele composition and the genetic diversity, the major part of the variety (90 % was allocated inside group. The investigated populations were subdivided into two clusters using UPGMA technique characterized by substantial Nei distance (DN = 0.273. The former one included the majority of Karelian pine populations (DN = 0.030–0.082 along with the Alakurtti population from Murmansk region. The latter cluster consisted ofthe most isolated «Kivach» and «Zaonezshye» populations, which had the lowest levels of genetic diversity, and the «Petrozavodsk seed orchard».

  16. Dichotomization of mycorrhizal and NPA-treated short roots in Pinus sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Vanamo

    2008-01-01

    Conifers like Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) have a complicated root system consisting of morphologically and anatomically different root types, of which the short roots have a very limited ability to elongate. Short roots have an important role in nature since they are able to establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, in which the growth of fungal mycelium between the epidermal cells and in the intercellular space between cortical cells leads to formation of dichotomous short roots, which may, through further splitting of the meristem, form coralloid root structures. Dichotomous short roots have been suggested to result from changes in either auxin or ethylene concentrations due to the fungal growth inside the root. NPA, the inhibitor of polar auxin transport, enhances the dichotomization of P. sylvestris short root tips similarly to the fungal growth in the root, thus confirming that auxin plays a role in short root morphogenesis. Ethylene is also known to have an important role in the regulation of root morphogenesis. In future the research dealing with the root system and ectomycorrhiza development in P. sylvestris must take into account that both auxin and ethylene are involved and that there is no contradiction in obtaining the same phenotype with both hormones. The expression analysis of PIN proteins, auxin efflux carriers, could give valuable information about the role of auxin transport in regulating the root growth and morphogenesis of coniferous root system and mycorrhiza. PMID:19704726

  17. Cholinesterase, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of randomly selected Umbelliferous plant species and chromatographic profile of Heracleum platytaenium Boiss. and Angelica sylvestris L. var. sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ilkay Edrogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological activity of the methanol extracts of thirteen Umbelliferae (Apiaceae plants was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, and tyrosinase (TYR using high-throughput screening technique. Although the extracts displayed none to low profile of inhibition against enzymes, the highest cholinesterase inhibition was observed with Heracleum platytaenium (32.52 ± 3.27 % for AChE and 46.16 ± 1.42 % for BChE at 100 μg mL-1. Since neurodegeneration is linked to oxidative damage, antioxidant potential of the extracts was searched through radical scavenging, metal-chelating capacity, and reducing power experiments and exerted modest levels of activity varying according to the method. The extracts had a better ability to scavenge nitric oxide radical (19.47 ± 2.09 % to 54.91 ± 1.98 %. Since these species are known to be rich in coumarins, our quantitative high-performance liquid chroatography (HPLC analysis indicated presence of xanthotoxin, angelicin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, and pimpinellin in Heracleum platytaenium and angelicin and imperatorin in Angelica sylvestris var. sylvestris.

  18. Hazardous Waste Test Methods / SW-846

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) provide guidance to analytical scientists, enforcement officers and method developers across a variety of sectors.

  19. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  20. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP, a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans.

  1. Annual Cambial Rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as Indicator for Climate Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; de Luis, Martin; Novak, Klemen; Martinez Del Castillo, Edurne; Schmitt, Uwe; Koch, Gerald; Štrus, Jasna; Mrak, Polona; Žnidarič, Magda T; Čufar, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival.

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of terpenoid metabolism-related gene NsyCMS in Nicotiana sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, J; Liu, G S; Li, W; Hussian, Z; Sun, Y H

    2015-04-13

    Terpenoids constitute the main class of secondary metabolites produced in plants with industrial, pharmacological, and agricultural interests. Nicotiana sylvestris has been widely adopted as a diploid model system in plant biology for studies of terpenoid biosynthesis. In this paper, we report the isolation and analysis of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (CMS) gene of the MEP (methylerythritol 4-phosphate) pathway from N. sylvestris. We used homologous-based cloning with a RACE method to obtain the full-length coding sequence of the NsCMS. Then, the physical and chemical properties, function, and three-dimensional structure of the NsyCMS protein were predicted. Fluorogenic quantitative PCR was used to conduct an expression analysis at different developmental stages of various tissues of the NsyCMS. The sequence of the NsyCMS consists of a 954-bp open reading frame and encodes a predicted protein of 317 amino acids, with a molecular weight of approximately 49.6 kDa and pi of 6.92. The in vivo localization of the encoded protein was cytoplasmic with no signal peptide, whereas 2 transmembrane regions were found in NsyCMS. The conserved domains of typical 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase, aminotransferase, and pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase were found in NsyCMS. Differential expression patterns of the NsyCMS were observed throughout the different developmental stages and tissues. NsyCMS messenger RNA was expressed in all tissues, with the highest level of expression in the seedling leaves. NsyMK was expressed at a higher level in the resettling roots. The results from our study set the foundation for exploring the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in N. sylvestris.

  3. Lithium induced, oxidative stress and related damages in testes and heart in male rats: The protective effects of Malva sylvestris extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Alimi, Hichem; Ncib, Sana; Smida, Amani; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-02-01

    Malva sylvestris is widely used in Mediterranean and European traditional medicine and ethnoveterinary for the treatment of various diseases. This study, carried out on male Wistar rats, evaluates the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract upon lithium carbonate-induced damages in testes and heart. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection, twice daily). Lithium carbonate treatment significantly (plithium carbonate significantly (psuperoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testes and heart. Treatment with M. sylvestris extract affords substantial protection in testes and heart by altering all the parameters to near normal levels that were further confirmed by histological examination. The beneficial effect of M. Sylvestris extract in several organs could be attributed to the interaction of antioxidant components, such as complex polysaccharides, as confirmed by phytochemical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of years and origins into the seed production of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Alonso, María

    2013-01-01

    Ocho áreas ocupadas de forma natural por Pinus sylvestris y localizadas a diferentes latitudes en Finlandia fueron seleccionadas y estudiadas desde 1997 hasta 2001para analizar las diferencias en el ratio de flores femeninas que desarrollan cono y el número de semillas por cono. Las condiciones climatológicas, las condiciones del lugar y el tiempo de floración son algunos de los factores que pueden afectar la producción de semilla. Los resultados muestran la posibilidad de existen...

  5. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  6. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  7. Polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus sylvestris L. bark--chemical and antitumor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalinei, Roxana Laura Mihailescu; Trifan, Adriana; Cioanca, Oana; Miron, S D; Mihai, C T; Rotinberg, P; Miron, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris L. is a very important timber tree in Romania, the bark being the main waste from the wood processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antitumor effects against HeLa cells of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus sylvestris L. bark. The polyphenolic content and profile were analyzed by means of spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC-UV/ESI-MS in the negative ion mode. The antitumor activity was investigated using two in vitro assays: MTT and flow cytometric apoptosis assays. Pine bark extract contained a high total phenolic content (48.16 +/- 0.29%). RP-HPLC-UV/ESI-MS analysis allowed the identification of taxifolin, a taxifolin-hexoside and several procyanidins (two monomers, three dimers and three trimers). At 200 microg/mL, pine bark extract exhibited a high cytotoxicity against HeLa cells (82.10 +/- 1.95%). Flow cytometry revealed the ability of pine bark extract to induce apoptosis: 71.97 +/- 0.96% apoptotic cells were determined in HeLa cells after a 48 h incubation with pine bark extract (200 microg/mL). The ability of pine bark extract to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in HeLa cells suggests the presence of compounds with antitumor properties and encourages further studies for their isolation and characterization.

  8. Development and Characterisation of Irap Markers From Expressed Retrotransposon-like sequences in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova Angelika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifer genomes are large and stably diploid, in contrast to angiosperms, which are more variable both in genome size and ploidy. Conifer genomes are characterised by multiple gene families and pseudogenes, contain large inter-gene regions and a considerable proportion of repetitive sequences. All members of plant retrotransposon orders have been identified in gymnosperm genomes, however active elements have not been described. Investigation of transposable elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. could offer insights into transposon-mediated reorganisation under stress conditions in complex and ancient plant genomes. Nine Pinus sylvestris specific markers were developed to hypothetical long terminal repeats (LTRs from differentially expressed retrotransposon-like fragments after heat stress and insect damage. Genetic diversity of 150 trees from a naturally regenerated pine stand was investigated using the IRAP method. The developed markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and were able to distinguish subpopulations growing in long-term differential environmental conditions. Somaclonal variation was also investigated using these markers and polymorphic fragments were identified between ramets of Scots pine clones growing in two different plantations, possibly indicating evidence of recent transposition events. Sequencing of the polymorphic fragments identified two groups of sequences containing LTR sequences of an unknown retrotransposon with homology to the LTRs of the Copia-17-PAb-I element.

  9. Abundance, diversity, and vitality of mycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in lignite recultivation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberger, B; Golldack, J; Ullrich, A; Schmincke, B; Hüttl, R F

    2004-07-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands cover large areas in the Lusatian and the Middle German lignite mining districts. Due to adverse chemical substrate conditions, the root systems of the trees are restricted to the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic forest floor layers. To investigate functioning of fine root systems under the prevailing site factors, we studied mycorrhizal colonization rate and frequency as well as mycorrhizal diversity, vitality and growth phases in Scots pine ecosystems along a chronosequence in both mining districts. Mycorrhizal rate was close to 100% in both districts. Mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the organic forest floor layer than the mineral soil layer. In total, 25 morphotypes were recorded. Diversity differed between the districts. The mycorrhizae of Amphinema byssoides, Tuber puberulum, Pinirhiza discolor, Pinirhiza cf. bicolorata and E-type were present in both mining areas. These morphotypes are typical of nutrient-rich soils with high pH values. Compared with the undisturbed sites, vitality of mycorrhizae was very high at the test sites on spoil substrate, correlating with the high growth dynamics of mycorrhizae at recultivation sites. A relatively high carbon flow to the mycorrhizal root systems at these sites seems likely. Thus, mycorrhizal root systems are able to cope with the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic layer. The main reason for the adaptation is the large number of ectomycorrhizal fungal species available in this area where Pinus sylvestris is indigenous.

  10. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  11. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  12. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio,

  13. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  14. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were...

  15. Richtlijnen voor het werken met gemengde teams in de SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.; Giesen, F.; Luijters, K.

    2012-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de pilot 'Regulier en SW'. De pilot 'Regulier en SW' is uitgevoerd door de Inclusief Groep in nauwe samenwerking met TNO. Doel van deze pilot was na te gaan of en zo ja hoe, het inzetten van reguliere krachten in (delen van) de Sociale Werkplaats (SW) de ontwikkeling en eventuele

  16. Charting novel allergens from date palm pollen (Phoenix sylvestris) using homology driven proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2017-08-08

    Pollen grains from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm), a commonly cultivated tree in India has been found to cause severe allergic diseases in an increasing percentage of hypersensitive individuals. To unearth its allergenic components, pollen protein were profiled by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with date palm pollen sensitive patient sera. Allergens were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF employing a layered proteomic approach combining conventional database dependent search and manual de novo sequencing followed by homology-based search as Phoenix sylvestris is unsequenced. Derivatization of tryptic peptides by acetylation has been demonstrated to differentiate the 'b' from the 'y' ions facilitating efficient de novo sequencing. Ten allergenic proteins were identified, out of which six showed homology with known allergens while others were reported for the first time. Amongst these, isoflavone reductase, beta-conglycinin, S-adenosyl methionine synthase, 1, 4 glucan synthase and beta-galactosidase were commonly reported as allergens from coconut pollen and presumably responsible for cross-reactivity. One of the allergens had IgE binding epitope recognized by its glycan moiety. The allergenic potency of date palm pollen has been demonstrated using in vitro tests. The identified allergens can be used to develop vaccines for immunotherapy against date palm pollen allergy. Identification of allergenic proteins from sources harboring them is essential in developing therapeutic interventions. This is the first comprehensive study on the identification of allergens from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm) pollen, one of the major aeroallergens in India using a proteomic approach. Proteomic methods are being increasingly used to identify allergens. However, since many of these proteins arise from species which are un-sequenced, it becomes difficult to interpret those using conventional proteomics. Date palm being an unsequenced species, the Ig

  17. Malva sylvestris Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Oral Human Cells. An In Vitro Infection Model.

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    Bruna Benso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Malva sylvestris extract (MSE and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, we evaluated the phytochemical content in the extract and fractions of M. sylvestris and demonstrated that polyphenols were the most frequent group in all samples studied. An in vitro dual-chamber model to mimic the periodontal structure was developed using a monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9 and a subepithelial layer of fibroblasts (HGF-1. The invasive periodontopathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (D7S-1 was applied to migrate through the cell layers and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. In an attempt to analyze the antimicrobial properties of MSE and fractions, a susceptibility test was carried out. The extract (MIC 175 μg/mL, MBC 500μg/mL and chloroform fraction (MIC 150 μg/mL, MBC 250 μg/mL were found to have inhibitory activity. The extract and all fractions were assessed using a cytotoxicity test and results showed that concentrations under 100 μg/mL did not significantly reduce cell viability compared to the control group (p > 0.05, viability > 90%. In order to analyze the inflammatory response, transcriptional factors and cytokines were quantified in the supernatant released from the cells. The chloroform fraction was the most effective in reducing the bacterial colonization (p< 0.05 and controlling inflammatory mediators, and promoted the down-regulation of genes including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, CD14, PTGS, MMP-1 and FOS as well as the reduction of the IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF protein levels (p< 0.05. Malva sylvestris and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and inflammation processes in oral human cells by a putative pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Therefore, this natural product may be considered

  18. Efeitos benéficos e maléficos da malva sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Locatelli Ecker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar os efeitos benéficos e maléficos da Malva sylvestris para a saúde humana. Materiais e métodos. Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados BIREME, em setembro de 2014, por meio das pala­vras chaves malva AND sylvestris. Foram incluídos os artigos na língua inglesa e portuguesa sem limite de tempo. Foram excluídos os estudos repetidos e aqueles que não abordavam o tema. Resultados. Atra­vés da busca realizada, foram encontrados 56 artigos, destes, foram excluídos dois repetidos, um por encontrar-se no idioma chinês e, 41 por estarem fora do tema (benefícios para animais e solo, proprie­dades químicas da erva, pesquisa em campo de determinadas regiões do mundo abrangendo índices de utilização de muitas espécies de plantas para fins medicinais. Assim, foram, incluídos 12 artigos. Com grande importância terapêutica, a erva tem sido utilizada na área da saúde em geral para inflamações internas e externas, fins quimio-preventivos e antissépticos. Também alivia secreções como catarros, congestionamento das vias respiratórias e age como calmante no sistema neurológico. Segundo pes­quisas, o chá de malva apresenta resultados mais vantajosos do que tratamentos medicamentosos e é uma das mais utilizadas como auto-medicação. Conclusão. A Malva sylvestris é utilizada para muitos fins benéficos para o ser humano desde tempos remotos, mas sua comprovação científica tem ocorrido atualmente, evidenciando a veracidade de suas vantagens na saúde e no tratamento de patologias.

  19. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

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    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  20. Effects of Malva sylvestris and Its Isolated Polysaccharide on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Rezaei, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Malva sylvestris is an edible plant that is consumed as a herbal supplement for its antiulcer and colon cleansing properties in traditional Persian medicine. This study was designed to evaluate its effects on ulcerative colitis, which is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of acetic acid solution. Rats in different groups received aqueous, n-hexane, or ethanolic fractions of the plant before induction of colitis. Isolated polysaccharide of plant was also tested in 2 groups before and after induction of colitis. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of colitis showed that the aqueous fraction was very effective in preventing the inflammation and efficacy was lower for ethanolic and n-hexane fractions. Polysaccharide was effective in reducing signs of inflammation, especially as pretreatment. These beneficial effects provide evidences that this plant can be suggested for patients with this disease to improve their health condition or to reduce adverse effects of their medication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Oleanane saponins from Bellis sylvestris Cyr. and evaluation of their phytotoxicity on Aegilops geniculata Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiumano, Vittorio; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Tsafantakis, Nikolaos; Pacifico, Severina; Esposito, Assunta; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Six oleanane saponins were isolated for the first time from leaves of Bellis sylvestris Cyr., the southern daisy. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 2D-NMR experiments, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC, CIGAR, H2BC, and HSQC-TOCSY, along with Q-TOF HRMS² analysis. All of the compounds are constituted by bayogenin as aglycone, and characterized by the presence of an oligosaccharide moiety, consisting of two to four sugar unities esterified at the C-28 carboxyl carbon. One of the isolated compounds is a bisdesmoside containing an additional sugar moiety at the C-3 carbon. The phytotoxic activity assayed against Aegilops geniculata Roth., a coexisting test species, has been evaluated revealing that all the compounds, at the highest concentrations, showed strong phytotoxicity against the leaf development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual traits as determinants of time to death under extreme drought in Pinus sylvestris L.

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    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Sala, Anna; Biel, Carme; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Plants exhibit a variety of drought responses involving multiple interacting traits and processes, which makes predictions of drought survival challenging. Careful evaluation of responses within species, where individuals share broadly similar drought resistance strategies, can provide insight into the relative importance of different traits and processes. We subjected Pinus sylvestris L. saplings to extreme drought (no watering) leading to death in a greenhouse to (i) determine the relative effect of predisposing factors and responses to drought on survival time, (ii) identify and rank the importance of key predictors of time to death and (iii) compare individual characteristics of dead and surviving trees sampled concurrently. Time until death varied over 3 months among individual trees (from 29 to 147 days). Survival time was best predicted (higher explained variance and impact on the median survival time) by variables related to carbon uptake and carbon/water economy before and during drought. Trees with higher concentrations of monosaccharides before the beginning of the drought treatment and with higher assimilation rates prior to and during the treatment survived longer (median survival time increased 25-70 days), even at the expense of higher water loss. Dead trees exhibited less than half the amount of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in branches, stem and relative to surviving trees sampled concurrently. Overall, our results indicate that the maintenance of carbon assimilation to prevent acute depletion of NSC content above some critical level appears to be the main factor explaining survival time of P. sylvestris trees under extreme drought. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Gregory; Adomas, Aleksandra; Li, Guosheng; Osborne, Jason; van Zyl, Len; Sederoff, Ron; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Asiegbu, Frederick O

    2008-01-01

    Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide) as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase). Conclusion This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris – Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events responsible for the

  4. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

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    Sederoff Ron

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase. Conclusion This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris – Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events

  5. Role of laxative and antioxidant properties of Malva sylvestris leaves in constipation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Wannes, Dalanda; Hajji, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sebai, Hichem

    2017-05-01

    Mallaw (Malva sylvestris L.) is a medicinal plant who is traditionally being used as an antiulcer, laxative and anti-hemorrhoid, besides of its culinary use as a food in Tunisian cuisine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract (MSAE) on constipation- induced by loperamide in male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each: Control, Loperamide (LOP), LOP+ yohimbine (2mg/kg b.w, i.p.) and LOP+ various doses of MSAE (100, 200 and 400mg/kg b.w, p.o.). The laxative activity was determined based on the weight, frequency and water content of the feces matter. The effects of MSAE were also evaluated on normal gastric emptying and gastro-intestinal transit as well as loperamide-induced serum metabolic parameters changes and colon oxidative stress. The MSAE (100, 200 and 400mg/kg; b.w, p.o.), significantly reduced loperamide-induced constipation in a dose-dependent manner. Our extract improves also the gastrointestinal motility, mitigates colon lipid peroxidation and H2O2 colon overload, preserve normal antioxidant enzymes activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels, as well as provides stability of lipid profile, hepatic (AST and ALT) and renal (urea and creatinine) levels changed by loperamide intoxication. We suggests in the present work that MSAE had a potent effect against Loperamide- induced constipation through in part to an increase of gastrointestinal motility, astimulation of water intestinal secretion as well as its antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  7. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary

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    Laura Fernández-de-Uña

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1–3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought

  8. Efficacy of the Malva sylvestris L. flowers aqueous extract for functional constipation: A placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsagh, Mahin; Fartookzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Anushiravani, Majid; Feizi, Awat; Behbahani, Farshad Amini; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Arjmandpour, Akbar; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Malva sylvestris L. flowers extract for treatment of FC. Adults with FC were allocated to receive the M. sylvestris L. flowers aqueous extract syrup (MSL, 1 g extract/day) or placebo for four weeks. Frequency of constipation symptoms and stool forms were assessed every week. Self-reported improvement was assessed after treatment. Compared with placebo, more increase was observed in defecation frequency (F = 18.8, P < 0.001) and more decrease was observed in frequency of all constipation symptoms by MSL (F = 16.5 to 25.3, all P values <0.001). Also, the MSL group experienced more reduction in frequency of hard stool forms (45.4% vs. 9.1%, P < 0.001) and reported more improvement in all symptoms (all P values <0.01) than placebo. The M. sylvestris L. flowers aqueous extract is efficacious and safe for the treatment of FC in adult patients. Investigating the mechanisms of action is warranted. IRCT2014031617032N1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Drought Responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a Montane Forest Undergoing a Vegetation Shift

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    David Aguadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different functional and structural strategies to cope with water shortage exist both within and across plant communities. The current trend towards increasing drought in many regions could drive some species to their physiological limits of drought tolerance, potentially leading to mortality episodes and vegetation shifts. In this paper, we study the drought responses of Quercus ilex and Pinus sylvestris in a montane Mediterranean forest where the former species is replacing the latter in association with recent episodes of drought-induced mortality. Our aim was to compare the physiological responses to variations in soil water content (SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD of the two species when living together in a mixed stand or separately in pure stands, where the canopies of both species are completely exposed to high radiation and VPD. P. sylvestris showed typical isohydric behavior, with greater losses of stomatal conductance with declining SWC and greater reductions of stored non-structural carbohydrates during drought, consistent with carbon starvation being an important factor in the mortality of this species. On the other hand, Q. ilex trees showed a more anisohydric behavior, experiencing more negative water potentials and higher levels of xylem embolism under extreme drought, presumably putting them at higher risk of hydraulic failure. In addition, our results show relatively small changes in the physiological responses of Q. ilex in mixed vs. pure stands, suggesting that the current replacement of P. sylvestris by Q. ilex will continue.

  10. Ericaceous dwarf shrubs affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community of the invasive Pinus strobus and native Pinus sylvestris in a pot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Bahram, Mohammad; Hadincová, Věroslava; Albrechtová, Jana; Tedersoo, Leho; Vohník, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between ericaceous understorey shrubs and the diversity and abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) associated with the invasive Pinus strobus and native Pinus sylvestris. Seedlings of both pines were grown in mesocosms and subjected to three treatments simulating different forest microhabitats: (a) grown in isolation and grown with (b) Vaccinium myrtillus or (c) Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Ericaceous plants did not act as a species pool of pine mycobionts and inhibited the ability of the potentially shared species Meliniomyces bicolor to form ectomycorrhizae. Similarly, Ericaceae significantly reduced the formation of Thelephora terrestris ectomycorrhizae in P. sylvestris. EcMF species composition in the mesocosms was strongly affected by both the host species and the presence of an ericaceous neighbour. When grown in isolation, P. strobus root tips were predominantly colonised by Wilcoxina mikolae, whereas those of P. sylvestris were more commonly colonised by Suillus and Rhizopogon spp. Interestingly, these differences were less evident (Suillus + Rhizopogon spp.) or absent (W. mikolae) when the pines were grown with Ericaceae. P. strobus exclusively associated with Rhizopogon salebrosus s.l., suggesting the presence of host specificity at the intrageneric level. Ericaceous plants had a positive effect on colonisation of P. strobus root tips by R. salebrosus s.l. This study demonstrates that the interaction of selective factors such as host species and presence of ericaceous plants may affect the realised niche of the ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  11. Xylem diameter changes during osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing in Pinus sylvestris and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Lindfors, Lauri; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu

    2017-04-01

    Trees experience low apoplastic water potential frequently in most environments. Low apoplastic water potential increases the risk of embolism formation in xylem conduits and creates dehydration stress for the living cells. We studied the magnitude and rate of xylem diameter change in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential and the role of living parenchyma cells in it to better understand xylem diameter changes in different environmental conditions. We compared responses of control and heat-injured xylem of Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Populus tremula (L.) branches to decreasing apoplastic water potential created by osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing. It was shown that xylem in control branches shrank more in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential in comparison with the samples that were preheated to damage living xylem parenchyma. By manipulating the osmotic pressure of the xylem sap, we observed xylem shrinkage due to decreasing apoplastic water potential even in the absence of water tension within the conduits. These results indicate that decreasing apoplastic water potential led to withdrawal of intracellular water from the xylem parenchyma, causing tissue shrinkage. The amount of xylem shrinkage per decrease in apoplastic water potential was higher during osmotic stress or desiccation compared with freezing. During desiccation, xylem diameter shrinkage involved both dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma and water tension-induced shrinkage of conduits, whereas dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma was accompanied by swelling of apoplastic ice during freezing. It was also shown that the exchange of water between symplast and apoplast within xylem is clearly faster than previously reported between the phloem and the xylem. Time constant of xylem shrinkage was 40 and 2 times higher during osmotic stress than during freezing stress in P. sylvestris and P. tremula, respectively. Finally, it was concluded that the

  12. Understanding the Enigmatic SW Sex Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    The SW Sex stars are a subgroup of cataclysmic variables that are known for several peculiar features, including high excitation single-peaked lines in their spectra, absorption features in the low excitation lines, phase offsets between the radial velocity curves and photometric eclipse times, unusual high velocity components, and orbital periods between 3-4 hrs. The cause of these peculiarities is controversial, with possibilities ranging from mass transfer stream impact and overflow at high mass transfer rates to magnetic propellers, winds and jets. As many of these suggestions depend on the inclination of the system, we propose to confront such theories by contrasting FUSE observations of the low inclination SW Sex star LS Peg and a more typical high inclination system DW UMa. The high quality, high resolution FUSE spectra we will obtain will allow us to construct detailed models of the inner accretion disk and velocity flows of both systems. This will resolve which of the properties are geometry dependent, and thereby lead to a basic advance in our understanding of this class of objects and ultimately, of the general effects of high mass transfer in close binaries.

  13. Biochemical acclimation patterns of Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juurola, E. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2003-02-01

    For a period of two years, the silver birch (Betula pendula) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings and their respective acclimation of photosynthesis to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations were studied. The monitoring, with steady-state gas exchange at three carbon dioxide concentrations, included chlorophyll fluorescence and concentrations of Rubisco, chlorophyll, total soluble protein and nitrogen. The results indicated that in birch and Scots pine, the Rubisco and chlorophyll concentrations decreased as the carbon dioxide concentrations increased. For birch, Rubisco and chlorophyll yielded a non-linear response, and it was possible to correlate this response with a significant decrease in specific leaf area. In Scots pine needles, the nitrogen concentration remained unchanged, while it decreased in birch leaves. The steady-state carbon dioxide exchange response to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations differed between the two species. A significant non-linear decrease in the steady-state gas exchange rate at the ambient carbon dioxide was the main effect noted in birch. As for Scots pine, it was a significant increase in the steady-state gas exchange rate at the growth carbon dioxide. 45 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amplification of Nicotiana sylvestris mitochondrial subgenomes is under nuclear control and is associated with phenotypic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Lelandais, Christine; Pla, Magali; Leuret, Corine; Vitart, Véronique; Mathieu, Chantal; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Godelle, Bernard; De Paepe, Rosine

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown the presence in a Nicotiana sylvestris protoplast-derived plant of both a nuclear mutation conferring male sterility (ms4) and a mtDNA reorganisation, named U, characterised by the amplification of substoichiometric mtDNA fragments generated by recombination in the parent T mtDNA. Here we show by physical mapping that the recombining repeats are in direct orientation, thus generating two subgenomes both of which are amplified in the U organisation to the detriment of the parent molecule, and are maintained through sexual reproduction. The nuclear ms4 mutation is likely to have play a role in the shift in mitochondrial molecule equilibrium, as higher levels of recombinant fragments were present in protoplast-derived T calli carrying the ms4 allele than in wild type calli or leaves. The MS4 gene could then lead to conflictual situation. However, subgenomic molecules were counter-selected during the regeneration process, suggesting the existence of different selective pressures in differentiated and non-differentiated cells. The U organisation is associated with higher stem height and late flowering, characters that may not be neutral from a selection point of view. The U equilibrium is an unusual example of sudden mtDNA reorganisation, without obvious differences in genetic information and with only a limited phenotypic impact.

  16. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-21

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  17. Response of Pinus sylvestris roots to sheet-erosion exposure: an anatomical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diez-Herrero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical changes of exposed tree roots are valuable tools to date erosion events, but the responses of diverse species under different types of erosion need still to be studied in detail. In this paper we analyze the histological changes that occur in roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. subjected to continuous denudation. A descriptive and quantitative study was conducted in the Senda Schmidt, a popular trail located on the northern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Iberian System, Spain. Measurement of significant parameters allowed the moment of exposure of the roots to be identified. These parameters were: a width of the growth ring; b number of cells per ring; c percentage of latewood and d diameter of cellular light in earlywood. A one-way analysis ANOVA was also carried out in order to establish statistically significant differences between homogeneous groups of measurements in pre-exposed and exposed roots. Based on these analyses, Scots pine roots show a remarkable anatomical response to sheet-erosion exposure. Increased growth in the ring is accompanied by a slight reduction of the cell lumina of the earlywood tracheids. At the end of the ring, several rows of thick-walled tracheids define latewood tissue and visible annual borders very clearly. Furthermore, resin ducts often appear in tangential rows, increasing resin density in the tissue. All of these indicators made it possible to determine with precision the first year of exposure and to estimate precisely sheet erosion rates.

  18. Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) grown at elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Antti; Peltola, Heli; Ryyppö, Aija; Sauvala, Kari; Laitinen, Kaisa; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2003-09-01

    Impacts of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on wood properties of 15-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown under conditions of low nitrogen supply were investigated in open-top chambers. The treatments consisted of (i) ambient temperature and ambient [CO2] (AT+AC), (ii) ambient temperature and elevated [CO2] (AT+EC), (iii) elevated temperature and ambient [CO2] (ET+AC) and (iv) elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] (ET+EC). Wood properties analyzed for the years 1992-1994 included ring width, early- and latewood width and their proportions, intra-ring wood density (minimum, maximum and mean, as well as early- and latewood densities), mean fiber length and chemical composition of the wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and acetone extractive concentration). Absolute radial growth over the 3-year period was 54% greater in AT+EC trees and 30 and 25% greater in ET+AC and ET+EC trees, respectively, than in AT+AC trees. Neither elevated temperature nor elevated [CO2] had a statistically significant effect on ring width, early- and latewood widths or their proportions. Both latewood density and maximum intra-ring density were increased by elevated [CO2], whereas fiber length was increased by elevated temperature. Hemicellulose concentration decreased and lignin concentration increased significantly in response to elevated temperature. There were no statistically significant interaction effects of elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] on the wood properties, except on earlywood density.

  19. THE COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED WOOD MATERIALS PREPARED FROM SCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZEN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of 3 ply laminated wood material, which was produced from scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. impregnated with Sodium perborat, Sodium tetra borat, Imersol (I-WR 2000 and TanalithCBC (T-CBC by using dipping method has been investigated. Prepared materials have been bonded with Desmodur- VTKA adhesive and tested according to the procedure of ASTM-E 69 standards. As a result, the highest weight loss (60.83 g in laminated sample impregnated with I-WR 2000, CO rate (6340.85 ppm in neutral sample impregnated with T-CBC, CO2 rate (7.48 %, O2 rate (13.03 % and according to the first weight rate the highest combustion rate (82.73 % in control samples, heat increasing (406.55 o C in laminated sample impregnated with T-CBC have been obtained. According to these results, in the combustion tests of laminated samples sodium tetra borat and sodium perborat have been determined as a successful fire retardant chemical.

  20. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J

    2011-02-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategies utilized by trophically diverse fungal species for Pinus sylvestris root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Guzicka, Marzenna; Ratajczak, Ewelina; Zadworny, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Physiological changes in host plants in response to the broad spectrum of fungal modes of infection are still not well understood. The current study was conducted to better understand the infection of in vitro cultures of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings by three trophically diverse fungal species, Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. & Swingle, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull.) Quél. Biochemical methods and microscopy were utilized to determine (i) which factors (apoplastic and cellular pH, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and cell death) play a role in the establishment of pathogenic, saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi, and (ii) whether cell death is a common response of conifer seedling tissues when they are exposed to trophically diverse fungi. Establishment of the pathogen, F. oxysporum, was observed more frequently in the meristematic region of root tips than in the elongation zone, which was in contrast to T. harzianum and H. crustuliniforme. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) hyphae, however, were occasionally observed in the studied root zone and caused small changes in the studied factors. Colonization of the meristematic zone occurred due to host cell death. Independently of the zone, changes in cellular pH resulting in an acidic cytoplasm conditioned the establishment of F. oxysporum. Additionally, cell death was negatively correlated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in roots challenged by a pathogenic fungus. Cell death was the only factor uniquely associated with the colonization of host roots by a saprotrophic fungus. The mechanism may differ, however, between the zones since apoplastic pH was negatively correlated with cell death in the elongation zone, whereas in the meristematic zone, none of the studied factors explained cell death. Colonization by the ECM fungus, H. crustuliniforme, was associated with a decreasing number of cells with acidic apoplast and by production of H2O2 in the elongation zone resulting in cell death. Saprotrophic

  2. Meta-analysis for the volume of Pinus sylvestris in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las revisiones sistemáticas son herramientas importantes para la investigación de literatura objetiva, composición y análisis crítico de los resultados de estudios variantes, con una contribución excelente para aclarar temas y buscar nuevas direcciones de investigación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo la revisión sistemática de estudios independientes para la estimación del volumen de pino silvestre ( Pinus sylvestris en Europa. Para ello, se realizó un metanálisis de los modelos de estimación de volumen de árboles individuales. En este trabajo se describen las etapas del metanálisis, los métodos estadísticos, los posibles errores derivados y la heterogeneidad que se producen entre los estudios. Los resultados muestran que Italia se distingue claramente por tener volúmenes de árbol individual demasiado pequeños, mientras que Grecia y Suecia presentan grandes volúmenes. Existe una gran heterogeneidad entre los estudios, debido probablemente a las condiciones distintas de competencia suscitadas en los rodales de diferentes países de Europa, pero sin clima distinto. Más estudios podrían servir en el caso de Italia; en el caso de Grecia, un estudio con una muestra de mayor tamaño podría contribuir para fomentar la investigación.

  3. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48-75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris.

  5. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  6. SW radiative effect of aerosol in GRAPES_GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiying

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, and so change the shortwave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere, reached the surface and that reflected back to outer space at TOA. Since this process doesn't interact with other processes, it is called direct radiation effect. The clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in GRAPES_GFS of China Meteorological Administration are overestimated in Northern multitudes and Tropics. The main source of these errors is the absence of aerosol SW effect in GRAPES_GFS. The climatic aerosol mass concentration data, which include 13 kinds of aerosol and their 14 SW bands optical properties are considered in GRAPES_GFS. The calculated total optical depth, single scatter albedo and asymmetry factor are used as the input to radiation scheme. Compared with the satellite observation from MISER, the calculated total optical depth is in good consistent. The seasonal experiments show that, the summer averaged clear sky radiation fluxes at the surface are improved after including the SW effect of aerosol. The biases in the clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in Northern multitudes and Tropic reduced obviously. Furthermore, the weather forecast experiments also show that the skill scores in Northern hemisphere and East Asia also become better.

  7. Isolation and Purification of Mitochondrial Mn-Superoxide Dismutase from the Gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris L. : PROTEINS, ENZYMES AND METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Streller; Silke, Kromer; Gunnar, Wingsle; Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Department of Plant Physiology, University of Umea; Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    1994-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified from germinating seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) 3 days after the start of imbibition. The purification schedule included (NH_4)_2SO_4 fractionation, anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies and chromatofocusing. Purified Mn-SOD had an apparent specific activity of 4,130 McCord-Fridovich units (mg protein)^. The molecular mass of the holoenzyme was estimated to be 91 kDa by size-exclusion chromatogr...

  8. Influencia del azulado (mancha azul) en la densidad y estabilidad dimensional de la madera de Pinus sylvestris

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Prieto,Adrián; Riesco-Muñoz,Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    La madera de Pinus sylvestris tiene interés comercial aunque su valor se reduce considerablemente cuando presenta hongos de azulado. En el presente estudio se apearon siete pinos procedentes de plantaciones españolas, y de los fustes se muestrearon 14 rodajas a diferentes alturas. Cuando éstas estaban parcialmente azuladas se labraron para obtener probetas pequeñas sin defectos anatómicos, sobre las que se determinó la densidad y además la estabilidad dimensional en volumen y en las tres dime...

  9. Genetic variation of F1 hybrids from controlled crosses between Pinus montana var. rostrata and Pinus sylvestris in anatomical needle traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seventeen individuals representing ten hybrid families from controlled crosses between Pinus montana var. rostrata and Pinus sylvestris were examined with respect to eight traits of anatomy of their two-year old needles. The biometric data obtained by measurements of anatomical traits were used to conduct multivariant statistical analyses with discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis distances as principal methods. Some of the hybrid families were similar to parental species representing the typ Montana or Sylvestris, and some less numerous intermediate forms. The results of the anatomical studies correspond to a great extent to those obtained for isoenzymes and antigene proteins (Prus-Głowacki and Stephan 1998.

  10. Mating system parameters in Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Sw. based on RAPD markers. Lucimara ... AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism. such as ... guianensis under experimental conditions based on ... Cattle were grown in the field in two randomized block design.

  11. Warming Effects on Pinus sylvestris in the Cold–Dry Siberian Forest–Steppe: Positive or Negative Balance of Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Shestakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding climate change impacts on drought-prone forests is a critical issue. We investigated ring-width and stable isotopes (Δ13C and δ18O in two Pinus sylvestris stands of the cold–dry Siberian forest–steppe growing under contrasting climatic trends over the last 75 years. Despite regional warming, there was increasing precipitation during the growing period at the southern site (MIN but increasing water deficit (WD at the northern site (BER. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi increased similarly (ca. 22% in response to warming and rising atmospheric CO2. However, the steady increase in WUEi was accompanied by divergent growth patterns since 1980: increasing basal area increment (BAI in MIN (slope = 0.102 cm2 year−2 and decreasing BAI in BER (slope = −0.129 cm2 year−2. This suggests that increased precipitation, mediated by CO2 effects, promoted growth in MIN, whereas intensified drought stress led to decreased carbon gain and productivity in BER. When compared to warm–dry stands of eastern Spain, the WUEi dependence on WD was three-fold greater in Siberia. Conversely, BAI was more affected by the relative impact of water stress within each region. These results indicate contrasting future trajectories of P. sylvestris forests, which challenge forecasting growth and carbon sequestration in cold–dry areas.

  12. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  13. Expression analysis of Clavata1-like and Nodulin21-like genes from Pinus sylvestris during ectomycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Gregory; Lundén, Karl; Finlay, Roger D; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Elfstrand, Malin

    2012-05-01

    The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis with conifer trees are well documented. In comparison, however, very little is known about the molecular regulation of these associations. In an earlier study, we identified three EcM-regulated Pinus expressed sequence tags (EST), two of which were identified as homologous to the Medicago truncatula nodulin MtN21. The third EST was a homologue to the receptor-like kinase Clavata1. We have characterized the expression patterns of these genes and of auxin- and mycorrhiza-regulated genes after induction with indole-3-butyric acid in Pinus sylvestris and in a time course experiment during ectomycorrhizal initiation with the co-inoculation of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor. Our results suggest that different P. sylvestris nodulin homologues are associated with diverse processes in the root. The results also suggest a potential role of the Clv1-like gene in lateral root initiation by the ectomycorrhizal fungus. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  14. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minova Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  15. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Michel Leandro; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Stremel, Dile Pontarolo; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-11-03

    The ability of plant extracts and preparations to reduce inflammation has been proven by different means in experimental models. Since inflammation enhances the release of specific mediators, inhibition of their production can be used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of plants widely used in folk medicine for this purpose. The study was performed for leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris, and leaves of Sida cordifolia and Pelargonium graveolens. These are three plant species known in Brazil as Malva. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and residual) was evaluated by quantitation of prostaglandins (PG) PGE₂, PGD₂, PGF2α, and thromboxane B₂ (the stable nonenzymatic product of TXA₂) concentration in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of anti-inflammatory mediator release was observed for plants mainly in the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and residual fraction. The results suggest superior activity of S. cordifolia, leading to significantly lower values of all mediators after treatment with its residual fraction, even at the lower concentration tested (10 μg/mL). M. sylvestris and P. graveolens showed similar results, such as the reduction of all mediators after treatment, with leaf crude extracts (50 μg/mL). These results suggest that the three species known as Malva have anti-inflammatory properties, S. cordifolia being the most potent.

  17. Milestone Report - M31SW030904 - Sigma Team Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-11-24

    This documents the completion of the FCR&D Level 3 milestone for the Off-Gas Sigma Team - ORNL work package (FTOR11SW0309), “Sigma Team Coordination Meeting” (M31SW030904), due 30 November 10. The subject meeting was held at Idaho National Laboratory on October 12 and 13, 2010. The agenda and meeting minutes are attached to this memo.

  18. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  19. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  20. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  1. Effects of continuous spectrum LEDs used in indoor cultivation of two coniferous species Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies borisii-regis Mattf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnakou, Sonia; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of four different continuous spectrum LED light qualities on the growth characteristics of Pinus sylvestris L. (PS) and Abies borisii-regis Mattf. (AB) seedlings were studied. The seedlings were exposed for 35 days inside growth chambers to G2 (high in red and far-red), AP67 (high in

  2. Foliar and soil concentrations and stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorous across European Pinus sylvestris forests : Relationships with climate, N deposition and tree growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardans, Jordi; Alonso, Rocio; Janssens, Ivan A.; Carnicer, Jofre; Vereseglou, Stavros; Rillig, Matthias C.; Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Sanders, Tanja G M; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the factors underlying the variability of needle and soil elemental composition and stoichiometry and their relationships with growth in Pinus sylvestris forests throughout the species' distribution in Europe by analysing data from 2245 forest stands. Needle N concentrations

  3. EFFET HYPOUPIDEMIANT DE L'HUILE D'OLIVIER SAIWAGEOLEA EUROPAEA OLÉASTRE OU OLEA SYLVESTRIS.

    OpenAIRE

    BENDIMERAD, SORAYA

    2014-01-01

    L'Olivier sauvage (Olea europaea oléastre/sylvestris) est une espèce végétale ancêtre de l'olivier cultivé bordant le pourtourméditerranéen. L'extraction par un procédé triphasique de fruit de cet arbre donne une huile sacrée par ses multiples usages. La détermination des indices physico- chimiques a révélé que l'huile est vierge, nonsiccative, constituée de chaines moyenne d'acides gras. La composition en acides gras montre une instauration prépondérante due à la teneur élevée...

  4. Identification of a mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase by overexpression in transgenic ¤Nicotiana sylvestris¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalecka, A.M.; Agius, S.C.; Møller, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains a complex setup of non-energy conserving NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, the physiological consequences of which are highly unclear. An expression construct for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) ndb1 gene, a homologue of bacterial and fungal type II NAD(P)H...... dehydrogenases, was introduced into Nicotiana sylvestris. Transgenic lines with high transcript and protein levels for St-NDB1 had up to threefold increased activity of external NADPH dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria as compared to the wild type (WT). In two lines, the external NADPH dehydrogenase activity...... for NADPH and dependent on calcium for activity. Transgenic lines overexpressing St-ndb1 had specifically increased protein levels for alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein, as compared to the WT and one co-suppressing line. This indicates cross-talk in the expressional control, or metabolic conditions...

  5. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  6. Influence of solar UV radiation on the nitrogen metabolism in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywult, Marek; Smykla, Jerzy; Kinnunen, Heli; Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Lakkala, Kaisa; Turunen, Minna

    2008-12-01

    Needles of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment (from 2000 to 2002) in northern Finland (67 degrees N). The chambers held filters that excluded both UV-B and UV-A, excluded UV-B only, transmitted all UV (control), or lacked filters (ambient). UV-B/UV-A exclusion decreased nitrate reductase (NR) activity of 1-year-old needles of Scots pines compared to the controls. The proportion of free amino acids varied in the range 1.08-1.94% of total proteins, and was significantly higher in needles of saplings grown under UV-B/UV-A exclusion compared to the controls or UV-B exclusion. NR activity correlated with air temperature, indicating a "chamber effect". The study showed that both UV irradiance and increasing temperature are significant modulators of nitrogen (N) metabolism in Scots pine needles.

  7. Saturated salt method determination of hysteresis of Pinus sylvestris L. wood for 35 ºC isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Esteban, L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The saturated salts method was used in this study to quantify hysteresis in Pinus sylvestris L. wood, in an exercise that involved plotting the 35 ºC desorption and sorption isotherms. Nine salts were used, all of which establish stable and known relative humidity values when saturated in water The wood was kept at the relative humidity generated by each of these salts until the equilibrium moisture content (EMC was reached, both in the water loss or desorption, and the water uptake or sorption processes. The Guggenheim method was used to fit the values obtained to the respective curves. Hysteresis was evaluated in terms of the hysteresis coefficient, for which a mean value of 0.87 was found.

    Con este trabajo se ha cuantificado la histéresis de la madera de Pinus sylvestris L. Para ello, se han construido las isotermas de 35 ºC de adsorción y sorción, mediante el método de las sales saturadas. Se han utilizado nueve sales que cuando se saturan en agua dan lugar a unas humedades relativas estables y conocidas. La madera fue colocada bajo las distintas humedades relativas que confieren cada una de las sales hasta que alcanzaron las distintas humedades de equilibrio higroscópico, tanto en el proceso de pérdida de agua o desorción, como en el de adquisición de agua o de sorción. Los valores obtenidos fueron ajustados a las respectivas sigmoides, haciendo uso del método de Guggenheim. La valoración de la histéresis se determinó mediante el coeficiente de histéresis, obteniendo un valor medio de 0,87.

  8. Protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract in ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney and remote liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Houshang; Mohamadi Yarijani, Zeynab; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Mansouri, Kamran; Modarresi, Masoud; Madani, Seyed Hamid; Bastani, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) has had medicinal and therapeutic uses in addition to its oral consumption. The present study was conducted to examine the protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract on ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury and remote organ injuries in the liver. Before ischemia-reperfusion, rats in the different groups received intraperitoneal normal saline or mallow extract at the doses of 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg of body weight. After 30-minutes of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 24-hours of reperfusion, tissue damage in the kidney and liver samples were determined through studying H&E-stained slides under a light microscope. The degree of leukocyte infiltration and tissue mRNA expressions of TNF- and ICAM-1 were then measured to examine the degree of renal inflammation. The renal tissue MDA and FRAP levels were measured for determining the amount of oxidative stress. Plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, ALT and ALP were also measured. Ischemia-reperfusion led to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, ALT and ALP, and renal tissue MDA, and a significant decrease in renal tissue FRAP. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the kidney tissue, the level of leukocyte infiltration and the amount of tissue damage in the kidney and liver also increased. Pretreatment by mallow extract led to a significant improvement in all the variables measured. The 200- and 400-mg doses yielded better results in most parameters compared to the 600-mg dose. The findings showed that mallow extract protects the kidney against ischemia-reperfusion and reduces remote organ injury in the liver.

  9. Distribuição espacial de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana Spatial distribution of a Mixed Ombrophylus Forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, bem como de três espécies de grupos sucessionais distintos pertencentes a ela, pela função K de Ripley. Os dados utilizados provêm de um censo realizado em um fragmento localizado no Campus Jardim Botânico da UFPR, Curitiba-PR, onde todas as árvores com DAP acima de 10cm foram georreferenciadas. Foi utilizada uma parcela de 4 ha para a análise da distribuição espacial da floresta bem como das espécies de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze (Araucária, Casearia Sylvestris Sw. (Cafezeiro e Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Cedro. Foi analisada a relação espacial entre as espécies, bem como a relação espacial entre classes diamétricas destas. A floresta apresentou uma distribuição espacial aleatória, entretanto, as três espécies selecionadas apresentaram um padrão espacial agregado, quando analisadas separadamente. O Cafezeiro apresentou relação de atração com a Araucária e com o Cedro; estes, por sua vez, apresentaram relação de repulsão entre si. A relação espacial entre classes de DAP da Araucária foi de atração entre os indivíduos de classes menores com os indivíduos maiores. Este resultado reflete a forma de dispersão de sementes das espécies, em que a regeneração ocorre em proximidade às árvores parentais. Para o cafezeiro e o Cedro, ocorreu agregação apenas entre os indivíduos menores.The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial distribution of a Mixed Ombrophylus Forest fragment, as well as of three species pertaining to distinct successional groups belonging to the same, by the Ripley's K function. The data came from a census carried out in a fragment located in the Campus Botanical Garden, UFPR, Curitiba - PR, Brazil, where all trees with DBH above 10cm were georeferenced. One plot with 4 ha was used for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the forest and

  10. Particle Swarm Optimization for HW/SW Partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhalim, M. B.; Habib, S. E. &#;D.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent introduction of the Particle Swarm Optimization technique to solve the HW/SW partitioning problem is reviewed, along with its “re-exited PSO” modification. The re-exited PSO algorithm is a recently-introduced restarting technique for PSO. The Re-exited PSO proved to be highly effective for solving the HW/SW partitioning problem. Efficient cost function formulation is of a paramount importance for an efficient optimization algorithm. Each component in the design...

  11. Contrasting ecophysiological strategies related to drought: the case of a mixed stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and a submediterranean oak (Quercus subpyrenaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2017-10-13

    Submediterranean forests are considered an ecotone between Mediterranean and Eurosiberian ecosystems, and are very sensitive to global change. A decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a related expansion of oak species (Quercus spp.) have been reported in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. Although this has been associated with increasing drought stress, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and suitable monitoring protocols are lacking. The aim of this study is to bring insight into the physiological mechanisms anticipating selective decline of the pines, with particular focus on carbon and water relations. For this purpose, we performed a sampling campaign covering two growing seasons in a mixed stand of P. sylvestris and Quercus subpyrenaica E.H del Villar. We sampled seasonally twig xylem and soil for water isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H), leaves for carbon isotope composition (δ13C) and stems to quantify non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) concentration, and measured water potential and leaf gas exchange. The first summer drought was severe for both species, reaching low predawn water potential (-2.2 MPa), very low stomatal conductance (12 ± 1.0 mmol m-2 s-1) and near-zero or even negative net photosynthesis, particularly in P. sylvestris (-0.6 ± 0.34 μmol m-2 s-1 in oaks, -1.3 ± 0.16 μmol m-2 s-1 in pines). Hence, the tighter stomatal control and more isohydric strategy of P. sylvestris resulted in larger limitations on carbon assimilation, and this was also reflected in carbon storage, showing twofold larger total NSC concentration in oaks than in pines (7.8 ± 2.4% and 4.0 ± 1.3%, respectively). We observed a faster recovery of predawn water potential after summer drought in Q. subpyrenaica than in P. sylvestris (-0.8 MPa and -1.1 MPa, respectively). As supported by the isotopic data, this was probably associated with a deeper and more reliable water supply in Q. subpyrenaica. In line with these short-term observations, we found a

  12. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  13. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  14. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  15. Basic Information about How to Use SW-846

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses the Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods compendium, or SW-846, which is the EPA’s official collection of methods for use in complying with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.

  16. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990).

  17. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  18. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland is a suba...

  19. Geochemistry of crystalline basement rocks SW Ugep, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical data on low-grade metasedimentary phyllites and schists of SW Ugep show that they were derived from predominantly pelitic parent rocks. They form a supracrustal cover on an orthogneiss of granitic composition. The metasediments are enriched in Si02, Al203 and Zr but improverished in Ni. Intrusion of ...

  20. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Leaves of Mitracarpus vilosus (SW)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostic investigation on fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of leaf of Mitracarpus vilosus (S.W) D.C was carried out to determine its macromorphological, micromorphological and chemomicromorphological profiles. Qualitative and quantitative studies indicated presence of amphicribal vascular bundle ...

  1. Comparison of the moss Pleurozium schreberi with needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris as biomonitors of pollution by industry in Stalowa Wola (southeast Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kosior, G; Kempers, A J

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the terrestrial bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi and in samples of bark and current and previous year needles of Pinus sylvestris collected along transects around the Stalowa Wola industry center (southeast Poland) and compared with material of the same species from a control site. The suitability of bark and pine needles for use in monitoring of serious heavy metal pollution was investigated. In the examined area current and previous year pine needles can be considered suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution for Cu and Zn and bark for only Cu. Bioaccumulation abilities of Cd and Cu in P. schreberi and P. sylvestris current and previous year needles were similar. Current and previous year needles were better accumulators of Mn, Ni, and Zn compared to the moss P. schreberi. Bark was a better accumulator of Cd, Cu, and Ni and an inferior accumulator of Mn compared to P. schreberi in the examined area.

  2. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Influence of drought on radial stem growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in an inner Alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Radial stem growth indices of trees are known to be valuable long-term measures of overall tree vigor and are frequently applied to identify the climatic factors limiting tree growth. Based on several tree-ring studies conducted within inner-Alpine dry valleys, it is well established that growth of Pinus sylvestris is primarily limited by spring precipitation (April through June) and severe drought results in abrupt growth reductions and increased tree mortality. However, the record breaking heat-wave in summer 2003 had only minor impact on growth of drought exposed coniferous trees within the dry inner-Alpine valley of the Inn river (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria), where mean annual precipitation and temperature amount to 716 mm and 7.3 °C, respectively. To examine short-term influences of drought stress on growth processes more closely, we determined the influence of meteorological factors (air temperature, precipitation) and soil moisture on intra-annual dynamics of tree ring development and stem radial growth in Pinus sylvestris at two sites differing in soil moisture characteristics (xeric and dry-mesic). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees. In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, suggesting that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared to dry-mesic site in both study years, which indicates a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation processes. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric

  4. Comparative recruitment success of pine provenances (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra) under simulated climate change in the Swiss Rhone valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sarah; Moser, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Low elevation Scots pine forests of European inner-alpine dry valleys may potentially disappear under continued climate warming, largely in response to increased warming and drought effects. In the upper Rhone valley, the driest region in Switzerland, increased Scots pine mortality in mature forest stands and sparse tree establishment after a large-scale forest fire already give evidence for ongoing climate change. Furthermore, vegetation models predict a decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) even under a moderate temperature increase of 2-3°C. A decline of tree species in the region may lead to a transition from forest to a steppe-like vegetation. Such a change is of considerable concern for both biodiversity and natural hazard protection. Although changing climate conditions affect all life stages of a tree, its most vulnerable stage is recruitment. We tested P. sylvestris and P. nigra seedlings to simulated temperature increase and water stress, using seeds from the upper Rhone valley, Switzerland (CH), and from Peñyagolosa, Spain (ES). The experiment was located outdoors at the bottom of the Rhone Valley. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of 3 precipitation regimes (‘wet spring-wet summer', ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer') and 3 soil heating levels (+0 °C, +2.5 °C, +5 °C). Automatically operated shelters intercepted natural rainfall and different precipitation regimes were simulated by manual irrigation. We found significantly lower germination rates under dry conditions compared to wet conditions, whereas soil temperature affected germination rates only for P. nigra and when elevated by 5°C. Contrastingly, an increase of soil temperatures by 2.5 °C already caused a substantial decrease of survival rates under both ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer' conditions. Precipitation regime was more important for survival than temperature increase. Seasonality of

  5. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  6. File list: Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 TFs and others Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467367,SRX467366,SRX467...364,SRX467365,SRX467362,SRX467363,SRX467361,SRX467360 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 Histone Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467384,SRX467378,SRX467382,SRX...RX467375,SRX467376,SRX467385,SRX467369 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 All antigens Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467384,SRX467378,SRX46738...67376,SRX467385,SRX467387,SRX467369 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. Metals in Racomitrium lanuginosum from Arctic (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago) and alpine (Karkonosze, SW Poland) tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2018-02-19

    Arctic-alpine tundra habitats are very vulnerable to the input of relatively small amounts of xenobiotics, and thus their level in such areas must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we collected the terrestrial widespread moss Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. in Spitsbergen in the Arctic moss lichen tundra and, for comparison, in the Arctic-alpine tundra in the Karkonosze (SW Poland). Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in this species and in the parent rock material were measured. We tested the following hypothesis: R. lanuginosum from Spitsbergen contains lower metal levels than the species from the Karkonosze collected at altitudes influenced by long-range transport from former Black Triangle industry. Principal component and classification analysis (PCCA) ordination revealed that mosses of Spitsbergen were distinguished by a significantly higher Na concentration of marine spray origin and mosses of Karkonosze were distinguished by significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn probably from long-range atmospheric transport. The influence of the polar station with a waste incinerator resulted in significantly higher Co, Li, and Ni concentrations in neighbouring mosses in comparison with this species from other sites. This investigation contributes to the use of R. lanuginosum as a bioindicator for metal contamination in Arctic and alpine tundra regions characterised by severe climate habitats with a restricted number of species. This moss enables the control of pollution usually brought solely by long-range atmospheric transport in high mountains as well as in Arctic areas.

  16. Assessing the virulence of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the pine-infesting weevils to scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pine-infesting weevils are known to be effective vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. To understand more about fungal virulence of these fungi, inoculation studies were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.. Two-year-old seedlings were wound-inoculated with one of eleven ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine-infesting weevils. After 11 weeks, a darkened lesion, extending from the point of inoculation, was observed in all species, except for Ophiostoma cf. abietinum Marm. & Butin, Ophiostoma quercus (Georgev. Nannf., and Sporothrix inflata de Hoog. Seedling mortality was observed in seedlings inoculated with Leptographium truncatum (M.J. Wingf. & Marasas M.J. Wingf., Leptographium lundbergii Lagerb. & Melin, Leptographium procerum (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf., Grosmannia radiaticola (J.J. Kim, Seifert & G.H. Kim Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Ophiostoma floccosum Math.-Käärik, Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc. Syd. & P. Syd., and Ophiostoma piliferum (Fr. Syd. & P. Syd. Ophiostoma minus and L. truncatum caused the largest lesions and sapwood blue-stain in Scots pine. Grosmannia radiaticola, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch Syd. & P. Syd., O. floccosum, O. piliferum, L. lundbergii,and L. procerum produced significantly smaller lesions and sapwood blue-stain than O. minus and L. truncatum, while O. cf. abietinum, O. quercus and S. inflata did not cause any lesions.

  17. Biochemical and histological changes in the brain of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris infected by the manipulative parasite Paragordius tricuspidatus (Nematomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F; Ulitsky, P; Augier, R; Dusticier, N; Samuel, D; Strambi, C; Biron, D G; Cayre, M

    2003-04-01

    Hairworms (nematomorpha) alter the behaviour of their insect hosts, making them commit 'suicide' by jumping into an aquatic environment required by the adult parasite for the continuation of its life cycle. To explore the physiological and neuronal basis of this behavioural manipulation, we first performed a biochemical study to quantify different neurotransmitters or neuromodulators (monoamines and amino acids) in the brain of crickets (Nemobius sylvestris) uninfected and infected by the hairworm Paragordius tricuspidatus. We also analysed several polyamines and amino-acids having no known neuromodulatory function. The presence/absence of the parasite explained the largest part of the variation in compound concentrations, with infected individuals displaying on average lower concentrations than uninfected individuals. However, for three amino acids (taurine, valine and tyrosine), a significant part of the variation was also correlated with the manipulative process. In order to compare neurogenesis between infected and uninfected crickets, we also performed a histological study on mushroom bodies in the cricket's brain. The mitotic index exhibited a two-fold increase in infected crickets as compared with uninfected crickets. This is the first study to document changes in the brain of insects infected by nematomorphs.

  18. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  19. Searching for active mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtovyy, A A; Baranov, O Yu; Rubel', I E; Razumova, O A; Padutov, V E; Khromov, A V; Makhotenko, A V; Tkachuk, A P; Makarov, V V; Gushchin, V A

    2017-06-01

    The most common type of coniferous mobile genetic elements are retrotransposons. Despite of their early positive impact on evolution of modern coniferous species they can have a significant negative impact for Forestry and breeding. Breaking genomic structural integrity mobile elements can cause phenotypic defects of plants. In this regard, the study of the diversity of coniferous mobile genetic elements is particularly interesting. In the present paper, we describe mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities. In result of assembled contigs analysis by RepeatMasker 70 mobile genetic elements were identified. A 68 of that were retroelements. Most of elements represented by Gypsy (16 contigs) and Copia (48 contigs). In 4 cases retroelements specific to Pinus taeda were identified. In most cases fragments of integrase (24), reverse transcriptase (22) and RNaseH (15) were identified. Results of the study may be of interest for coniferous breeding and genetic specialists. The raw data of these experiments have been deposited at NCBI under the accession number SAMN06185845.

  20. The effect of industrial air pollution on membrane lipid composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was undertaken to determine lipids changes in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations growning on polluted stands near a phosphate fertilizer factory in Luboń, and copper smelter in Głogów and in a control area in Kórnik. Needles from polluted areas had a lower content of total phospholipids than samples from the unpolluted site. Greater changes were detected in membranes of needles collected in October and January. In comparison with the control total phospholipid in needles of populations from polluted areas were 14 to 33% lower. Phosphatidylcholine (PC phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylglicerol (PG were the dominant phospholipids. The analysis of fatty acids in phospholipid fraction showed a decrease of linoleic acid (18:2 and linolenic acid (18:3 contents. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in needles of three populations from polluted areas was up to 40% lower as compared with the control. Moreover, phospholipids and their fatty acids showed seasonal fluctuations. The contents of PC, PG and PE increased in autumn and in winter, during the process of cold acclimation. In July, current-year needles did not show significant differences in membrane lipid composition between the polluted areas of Scots pine populations. The results suggest that the lipid changes of needles could be associated with disturbances in phohospholipid metabolism, caused by environmental pollution.

  1. Interpopulational variability of Pinus sylvestris L. in eight Polish localities expressed in morphological and anatomical traits of needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year old needles were collected from 272 standing trees of Pinus sylvestris L., representing 8 Polish populations. The needles were studied in respect to IS morphological and anatomical traits. The obtained data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in an attempt to delineate interpopulational variability. Multivariate analysis of variance with testing of statistical hypotheses and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mahalanobis distances were calculated between each of population in pairs and their significance was estimated using Hotelling T2 statistics. On the basis of the shortest Mahalanobis distances a minimum spanning tree was constructed and on the basis of Euklidean distances hierarchy grouping was performed. A large majority of the populations was found to differ significantly from the remaining populations. The population from Bolewice proved to be most divergent. The principal variables which proved capable of discriminating between populations were found to include: needle length, the number of stomata on the flat side of the needle and the number of resin canals. Using Bryant's test, the studied populations were found to belong to two geographic groups: the North-Polish one or the South-Polish one.

  2. Changes in turnover rather than production regulate biomass of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium across a Pinus sylvestris chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenbo, Andreas; Clemmensen, Karina E; Finlay, Roger D; Kyaschenko, Julia; Lindahl, Björn D; Fransson, Petra; Ekblad, Alf

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forest soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi are fundamentally important for carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient cycling. Although their extraradical mycelium (ERM) is pivotal for processes such as soil organic matter build-up and nitrogen cycling, very little is known about its dynamics and regulation. In this study, we quantified ERM production and turnover, and examined how these two processes together regulated standing ERM biomass in seven sites forming a chronosequence of 12- to 100-yr-old managed Pinus sylvestris forests. This was done by determining ERM biomass, using ergosterol as a proxy, in sequentially harvested in-growth mesh bags and by applying mathematical models. Although ERM production declined with increasing forest age from 1.2 to 0.5 kg ha-1  d-1 , the standing biomass increased from 50 to 112 kg ha-1 . This was explained by a drastic decline in mycelial turnover from seven times to one time per year with increasing forest age, corresponding to mean residence times from 25 d up to 1 yr. Our results demonstrate that ERM turnover is the main factor regulating biomass across differently aged forest stands. Explicit inclusion of ERM parameters in forest ecosystem C models may significantly improve their capacity to predict responses of mycorrhiza-mediated processes to management and environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Natural Regeneration in a Multi-Layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies Forest after Target Diameter Harvest and Soil Scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Drössler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management in Sweden can be characterized by even-aged silviculture heavily relying on three established harvest regimes: clearcutting, the seed-tree method, and the shelterwood system. Less intense, small-scale retention harvest systems such as single tree and group selection harvest are rarely used. In addition, natural regeneration dynamics without enrichment planting have barely been studied. Consequently, this study examined natural regeneration establishment in a multi-layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies forest stand in southwest Sweden after target diameter harvesting and soil scarification. The creation of forest canopy gaps had a positive effect on total seedling density five years after harvest, mainly due to a significantly higher number of Betula pendula individuals. Seedling density of more desirable tree species suitable for continuous cover forestry such as Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies also increased substantially in gaps when compared to pre-harvest conditions or the unharvested plots. In contrast, soil scarification did not increase the number of seedlings of desired tree species due to a significant decrease in Picea abies abundance. Soil moisture and gap size significantly improved Betula pendula seedling establishment while a larger number of Quercus petraea seedlings were observed in Vaccinium myrtillus patches. We conclude that canopy gaps are beneficial under the encountered stand conditions to initiate forest regeneration, and that soil scarification without the timely occurrence of a mast year of desired tree species is not effective in the type of forest studied.

  4. Early inbreeding depression in the sexually polymorphic plant Dianthus sylvestris (Caryophyllaceae): Effects of selfing and biparental inbreeding among sex morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Carine L; Penet, Laurent; Shykoff, Jacqui A

    2009-12-01

    Predominantly outcrossing plant species are expected to accumulate recessive deleterious mutations, which can be purged when in a homozygous state following selfing. Individuals may vary in their genetic load because of different selfing histories, which could lead to differences in inbreeding depression among families. Lineage-dependent inbreeding depression can appear in gynodioecious species if obligatory outcrossed females are more likely to produce female offspring and if partially selfing hermaphrodites are more likely to produce hermaphrodites. We investigated inbreeding depression at the zygote, seed, and germination stages in the gynomonoecious-gynodioecious Dianthus sylvestris, including pure-sexed plants and a mixed morph. We performed hand-pollinations on 56 plants, belonging to the three morphs, each receiving 2-3 cross treatments (out-, sib- and self-pollination) on multiple flowers. Effects of cross treatments varied among stages and influenced seed provisioning, with sibling competition mainly occurring within outcrossed fruits. We found significant inbreeding depression for seed mass and germination and cumulative early inbreeding depression varied greatly among families. Among sex morphs, we found that females and hermaphrodites differed in biparental inbreeding depression, whereas uniparental was similar for all. Significant inbreeding depression levels may play a role in female maintenance in this species, and individual variation in association with sex-lineages proclivity is discussed.

  5. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  6. Comparison of stem volume of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. and Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vaněk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mensurational and volumetric characteristics of introduced Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus in comparison with native Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris of the similar age and habitat. Municipal forests of Hradec Králové city (an area with the natural occurrence of Scotch pine and introduced Eastern white pine; east part of Bohemia, altitude from 250 to 280 m a.s.l. belong to typological unit – nutrient-very poor, and acidic sites. There comparative analysis of basic stem variables (stem diameter at the breast-height – DBH, total tree height – H and stem volume – V of dominant trees (10 individuals with the highest DBH of both species in four suitable forest stands of age from 42 to 102 years was done. Statistical analysis showed similar trends in all forests stands. Eastern white pine compared to Scotch pine reached larger mean DBH (up to 16%. H – values do not have a clear trend across the forest stands and did not show large differences in all cases. Eastern white pine compared to Scotch pine showed also larger mean stem volume (up to 47%. Therefore, introduced Eastern white pine reached higher stem size parameters and wood production compared to native Scotch pine in studied forest district.

  7. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  8. Effects of Thinning and Water Supply Manipulation on the Productivity of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    Full Text Available Management is an effective tool for increasing the productivity of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. This species has been widely planted in China, especially in sandy lands. However, optimization of management practices had not been fully explored. We established a system dynamic model to evaluate the effects of thinning and of manipulation of water supply on the productivity and population density of a Mongolian pine forest (17 scenarios in total. Different levels of thinning increased the mean biomass of Mongolian pine over no-management to a range from 202 to 256 t·ha-1. Increasing water supply decreased the mean biomass of Mongolian pine to a range from 176 to 199 t·ha-1. These results indicated that thinning at different levels may lead to an increase in biomass accumulation, while manipulating water supply may decrease biomass. Further, thinning appeared more effective than increasing water supply in efforts at maintaining high productivity of Mongolian pine forests. Moreover, the highest biomass occurred in a scenario with a thinning intensity of 30% in over-mature trees, indicating that this thinning intensity was the most effective choice for to the maintenance of the highest biomass in Mongolian pine forests. This study informs about the interactions between Mongolian pine and forest management, and provides guidelines for the practice of management of this forest type.

  9. Genetic heterogeneity underlying variation in a locally adaptive clinal trait in Pinus sylvestris revealed by a Bayesian multipopulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, S T; Knürr, T; Kärkkäinen, K; Neale, D B; Sillanpää, M J; Savolainen, O

    2017-05-01

    Local adaptation is a common feature of plant and animal populations. Adaptive phenotypic traits are genetically differentiated along environmental gradients, but the genetic basis of such adaptation is still poorly known. Genetic association studies of local adaptation combine data over populations. Correcting for population structure in these studies can be problematic since both selection and neutral demographic events can create similar allele frequency differences between populations. Correcting for demography with traditional methods may lead to eliminating some true associations. We developed a new Bayesian approach for identifying the loci underlying an adaptive trait in a multipopulation situation in the presence of possible double confounding due to population stratification and adaptation. With this method we studied the genetic basis of timing of bud set, a surrogate trait for timing of yearly growth cessation that confers local adaptation to the populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Population means of timing of bud set were highly correlated with latitude. Most effects at individual loci were small. Interestingly, we found genetic heterogeneity (that is, different sets of loci associated with the trait) between the northern and central European parts of the cline. We also found indications of stronger stabilizing selection toward the northern part of the range. The harsh northern conditions may impose greater selective pressure on timing of growth cessation, and the relative importance of different environmental cues used for tracking the seasons might differ depending on latitude of origin.

  10. {Omega}/{Xi} production ratio in S-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzis, S. [Nuclear Physics Department, Athens University, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Carney, J.N.; de la Cruz, B.; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Narjoux, J.L.; Navach, F.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Storas, T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Federico Antinori/CERN & Genova for WA85 Collaboration

    1995-07-20

    We have measured the ({Omega}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Omega}}{sup +})/({Xi}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Xi}}{sup +}) production ratio in central S-W collisions to be 0.8{plus_minus}0.4 at central rapidity and p{sub T}{gt}1.6 GeV/{ital c}. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  11. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Ming; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Makhtar, Nor 'Adilah; Khalid, Mohamed Hanief; Khalid, Syamimi; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Mastuki, Siti Nurulhuda; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Lajis, Nordin; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2011-01-07

    Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache. The study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. flowers (MEAU) using murine models of chemicals and thermal nociception. Chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-induced paw licking test) and thermal models (hot plate test) of nociception in mice were employed to evaluate the MEAU analgesic effect. The extract was given via oral administration at doses of 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that MEAU produced significant antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which indicates the presence of both centrally and peripherally mediated activities. Furthermore, the reversal of antinociception of MEAU by naloxone suggests the involvement of opioid system in its centrally mediated analgesic activity. Moreover, MEAU-treated mice did not show any significant motor performance alterations. No mortality and signs of toxicity were recorded following treatment of the MEAU. The results from the present study appear to support the folkloric belief in the medicinal properties of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. which against pain at both central and peripheral levels, in which the central antinociception is probably due to the participation of the opioid receptors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  13. First fungal community analyses of endophytic ascomycetes associated with Viscum album ssp. austriacum and its host Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peršoh, Derek; Melcher, Martina; Flessa, Fabienne; Rambold, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    The endophytic fungal communities in the hemi-parasitic epiphyte Viscum album and in its phorophyte Pinus sylvestris were compared to reveal the fungal distribution patterns in their hosts. The ITS nrDNA of 208 multiple-isolated fungal strains was sequenced and a newly designed process was applied for assigning taxon names to the obtained sequences. Furthermore, the isolates were grouped as clusters, by subjecting a sequence similarity matrix to various cluster analyses, the results of which were compared and verified by data from phylogenetic reconstructions. In contrast to a previously reported dominance of Leotiomycetes among Pinus inhabiting fungi, the endophytic communities of the two host plant species studied here were dominated by Xylariaceae (Sordariomycetes). This is in accordance with the finding that host selectivity was only a minor factor in explaining the distribution patterns of the endophytic fungi in Viscum and Pinus. Organ and, probably, tissue selectivity had a more pronounced effect. The composition and condition of the woods in the surrounding, however, are concluded to be the major determinants, due to the following circumstantial evidence: The highest similarities in fungal community compositions were found for the leaves of the two host plant species, especially when considering only the older leaves. The finding that the inhabitants of matured or senescent organs are less host-selective is in accordance with decreasing defence capabilities of ageing host plant tissue and an increased nutrient supply for saprobic taxa. Therefore, the composition of the fungal communities in ageing leaves seems to be predominantly ascribed to contagious spread and to depend on the spectrum of nearby sporulating fungal taxa. We suggest that because a broad range of suitable substrates for Xylariaceae was present in immediate vicinity of the study sites, these fungi also dominated among the recorded endophytic taxa. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological

  14. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksakal, Ozkan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey); Ucun, Handan, E-mail: hanucun@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, Bartin 74100 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 deg. C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 deg. C for 200 mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan

    2010-09-15

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 degrees C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 degrees C for 200mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in climate-growth relationships and IADF formation over time of pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean basin has experienced an increase in the mean annual temperature, a decrease in the mean annual precipitation, and an increase in the frequency of severe drought periods during the second half of the 20th century. However, winter and spring precipitation has increased and summer precipitation has decreased in the western Mediterranean region. Aim of the study: The objectives of the present study were: i to compare changes in climate-growth relationships over time for Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Spain ii to quantify the presence of intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs on the three species, and iii to define the associated climatic variables. Area of study: 26 sampling sites (8 P. halepensis sites, 8 P. pinaster sites and 10 P. sylvestris sites were selected in their distribution area in Spain. Main results: Precipitation is the main factor influencing growth and IADF occurrence in the three species. Wet periods during previous winter and spring induced higher growth rates on P. halepensis and P. pinaster, while P. sylvestris was mostly influenced by summer precipitation. However, the influence of these climatic variables on the growth of these species changed over the studied period. The increase of winter and spring precipitation combined with increasingly harsh summer climatic conditions in the second half of the 20th century may have enhanced the importance of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season on the growth of species subject to higher summer drought stress (P. halepensis and P. pinaster and increased IADF occurrence. Research highlights: Besides reflecting changes in the environmental conditions during the growing season, the inclusion of IADF detection in chronologies adds new information to ring-width chronologies, thereby improving its quality.

  17. Reproductive isolation and genetic differentiation of dry land and bog populations of Pinus sylvestris L. in Western Siberia and Russian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Petrova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of large-scale interdisciplinary ecological and geographical researches (1973–2015 years, environmental gradients, reproductive isolation, genetic and phenotypic differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations of the dry lands and the adjacent bogs in Western Siberia and the Russian Plain have been generalized. The strong regime gradients of the physical, chemical, and especially hydrothermal factors of the pine populations edafotope on dry lands and adjacent high bogs in the sub-forest-steppe, in the middle and northern taiga (in a less degree of Western Siberia have been revealed. The stable reproductive isolation of populations on the high bogs and (to a lesser extent on the transitional bogs from the dry land ones, which is determinated by a later dates of the peat substrate heating, a differences in the phases of pollination-“flowering” (reception of trees, and its increase in the general direction from the northwest to the southeast of the Russian Plain and the Western Siberia, has been determined. The significant genetic distances Nei (1978 and their gradients (bounds between the dry land and adjacent bog populations in the south of forest zone (at the local population level, and lower gradients in the northern taiga subzones, as well as in transitional bogs have been found. For the first time the clear boundary between populations of P. sylvestris L. on the dry land and adjacent high bog (in the continuous areal has been determined as a result of stationary palaeobotanical, ecological, phenological, morphological-anatomical-phenotypic and allozyme studies. An outline of hypothetical-deductive theory of genetic divergence of bog P. sylvestris populations from dry land ones in Holocene under the influence of the disruptive selection and the other factors of microevolution, which is proceed in the conditions of strongly contrasting environment and reproductive isolation has been substantiated through the

  18. Desenvolvimento do gel Malva sylvestris L. e a avaliação clínica na resposta inflamatória gengival e no biofilome dental

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Cristina Fosquiera

    2010-01-01

    Os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram realizar a prospecção fitoquímica do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto (EHBM) de Malva sylvestris L., determinar in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana e propriedade antioxidante e in vivo a ação antiplaca e antigengivite do EHBM utilizando um modelo de gengivite experimental parcial em humanos. Trinta indivíduos foram selecionados para participar deste estudo cruzado duplocego, no qual foram estabelecidos três períodos experimentais de 15 dias cada um com um i...

  19. Relationships between the dynamics of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus sylvestris L. plantations and environmental parameters: a basis for sustainable management of stands

    OpenAIRE

    Bueis Mellado, Teresa de los

    2017-01-01

    Pinus halepensis Mill. y Pinus sylvestris L. son especies ampliamente utilizadas en la repoblación de suelos pobres y degradados en España. Pinus halepensis es una especie mediterránea adaptada a la sequía y a un amplio rango de sustratos, capaz de colonizar suelos muy pobres mejorándolos, fomentando el crecimiento de especies nativas como Quercus ilex L. o Quercus faginea Lam. A pesar de lo anterior, no ha sido estudiado en demasiada profundidad debido al escaso interés económico...

  20. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris

  1. Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the SW Iberian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Arnaiz, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    The SW Iberian margin lies at the eastern termination of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ), the diffuse transform plate boundary between Africa and Iberia (Sartori et al., 1994). It comprises the Gulf of Cadiz and the Algarve Basin, which were developed under two main different regional stages of deformation. During the Mesozoic, the SW Iberian margin evolution since the Late Triassic was dominated by the Pangea break-up and the Central Atlantic opening up to Early Jurssic, followed by the westernmost Tethyan opening up to Mid/Late Jurassic, and the North Atlantic rifting from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (e.g., Schettino and Turco, 2010). This phase of extension led to the formation of E-W to NE-SW trending, basement-involved extensional faults, the triggering of salt tectonics and the uplifting of basement highs (e.g., Guadalquivir Bank). This extensional phase was responsible not only for the sedimentary depocenter distribution, but also for the crustal configuration of this passive margin, extending from continental crust in the proximal part, to oceanic crust in the distal and deepest portion of the margin. Since the Late Cretaceous, the margin was inverted due to the N-S convergence between Africa and Iberia, being still undergoing collision given the dominance of reverse fault earthquake mechanisms (e.g., Zitellini et al., 2009). The shortening in the margin is mainly accommodated by the north-dipping foliation of the basin, expressed by south-directed blind thrusts affecting the present-day bathymetry, re-activating the basement highs and the salt tectonics, and controlling the Cenozoic depocenters. The emplacement of the Betics to the east led to the westward emplacement of the gravitational unit partially overlying the sedimentary basins, corresponding to the Allochthonous Unit of the Gulf of Cadiz (AUGC). Our observations of the margin configuration have been based on the interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys throughout the

  2. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Ips typographus (L. on Picea abies [(L. H. Karst.] and Pinus sylvestris L. in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study dealt with the species distribution and frequency of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the bark beetle Ips typographus on Norway spruce and Scots pine in north-eastern Poland. At all locations high spruce bark beetle damage has occurred in 2002-2003. Fungi were isolated from beetles and from brood systems of trees infested by the spruce bark beetle. The ophiostomatoid fungi were represented by 13 species. A similar spectrum of ophiostomatoid fungi as that recorded from Picea abies was associated with I. typographus on Pinus sylvestris trees. The most frequent ophiostomatoid species isolated from beetles, phloem and sapwood of Norway spruce were O. bicolor and O. penicillatum. The frequency of occurrence of ophiostomatoid fungi varied significantly among the examined locations. O. bicolor was the most frequently found species on Scots pine infested by I. typographus. The potential role of ophiostomatoid fungi in the epidemiology of I. typographus is discussed. Additionally, we also recorded how the ophiostomatoid fungi associated with spruce bark beetle could grow into phloem and sapwood of Pinus sylvestris trees.

  3. Static and kinetic friction coefficients of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., parallel and perpendicular to grain direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the static (µe and kinetic (µd coefficients of friction were obtained for Pinus sylvestis L. sawn timber of Spanish origin. Friction between transverse surfaces sliding perpendicular to the grain (tangential direction and radial surfaces sliding parallel to the grain was analyzed. A specifically designed device was used for tests, which makes it possible to apply contact pressure and measure displacements and applied loads simultaneously. Coefficients of friction between transverse surfaces (µe = 0,24; µd = 0,17 were about twice of the coefficients of friction between radial surfaces (µe = 0,12; µd = 0,08. Furthermore, these values are located within normal values of those commonly reported for softwood. The results are considered preliminary due to the small number of specimens.En este estudio se determinaron los coeficientes de rozamiento, estático (µe y dinámico (µd, en madera aserrada de Pinus sylvestris L. de procedencia española, diferenciando si se produce el contacto entre secciones de corte transversal con deslizamiento en dirección perpendicular a la fibra (en dirección tangencial, o entre secciones de corte radial con deslizamiento paralelo a la fibra. Para la realización de los ensayos se ha utilizado un dispositivo, diseñado específicamente, que posibilita la aplicación de una presión de contacto y la medición del desplazamiento y de la fuerza aplicada de manera simultánea, permitiendo la obtención de los coeficientes de rozamiento estático y dinámico. Los coeficientes de rozamiento obtenidos entre secciones transversales (µe = 0.24; µd = 0.17 fueron del orden del doble de los coeficientes de rozamiento entre secciones radiales (µe = 0.12; µd = 0.08. Además, estos valores se encuentran dentro de los valores que aparecen habitualmente en la bibliografía para madera de coníferas. Debido al escaso tamaño de la muestra los resultados se consideran preliminares.

  4. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  5. Data from: EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heym, Michael; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo; Río, del Miren; Bielak, Kamil; Forrester, David Ian; Dirnberger, Gerald; Barbeito, I.; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Ruškytkė, Indré; Coll, L.; Ouden, den J.

    2017-01-01

    This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed

  6. Van SW-bedrijf naar Centrum voor Werk: interview met Gert Jan Engbers, SOWECO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, R.

    2008-01-01

    De wet Sociale werkvoorziening wordt uitgevoerd door ongeveer negentig "monopolisten", de huidige SW-bedrijven. Deze krijgen daartoe opdracht van de ongeveer 440 Nederlandse gemeenten, die de uitvoering neerleggen bij één partij: het regionale SW-bedrijf. Dit komt mede omdat de wet de gemeenten tot

  7. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules in...

  8. Pérdidas de fruto y movilización de semillas en Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot. (Oleaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcántara, Julio M.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed several aspects of the reproductive biology of wild olive (Olea europaea var. sylvestris. Brot. related to seed dispersal. The importance of several fruit fates (the way and condition in which fruits leave the tree is considered in two different habitats, one of which was surveyed in two consecutive years. We distinguished the following fruit fates: (a consumption by avian seed dispersers (fruit removal, (b loss due to different biotic (e.g. birds and insects, abiotic (e.g. weather and plant-controlled factors (e.g. abscission, and (c fruits remaining on the tree by the end of the season. The ranking of importance of each fruit fate did not differ between habitats, and was similar among individual trees, although the net valúes of each fate were highly variable among trees. On the average, in the two habitats and seasons the plant investment in fruit crop yielded a low reward in terms of fruit removal success (between 16 and 33 % of the total fruit crop. This was attributable to different factors in the two habitats; in one of them, wild olive fruit crop satiated the scarce avian seed dispersers, whereas in the other, interspecific competition for avian seed dispersers with Phyllirea latifolia probably diminished wild olive removal success. Total fruit losses increased during the second season (from 8 to 40 % of the total fruit crop. However, it did not set a limit to the total amount of seeds being dispersed. Fruit losses were mainly caused by abiotic factors rather than by biotic ones. The percentage of fruits (both unripe and ripe falling apparently healthy from the branches was higher than the percentage damaged by climatic factors (desiccated and frozen fruits. Among damaging biotic agents (pests and birds, the most frequent one was the larvae of the fly Dacus oleae, followed by birds (both dispersers that drop the fruit while handling and fruit predators and, accounting for a negligible percentage, the larvae of the moth Prays

  9. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.

    2007-11-01

    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  10. Florística e estrutura fitossociológica em floresta ombrófila densa submontana na barragem do rio São Bento, Siderópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3345 Floristic composition and phytosociological structure in a submontane ombrophilous dense forest at São Bento river dam, Siderópolis, Santa Catarina State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3345

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João André Jarenkow

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de levantamentos florístico e fitossociológico em remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Submontana circunjacente à barragem do rio São Bento, objetivando fornecer dados primários para ações de restauração e conservação desta formação. A área está localizada no Sul de Santa Catarina, município de Siderópolis. Utilizou-se como área amostral um hectare e foram registrados indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5 cm e quantificados seus descritores estruturais. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 42 famílias botânicas, totalizando 1.715 indivíduos. As espécies com maiores valores de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis Mart., Casearia sylvestris Sw. e Bathysa australis (St.-Hil. K. Schum. Entre as espécies identificadas, encontrou-se elevado índice de zoofilia e zoocoria. Pela característica florística e abundância de serapilheira, a área encontra-se em estádio avançado de regeneração naturalAiming to provide primary data to be used in restoration programs, data from a floristic and phytosociological survey at a Submontane Ombrophilous Dense Forest remnant around São Bento river dam (Siderópolis municipality, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil are presented. All tree individuals with a diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm were recorded (1 ha plot. 1,715 individuals belonging to 107 species and 42 botanical families were identified. Euterpe edulis Mart., Casearia sylvestris Sw. and Bathysa australis (St.-Hil. K.Schum. were the species with higher values of structural importance. High index of zoophily and zoochory were registered among the identified species. From the floristic composition and litter abundance, it can be assumed that the studied area corresponds to an advanced stage of natural regeneration

  11. Florística e estrutura fitossociológica em floresta ombrófila densa submontana na barragem do rio São Bento, Siderópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina = Floristic composition and phytosociological structure in a submontane ombrophilous dense forest at São Bento river dam, Siderópolis, Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Colonetti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de levantamentos florístico e fitossociológico em remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Submontana circunjacente à barragem do rio São Bento, objetivando fornecer dados primários para ações de restauração e conservação destaformação. A área está localizada no Sul de Santa Catarina, município de Siderópolis. Utilizou-se como área amostral um hectare e foram registrados indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5 cm e quantificados seus descritores estruturais. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 42 famílias botânicas, totalizando 1.715 indivíduos. As espécies com maiores valores de importância (VI foram Euterpeedulis Mart., Casearia sylvestris Sw. e Bathysa australis (St.-Hil. K. Schum. Entre as espécies identificadas, encontrou-se elevado índice de zoofilia e zoocoria. Pela característica florística eabundância de serapilheira, a área encontra-se em estádio avançado de regeneração natural.Aiming to provide primary data to be used in restoration programs, data from a floristic and phytosociological survey at a Submontane Ombrophilous Dense Forest remnant around São Bento river dam (Siderópolis municipality, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil are presented. All tree individuals with a diameter at breast height (DBH≥ 5 cm were recorded (1 ha plot. 1,715 individuals belonging to 107 species and 42 botanical families were identified. Euterpe edulis Mart., Casearia sylvestris Sw. and Bathysa australis (St.-Hil. K.Schum. were the species with higher values of structural importance.High index of zoophily and zoochory were registered among the identified species. From the floristic composition and litter abundance, it can be assumed that the studied area corresponds to an advanced stage of natural regeneration.

  12. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chiappetta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

  13. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

  14. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  15. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

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    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  16. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  17. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

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    Yu Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  18. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Fujio

    2017-07-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φplw, and chamber ionization ratio kpl, of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φplw for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φplw for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φplw with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of kpl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The kpl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of kpl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated kpl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated kpl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

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    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  20. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  1. Microseismicity and active deformation of Messinia, SW Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulia, J.; Makris, J.

    By deploying a 30 3-component digital seismic array in the Messiniakos gulf and the surrounding region, we recorded for a period of 45 days the microseismic activity. With a minimum of six records per event, we located 1121 earthquakes corresponding to an average of 20 events per day. For the hypocenter location we used a local velocity model adopted to two controlled source seismic experiments. Within the array, traveltime residuals were within ± 0.2 s and the epicentral accuracy in the order of ± 2 km, while the hypocentral one is twice this value. Correlation of the seismicity with the tectonic elements indicated that most of the NW-SE oriented faults are active with strike-slip movement along this orientation and extension perpendicular to it. The neogene basins of Messini, Meligalas and Megalopolis are seismically very active and their eastern flanks are delineated by higher seismic activity than their western ones. This indicates that the basins are asymmetric with master faults defining their eastern-northeastern flanks. This hypothesis is supported by the asymmetric structure mapped at the offshore Messiniakos basin as densely spaced high resolution reflection seismic profiles have revealed. The western margins of the basins are less deformed and the seismic activity is dispersed over several minor NW-SE faults. Since the NW-SE striking faults onshore are truncated by major NE-SW oriented ones, their overall length is shortened, reducing their seismic potential and capacity to store large stresses that could produce events above Ms6.1. Offshore western Messinia, in the Ionian Sea, the size and activity of the faults is significantly larger and prone to develop events of larger magnitudes. Subcrustal seismicity indicates a deepening of the foci to the east-northeast.

  2. Preliminary Results of EEWS Parameters for SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Marta; Buforn, Elisa; Pro, Carmen; Zollo, Aldo; Pazos, Antonio; Lozano, Lucia; Carrilho, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    SW Iberia is an area where potential large and damaging earthquakes may occur such as the 1755 (Lisbon Imax=X), 1969 (S. Vicente Cape Ms=8,1) or 1964 (Gulf of Cádiz Ms=6.5) shocks. We have estimated the peak displacement (Pd) and mean period (τc) for a rapid estimation of the potential damage for earthquakes occurring in this region (ALERT-ES project), from the first seconds of the beginning of P-waves. This estimation is carried out by the correlation of these parameters with the magnitude and the peak ground velocity (PGV) of recorded shocks. The database is formed by earthquakes with epicentres at S. Vicente Cape and Gulf of Cadiz regions, occurred on the period 2006-2011 with magnitude larger than 3.8 and recorded at regional distances (less than 500 km) at real time broad-band seismic stations. We have studied different lengths of time-windows (2 to 20s) and applied different filters. Due to the off-shore foci occurrence and the bad azimuthal coverage, we have corrected the Pd parameter by the radiation pattern obtained from focal mechanisms of the largest earthquakes of this region. We have normalized the Pd value to a reference distance (200 km) and after that we have obtained empirical correlation laws for Pd and τc versus magnitude. We have also obtained an empirical correlation between Pd parameter and the PGV estimated over the total seismogram. The PGV could be correlated to the earthquakes damages through the Modified Mercalli Intensity (IMM). Applying the scaling laws obtained (Pd and PGV), we have estimated the theoretical intensity maps for the 2007 and 2009 earthquakes occurred in this area.

  3. Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the wood-rotting fungi Serpula lacrymans and Coniophora puteana, and from Pinus sylvestris timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Richard J; Jones, Peter R H; Ratcliffe, Norman M; Spencer-Phillips, Peter T N

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by two wood-rotting basidiomycete fungi, Serpula lacrymans (dry rot fungus) and Coniophora puteana (cellar fungus), and the timber of Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), were identified. Several volatile collection techniques were employed including dichloromethane solvent extraction, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and thermal desorption of VOCs entrained on Tenax GR. In addition, a new method of solid sample injection (SSI) is described which utilises a low injector temperature and an all-glass deactivated injector liner designed to minimise both the formation of pyrolysis products and analyte degradation. All the volatile compounds collected were analysed using electron impact capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on HP-5, HP-Innowax and beta-cyclodextrin columns. SSI and Tenax thermal desorption were found to be the most effective extraction methods. A total of 19 VOCs were observed from S. lacrymans grown on glass slides and pine, 15 from C. puteana grown on glass slides and 12 from P. sylvestris timber. S. lacrymans was found to emit, in low abundance, six unique VOCs, of which 2-methylbutanal was the greatest. The major volatile compound emitted by S. lacrymans was 1-octen-3-ol, which was also found in lower abundance from C. puteana. Six VOCs, including diethylene glycol and 4-methyl methylbenzoate, were found to be unique to C. puteana, all in medium abundance: From P. sylvestris, the major volatiles identified were S-alpha-pinene and 3-carene.

  4. Influence of inorganic and organic amendments in the soil properties and the growth and survival of Olea Europaea var. Sylvestris in the semiarid Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Raúl; Miralles, Isabel; Anguita-Maeso, Manuel; Domene, Miguel; Soriano, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Selecting the most appropriate types of plants adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of restoring drylands is essential to success in landscape restoration. Besides improving soil quality is a key factor to consider when designing the restoration procedures. The use of organic and inorganic amendments can help with this task. On this study, we evaluated the influence of different mineral (clays) and organic (compost and poultry) amendments on the properties of a bare soil and how this influenced on the growth and survival of the Olea europaea var. sylvestrys, a perennial bush plant adapted to the Mediterranean semi-arid zone. Tests were designed and carried out in a greenhouse at the "Experimental Station of Cajamar foundation "Las Palmerillas" in El Ejido (Almería, Spain). Plants were grown in 250L pots and their substrate was bare soil and mineral and/or organic amendments. The experimental design consisted of three replicas for five treatments: 1. compost, 2. "ZeoPro", a cliptonolite commercial clay, 3. mordenite clay from local quarries plus compost, 4. cliptonolite clay from Turkey plus compost, 5. cliptonolite from Turquey plus poultry; with four levels each one: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% volume of amendment. Including three control samples without amendment total plants accounted for 63. Climatic sensors inside and outside the greenhouse permitted to establish the same meteorological conditions for the plants and only emergency watering was supplied when necessary for the survival of the plants when arid conditions were extreme. The physico-chemical soil properties of each treatment and level were analyzed before planting and the biovolume and the survival rates of the plants were measured regularly along eleven months. Statistically the best treatment for the growing of the plants was number 3 (mordenite and compost) with no deaths recorded. According to the growing rates the best level was soil with 20% of amendment. Besides we analyzed the evolution of the

  5. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Ryzner, Kamila; Skurzyński, Jacek; Jary, Zdzisław

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills) and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills). Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm). Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  6. Study of morphological and mechanical features of multinuclear and mononuclear SW480 cells by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyun; Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Xinyue; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Jingmei; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Jiang, Jinlan

    2017-10-09

    This article studies the morphological and mechanical features of multinuclear and mononuclear SW480 colon cancer cells by atomic force microscopy to understand their drug-resistance. The SW480 cells were incubated with the fullerenol concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. Morphological and mechanical features including the height, length, width, roughness, adhesion force and Young's modulus of three multinuclear cell groups and three mononuclear cell groups were imaged and analyzed. It was observed that the features of multinuclear cancer cells and mononuclear cancer cells were significantly different after the treatment with fullerenol. The experiment results indicated that the mononuclear SW480 cells were more sensitive to fullerenol than the multinuclear SW480 cells, and the multinuclear SW480 cells exhibited a stronger drug-resistance than the mononuclear SW480 cells. This work provides a guideline for the treatments of multinuclear and mononuclear cancer cells with drugs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Functions for biomass estimation of young Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula spp. from stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Svante; Sahlen, Kenneth; Lundmark, Tomas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture, Vindeln Experimental Forests

    2001-07-01

    New silvicultural regimes with high within-stand competition require new functions for estimation of standing stock and growth of biomass components, since the allometry of trees is changed by light competition. This paper presents functions for estimation of the above-ground biomass dry weights for stem wood, stem bark, branches and leaves of young (diameter at breast height < 10 cm) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and birch (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing in dense mixed stands. The functions were derived from a sample consisting of 84 Scots pine, 43 Norway spruce and 66 birch trees from six stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities ( > 10 000 st ha{sup -1}). The logarithmically transformed power function displayed a good ability to stabilize the variance of dry weights and showed a good fit to the material (0.37 < R{sup 2} < 0.99). A comparison with the most commonly used biomass functions in Sweden today showed that they overestimated the weight of stem wood and branches, while the weight of foliage was underestimated. The nature of these discrepancies suggested that the precision of biomass estimations might also be improved for young trees at wider spacing.

  8. Microscopic identification of changes in beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and pine (Pinus sylvestris L. cell structure after drying using high-frequency energy of the microwave band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nasswettrová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency energy transfer represents a progressive technology with an increasing range of industrial application. One of the main advantages of microwave technology is the volumetric principle of energy transfer. Based on this fact, the gradients of moisture content and temperature are identical and when the wood is dried it helps transport moisture from porous material and it also helps and transport free water whit lumen of cells. From a practical viewpoint, microwave heating increases the quality of the dried material and reduces the necessary processing. The quality of a dry material is an essential input parameter for other technological procedures and it depends on the deformations created in its cell structure. Therefore, the monitoring of changes brought about during the drying process is necessary. The aim of this study was to identify the changes in the microscopic structure of the wood of beech (Fagus Sylvatica L. and pine (Pinus Sylvestris L. dried using the high-frequency energy of the microwave band. The microscopic structure of a material modified by microwaves was photographed by means of a low-vacuum microscope and then visually compared with the native structure. The results show that the structure of beech and pine wood during the time of the proposed drying regime does not differ considerably from the native structure. This outcome is documented in a digital form and it confirms the harmless character of microwave heating towards wood structure in the conditions of optimum drying parameters.

  9. Susceptibility of European Pinus sylvestris L. populations to S02, NO 29 S02 +N02 and HF under laboratory and field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Oleksy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under controlled laboratory conditions, 1-3 year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings were exposed to SO2 (0.75 mm3 dm-3 x 5 days, 6h daily, NO2, (0.5 mm3 dm-3 x 66 days, 6h daily, SO2 +NO2 (0.25 mm3 dm-3+0.5 mm3 dm-3 x 19 days, 6h daily and HF (0.25 mm3 dm-3 x 4 days, 6h daily. Seedlings of the same provenances had also been outplanted near two types of emission sources which pollute the environment with SO2 and fluorides, and with SO2 and heavy metals. Nitrogen dioxide did not cause visible symptoms of injury to plants. Exposition of plants to the action of other pollutants differentiated the studied populations in respect to the size of needle necroses. In general, northern (Sweden, USSR and southern (Turkey, Yugoslavia populations demonstrated lower sensitivity than pines from the more central parts of the species' range in Europe. A statistically significant correlation was shown between the injuries to seedlings observed in the field and under laboratory conditions.

  10. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  11. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented.

  12. A cerato-platanin-like protein HaCPL2 from Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto induces cell death in Nicotiana tabacum and Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxin; Quintana, Julia; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-11-01

    The cerato-platanin family is a group of small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusive for filamentous fungi. They have been shown to be involved in the interactions between fungi and plants. Functional characterization of members from this family has been performed mainly in Ascomycota, except Moniliophthora perniciosa. Our previous phylogenetic analysis revealed that recent gene duplication of cerato-platanins has occurred in Basidiomycota but not in Ascomycota, suggesting higher functional diversification of this protein family in Basidiomycota than in Ascomycota. In this study, we identified three cerato-platanin homologues from the basidiomycete conifer pathogen Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto. Expression of the homologues under various conditions as well as their roles in the H. annosum s.s.-Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) pathosystem was investigated. Results showed that HaCPL2 (cerato-platanin-like protein 2) had the highest sequence similarity to cerato-platanin from Ceratocystis platani and hacpl2 was significantly induced during nutrient starvation and necrotrophic growth. The treatment with recombinant HaCPL2 induced cell death, phytoalexin production and defense gene expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Eliciting and cell death-inducing ability accompanied by retardation of apical root growth was also demonstrated in Scots pine seedlings. Our results suggest that HaCPL2 might contribute to the virulence of H. annosum s.s. by promoting plant cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression and replication by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of Elaeocarpus sylvestris in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sohee; Kang, Se Chan; Song, Yoon-Jae

    2017-08-29

    In immunocompromised patients, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can lead to severe, life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, gastrointestinal tract disease, and retinitis. We previously reported that a 70% ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris leaves (ESE) inhibits human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication in vitro. In the present study, we determined the solvent fraction of ESE that inhibits HCMV replication using activity-guided fractionation. Activity-guided fractionation of ESE was performed to determine the solvent fraction that inhibits HCMV replication. Effects of solvent fractions on HCMV lytic gene expression and major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer/promoter activity were further investigated. Among the solvent fractions tested, the EtOAc fraction of ESE markedly reduced HCMV lytic gene expression and viral replication in vitro without exerting significant cytotoxic effects against human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction negatively affected HCMV MIE enhancer/promoter activity. Our data collectively indicate that the EtOAc fraction of ESE contains active constituents that inhibit HCMV MIE enhancer/promoter activity and viral replication. The EtOAc fraction of ESE is a good source of novel drug candidates for treatment of HCMV-associated diseases.

  14. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings - impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  15. Investigation of post-fire natural regeneration in forest plantations of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua on the Northern slopes of Rila mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Molla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires alter both the vegetation and the soil properties, thus changing the conditions of their regeneration. Each year, forest fires impact significant areas within the lower forest zone, where the coniferous plantations, especially Scots pine plantations are deteriorated. The natural forest recovery processes in fire-affected areas are still insufficiently studied in Bulgaria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of a natural post-fire regeneration of forest vegetation and the conditions, under which it was limited. The natural regeneration of coniferous plantations in the area of Dolna Banya (The Northern slopes of Rila Mt with dominant tree species of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Object 1 and European larch (Larix decidua Mill. (Object 2 was studied four years after fire and was found to depend on the slope aspect, the micro-relief and soil humidity. It was found that on the South-western slopes, the diversity of broadleaves tree species recovery (birch, oak, sallow, aspen was higher in comparison with the coniferous (Scotch pine ones. On the Eastern slope, the regeneration of coniferous prevailed over that of broadleaves. On the ridges, the regeneration was the lowest one, while on the foot of the slopes was higher.

  16. District Energy Corporation SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davlin, Thomas [District Energy Corporation, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The overall deliverable from the project is the design, construction and commissioning of a detention facility heating and cooling system that minimizes ownership costs and maximizes efficiency (and therefore minimizes environmental impact). The primary deliverables were the proof of concept for the application of geothermal systems for an institutional facility and the ongoing, quarterly system operating data downloads to the Department of Energy . The primary advantage of geothermal based heat pump systems is the higher efficiency of the system compared to a conventional chiller, boiler, cooling tower based system. The higher efficiency results in a smaller environmental foot print and lower energy costs for the detention facility owner, Lancaster County. The higher efficiency for building cooling is primarily due to a more constant compressor condensing temperature with the geothermal well field acting as a thermal “sink” (in place of the conventional system’s cooling tower). In the heating mode, Ground Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) systems benefits from the advantage of a heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) of approximately 3.6, significantly better than a conventional gas boiler. The geothermal well field acting as a thermal “source” allows the heat pumps to operate efficiently in the heating mode regardless of ambient temperatures. The well field is partially located in a wetland with a high water table so, over time, the project will be able to identify the thermal loading characteristics of a well field located in a high water table location. The project demonstrated how a large geothermal well field can be installed in a wetland area in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Finally, the SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant project demonstrates the benefits of providing domestic hot water energy, as well as space heating, to help balance well filed thermal loading in a cooling dominated application. During the period of August 2012 thru

  17. Leaf Morphological Plasticity of Tree Species from Two Developmental Stages in Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyam de Lima Vieira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the morphological and anatomical variations of the leaves of four shade-tolerant tree species Allophylus edulis (St.-Hil. Radlk (Sapindaceae, Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae, Cupania vernalis Cambess. (Sapindaceae and Luehea divaricata Mart. (Malvaceae from a fragment of Araucaria forest in two developmental stages. Morphological and anatomical traits, such as leaf and tissue thickness, leaf area, leaf dry mass, specific leaf area, leaf density and stomata density were measured from 30 leaves of each developmental stage. The phenotypic plasticity index was also calculated for each quantitative trait. The results showed that the four species presented higher mean values ​​for specific leaf area and spongy/palisade parenchyma ratio at young stage, and higher mean values ​​for stomata density, total and palisade parenchyma thickness in the adult stage. The plasticity index demonstrated that L. divricata presented highest plasticity for both the morphological and anatomical traits while A. edulis displayed the lowest plasticity index. The results of this study indicated that the leaves of these species exhibited distinct morphological traits at each stage of development to cope with acting environmental factors.

  18. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.

  19. NEW DATA ON MIDDLE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM SW-SARDINIA:THE SU NUARGI II SECTION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIE GOUWY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The conodont collection from the nodular limestone beds of the Su Nuargi II outcrop near Domusnovas in SW-Sardinia (Italy is restudied for the purpose of reassessing the outcrop and updating the conodont collection to the most recent taxonomy. Su Nuargi II is the most important outcrop in the SW of the island exposing Middle Devonian rocks. Forty-five conodont taxa have been identified in the collection, positioning the outcrop within the interval covering the timorensis to latifossatus zones (Lower to Middle Givetian slightly widening the interpretation of Olivieri (1985. A new morphotype of Polygnathus linguiformis linguiformis is described. The genera Tortodus and Schmidtognathus are identified for the first time in the Middle Devonian of Sardinia. Additionally, a second Middle Devonian outcrop is discovered in the SW of the Island. 

  20. Identification and Characterization of Bacillus cereus SW7-1 in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan-Nan; Xia, Xue-Juan; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Sendegeya, Parfait; Zhu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial diseases of silkworms cause significant reductions in sericulture and result in huge economic loss. This study aimed to identify and characterize a pathogen from diseased silkworm. SW7-1, a pathogenic bacterial strain, was isolated from the diseased silkworm. The strain was identified on the basis of its bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The colony was round, slightly convex, opaque, dry, and milky on a nutrient agar medium, the colony also exhibited jagged edges. SW7-1 was Gram-positive, without parasporal crystal, and 0.8-1.2 by 2.6-3.4 µm in length, resembling long rods with rounded ends. The strain was positive to most of the physiological biochemical tests used in this study. The strain could utilize glucose, sucrose, and maltose. The results of its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that SW7-1 shared the highest sequence identity (>99%) with Bacillus cereus strain 14. The bacterial strain was highly susceptible to gentamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin and moderately susceptible to tetracycline and rifampicin. It exhibited resistance to other antibiotics. SW7-1 had hemolytic activity and could produce extracellular casease, lipase, and amylase. SW7-1 could reproduce septicemia-like symptoms with high mortality rate when re-fed to healthy silkworm. .The median lethal concentration (LC50) was 5.45 × 10(4) cfu/ml. Thus, SW7-1 was identified as B. cereus, which is a pathogen for silkworm and human infections are possible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Targeted pancreatic cancer therapy with the small molecule drug conjugate SW IV-134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yassar M; Spitzer, Dirk; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Hornick, Mary C; Garg, Gunjal; Hornick, John R; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mach, Robert H; Hawkins, William G

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is highly resistant to conventional therapeutics and has been shown to evade apoptosis by deregulation of the X-linked and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (XIAP and cIAP). Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) induces and amplifies cell death by reversing the anti-apoptotic activity of IAPs. Thus, Smac-derived peptide analogues (peptidomimetics) have been developed and shown to represent promising cancer therapeutics. Sigma-2 receptors are overexpressed in many proliferating tumor cells including pancreatic cancer. Selected ligands to this receptor are rapidly internalized by cancer cells. These characteristics have made the sigma-2 receptor an attractive target for drug delivery because selective delivery to cancer cells has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we describe the initial characterization of SW IV-134, a chemically linked drug conjugate between the sigma-2 ligand SW43 and the Smac mimetic SW IV-52 as a novel treatment option for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The tumor killing characteristics of our dual-domain therapeutic SW IV-134 was far greater than either component in isolation or in an equimolar mix and suggests enhanced cellular delivery when chemically linked to the sigma-2 ligand. One of the key findings was that SW IV-134 retained target selectivity of the Smac cargo with the involvement of the NF-κB/TNFα signaling pathway. Importantly, SW IV-134 slowed tumor growth and improved survival in murine models of pancreatic cancer. Our data support further study of this novel therapeutic and this drug delivery strategy because it may eventually benefit patients with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1...

  3. A reference time scale for Site U1385 (Shackleton Site) on the SW Iberian Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodell, D.; Lourens, L.; Crowhurst, S.; Konijnendijk, T.; Tjallingii, R.; Jiménez-Espejo, F.; Skinner, L.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Abrantes, Fatima; Acton, Gary D.; Zarikian, Carlos A Alvarez; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Barranco, Estefanìa Llave; Carrara, Gabriela; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger D.; José-Abel Flores, Flores; Furota, Satoshi; Grimalt, Joan; Grunert, Patrick; Hernández-Molina, Javier; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence A.; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Lofi, Johanna; Margari, Vasiliki; Martrat, Belen; Miller, Madeline D.; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Roque, Ana Cristina Freixo; Goñi, Maria F Sanchez; Sánchez, Francisco J Sierro; Singh, Arun D.; Sloss, Craig R.; Stow, Dorrik A V; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Xuan, Chuang; Williams, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    We produced a composite depth scale and chronology for Site U1385 on the SW Iberian Margin. Using log(Ca/Ti) measured by core scanning XRF at 1-cm resolution in all holes, a composite section was constructed to 166.5meter composite depth (mcd) that corrects for stretching and squeezing in each core.

  4. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  5. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  6. On lower tertiary Mollusca from S.W. and Central Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1950-01-01

    1) In the “Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie”, Leyden, there is a small collection of Lower Tertiary mollusca from S.W. Celebes which allows of comparison with Abendanon's Celebes fossils described by Dollfus and kept in the “Instituut voor Mijnbouwkunde”, Delft. The present note deals

  7. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes...

  8. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  9. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  10. Lower Maastrichtian cyclostratigraphy of the Bidart section (Basque Country, SW France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Maastrichtian limestone-marl alternations of Bidart (SW France) allows the hypothesis of orbital control on lithological cycles to be evaluated. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), oxygen and carbon isotope measurements, sampled at a high resolution, are analyzed using...

  11. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N.; Congedo, M.; Phlypo, R.; Rousseau, S.; Flamary, R.; Yger, F.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  12. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Lupa gold field, SW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of AS, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were determined in water, stream sediments, soil, and mine tailings from Lupa Gold Field (LGF), SW Tanzania, in order to assess their pollution levels. As, Cd and Cr were determined by automated Graphite Furnace Absorption Spectrophotometry. Cu and Pb were analysed ...

  14. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  15. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  16. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  17. Phytochromes A1 and B1 have distinct functions in the photoperiodic control of flowering in the obligate long-day plant Nicotiana sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang; Yang, Zhenbiao; Jang, Jyan-Chyun; Metzger, James D

    2006-09-01

    The obligate long-day plant Nicotiana sylvestris with a nominal critical day length of 12 h was used to dissect the roles of two major phytochromes (phyA1 and phyB1) in the photoperiodic control of flowering using transgenic plants under-expressing PHYA1 (SUA2), over-expressing PHYB1 (SOB36), or cosuppressing the PHYB1 gene (SCB35). When tungsten filament lamps were used to extend an 8 h main photoperiod, SCB35 and SOB36 flowered earlier and later, respectively, than wild-type plants, while flowering was greatly delayed in SUA2. These results are consistent with those obtained with other long-day plants in that phyB has a negative role in the control of flowering, while phyA is required for sensing day-length extensions. However, evidence was obtained for a positive role for PHYB1 in the control of flowering. Firstly, transgenic plants under-expressing both PHYA1 and PHYB1 exhibited extreme insensitivity to day-length extensions. Secondly, flowering in SCB35 was completely repressed under 8 h extensions with far-red-deficient light from fluorescent lamps. This indicates that the dual requirement for both far-red and red for maximum floral induction is mediated by an interaction between phyA1 and phyB1. In addition, a diurnal periodicity to the sensitivity of both negative and positive light signals was observed. This is consistent with existing models in which photoperiodic time measurement is not based on the actual measurement of the duration of either the light or dark period, but rather the coincidence of endogenous rhythms of sensitivity - both positive and negative - and the presence of light cues.

  18. Estimation of diameter and height of individual trees for Pinus sylvestris L. based on the individualising of crowns using airborne LiDAR and the National Forestry Inventory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena-Rabadán, M.A.; Santamaría-Peña, J.; Sanz-Adán, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objective of this study is to test the validity of the DBH and total height allometric models fitted to the crown polygon data obtained by the application of a crown delineation and individualisation algorithm which uses the geometrical relationships between the points in the original LiDAR point clouds in the Pinus sylvestris L. stands. Area of study: The study area is located in the province of Álava in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Material and Methods: The crowns are delineated using data from airborne LiDAR point clouds obtained in the 2008 overflight of the Basque Autonomous Community. The DBH and total height data for field trees are obtained from the plots in the 4th National forest inventory. Main Results: For the adjusted total height and DBH models coefficients of determination of 0.87 and 0.74 respectively were obtained. The root mean squared errors were 10.67% and 18.97% respectively. The distributions of obtained DBH and total height fitted values and the distributions of the DBH and total height of the field trees are very similar except for the DBH below 15 cm. Research highlights: For stands of Pinus sylvestris L. in Álava, the geometrical relationships between the points that correspond to laser signal echoes obtained with airborne LiDAR sensors can be used directly to delineate approximations of the horizontal projections of the crowns of the trees. Although the procedure set out here was developed for stands of P. sylvestris L. in Álava, it can be applied to other conifers in regular stands by adjusting the working parameters of the function which delineates the crowns on the basis of the point cloud. (Author)

  19. Basin evolution at the SW Barents Sea margin and its conjugate off NE Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleide, Jan Inge; Wong, Po Wan; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy; Tsikalas, Filippos; Blaich, Olav A.; Planke, Sverre; Myklebust, Reidun

    2015-04-01

    The SW Barents Sea margin developed from a megashear zone which linked the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Artic Eurasia Basin during the initial Eocene opening. Within the dextral megashear system, a series of deep and narrow basins formed in the SW Barents Sea. These basins formed in response to multiple rift events and rapid differential subsidence. The distribution of salt structures both in the SW Barents Sea and on the conjugate NE Greenland margin reflects the Late Paleozoic basin configuration. Late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting affected all deep basins in the SW Barents Sea (e.g., Bjørnøya, Tromsø, Harstad and Sørvestsnaget basins) as on the mid-Norwegian margin and the conjugate NE Greenland margin. Following rifting, a wide region subsided and was covered by thick Cretaceous strata. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene rifting between Norway and Greenland was taken up within the megashear zone and pull-apart basins formed in the SW Barents Sea and in the Wandel Sea Basin in NE Greenland. Contraction/inversion formed structural highs separating distinct Late Cretaceous depocenters that continued to subside rapidly. The rifting culminated in crustal breakup and accretion of oceanic crust near the Paleocene-Eocene transition. NE Atlantic breakup was accompanied by large-scale igneous activity, which also affected parts of the SW Barents Sea margin. The sheared Senja FZ margin is segmented, each segment having different structural styles reflecting a complex interplay between the geometry of the sheared margin segments and the opening direction. A continental sliver was also cut off the SW Barents Sea margin, now forming the Greenland Ridge which is a protrusion of the NE Greenland margin. The continent-ocean transition is confined within a narrow zone, bounded by a characteristic marginal high along the Senja Fracture Zone. During Eocene, the Harstad and southern Sørvestsnaget basins developed as narrow, elongated, en echelon basins landward of the

  20. Uso de imágenes satélite Landsat para la detección de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolítidos

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, E.; Bonet Lledos, José Antonio; Eizaguirre Altuna, Matilde

    2009-01-01

    El uso de imágenes procedentes de sensores multiespectrales de resolución media como es el caso de Landsat TM ha sido ampliamente utilizado desde décadas para detectar, entre otras variables, el decaimiento y la defoliación provocada por plagas y enfermedades forestales. El presente trabajo evalúa la utilidad del uso de estas imágenes en la detección de rodales de pino laricio (Pinus nigra Arn.) y pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) afectados por escolítidos. El área de estudio se localizó e...

  1. Fenología del anillo de crecimiento de Pinus uncinata Ramond y Pinus sylvestris L. en un gradiente altitudinal en los Pirineos Centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero, J. Julio

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe tree-ring growth and structure of Pinus uncinata Ram. and Pinus sylvestris L. along an altitudinal gradient in the Central Pyrenees. We measured monthly ring width increase and the number of cells added during 1993. Both species formed most of the ring from mid june to mid July 1993. Latewood development -formation, darkening and lignification of cell walls- starts in July and ends in October. The ring begins before its development in P. sylvestris than in P. uncinata that lives at higher elevation. P. uncinata formed narrower rings with less cells and greater color heterogeneity in the latewood than P. sylvestris. There is a high variability between trees in the earlywood and latewood cells position in the ring. The different phenological patterns of tree-ring growth along the selected altitudinal gradient could be partially explained by the influence of different climatic conditions, mainly thermic.

    [es] En el presente trabajo, describimos el desarrollo y la estructura del anillo anual de crecimiento de Pinus uncinata Ramondy Pinus sylvestris L. en un gradiente altitudinal en los Pirineos centrales. Medimos mensualmente el aumento de la anchura del anillo y el número de traqueidas añadidas a lo largo de 1993. En ambas especies, la mayor parte del anillo se forma desde mediados de jimio hasta mediados de julio de 1993. El desarrollo de la madera tardía -formación, coloración y engrasamiento y lignificación de las paredes celulares- comienza en julio y acaba en octubre. El anillo comienza antes su formación en los bosques estudiados de P. sylvestris que en P. uncinata, el cual vive a mayor altitud. P. uncinata forma anillos más estrechos, con menor múmero de células y con mayor heterogeneidad de color de la madera tardía que P. sylvestris. Existe una gran variabilidad entre árboles en la posición de las células de

  2. Switchable aptamers for biosensing and bioseparation of viruses (SwAps-V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Mohamed; Labib, Mahmoud; Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna S; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2015-05-15

    There is a widespread interest in the development of aptamer-based affinity chromatographic methods for purification of biomolecules. Regardless of the many advantages exhibited by aptamers when compared to other recognition elements, the lack of an efficient regeneration technique that can be generalized to all targets has encumbered further integration of aptamers into affinity-based purification methods. Here we offer switchable aptamers (SwAps) that have been developed to solve this problem and move aptamer-based chromatography forward. SwAps are controlled-affinity aptamers, which have been employed here to purify vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model case, however this technique can be extended to all biologically significant molecules. VSV is one oncolytic virus out of an arsenal of potential candidates shown to provide selective destruction of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. These SwAps were developed in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions where they cannot bind to their target VSV in absence of these cations. Upon addition of EDTA and EGTA, the divalent cations were sequestered from the stabilized aptameric structure causing a conformational change and subsequently release of the virus. Both flow cytometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to estimate the binding affinities between the selected SwAps and VSV and to determine the coefficient of switching (CoS) upon elution. Among fifteen sequenced SwAps, four have exhibited high affinity to VSV and ability to switch upon elution and thus were further integrated into streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for purification of VSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  4. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Natural medicaments in endodontics: a comparative study of the anti-inflammatory action Medicamentos naturais na Endodontia: estudo comparativo da ação antiinflamatória

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiane Bortoluci da Silva; Juliano Milanezi de Almeida; Simone Maria Galvão de Sousa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the irritant potential of propolis, Casearia sylvestris, Otosporin and saline solution (control). Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were selected, anesthetized and four experimental sites were designed on their backs. Injections of 2% Evans blue were intravenously administered in the lateral caudal vein and 0.1 ml of the tested solutions was injected intradermally into the experimental sites. The animals were killed 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 hours after the injec...

  6. Natural medicaments in endodontics: a comparative study of the anti-inflammatory action

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Fabiane Bortoluci da; Almeida,Juliano Milanezi de; Sousa,Simone Maria Galvão de

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the irritant potential of propolis, Casearia sylvestris, Otosporin and saline solution (control). Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were selected, anesthetized and four experimental sites were designed on their backs. Injections of 2% Evans blue were intravenously administered in the lateral caudal vein and 0.1 ml of the tested solutions was injected intradermally into the experimental sites. The animals were killed 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 hours after the injec...

  7. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  8. Climate variation and the stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D.L. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Plant Sciences; Switsur, V.R.; Charter, A.H.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Plant Sciences]|[Anglia Polytechnic Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Environmental Science Research Centre; Waterhouse, J.S. [Anglia Polytechnic Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Environmental Science Research Centre; Heaton, T.H.E. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Lab., Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between climate parameters and the carbon stable isotope composition, {delta}{sup 13}C, of annual tree ring cellulose is examined for three native British tree species; Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The last 100 annual tree rings of six trees, two of each species, were cut into slivers and the {alpha}-cellulose extracted. Annual {delta}{sup 13}C values of each species were averaged to produce three species {delta}{sup 13}C chronologies. These were compared with climate parameters from a nearby meteorological station. The carbon stable isotope discrimination, {Delta}{sup 13}C, of pine is consistently lower, by approximately 2.5 per mille, than that of beech and oak. Although the exact cause of this offset cannot be identified, similar differences in carbon isotope ratios have been noted between other gymnosperm and angiosperm species and attributed to inherent physiological differences. As this offset is consistent, once centered around the same mean {delta}{sup 13}C and {Delta}{sup 13}C, chronologies from these 3 species can be combined. {Delta}{sup 13}C chronologies of the three species demonstrate strong cross-correlations in both high and low frequency fluctuations. Low frequency fluctuations, although consistent between species, show no direct climate relationship, and may be linked with physiological responses to increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations. Significant correlations do exist between the high frequency {delta}{sup 13}C fluctuations and climate parameters. The high frequency {delta}{sup 13}C series of all three species are most significantly correlated with the same two climate parameters and have the same seasonal timing; July-October average maximum temperature and June-September average relative humidity. Pine {delta}{sup 13}C is the most responsive species to climate changes and displays the most significant correlations with all the climate parameters

  9. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-03-01

    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Three Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Waterborne Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    currents and provided analytical tools to describe the effects of these currents on the hydrodynamics of the water body. Stockstill et al. (1999...pressure is in terms of the depth of the node under consideration. Incorporation of boat pressures into ADH-SW3 takes advantage of this, and the...upper-right portion of the flume. Figure 2. Angle flume domain. Figure 3. Boat definition parameters (parameters are defined in section “Boundary

  11. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  12. The Chernobyl accident--radionuclide fallout in S.W. England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E I; Zou, B; Clifton, R J

    1986-12-01

    Initial fallout data from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl is presented for the Plymouth region of Devon S.W. England which received low levels of radioactivity. During the period of maximum fallout the overall gross gamma activity for the Plymouth area was approximately 10% higher than levels recorded prior to the Chernobyl accident. The increase in levels of radioactivity were within the variability of natural background found in local houses.

  13. Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks Based on HW/SW Cosimulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mekala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardware/software (HW/SW cosimulation integrates software simulation and hardware simulation simultaneously. Usually, HW/SW co-simulation platform is used to ease debugging and verification for very large-scale integration (VLSI design. To accelerate the computation of the gesture recognition technique, an HW/SW implementation using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology is presented in this paper. The major contributions of this work are: (1 a novel design of memory controller in the Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL to reduce memory consumption and load on the processor. (2 The testing part of the neural network algorithm is being hardwired to improve the speed and performance. The American Sign Language gesture recognition is chosen to verify the performance of the approach. Several experiments were carried out on four databases of the gestures (alphabet signs A to Z. (3 The major benefit of this design is that it takes only few milliseconds to recognize the hand gesture which makes it computationally more efficient.

  14. Ocean warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation in the SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Chand, Shyam; Bünz, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Barents Sea is a major part of the North Atlantic where warm Atlantic water mix with the cold Arctic waters. Abundant shallow gas accumulations, fluid flow features, and gas hydrates occur in the SW Barents Sea owing to hydrocarbon leakage from deep reservoirs. Recent Ocean warming has increased the bottom water temperature in the SW Barents Sea by at least one degree Celsius. We model the gas hydrate stability field in the SW Barents Sea over the last 50 years taking in to account the lateral variations of geothermal gradient, bottom water temperature, and gas composition. The hydrate stability zone thickness is highly sensitive to the gas composition and the geothermal gradient, and show very high local variability. Seismic images show numerous gas hydrate accumulations with well-defined bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) associated with gas chimneys and leaking faults. The shallow geothermal gradient is in equilibrium showing no residual effects of last glaciations, and ceased to affect shallow hydrate stability conditions. Ocean warming primarily affects hydrate stability most likely only in the upper few tens of meters of sediments. Our results show that increasing global ocean temperatures could cause destabilization of hydrates located within 100 meters of the seafloor in approximately 200 years.

  15. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  16. Apigenin Inhibits Human SW620 Cell Growth by Targeting Polyamine Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apigenin is a nonmutagenic flavonoid that has antitumor properties. Polyamines are ubiquitous cellular polycations, which play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. Highly regulated pathways control the biosynthesis and degradation of polyamines. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism, and spermidine/spermine-N1-Acetyl transferase (SSAT is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines. In the current study, the effect of increasing concentrations of apigenin on polyamine levels, ODC and SSAT protein expression, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was investigated in SW620 colon cancer cells. The results showed that apigenin significantly reduced cell proliferation, decreased the levels of spermidine and spermine, and increased previously downregulated putrescine contents. Apigenin also enhanced SSAT protein and mRNA levels and the production of reactive oxygen species in SW620 cells, though it had no significant effect on the levels of ODC protein or mRNA. Apigenin appears to decrease the proliferation rate of human SW620 cells by facilitating SSAT expression to induce polyamine catabolism and increasing ROS levels to induce cell apoptosis.

  17. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.

    2016-06-01

    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  18. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  19. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  20. Neotectonic fault detection and lithosphere structure beneath SW of High Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Radi, Said; Azguet, Roumaissae; Bachaoui, Mostapha

    2016-08-01

    The High Atlas is a 100 km wide zone defined by E-W to NE-SW trending folds nearly orthogonal to the Atlantic coastline. The major compressional structures in the High Atlas consist of large-scale fold systems which affect Mesozoic and Cainozoic formations. The extreme West of the High Atlas including the region of Agadir is defined as an earthquake Zone. Historical seismicity data shows that the Agadir region was hit by two destructive earthquakes in 1731 and 1960 with magnitude 6.4 and 6.0, respectively. The present study has two main goals: 1) to use remote sensing techniques to detect and map the surface geological structures including faults; 2) to use the local earthquake tomography for imaging the lithosphere (subsurface) and detect deep structures. For the remote sensing techniques we used ETM + Landsat7 images and the SRTM 90 m image as a Digital Terrane Elevation Model. This study focuses on the computerized identification, feature extraction and quantitative interpretation of lineaments over the SW High Atlas. The analysis developed here is based on the numerical enhancement of a Landsat image and on the statistical processing of data generated through enhancement. The results generated by the numerical enhancement and statistical analysis are presented on fault maps, lineament maps, polar diagrams and lineament density maps. The lineaments have a high concentration of orientations around the directions N40E, N80W and N-S. For the subsurface study, seismic data sets were used to define the 3-D velocity structures. We also used local earthquake tomography to obtain the velocity map and crustal structure of the SW High Atlas region. The tomography results show a new and detailed lithosphere structure defined by a high velocity body in the northern of SW High Atlas from 15 to 45 Km depth, dipping to the north beneath the Essaouira basin in the western Meseta with P velocity variations from 6.5 to 7.8 km/s. This anomaly can be interpreted as an old

  1. (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... 1) with a mean value of 2.750 cm. Branch number varied from 1.0 (pop No. 4) to 6 (pop No. 1) with a mean value of 2.505 (Figure 2). In order to determine degree of similarity or dissimilarity among populations based on morphological characters, the cluster analysis was also conducted (Figure 2). At the.

  2. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  3. Morphometric traits of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. on the copper dump-field Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Štrba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to determine difference in length of needles and annual wood increments of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies L. on the dump-field and for comparison on referential site. We performed 500 measurements of needles for each tree species and for each study area. The annual wood increments were measured on wood bores from five tree individuals from each species and from both study areas – dump-field and referential site. Student t-test and indicators of central values evaluated differences of the measured attributes. The results show statistically significant difference at 99% level of confidence for both attributes – length of needles and annual wood increments. The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the plants growing.

  4. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Zimina, L.M.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Zimin, V.L.; Vasiliyev, D.V.; Oudalova, A.A.; Blinova, L.D.; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute {gamma}-radiation.

  5. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  6. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae in SW China.

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    Feng-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  7. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae) in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae) in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee) and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet) and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee) were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  8. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Based on gravimetric modeling results and the structures interpreted on reflection seismic profiles, 3 crustal domains reflecting progressive thinning have been defined for the SW Iberian margin. These domains trend roughly WSW-ENE, parallel to the main extensional fabric of the margin. Gravimetric modeling results are compatible with the presence of exhumed sub-continental mantle in the distal part of the margin. Integrated modeling also supports the fact that Cenozoic contraction is responsible for major uplift along the Guadalquivir Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  9. Deconstructing mammal dispersals and faunal dynamics in SW Europe during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationships between climate change and faunal dynamics in south-west Europe, disentangling the asynchronous and diachronous dispersal bioevents of large mammals across geographical and ecological boundaries, analysing biodiversity and its changes through time. The analysis of local versus regional biological dynamics may shed new light on whether turnovers and ecological and evolutionary changes developed because of global climate changes and related phenomena, or because of intrinsic biological factors. The SW European Quaternary fossil record is particularly suitable for studying the role of climate change at local and regional levels because of the complex physiographic and climatic heterogeneity of the study area, the presence of important geographical/ecological barriers and the complex history of invasions of species of varying geographical origin and provenance. The data base consists of taxonomically revised lists of large mammal species from selected SW European local faunal assemblages ranging in age from the Early to the late Middle Pleistocene (middle Villafranchian to early Aurelian European Land Mammal Ages). The new biochronological scheme proposed here allows for the comparison of local turnovers and biodiversity trends, yielding a better understanding of the action of geographical/ecological barriers that either prevented the range of some taxa from reaching some regions or caused delays in the dispersal of a taxon in some territories. The results obtained provide evidence that major environmental perturbations, triggering dispersal events and removing keystone species, modified the structure of the pre-existing mammalian faunas, merging previously independently-evolved taxa into new palaeo-communities. The coupled action of climatic changes and internal biotic dynamics thus caused the Quaternary SW European faunal complexes to significantly restructure. Diachroneity in local turnover across the study area

  10. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  11. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Eustache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  12. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustache Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  13. Krill diversity and population structure along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    In June 2010 four krill species were collected in Godtha°bsfjord, SW Greenland, namely Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis, T. longicaudata and Meganyctiphanes norvegica. A transect from offshore Fyllas Bank to the inner Godtha°bsfjord revealed a zonation of the species in relation to hydrography. Of...... inermis matured after 2 years, while T. raschii matured after 1 and 2 years, respectively, depending on temperature The present study suggests that a warmer future will favour Atlantic species and result in a more diverse self-sustainable krill community in the Godtha°bsfjord....

  14. Identification of the Novel TMEM16A Inhibitor Dehydroandrographolide and Its Anticancer Activity on SW620 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Sui

    Full Text Available TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, is highly amplified and expressed in human cancers and is involved in the growth and metastasis of some malignancies. Inhibition of TMEM16A represents a novel pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of cancers and metastases. The purpose of this study is to identify a new TMEM16A inhibitor, investigate the effects of this inhibitor on the proliferation and metastasis of TMEM16A-amplified SW620 cells, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in vitro. We identified a novel small-molecule TMEM16A inhibitor dehydroandrographolide (DP. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we showed that DP inhibited TMEM16A chloride currents in Fisher rat thyroid (FRT cells that were transfected stably with human TMEM16A and in TMEM16A-overexpressed SW620 cells but did not alter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride currents. Further functional studies showed that DP suppressed the proliferation of SW620 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using MTT assays. Moreover, DP significantly inhibited migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by wound-healing and transwell assays. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that knockdown of human TMEM16A decreased the inhibitory effect of DP on the proliferation of SW620 cells and that TMEM16A-dependent cells (SW620 and HCT116 were more sensitive to DP than TMEM16A-independent cells (SW480 and HCT8. In addition, we found that treatment of SW620 cells with DP led to a decrease in TMEM16A protein levels but had no effect on TMEM16A mRNA levels. The current work reveals that DP, a novel TMEM16A inhibitor, exerts its anticancer activity on SW620 cells partly through a TMEM16A-dependent mechanism, which may introduce a new targeting approach for an antitumour therapy in TMEM16A-amplified cancers.

  15. HPV16-E7 Expression Causes Fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated Radiosensitization in SW620 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Axelson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that HT29 colon cancer cells, which are radiosensitized by fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd, exhibit a greater increase in cyclin E—dependent kinase activity and progress further into S phase in the presence of FdUrd than do SW620 colon cancer cells, which are only minimally sensitized by this drug (Cancer Res 56: 3203, 1996. Although these findings suggested that the ability to progress into S phase in the presence of FdUrd permits cells to be radiosensitized, we wished to test this hypothesis by attempting to drive SW620 human colon cells into S phase by transducing them with the HPV16-E7 gene. Two-parameter flow cytometry showed that E7-transduced cells progressed through S phase after radiation and FdUrd treatment more rapidly than SW620 parental cells. We found that E7-transduced SW620 cells were significantly radiosensitized by FdUrd (100 nmol/L, 14 hours with an enhancement ratio for 2 clones of 1.47±0.03 and 1.51±0.14, compared with 1.24±0.04 in SW620 parental cells. These data strongly support the hypothesis that dysregulation of S-phase progression is an important factor in FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization.

  16. Baicalin Induces Apoptosis in SW620 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells in Vitro and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shiuan Tzeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most frequent malignancy and the fourth most common cause of cancer death. Baicalin, a flavone derivative isolated and purified from the dry root of Scutellaria, was assessed for its antitumor effects in human SW620 CRC cells. Baicalin (200 μM inhibited proliferation of SW620 cells. Baicalin (200 μM increased activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SW620 cells. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of baicalin-treated SW620 cells showed an increase in sub-G1 cells, and the dihydroethidium assay showed significant enhancement of intracellular peroxide production in baicalin-treated cells. Addition of N-acetylcysteine prevented most of the baicalin-induced apoptosis, which in turn mediated cytotoxicity in human SW620 cells. In vivo, baicalin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p. treatment inhibited 55% of tumor growth in xenografted nude mice by 4 weeks, compared to that of the vehicle control (p < 0.05. Baicalin had no noteworthy influence on body weight. Thus, we suggest the development of baicalin as a potential leading antitumor agent in CRC.

  17. Active tectonics in Southern Portugal (SW Iberia) inferred from GPS data. Implications on the regional geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Mendes, Virgílio Brito; Figueiredo, Paula; Silveira, António Brum da; Pagarete, Joaquim; Ribeiro, António; Dias, Ruben; Ressurreição, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    A GPS-based crustal velocity field for the SW Portuguese territory (Algarve region, SW Iberia) was estimated from the analysis of data from a network of campaign-style GPS stations set up in the region since 1998, complemented with permanent stations, covering an overall period of 16.5 years. The GPS monitoring sites were chosen attending to the display of the regional active faults, in an attempt to detect and monitor any related crustal straining. The residual horizontal velocities relative to Eurasia unveil a relatively consistent pattern towards WNW, with magnitudes that noticeably increase from NNE to SSW. Although the obtained velocity field does not evidence a sharp velocity gradient it suggests the presence of a NW-SE trending crustal shear zone separating two domains, which may be slowly accumulating a slightly transtensional right-lateral shear strain. Based on the WNW velocity differential between the northeastern block and the southwestern block, a shear strain rate accumulation across the shear zone is estimated. This ongoing crustal deformation is taken as evidence that a nearby major active structure, the São Marcos - Quarteira fault, may be presently accumulating strain, therefore being potentially loaded for seismic rupture and the generation of a large magnitude earthquake. Further inferences are made concerning the interseismic dynamic loading of other major onshore and offshore active structures located to the west.

  18. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  19. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  20. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CRECIMIENTO EN ALTURA DE Hibiscus elatus Sw CULTIVADA EN CONTENEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cobas-López

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua es una especie nativa de Cuba, incluida en los planes de reforestación del país por su importancia económica, ecológica y su condición de ser una madera preciosa. En el trabajo se describe el comportamiento en vivero del crecimiento en altura de la especie, cultivada en contenedores. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de sustratos, que fueron los siguientes: S1- Turba (40 %, humus de lombriz (40 % y corteza de pino compostada (20 %; S2- Estiércol de caballo (45 %, composta (40 %, y humus de lombriz (15 %; S3- Humus de lombriz (30 %, composta (25 %, turba (25 %, y estiércol de caballo (20 %; S4- Testigo, consistente en suelo proveniente de una plantación de la especie. A través del análisis de regresión se probaron nueve modelos matemáticos del tipo y = f (x, polinómicos, exponenciales y logarítmicos. De acuerdo con el coeficiente de determinación obtenido, del análisis de residuos y la validación de los modelos, se comprobó que la función que mejor representa el crecimiento en altura de Hibiscus elatus Sw., para los sustratos estudiados fue b t y b e 1 = 0 + .

  1. Effects of Lidocaine on HT-29 and SW480 Colon Cancer CellsIn Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundscherer, Anika C; Malsy, Manuela; Bitzinger, Diane I; Wiese, Christoph H R; Gruber, Michael A; Graf, Bernhard M

    2017-04-01

    Evidence is growing that the risk of cancer dissemination may be enhanced during the perioperative period. Whether particular anesthetic techniques influence oncological outcome is still under discussion. For pain management, lidocaine can be administered perioperatively by intravenous, intraperitoneal or epidural infusion. Here we investigated the effect of lidocaine on colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and SW480) in vitro. ELISA BrdU (Roche) for cell proliferation and FITC Annexin V detection kit (BD Pharming) for apoptosis analysis were applied. Cell-cycle profiles were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell-cycle arrest was induced in both cell lines by 1000 μM lidocaine, while no inhibition of cell proliferation was detected. Apoptosis decreased in SW480 but not in HT-29 cells. Lidocaine induces cell-cycle arrest in both colon carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The effective drug concentration can be obtained by local infiltration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium SW1 using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Mohd Yusuf Mohd; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-09-01

    In this study, three factors (fructose concentration, agitation speed and monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentration) were optimized to enhance DHA production by Schizochytrium SW1 using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design was applied as the experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. The experiments were conducted using 500 mL flask with 100 mL working volume at 30°C for 96 hours. ANOVA analysis revealed that the process was adequately represented significantly by the quadratic model (p<0.0001) and two of the factors namely agitation speed and MSG concentration significantly affect DHA production (p<0.005). Level of influence for each variable and quadratic polynomial equation were obtained for DHA production by multiple regression analyses. The estimated optimum conditions for maximizing DHA production by SW1 were 70 g/L fructose, 250 rpm agitation speed and 12 g/L MSG. Consequently, the quadratic model was validated by applying of the estimated optimum conditions, which confirmed the model validity and 52.86% of DHA was produced.

  3. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  4. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Fayazfar, Setareh; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation.

  5. Predicted satellite based sampling errors of the SW and LW spectra in support of CLARREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, D.; Keyes, D. F.; Nguyen, C.; Speth, P. W.; Young, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has called for SI traceability of long-term hyper-spectral flux measurements in order to monitor climate variability. The proposed Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is currently in Extended Pre-Phase A (EPPA) status. Until mission funding is fully restored, several proof of concept platforms have been proposed. Although the main objective is the CLARREO instrument absolute calibration accuracy, can these venture class missions obtain sufficient sampling for climate benchmarking? These platforms include the International Space Station (ISS) and Iridium constellation. The CLARREO proposed orbits repeat annually, however this is not the case with the ISS and Iridium, where natural variability, manifested in the seasonal and diurnal cycles, may alias into the inter-annual variability signal. The study will incorporate Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) SYN1deg 10-year product TOA LW and SW climate quality fluxes. The flux dataset derived by combining Terra and Aqua CERES fluxes with the 3-hourly 5-geostationary satellite estimated broadband fluxes, which are carefully normalized using the CERES fluxes, to complete the diurnal cycle. These regional fluxes were saved hourly during processing and considered the truth dataset. The 90°, 83° and 74° inclination precessionary, sun-synchronous as well as ISS and Iridium orbits will be evaluated. The inter-annual variability SW and LW sampling error will be stratified globally/zonally and annually/seasonally and compared with the corresponding truth anomalies.

  6. Curie point depth in the SW Caribbean using the radially averaged spectra of magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan M.; Vargas, Carlos A.; Leon, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    We have estimated the Curie Point Depth (CPD) using the average radial power spectrum in a tectonically complex area located in the SW Caribbean basin. Data analyzed came from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, and three methods have been used to compare results and evaluate uncertainties: Centroid, Spectral Peak, and Forward Modeling. Results show a match along the three methods, suggesting that the CPD values in the area ranging between 6 km and 50 km. The results share the following characteristics: A) High values (> 30 km) are in continental regions; B) There is a trend of maximum CPD values along the SW-NE direction, starting from the Central Cordillera in Colombia to the Maracaibo Lake in Venezuela; C) There is a maximum CPD at the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) as well as between Costa Rica - Nicaragua and Nicaragua - Honduras borders. The lowest CPD values (Venezuela Basin, the Beata Ridge and the Colombia Basin up to longitude parallel to the Providencia Throat. B) The area that includes zones to the north of the Cocos Ridge and Panam Basin up to the trench. C) The orogenic region of the northern Andes and including areas of the Santa Marta Massif. D) The continental sector that encompasses Nicaragua, northern Costa Rica and eastern of Honduras. E) Corresponds to areas of the northern Venezuela and Colombia, NW of Colombia, the Panamanian territory and the transition zones between the Upper and Lower Nicaragua Rise.

  7. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Aim In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Background Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. Patients and methods The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. Results This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. Conclusion The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation. PMID:24834241

  8. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  9. Cretaceous crust beneath SW Borneo: U-Pb dating of zircons from metamorphic and granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L.; Hall, R.; Armstrong, R.

    2012-12-01

    Metamorphic basement rocks from SW Borneo are undated but have been suggested to be Palaeozoic. This study shows they record low pressure 'Buchan-type' metamorphism and U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons indicates a mid-Cretaceous (volcaniclastic) protolith. SW Borneo is the southeast promontory of Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. It has no sedimentary cover and the exposed basement has been widely assumed to be a crustal fragment from the Indochina-China margin. Metamorphic rocks of the Pinoh Group in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) are intruded by granitoid rocks of Jurassic-Cretaceous age, based on K-Ar dating, suggesting emplacement mainly between 130 and 80 Ma. The Pinoh metamorphic rocks have been described as a suite of pelitic schists, slates, phyllites, and hornfelses, and have not been dated, although they have been correlated with rocks elsewhere in Borneo of supposed Palaeozoic age. Pelitic schists contain biotite, chlorite, cordierite, andalusite, quartz, plagioclase and in some cases high-Mn almandine-rich garnet. Many have a shear fabric associated with biotite and fibrolite intergrowth. Contact metamorphism due to intrusion of the granitoid rocks produced hornfelses with abundant andalusite and cordierite porphyroblasts. Granitoids range from alkali-granite to tonalite and contain abundant hornblende and biotite, with rare white mica. Zircons from granitoid rocks exhibit sector- and concentric- zoning; some have xenocrystic cores mantled by magmatic zircon. There are four important age populations at c. 112, 98, 84 and 84 Ma broadly confirming earlier dating studies. There is a single granite body with a Jurassic age (186 ± 2.3 Ma). Zircons from pelitic metamorphic rocks are typically euhedral, with no evidence of rounding or resorbing of grains; a few preserve volcanic textures. They record older ages than those from igneous rocks; U-Pb ages are Cretaceous with a major population between 134 and 110 Ma. A single sample contains Proterozoic

  10. Kinky thresholds revisited: opportunity costs differ in the NE and SW quadrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Historically, a kinked threshold line on the cost-effectiveness plane at the origin was suggested due to differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for health gain with trade-offs in the north-east (NE) quadrant versus willingness to accept (WTA) cost reductions for health loss with trade-offs in the south-west (SW) quadrant. Empirically, WTA is greater than WTP for equivalent units of health, a finding supported by loss aversion under prospect theory. More recently, appropriate threshold values for health effects have been shown to require an endogenous consideration of the opportunity cost of alternative actions in budget-constrained health systems, but also allocative and displacement inefficiency observed in health system practice. Allocative and displacement inefficiency arise in health systems where the least cost-effective program in contraction has a higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER = m) than the most cost-effective program in expansion (ICER = n) and displaced services (ICER = d), respectively. The health shadow price derived by Pekarsky, [Formula: see text] reflects the opportunity cost of best alternative adoption and financing actions in reimbursing new technology with expected incremental costs and net effect allowing for allocative (n cost while lower expected net effect than current practice, the opportunity cost is contraction of the least cost-effective program, with threshold ICER m. That is, in the SW quadrant, the cost reduction per unit of decreased effect should be compared with the appropriate opportunity cost, best alternative generation of funding. Consequently, appropriate consideration of opportunity cost produces a kink in the threshold at the origin, with the health shadow price in the NE quadrant and ICER of the least cost-effective program in contraction (m) in the SW quadrant having the same general shape as that previously suggested by WTP versus WTA. The extent of this kink depends on the degree of allocative

  11. Pliocene Quaternary faulting in the Lycian Taurides - new insights into the neotectonic evolution of SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veen, J.; Huibregtse, J.; Zwart, L.

    2003-04-01

    The submarine Anaximander Mountains connect the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs and form a zone that accommodates the different tectonic regimes along these arcs. The Lycian Tauride Mountains in southwestern Turkey are situated just north of the Anaximander Mts. and likely have a comparable neotectonic evolution. The Lycian Taurides comprise the Bey Daglari positioned between the Lycian Nappes in the west and the Antalya Nappe Complex in the east. Here we focus on two tectonic basins, the Kasaba and Esen Çay basins, that are located in the Bey Daglari and Lycian Nappes respectively. Until the Langhian, NW-SW compression associated with the emplacement of the Lycian Nappes, caused (ductile) folding of the Bey Daglari autochthon and syntectonic sedimentation in a NE-SW trending foreland-type basin. After foreland deposition of Upper Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) conglomerates, a phase of S-vergent thrusting and reverse faulting started, probably related to the late Miocene - Early Pliocene Aksu phase. Fault data from the Kasaba basin show that the Pliocene-Recent tectonic evolution is characterized by extension, although no sedimentary basins formed. From slickensides, striae and other kinematic indicators, in combination with stratigraphical and geomorphological information, 3 extensional fault phases are inferred: (1) ?Pliocene (post Miocene) WNW-ESE extension, forming approximately N-S trending asymmetrical grabens. (2) More recent (?Pleistocene) NE-SW extension that resulted in large 135^o tilt-block basins that are cut by less pronounced 070^o left lateral strike-slip faults. The Pleistocene - Recent period is dominated by N-S extension that resulted in formation of 90^o -100^o normal faults and reactivation of older (normal) faults. Although extension prevails, exhumation and lowering of base level, evident from crosscutting scree, point at relative uplift. From the structural data of the Esen Çay Basin, 2 extensional phases are inferred: (1) Pliocene E

  12. Mesozoic and Cenozoic exhumation history of the SW Iberian Variscides inferred from low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Vílchez, Mercedes; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Azor, Antonio; Stuart, Finlay; Persano, Cristina; Alonso-Chaves, Francisco M.; Martín-Parra, Luis Miguel; Matas, Jerónimo; García-Navarro, Encarnación

    2015-11-01

    The post-Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the SW Iberian Variscides is poorly known mainly due to the scarce low-temperature geochronological data available. We have obtained new apatite fission-tracks and apatite (U-Th)/He ages to constrain the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of this portion of the Iberian Massif located just north of the Betic-Rif Alpine orogen. We have obtained nine apatite fission-track ages on samples from Variscan and pre-Variscan granitoids. These ages range from 174.4 (± 10.8) to 54.1 (± 4.9) Ma, with mean track lengths between 10.3 and 13.9 μm. We have also performed 5 (U-Th)/He datings on some of the same samples, obtaining ages between 74.6 (± 1.6) and 18.5 (± 1.4) Ma. Time-temperature path modeling of these low-temperature geochronological data leads us to envisage four post-Paleozoic tectonically controlled exhumation episodes in the SW Iberian Variscides. Three of these episodes occurred in Mesozoic times (Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous) at rates of ≈ 1.1 to 2.5 °C Ma- 1, separated by periods with almost no cooling. We relate these Mesozoic cooling events to the formation of important marginal reliefs during the rifting and opening of the central and northern Atlantic realm. The fourth exhumation episode occurred in Cenozoic times at rates of ≈ 3.2 to 3.6 °C Ma- 1, being only recorded in samples next to faults with topographic escarpments. These samples cooled below 80 °C at ≈ 20 Ma at rates of 3-13 °C Ma- 1 due to roughly N-S oriented compressional stresses affecting the whole Iberian plate, which, in the particular case of SW Iberia, reactivated some of the previous Late Paleozoic thrusts.

  13. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stevens and its application to physically map the Sw-5 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, MI; Prins, M; Stevens, MR; Hille, J; Goldbach, RW; Spassova, Mariana I.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Goldbach, Rob W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sw-5 gene is a dominantly inherited resistance gene in tomato and functional against a number of tospovirus species. The gene has been mapped on chromosome 9, tightly linked to RFLP markers CT220 and SCAR421. To analyse the Sw-5 locus, a BAC genomic library was constructed of tomato cv. Stevens,

  14. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  15. Phenolic compounds and interaction between aminoglycosides and natural products of Lygodium venustum SW against multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, M F B; Souza, T M; Santos, K K A; Guedes, G M M; Andrade, J C; Tintino, S R; Sobral-Souza, C E; Costa, J G M; Saraiva, A A F; Coutinho, H D M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the interactions between aminoglycosides and the ethyl-acetate fraction of the fern Lygodium venustum SW (EAFLV) METHODS: The ethyl-acetate fraction was obtained from the ethanol extract of L. venustum and was assayed via the checkerboard method associated with aminoglycosides against two bacterial strains multiresistant to antibiotics. The antibiotic activity of all drugs, when associated with the ethyl-acetate fraction, was enhanced in an additive manner, except for the association between EAFLV and amikacin, which showed a synergistic interaction against the Escherichia coli strain. The results indicated that L. venustum can be a source of secondary metabolites to be used in association with antibiotics like aminoglycosides in antibiotic chemotherapy against resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  17. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  18. Two new species of Distaplia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) from the SW Atlantic, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagger, Cristian; Tatián, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The ascidian fauna from the Southwestern Atlantic (Argentine Sea) have scarcely been studied and have rarely been sampled. The existing scanty ascidian records are from specimens collected by dredging many decades ago. During samplings in the San Matias Gulf (Río Negro, Patagonia), two new Distaplia species were found. Distaplia naufragii sp. nov. was collected in the subtidal zone attached to a shipwreck, while the other species, Distaplia fortuita sp. nov. was found released by the tides in the sandy intertidal zone. These two new species differ deeply from each other in the size and morphology of their zooids. They represent one third of the known species belonging to the family Holozoidae in the SW Atlantic. These results reinforce the importance of new studies in this extensive but little explored area that is, in addition, susceptible to invasion by non-native species.

  19. Effect of morphactine on differentiation and development of Cymbidium Sw. protocorms cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenetic effect of morphactine IT 3456 on meristematic tissue of Cymbidium Sw. was investigated within the dose range 0.01 to 10 ppm in in vitro culture on liquid and agar-solidified medium. In the doses applied, morphactine increased the number of protocorms differentiating from isolated meristematic tissues, and, in dependence on the dose, affected their shape and proliferation. Morphactine retards, and in large doses completely inhibits, the development of rhizoids, shoots and roots. Various developmental anomalies were observed under the influence of morphactine: leaf syncotylia, and their deformation, thickening, shortening, flattening and branching of shoots as well as formation of 2-3 shoots by one protocorm and development of secondary protocorms on the leaves.

  20. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  1. Young green turtles, Chelonia mydas, exposed to plastic in a frontal area of the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carman, Victoria; Acha, E Marcelo; Maxwell, Sara M; Albareda, Diego; Campagna, Claudio; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-15

    Ingestion of anthropogenic debris represents an important threat to marine turtle populations. Information has been limited to inventories of debris ingested and its consequences, but why ingestion occurs and the conditions that enable it are less understood. Here we report on the occurrence of plastic ingestion in young green turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting the Río de la Plata (SW Atlantic). This estuarine area is characterized by a frontal system that accumulates anthropogenic debris. We explored exposure of green turtles to plastic and its ingestion via debris distribution, habitat use and digestive tract examination. Results indicated that there is considerable overlap of frontal accumulated plastic and core foraging areas of the animals. Exposure results in ingestion, as shown by the high frequency of plastic found in the digestive tracts. The Río de la Plata estuarine front is an area of conservation concern for young green turtles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  3. USB HW/SW Co-Simulation Environment with Custom Test Tool Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor Y. Zargaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new verification environment for USB 2.0 controller. New methodology is presented, where a co-simulation environment is used as one of the starting points for the embedded hardware/software development and as an accelerator of the overall design process. The verification environment is based on the device emulation/virtualization technique, using USB controller’s real register transfer level (RTL instead of models. This approach is functionally very close to the corresponding real-world devices and allows wider opportunities for hardware debugging. The new software utilities for USB host and device functionality testing are also presented. This tool allows generating custom tests by including various transfer types and modifying parameters such as data payload, interval, number of pipes, etc. It can be used for both hardware (HW and software (SW limitations characterization, as well as debugging.

  4. Physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton (Visakhapatnam, SW Bay of Bengal, India) to experimental copper addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2017-10-01

    Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected. δ 13 C POM and δ 15 N POC reflected a visible signature of both beneficial and toxic impacts of Cu supply. Skeletonema costatum, the dominant diatom species, showed higher tolerance to increasing Cu levels relative to Chaetoceros sp. Cyanobacteria showed greater sensitivity to copper than diatoms. The magnitude of Cu toxicity on the phytoplankton communities was inversely related to the distance from the coast. Co-enrichment of iron alleviated Cu toxicity to phytoplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  6. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (Phypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-08-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW-SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW-NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Myung Hwan; Chang, Moon Jeong

    2017-04-01

    Although the antioxidative effects of lycopene are generally known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine the role and mechanism of lycopene as an inhibitor of inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, and 30 µM lycopene. The MTT assay was performed to determine the effects of lycopene on cell proliferation. Western blotting was performed to observe the expression of inflammation-related proteins, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor kappa B (IκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 (p38 MAP kinase). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In cells treated with lycopene and LPS, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P lycopene concentration (P lycopene concertation (P Lycopene restrains NF-κB and JNK activation, which causes inflammation, and suppresses the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

  9. Holocene Climate Reconstructions from Lake Water Oxygen Isotopes in NW and SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, G. E.; Axford, Y.; McFarlin, J. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Berman, K.; Kotecki, P.; Gawin, B.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructions of stable isotopes of precipitation (SIP) from currently unglaciated parts of Greenland can help elucidate spatial patterns of past climate shifts in this climatically important and complex region. We have developed a 7700-year record of lake water δ18O from a small non-glacial lake in NW Greenland (near Thule Air Base), inferred from the δ18O of subfossil chironomid (insect) head capsules and aquatic mosses. Lake water δ18O remains constant from 8 ka until 4 ka and then declines by 2.5 ‰ to the present, representing a +2.5 to 5.5 °C Holocene Thermal Maximum temperature anomaly for this region. For comparison, two new sediment records from hydrologically connected lakes south of Nuuk in SW Greenland record 8500 years of lake water δ18O, also inferred from δ18O of chironomids. At the time cores were collected during the summer in 2014 and 2015, all lakes reflected SIP and exhibited minimal evaporation influence. Historical monitoring of stable isotopes of precipitation from Thule Air Base and Grønnedal in south Greenland suggest the controls on SIP differ greatly between our two study sites, as would be predicted based upon the strongly Arctic (in the NW) versus North Atlantic (in the SW) atmospheric and marine influences at the two sites. Interpretation of Holocene climate from these two contrasting sites will be discussed. These climate records from the same proxy allow us to compare millennial scale Holocene climate responses to northern hemisphere solar insolation trends in two different climate regimes of Greenland.

  10. Characterization of side population cells isolated from the colon cancer cell line SW480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Binghong; Ma, Li; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Caiquan; Cheng, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many types of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including colon cancer cell lines. This study aimed to identify cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the SP of the colon cancer cell line SW480. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, clone formation, proliferation, invasion ability, cell cycle, chemosensitivity and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. The expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein transporters and stem cell-related genes were examined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The human colon cancer cell lines SW480, Lovo and HCT116 contain 1.1 ± 0.10, 0.93 ± 0.11 and 1.33 ± 0.05% SP cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SP cells could differentiate into SP and NSP cells. SP cells had a higher proliferation potency and CFE than NSP cells. Compared to NSP cells, SP cells were also more resistant to CDDP and 5-FU, and were more invasive and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA and protein expression of ABCG2, MDR1, OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, CD44 and CD133. SP cells isolated from human colon cancer cell lines harbor CSC properties that may be related to the invasive potential and therapeutic resistance of colon cancer.

  11. swDMR: A Sliding Window Approach to Identify Differentially Methylated Regions Based on Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification that plays an essential role in gene expression through transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. The emergence of whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS represents an important milestone in the detection of DNA methylation. Characterization of differential methylated regions (DMRs is fundamental as well for further functional analysis. In this study, we present swDMR (http://sourceforge.net/projects/swDMR/ for the comprehensive analysis of DMRs from whole genome methylation profiles by a sliding window approach. It is an integrated tool designed for WGBS data, which not only implements accessible statistical methods to perform hypothesis test adapted to two or more samples without replicates, but false discovery rate was also controlled by multiple test correction. Downstream analysis tools were also provided, including cluster, annotation and visualization modules. In summary, based on WGBS data, swDMR can produce abundant information of differential methylated regions. As a convenient and flexible tool, we believe swDMR will bring us closer to unveil the potential functional regions involved in epigenetic regulation.

  12. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (San Remo.

  13. Applications of the SW96 formulation in the thermodynamic calculation of fluid inclusions and mineral-fluid equilibria

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    Jia Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The SW96 formulation explicit in Helmholtz free energy proposed by Span and Wagner (1996 is the most accurate multifunction equation of state of CO2 fluid, from which all thermodynamic properties can be obtained over a wide temperature-pressure range from 216.592 to 1100 K and from 0 to 8000 bar with or close to experimental accuracy. This paper reports the applications of the SW96 formulation in fluid inclusions and mineral-fluid equilibria. A reliable and highly efficient algorithm is presented for the saturated properties of CO2 so that the formulation can be conveniently applied in the study of fluid inclusions, such as calculation of homogenization pressures, homogenization densities (or molar volumes, volume fractions of vapor phase and isochores. Meanwhile, the univariant curves of some typical decarbonation reactions of minerals are calculated with the SW96 formulation and relevant thermodynamic models of minerals. The computer code of the SW96 formulation can be obtained from the corresponding author.

  14. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  15. Filtration and resuspension of particulate matter and phytoplankton on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.C.; Smaal, A.C.; Pouwer, A.J.; Dankers, N.

    1996-01-01

    In situ measurements were carried out on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. Exchange of suspended particulate matter and phytoplankton between the water column and the mussel bed was measured with a Benthic Ecosystem Tunnel. In situ clearance rates of the mussel

  16. Contrasting variability in foraminiferal and organic paleotemperature proxies in sedimenting particles of the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fallet, U.; Ullgren, J.E; Castañeda, I.S.; van Aken, H.M.; Schouten, S.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Brummer, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate sea surface temperature (SST) proxies are important for understanding past ocean and climate systems. Here, we examine material collected from a deep-moored sediment trap in the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean) to constrain and compare both inorganic (delta O-18, Mg/Ca) and organic

  17. Increased chromosome exchange frequencies in iodo-deoxyuridine-sensitized human SW-1573 cells after gamma-irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van Bree, C.; Veltmaat, M. A.; Ludwików, G.; Kipp, J. B.; Barendsen, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    The induction of chromosome exchanges was investigated in SW-1573 human lung tumour cells radiosensitized with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and irradiated with gamma-rays. Following treatment chromosome 2 and X were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA

  18. Solasodine accumulation in regenerated plants of Solanum torvum Sw Acúmulo de solasodina em plantas micropropagadas de Solanum torvum Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B Moreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A nodal segment culture was developed in order to assess Solanum torvum Sw. regeneration and solasodine levels. The influence of auxins (indoleacetic acid, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyl adenine on S. torvum growth in micropropagation was investigated. A nodal segment culture was initiated with seeds germinated in MS basal medium added of GA3 and grown in different concentrations of IAA, IAA + BAP and NAA + BAP. Sixty-day-old plants from the in vitro culture were collected, frozen and lyophilized; then, the methyl orange method was used to quantify solasodine for the spectrophotometric assay. The best results regarding plant regeneration and solasodine accumulation were obtained by using the MS basal medium without addition of plant growth regulators; however, there was great production of calluses presenting friable bases. Based on these results, cell cultures can be initiated from such calluses with application of other auxins and cytokinins to enhance solasodine production, besides different elicitors, light intensities and sucrose concentrations.A regeneração de Solanum torvum e a avaliação do conteúdo de solasodina foram os objetivos de cultura de segmentos nodais. A influência de auxinas (ácido 3-indolacético, ácido naftalenoacético e de 6-benzilaminopurina no crescimento de S. torvum na micropropagação foi investigado. Cultura de segmentos nodais foi iniciada por sementes germinadas em meio básico MS acrescido de GA3 e cultivadas em diferentes concentrações de AIA, AIA + BAP e ANA + BAP. Plantas da cultura in vitro com 60 dias foram coletadas, congeladas e liofilizadas e o método de alaranjado de metila foi utilizado para quantificação de solasodina para o ensaio espectrofotométrico. Os melhores resultados para regeneração vegetal e acúmulo de solasodina foram alcançados no meio MS sem adição de reguladores de crescimento havendo, porém grande produção de calos de base friáveis. Esses resultados mostram

  19. The effects of Alcea rosea L., Malva sylvestris L. and Salvia libanotica L. water extracts on the production of anti-egg albumin antibodies, interleukin-4, gamma interferon and interleukin-12 in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghaoui, Walid Bou Jaber; Ghanem, Elsa Bou; Chedid, Lara Abou; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2008-12-01

    Polysaccharides obtained from certain plants have been reported to have immunomodulatory properties. As a consequence of these reports the aim of this study was to investigate some immunomodulatory properties of water extracts of Alcea rosea L. (ARE), Malva sylvestris L. (MSE) and Salvia libanotica L. (SLE).Groups of egg albumin (EA)-immunized and -non-immunized Balb/c mice were treated with the carbohydrate-rich water extracts. Mice from each group were bled and their spleens removed at 3, 6 and 10 days post-immunization/treatment. Anti-egg albumin antibody levels in the processed sera were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RNA was extracted from spleen cells and interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma-interferon transcripts were determined by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).ARE appeared to boost the antibody response to EA, but had no effect on IL-4 and gamma-interferon gene transcription. MSE and SLE appeared to have no effect on anti-EA antibody production, but enhanced IL-12 and gamma-interferon gene transcription. MSE appeared to switch off, and SLE had no effect on, IL-4 transcription.In conclusion, it appears that ARE is a B-lymphocyte polyclonal activator, and MSE and SLE are macrophage and T helper-1 (Th-1) activators. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO2.

  1. Are we narrowing genetic variability in seed orchards? An attempt to answer, based on the analysis of microsatellite DNA of grafts growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seed orchard in the Forest District Susz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybylski Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is the most common species in Poland’s forest stands. The mode of pine stands renovation requires that silviculture practitioners have continuous access to seed banks. Orchard-grown seeds are predicted to constitute an increasingly larger part of the average demand for pine seeds in Poland. Seed orchards, due to a limited number of maternal trees as well as the irregularity of their blooming and pollination, enhance the risk of genetic diversity reduction in planted forest stands. This is of particular importance in the context of dynamic climate change. Markers based on microsatellite DNA fragments are effective tools for monitoring genetic variability. In the present study, three different microsatellite DNA fragments were used: SPAC 12.5, SPAG 7.14 and SPAC 11.4. The main objective of this research was to study genetic variability in one of the biggest seed orchards in Poland, located in the Forest District Susz. The obtained results indicated heterozygosity loss within the orchard, proving the existence of specimen selection effects on genetic variability. Hence, it seems quite important to take account of molecular genetic variability of maternal trees in future breeding strategies.

  2. Exclusion du chlorure et inclusion du sodium : deux mécanismes concomitants de tolérance à la salinité chez la vigne sauvage Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris (var. 'Séjnène'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamrouni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride exclusion and sodium inclusion: two concomitant mechanisms of salt tolerance in Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris (var. 'Séjnène' wild type grapevine. In order to select and identify grapevine genotypes tolerant to salinity, we analyzed and evaluated, in a preliminary attempt, the behavior of 'Séjnène' wildtype against salt constraint. In this respect, homogen plants obtained from cutting were cultivated in pots filled with sandy soil and irrigated with nutritive solution added with 100 mM NaCl. Cultures were conducted under controlled greenhouse. After 75 days of treatment, measures were realized on the physiological parameters related to plant growth and mineral content (Na+, Cl-, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ of the different organs. Our results showed that for 'Séjnène', salinity tolerance is tightly related to its vigor, and the physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance are based on its ability to maintain the photosynthetic activity despite of the stress and its capacity to accumulate and store the sodium in the upper part of the plant (especially in the old basal leaves. Chloride exclusion with restriction to its entry and uptake, osmotic adjustment via leaf potassium accumulation, salt stress signalization and cellular protection of components through leaf calcium accumulation represent additional mechanisms of salt tolerance.

  3. Factors controlling gully erosion at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.; Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    Gully erosion has been recognized as an important soil degradation process in rangelands of SW Spain. However, little is known about gullying processes at different spatial and temporal scales in these areas. Three different approaches were used in this paper to analyze the factors determining gully erosion intensity and rates at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain. The first approach was based on the monitoring of a permanent valley bottom gully and continuous measurement of rainfall and discharge during the period 2001-2007 in the Parapuños experimental basin. Parapuños is a small catchment (99.5 ha) representative of dehesa land use, with an undulated topography and Mediterranean climate. Gully erosion volume was obtained by means of 28 fixed cross sections measured with a frequency of 6 months. Discharge and rainfall were monitored using a water depth probe installed in a weir at the outlet of the catchment and 6 tipping bucket rain gauges, respectively. The second approach was based on analyzing the development of the same permanent gully located in Parapuños using six series of aerial ortophotographs for the period 1945-2006. This methodology allowed to relate gully evolution with land use and vegetation cover changes. Finally, a relatively new data mining technique, called Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), was applied to construct a model capable of predicting the location of gullies at the regional scale. A large database composed of 36 independent variables related to topography, lithology, soils, rainfall, land use and vegetation cover was used. This statistical technique allowed to determine the importance of the variables involved. This database was gathered in 46 farms representative of rangelands of SW Spain in Extremadura, covering a surface area of 35,459 ha. Farms were quite diverse although their main characteristics were undulating landforms, acid rocks (schists, greywackes and granites), and

  4. Influence of axial tensile strain on the electronic and structural properties as well as NO gas sensitivity and reactivity of C-doped SW-BNNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Hossein; Maleki, Layla

    2017-11-01

    The insulating character of BNNTs strongly imposes a great restriction on their applicability in nano-electronic devices. Therefore, it is desirable to find the practical routes for reducing the H-L gap. In this work, we demonstrate that the structural and electronic properties of the C-doped SW-BNNT can be significantly engineered and tuned by applying the axial tensile strain. Defect formation energies, cohesive energies, dipole moments, NBO charges, and global reactivity descriptors for un-doped SW-BNNT and C1-3-doped SW-BNNTs are calculated upon the axial strain. The B3LYP/6-31 +G(d) calculated H-L gap for five C-doped SW-BNNTs are expected to be smaller than that of un-doped SW-BNNT. At 10% axial tensile strain, CB NT is a suitable conductance with a 1.947 eV H-L gap. The decrease in the H-L gap for 2C-doped CN,B (-0.839 eV) NT within 15% strain is greater than 1C- and 3C-doped SW-BNNTs. In the second part of this work, reactivity and the sensitivity of strained C1-2-doped SW-BNNTs toward NO gas were evaluated at M06-2X/6-31 ++G(d,p) level of theory. Optimized structures, molecular graphs, adsorption energies (AE), dispersion corrected AEs, H-L gap, NBO charges, charge transfer values, density of states and electrostatic potentials were calculated. The strained C1-doped SW-BNNTs showed an increased ability for the sensitivity and adsorption of NO molecule, as compared with unstrained doped SW-BNNT. In general, the CN,B NTs have practically less potential for the adsorption of NO molecule than CB and CN ones.

  5. Studying sub-crustal reflectors in SW-Spain with wide-angle profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, Imma; Ayarza, Puy; Carbonell, Ramon; Afonso, JuanCarlos; Diaz, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    It is nowadays widely accepted that the mantle is highly heterogeneous and has lithologies that are capable of giving impedance enough to be observed in seismic data. Nevertheless, observing those impedance contrasts at mantle depths is a challenging problem. SW Iberia has been sampled by different deep vertical reflection and wide-angle reflection/refraction experiments ILIHA, IBERSEIS, and ALCUDIA, and hence provide a good opportunity to study seismically sub-crustal reflectors. These datasets have imaged a conspicuous sub-crustal reflector. This mantle reflector was first identified on the IBERSEIS wide angle reflection shot-gathers at large offsets (above 180 km). It was modeled as a boundary located between 61-72 km depth with a Vp increase from 8.2 km/s to 8.3 km/s. The fact that this reflector was not identified in the coincident vertical incidence dataset led us to interpret it as a gradient zone. A correlation with the 'Hales gradient zone', i.e. the boundary between spinel and garnet peridotites, was our preferred interpretation. The ALCUDIA experiment also shows prominent sub-crustal arrivals with the same characteristics as those observed in the IBERSEIS wide-angle data. However, these reflections also appear, locally and at 19 s TWT, in the vertical incidence dataset. In addition, the ALCUDIA wide-angle dataset shows a deeper reflector that maybe preliminarily associated with mantle anisotropy or even with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Both upper mantle reflectors are modeled at 65 km and 100 km depth, respectively, shallowing to the north to 55 km and 90 km depth. Integration of the information provided by the IBERSEIS and ALCUDIA datasets with older and lower resolution data from the ILIHA project, where three sub-crustal phases were identified in SW Iberia, allows us to conclude that, in this area, mantle reflectivity is outstanding. Also, modeling of all the datasets contributes to map, at a regional scale, the Hales discontinuity or

  6. Foraminiferal response to environmental changes in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikulina, A.; Polovodova, I.; Schoenfeld, J. [Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea) were investigated in the years 2005 and 2006. The faunal studies were accomplished by geochemical analyses of surface sediments. In general, sediment pollution by copper, zinc, tin and lead is assessed as moderate in comparison with levels reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea. However, the inner Kiel Fjord is still exposed to a high load of metals and organic matter due to enhanced accumulation of fine-grained sediments in conjunction with potential pollution sources as shipyards, harbours and intensive traffic. The results of our survey show that the dominant environmental forcing of benthic foraminifera is nutrients availability coupled with human impact. A comparison with faunal data from the 1960s reveals apparent changes in species composition and population densities. The stress-tolerant species Ammonia beccarii invaded Kiel Fjord. Ammotium cassis had disappeared that reflects apparently the changes in salinity over the last 10 years. These changes in foraminiferal community and a significant increase of test abnormalities indicate an intensified environmental stress since the 1960s. (orig.)

  7. Integrating technologies for oil spill response in the SW Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, J.; Neves, A.; Martins, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-09-01

    An operational oil spill modelling system developed for the SW Iberia Coast is used to investigate the relative importance of the different components and technologies integrating an oil spill monitoring and response structure. A backtrack of a CleanSeaNet oil detection in the region is used to demonstrate the concept. Taking advantage of regional operational products available, the system provides the necessary resolution to go from regional to coastal scales using a downscalling approach, while a multi-grid methodology allows the based oil spill model to span across model domains taking full advantage of the increasing resolution between the model grids. An extensive validation procedure using a multiplicity of sensors, with good spatial and temporal coverage, strengthens the operational system ability to accurately solve coastal scale processes. The model is validated using available trajectories from satellite-tracked drifters. Finally, a methodology is proposed to identifying potential origins for the CleanSeaNet oil detection, by combining model backtrack results with ship trajectories supplied by AIS was developed, including the error estimations found in the backtrack validation.

  8. Subglacial hydrological modelling of a rapid lake drainage event on the Russell Glacier catchment, SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; Booth, A. D.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Jones, G. A.; Kulessa, B.; Hubbard, A.

    2011-12-01

    We use local-scale subglacial hydrological models to assess the development of the basal drainage system in response to a rapid lake-tapping event on the Russell Glacier catchment, SW Greenland. Water inputs to the model are constrained by in-situ records of the lake drainage rate. Subglacial conditions are estimated from active seismic line analysis including basal topography and substrate characteristics. A borehole slug test model is used to determine the radial flux of water from the drainage input point. Water flowing in the downstream direction is used to drive a 1-D flowband model, which allows development of interacting channelised and distributed drainage systems. The simulated basal water pressures are applied to an elastic beam model to assess vertical uplift at the lake drainage site. Modelled uplift outputs are compared with results from GPS stations located next to the lake. Initial modelling results suggest that channels are necessary for evacuation of water from rapid lake drainage events, even with the presence of a sediment-based bed, the latter of which is usually associated with distributed drainage.

  9. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  10. SW-620 cells treated with topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38: gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias Wolfgang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in gene expression in SW-620 cells in response to SN-38 in order to further elucidate the mechanisms by which SN-38 causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Methods We used a quantitative gene expression microarray assay to identify the genes regulated by SN-38 treatment in colon cancer cells and confirmed our results with RT-PCR. By gene expression profiling, we first screened a proprietary list of about 22,000 genes. Results Treatment with SN-38 cells resulted in two-fold or greater alteration in the level of expression of 192 genes compared to control treatment. Most of the affected genes were not known to be responsive to SN-38 prior to this study. SN-38 treatment of these cells was found to affect the expression of various genes involved in DNA replication, transcription, signal transduction, growth factors, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, as well as other genes with unknown function. Changes in expression of 14 genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusion This study leads to an increased understanding of the biochemical pathways involved in SN-38-induced apoptosis and possibly to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  11. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transportation and transformation of mercury in a calcine profile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Gu, Chunhao; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Ningning

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines. Hg species in calcines include cinnabar (α-HgS), metacinnabar (β-HgS), elemental Hg(0), and minor mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but these Hg species show dramatic changes in the profile. Variations in Hg speciation suggest that extensive mobilization of Hg can occur during weathering processes. We show that the cemented layer can prevent the leaching of Hg and the emission of Hg(0) from the pile. High MeHg concentrations were found near the cemented layer, indicating Hg methylation occurs. This study provides important insights into the environmental risk of Hg in mining areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field distribution and osmoregulatory capacity of shrimps in a temperate European estuary (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Pascual, Emilio; Cuesta, Jose A.; Drake, Pilar

    2006-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the six most common crustacean decapods in the benthos and hyperbenthos of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) has been analysed in relation to their osmoregulatory capacities (at 20 °C). Field densities along the estuarine salinity gradient revealed that, although the species studied showed salinity tolerance ranges in the field that do overlap to some extent, there was a considerable spatial and/or salinity-related segregation between several of them. Concerning their isosmotic points and their osmoregulatory salinity ranges, two main groups of species were distinguished: species with higher isosmotic points and tight ranges in osmoregulation, represented by marine species that entered the estuary from open sea and remained there for only part of the year ( Crangon crangon, Melicertus kerathurus and Palaemon serratus); and those with slightly lower isosmotic points and wide ranges in osmoregulation, represented by estuarine species which completed their life cycle in brackish water ( Palaemon longirostris, Palaemon macrodactylus and Palaemonetes varians). For all the species studied, their field distributions were clearly biased towards the lower end of the salinity ranges within which they osmoregulate. Nevertheless, individuals of the less euryhaline species ( M. kerathurus and P. serratus) were mainly found in less saline water when the estuarine gradient was displaced downstream and low salinities occurred close to the river mouth.

  14. Tide transformation in the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) and process-based zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DíEz-Minguito, M.; Baquerizo, A.; Ortega-SáNchez, M.; Navarro, G.; Losada, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzes tide transformation in the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain). When fresh water discharges are less than 40 m3/s, the estuary is tidally-dominated (flood-dominated) and well mixed. Under such conditions, the estuary can be divided into three stretches, each characterized by a different tide propagation process. In the first stretch of 25 km, the dominant process is diffusion. In the next stretch, approximately over 35 km length, convergence and friction processes are in balance. At the head of the estuary, in the last stretch, the tidal motion is partially standing because of tidal reflection on the Alcalá del Río dam, located 110 km upstream from the estuary mouth. The reflection coefficient R varies with the frequency; for diurnal constituents its magnitude ∣RD∣ is 0.25; this value increases in the case of semi-diurnal (∣RS∣ ≈ 0.40), and quarter-diurnal constituents (∣RQ∣ ≈ 0.65), and reaches its minimum at the sixth-diurnal components (∣RX∣ ≈ 0.10). The tidal reflection can generate residual currents that have consequences in the bed morphology. Furthermore, when the fresh water discharges are greater than 400 m3/s, the estuary is fluvially-dominated and the water level can be calculated as the linear superposition of tide and river contributions. However, superposition arguments do not hold for currents at any point in the estuary.

  15. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Turbidity Currents, Submarine Landslides and the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides or slumps may generate turbidity currents consisting of mixture of sediment and water. Large and fast-moving turbidity currents can incise and erode continental margins and cause damage to artificial structures such as telecommunication cables on the seafloor. In this study, we report that eleven submarine cables across the Kaoping canyon and Manila trench were broken in sequence from 1500 to 4000 m deep, as a consequence of submarine landslides and turbidity currents associated with the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes offshore SW Taiwan. We have established a full-scale scenario and calculation of the turbidity currents along the Kaoping canyon channel from the middle continental slope to the adjacent deep ocean. Our results show that turbidity current velocities vary downstream ranging from 20 to 3.7 and 5.7 m/s, which demonstrates a positive relationship between turbidity current velocity and bathymetric slope. The violent cable failures happened in this case evidenced the destructive power of the turbidity current to seafloor or underwater facilities that should not be underestimated.

  17. Inhibition of Autophagy Increases 2-Methoxyestradiol-Induced Cytotoxicity in SW1353 Chondrosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Stephan; Shogren, Kristen L; Yaszemski, Michael J; Maran, Avudaiappan

    2016-03-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a cartilage tumor and is the second most common malignant bone cancer. Unlike many tumors, chondrosarcomas are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Autophagy is a homeostatic mechanism through which cellular proteins and organelles are subjected to lysosomal degradation and recycling. Autophagy could play a dual role in cancer by facilitating either cell death or cell survival. To determine whether autophagy plays a role in cell death in chondrosarcoma, we have studied the effect of the anti-tumor compound 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) in chondrosarcoma cells in culture. Transmission electron microscopy imaging indicates that 2-ME treatment leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes in human chondrosarcoma (SW1353 and Hs819T) cells. Also, 2-ME induces the conversion of microtubule-associated protein LC3-I to LC3-II, a protein marker that is correlated with the formation of autophagosomes. Our results show that siRNAs directed against ATG3 blocks 2-ME-induced autophagosome formation in chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, treatment with Bafilomycin A1 (Baf) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the inhibitors of autophagy, further increased the cell death in 2-ME-treated chondrosarcoma cells. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that autophagy causes resistance to cytotoxicity in chondrosarcoma cells, and the efficacy and anti-tumor effects of drugs in chondrosarcoma could be enhanced by modulating autophagy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  19. Effects of krill oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Jin; Shi, Jia-Hui; Qian, Wen-Bin; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Duo

    2008-08-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO) on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480). Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG) of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  20. Exceptional appendage and soft-tissue preservation in a Middle Triassic horseshoe crab from SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shixue; Zhang, Qiyue; Feldmann, Rodney M; Benton, Michael J; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Huang, Jinyuan; Wen, Wen; Zhou, Changyong; Xie, Tao; Lü, Tao; Hong, Shuigen

    2017-10-26

    Horseshoe crabs are classic "living fossils", supposedly slowly evolving, conservative taxa, with a long fossil record back to the Ordovician. The evolution of their exoskeleton is well documented by fossils, but appendage and soft-tissue preservation is extremely rare. Here we analyse details of appendage and soft-tissue preservation in Yunnanolimulus luopingensis, a Middle Triassic (ca. 244 million years old) horseshoe crab from Yunnan Province, SW China. The remarkable preservation of anatomical details including the chelicerae, five pairs of walking appendages, opisthosomal appendages with book gills, muscles, and fine setae permits comparison with extant horseshoe crabs. The close anatomical similarity between the Middle Triassic horseshoe crabs and their recent analogues documents anatomical conservatism for over 240 million years, suggesting persistence of lifestyle. The occurrence of Carcinoscorpius-type claspers on the first and second walking legs in male individuals of Y. luopingensis indicates that simple chelate claspers in males are plesiomorphic for horseshoe crabs, and the bulbous claspers in Tachypleus and Limulus are derived.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of conventional land management in privately-owned rangelands of Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Herguido, Estela; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Extensive grazing is a key factor for the conservation of High Nature Value (HNV) farming systems such as woody rangelands (dehesas or montados) or grasslands (pastizales) in SW Europe. They have been created from clearing the former Mediterranean forest and have been subject to land use and management changes, particularly during recent decades. Environmental and economic consequences of those changes have been scarcely studied so far. In this study, the land management of 10 privately-owned farms (ranging from 200 to 1,000 ha in size) has been analysed from various perspectives: [1] environmental (soil quality, land degradation, tree regeneration, etc.), [2] economic (inputs, outputs, infrastructure and vehicles) and [3] sociodemographic (type of exploitation, generational relay, etc.). Data were obtained through field surveys, aerial image analysis and personal interviews with owners and shepherds. The results showed negative economic consequences (e.g. more expenses on food supply) on farms where soils are more degraded. Approximately 30% of the farms had negative economic balances, compensated by subsidy payments from the European Union. Furthermore, 50% of the samples do not have guaranteed the generational relay. The obtained information is relevant to evaluate the sustainability of these farming systems. However, a larger number of cases is still necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions. Keywords: Dehesas, Land management, Sustainability, Integrated approach

  2. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  4. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  5. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  6. Methane Venting in Gas Hydrate Potential Area Offshore of SW Taiwan: Evidence of Gas Analysis of Water Column Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsanyao Frank Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column samples were collected systematically in several potential gas hydrate areas offshore of SW Taiwan for analysis of dissolved gases. Some these samples show unusually high dissolved methane concentrations at sites A, B, C, and H of cruise ORI-765. The profiles of helium concentrations in the dissolved gases of the water column also exhibit consistent results with an increasing trend toward the seafloor. The 3He/4He ratios range from 0.2 to 0.4 times that of the atmospheric air ratio after air correction, which fall in the range of typical crustal gas composition and are similar to those of on-shore mud volcanoes in SW Taiwan. This indicates that gases are venting actively from the seafloor in the region and may share similar gas sources to on-shore mud volcanoes. The venting gases are considered to have originated from dissociation of gas hydrates and/or a deeper gas reservoir.

  7. Integrins are not essential for entry of coxsackievirus A9 into SW480 human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Outi; Merilahti, Pirjo; Hakanen, Marika; Karelehto, Eveliina; Alanko, Jonna; Sukki, Maria; Kiljunen, Saija; Susi, Petri

    2016-10-18

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the αVβ6 integrin receptor through a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is located at the exposed carboxy-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 detected in all studied clinical isolates. However, genetically-modified CV-A9 that lacks the RGD motif (CV-A9-RGDdel) has been shown to be infectious in some cell lines but not in A549, suggesting that RGD-mediated integrin binding is not always essential for efficient entry of CV-A9. Two cell lines, A549 and SW480, were used in the study. SW480 was the study object for the integrin-independent entry and A549 was used as the control for integrin-dependent entry. Receptor levels were quantitated by cell sorting and quantitative PCR. Antibody blocking assay and siRNA silencing of receptor-encoding genes were used to block virus infection. Peptide phage display library was used to identify peptide binders to CV-A9. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the virus infection in the cells. We investigated the receptor use and early stages of CV-A9 internalization to SW480 human epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells. Contrary to A549 infection, we showed that both CV-A9 and CV-A9-RGDdel internalized into SW480 cells and that function-blocking anti-αV integrin antibodies had no effect on the binding and entry of CV-A9. Whereas siRNA silencing of β6 integrin subunit had no influence on virus infection in SW480, silencing of β2-microglobulin (β2M) inhibited the virus infection in both cell lines. By using a peptide phage display screening, the virus-binding peptide identical to the N-terminal sequence of HSPA5 protein was identified and shown to block the virus infection in both A549 and SW480 cell lines. HSPA5 was also found to co-localize with CV-A9 at the SW480 cell periphery during the early stages of infection by confocal

  8. Extensive soft sediment deformation and peperite formation at the base of a rhyolite lava: Owyhee Mountains, SW Idaho, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mclean, Charlotte E.; Brown, David J.; Rawcliffe, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern Owyhee Mountains (SW Idaho), a >200 m thick flow of the Miocene Jump Creek Rhyolite was erupted on to a sequence of tuffs, lapilli-tuffs, breccias and lacustrine siltstones of the Sucker Creek Formation. The rhyolite lava flowed over steep palaeotopography, resulting in the forceful emplacement of lava into poorly consolidated sediments. The lava invaded this sequence, liquefying and mobilizing the sediment, propagating sediment sub-vertically in large metre-scale fluidal diap...

  9. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates that overcome the Sw-5 resistance gene in tomato and fitness assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose ARAMBURU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance-breaking (RB isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV that overcome the resistance conferred by the Sw-5 gene in tomato have had only a limited spread since they were first detected in north-eastern Spain in 2002. Symptom expression, homogeneity, stability and the transmission capacity of RB and non-resistance breaking (NRB isolates were biologically compared. The fitness of both types of isolates infecting tomato plants was determined in competition assays. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in a wide range of plant species, except RB isolates in tomato carrying the Sw-5 resistance gene and pepper carrying the Tsw resistance gene. The mechanical transmission of RB isolates to tomato plants with the Sw-5 gene failed in some trials, although NRB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when tested with the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Biological clones from individual local lesions obtained by mechanically inoculating Nicotiana glutinosa in some TSWV field samples showed that they were biologically homogeneous. Mixed infections of RB and wilt-type isolates were not found. The RB isolates were relatively stable because no reversion to NRB isolates was seen after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants. In competition assays between RB and NRB isolates, after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants, the prevalence of a particular isolate was not related to its capacity to overcome Sw-5 gene resistance. The low spread of the RB isolates in Spain does not seem to be related to a loss of fitness in tomato plants or to differences in transmission capacity by thrips, but it could be related to the reduction of the selection pressure of RB isolates as consequence of the gradual replacement of susceptible tomato plants by resistant tomato plants by growers.

  10. Denudation of SW Iberia during Pangea's break-up: geochemical and detrital zircon geochronology characterization of Triassic basins

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M. francisco; Ribeiro, Carlos; Vilallonga, Filipa; Chichorro, Martim; Drost, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    This provenance study is mainly based on new whole-rock geochemistry data but also involves detrital zircon geochronology. More specifically, this study investigates the Early Mesozoic denudation of a Late Paleozoic mountain range and the coeval development of basins during Pangea break-up in SW Iberia. The relations with past dynamic Earth events in Western Europe also include the amalgamation of Pangea and the development of the Carboniferous basins. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology on ...

  11. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

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    Han Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM. RESULTS: After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. CONCLUSION: The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti

  12. Phenotypic and genetic diversities are not correlated in strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa isolated in SW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Figueirido, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic diversities are not correlated in strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa isolated in SW Spain. The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing is notorious for forming extensive and toxic blooms but the genetic structure of natural populations, and in particular during blooms, remains to be explored. In order to add more knowledge about the genetic structure of M. aeruginosa, we compared phenotypic and genetic variabilities in seventeen strains...

  13. Sustainability of organic and conventional beef cattle farms in SW Spanish rangelands (‘dehesas’): a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, A.J.; Mesias, F.J.; Gaspar, P.; M. Escribano; Pulido, F.

    2012-01-01

    Organic production in Spain has increased substantially in recent years due to several factors, such as the growing interest of the European Union towards preserving sensitive ecosystems; the potential role of organic production in the socio-economic development of rural areas and the growing consumers' demand for safer and higher quality foods. Within this framework, this paper analyzes the beef sector of SW Spanish rangelands (dehesas). These are traditional systems characteristic of the Ib...

  14. Effect of LED irradiation on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in SW1353 cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Guo, Zhou-yi; Zhang, Feng-xue; Deng, Wen-di; Liu, Song-hao

    2007-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an active role in remodeling cartilage in osteoarthritic cartilage. To find an effective method of prevention of osteoclasia, this in vitro study focuses on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the SW1353 cells by LED irradiation. The human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and were received the irradiation of LED (632nm, 4mW/cm2). The cell count was assessed over a 96-hour period by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the cell activity was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 Assays. The subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was quantified. Results of this experiment showed that the cultural cell activity was decreased, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was increased by being stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. After received LED irradiation, the death rate of cultural cell was increased and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was decreased significantly. The present study concluded that particular LED irradiation stimulates SW1353 cell proliferation activity and inhibit the MMP-3 and MMP-13 enzymatic activity. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that the low power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  15. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  16. Hydrographic features of the western Bay of Bengal in the upper 500 m under the influence of NE and SW monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y; Babu, M; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    The distribution of temperature, salinity, density and geostrophic currents in the upper 500 m of the western Bay of Bengal within 500 km adjoining the East Coast of India for NE and SW monsoons have been studied. These distributions show...

  17. Cyclic AMP-independent secretion of mucin by SW1116 human colon carcinoma cells. Differential control by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yedgar, S; Eidelman, O; Malden, E; Roberts, D; Etcheberrigaray, R; Goping, G; Fox, C; Pollard, H B

    1992-01-01

    The regulation of mucin secretion by SW1116 human colon carcinoma cells has been studied using monoclonal antibody 19-9, which has previously been used to detect mucin in the serum of cancer and cystic fibrosis patients...

  18. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 27 January 1986 to 01 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8800329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 27 January 1986 to 01 April 1987. Data were collected by...

  19. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977 (NODC Accession 8100224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977. Data were...

  20. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Deok-Beom; Kim, Hyunseok; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPK α blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK α in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPK α . Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1 α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPK α and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPK α in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPK α and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  1. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  2. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  3. Distribution of Ag in Cu-sulfides in Kupferschiefer deposit, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    The Cu-Ag Kupferschiefer deposit located at the Fore-Sudetic Monocline (SW Poland) is a world class deposit of stratabound type. The Cu-Ag mineralization in the deposit occurs in the Permian sedimentary rocks (Rotliegend and Zechstein) in three lithological types of ore: the dolomite, the black shale and the sandstone. Silver, next to copper, is the most important element in the Kupferschiefer deposit (Salamon 1979; Piestrzyński 2007; Pieczonka 2011). Although occurrence of the Ag-minerals such as native silver, silver amalgams, stromeyerite, jalpaite and mckinstryite, silver is mainly present in the deposit due to isomorphic substitutions in Cu-minerals such as chalcocite, bornite, tennantite, covellite and chalcopyrite. The aim of the study was to define distribution of silver in Cu-minerals and correlate occurrence of Ag-enriched Cu-sulfides with native silver and silver amalgams. Identification of minerals and textural observation were performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. Analyzes of chemical composition of Cu-sulfides were performed utilizing electron microprobe. Silver concentration in Cu sulfides ranges from 0.1 to 10.4 wt.% in chalcocite, 0.2-15.8 wt.% in bornite, 0.1-2.9 wt.% in tennantite, 0.05-0.3 wt.% in chalcopyrite and ca. 0.4 wt.% in covellite. In general, distribution of silver in Cu-minerals is irregular, as indicated by high variations of Ag concentration in each mineral. Content of Ag in Cu-sulphides, in samples where native silver and silver amalgams are not found, is lower than in samples, where native silver and silver amalgams are noted. The chemical analyzes of Ag-bearing Cu-minerals indicate decrease of Cu content in minerals with high Ag concentration. In such case, decrease of Fe content is also noted in bornite. Lack of micro-inclusions of the native silver or silver amalgams in the Cu-minerals indicates that presence of Ag is mainly related to the isomorphic substitutions. This is in agreement with previous

  4. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  5. Mapping Vesta Southern Quadrangle V-14SW: Identification of Dark and Bright Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedemann, N.; Neukum, G.; Kneissl, T.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Ammannito, E.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P.; Hiesinger, H.; McCord, T. B.; Buczkowski, D.; Nathues, A.; Büttner, I.; Krohn, K.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-14SW. This quadrangle can be divided into the northern part which is characterized by a comparatively smooth inter-crater plain and the southern part which is more of a tectonically embossed nature. These tectonic features lie at the northern fringes of the complex network of deep grooves and ridges found in the south-pole area (see V-15SP). In the south-eastern part of this quadrangle we observe an isolated depression possibly associated with a distinct scarp. In general, the material of the southern part of this quadrangle has a higher albedo than the northern part. In a number of cases high-albedo features also seem to be topographically elevated. One of the highest albedo features in the southern hemisphere of Vesta has a spot-like appearance in low resolution image data. It is located in the eastern part of this quadrangle and is associated with several radial high-albedo streaks, similar to ray craters found on other solar system bodies. The western part of this quadrangle shows some small low-albedo areas as well as some craters displaying internal dark and bright radial streaks. We are using FC stereo and VIR spectroscopic data in order to constrain the formation and mineralogy of these bright and dark materials. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  6. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  7. MENEKAN LAJU PENYEBARAN KOLERA DI ASIA DENGAN 3SW (STERILIZATION, SEWAGE, SOURCES, AND WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Anggaraditya Anggaraditya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penyakit taun atau kolera (juga disebut Asiatic cholera adalah penyakit menular di saluran pencernaan yang disebabkan oleh bakterium Vibrio cholerae. Kolera ditemukan pada tahun 1883 karena infeksi Vibrio cholerae, bakteri berbentuk koma. Penemuan ini ditemukan oleh bakteriologi Robert Koch (Jerman, 1843-1910.Penyebab kolera, adalah bakteri Vibrio cholerae, yang merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk basil (batang dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak, memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof, berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot. Pada orang yang feacesnya ditemukan bakteri kolera mungkin selama 1-2 minggu belum merasakan keluhan berarti, Tetapi saat terjadinya serangan infeksi maka tiba-tiba terjadi diare dan muntah dengan kondisi cukup serius sebagai serangan akut yang menyebabkan samarnya jenis diare yg dialamiCara pencegahan dan memutuskan tali penularan penyakit kolera adalah dengan prinsip sanitasi lingkungan, terutama kebersihan air dan pembuangan kotoran (feaces pada tempatnya yang memenuhi standar lingkungan. Lainnya ialah meminum air yang sudah dimasak terlebih dahulu, cuci tangan dengan bersih sebelum makan memakai sabun/antiseptik, cuci sayuran dangan air bersih terutama sayuran yang dimakan mentah (lalapan, hindari memakan ikan dan kerang yang dimasak setengah matang. Kolera memang sudah menjadi momok yang menakutkan di dunia, dan belajar dari negara-negara di Asia yang sudah pernah mengalami wabah kolera, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa pengobatan dengan vaksin tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan.Selain karena tidak menjangkau seluruh warga miskin di sebuah negara, harga vaksin kolera juga dirasa cukup memberatkan anggaran negara-negara yang sedang berkembang di Asia.Cara yang dirasa paling tepat dalam menekan laju penyebara kolera adalah 3SW (Sterilization, Sewage, Sources, and Water

  8. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  9. A high resolution temporal study of phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the eutrophic Taw Estuary (SW England).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gerald; Glegg, Gillian A; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-09-15

    The Taw Estuary (SW England) is eutrophic as a result of enhanced nutrient inputs from its catchment. However, factors influencing the timing and extent of phytoplankton bloom formation are not fully understood in this system. In this study, high resolution chemical and biological sampling was undertaken in late-winter/spring and summer 2008 in order to gain further insights into bloom dynamics in the Taw Estuary. Temporal variations in chlorophyll a maxima in the upper and middle estuary during summer were controlled by river flow and tidal amplitude, with nutrient limitation probably less important. Concentrations of chlorophyll a were highest during low river flow and neap tides. Increased river flows advected the chlorophyll maximum to the outer estuary, and under highest river discharges, chlorophyll a concentrations were further reduced. This feature was even more pronounced when spring tides coincided with high flows. The main bloom species were the diatoms Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira guillardii. Using two multivariate statistical techniques in combination, five distinct physical and biogeochemical states in the Taw estuarine waters were identified. These states can be summarised as: A(1), high chlorophyll a, high temperature, long residence times, nutrient depletion; A(2), strong coastal water influence; B(1), decreasing chlorophyll a, increasing river flow and/or spring tides; B(2), transitional between states A(1) and B(3); B(3), high river flow. It was thus possible to differentiate between contrasting environmental conditions that were either beneficial or detrimental for the development of algal blooms. A conceptual model of diatom - dominated primary production for the Taw Estuary is proposed which describes how physical controls (river flow, tidal state) moderate plankton biomass production in the upper and mid - estuarine regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  11. The crust and lithospheric mantle beneath SE Tibet and Sichuan Province (SW China) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Yao, H.; Huang, H.; Liu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Studying the crust and upper mantle beneath SE Tibet and Sichuan Province, SW China, is important for (at least) two reasons. First, this region has been central in discussions about the mechanisms of the formation and (eastward) expansion of the Tibetan plateau and, in particular, about the role of lower crustal flow. Second, as the southern part of the Trans China Seismic Belt the region is often struck by powerful earthquakes - such as the devastating 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and its countless aftershocks along the Longmenshan fault system that separates the (mechanically rigid) Sichuan basin from the actively deforming and slowly eastward moving (eastern) Tibetan plateau (Burchfiel et al., GSA Today, 2008). In 2003-04, MIT and Lehigh University deployed (in separate experiments) a total of 75 broadband seismograph stations in western Sichuan and SE Tibet, and in 2006 the Institute of Geology of the Chinese Earthquake Administration (CEA), installed 300 temporary stations in west Sichuan. Data from these arrays have been used for a wide range of studies of the crust and upper mantle, including shear wave splitting (Lev et al., EPSL, 2006; Sol et al, Geology, 2007), receiver function analysis (Xu et al., PEPI, 2007), surface wave array tomography (Yao et al., 2006, 2008), and travel time tomography (Li et al., 2006, 2008). These analyses reveal substantial 3D heterogeneity as well as complex spatial variations of (azimuthal and radial) anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle. Both the surface wave inversions and the receiver function analyses suggest the existence of low shear velocity (and, presumably, mechanically weak) zones in the middle and lower crust, and the inferred 3D variations in anisotropy are inconsistent with vertically coherent deformation. We will review and summarize the findings of these studies and present the latest results of our ongoing investigation of the lithosphere in this region.

  12. Geoarchaeological approaches to Palaeolithic surface artefact distributions and hominin landscape use in SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Robyn; Sinclair, Anthony; Fanning, Patricia; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Bailey, Geoff

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of Palaeolithic archaeological material in arid and semi-arid regions exists in the form of scatters of stone tools across the surface of present-day landscapes. This is particularly the case in the Saharo-Arabian desert belt, a region vital to understanding the global dispersal of hominins from Africa. These surface artefacts possess little stratigraphic context, but comprise the only record we possess to examine spatial behavioural patterning and landscape use by hominin populations. Interpretation of the observed spatial distribution of artefacts is far from straightforward. Surface artefact distributions result from a complex interplay of varying human behaviours over time. Also, geomorphological processes affect the preservation, exposure and visibility of the artefacts, as well as alter the presence and location of attractive resources. The SURFACE project employs an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the distribution of Palaeolithic artefacts in SW Saudi Arabia. By combining remote sensing, geomorphological fieldwork, archaeological survey and GIS analyses, the project is developing a geomorphological context for the artefacts that guides survey to areas of high archaeological potential, as well as allowing the robust interpretation of the observed artefact distribution in a dynamic landscape in terms of past landscape use. This paper will present the ongoing multi-scalar approaches employed by the project to Palaeolithic landscapes, particularly focussing on the site of Wadi Dabsa, Asir Province, where Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts have been found in association with extensive tufa deposits. Investigation in early 2017 at the site will apply SURFACE's methods to understand the present-day artefact distributions at the exposure, and their relationship to the tufa deposition, as well as their potential to inform on Palaeolithic activity and landscape use at the site.

  13. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  14. DIVERSITY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF ARAÇÁ (Psidium guineense Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSON FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guineense Sw , popularly known as araçá, is a fruit tree there is widely distributed in Brazil and belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In northeastern Brazil, araçá occurs along coast and in the Zona da Mata; its fruit looks like guava but is more acidic and has a stronger smell. There is a little information about this species, which increases the difficulty of conserving its genetic resources and exploiting araçá as an economic resource. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of P. guineense from Pernambuco’s Zona da Mata. One hundred and fourteen individuals and 18 isozyme loci were evaluated, showing 28 alleles. The percentage of polymorphic loci ( and the average number of alleles per locus ( were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively, in this population. The expected heterozygosity , which corresponds to the genetic diversity, ranged from 0.22 to 0.23, a high value when considering that isozymes mark access from the functional genome. The differentiation index among the population was ( = 0.015; therefore, the populations were not different among the sampled places. The inbreeding values ( ranged from - 0.549 to - 0.794, indicating an absence of inbreeding and a greater - than - expected heterozygosity in all the studied populations. The estimated gene flow ( N m for a pair of this population ranged from 3.23 to 20.77, sufficient to avoid genetic differentiation among the population and in accordance with the values of genetic divergence found in this study.

  15. Carbon losses by tillage under semi-arid Mediterranean rainfed agriculture (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garrido, R.; Diaz-Espejo, A.; Madejon, E.; Murillo, J. M.; Moreno, F.

    2009-07-01

    Conservation tillage has been promoted as a solution to counteract constraints caused by intensive agriculture. In this work the effects of two conservation tillage systems, reduced tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT) were compared to the traditional tillage (TT) in a long- (15 years, RT) and short-term experiment (3 years, NT). Both experiments were carried out under semi-arid, rainfed agriculture of Mediterranean SW Spain. Tillage caused a sharp increase in soil CO{sub 2} emissions immediately after tillage implementation, with a maximum value of 6.24 g CO{sub 2} m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 under long-term TT treatment. Along the year, losses of carbon through CO{sub 2} emission were higher (905 and 801 g C m{sup -}2 year-1 for the long- and short term TT treatments respectively), than those estimated for conservation systems (764 and 718 g C m{sup -}2 year-1 for RT and NT respectively). Conservation tillage systems accumulated more soil organic carbon (SOC) in surface than the corresponding TT treatments (1.24 and 1.17 times greater for RT and NT, respectively, at 0-10 cm depth). Despite SOC accumulation would be moderate other variables related to soil quality, such as dehydrogenase activity, can be consistently increased in soil surface in conservation tillage, as the stratification ratio values indicated. Crop yields in conservation tillage were similar to or even greater than those obtained in TT. The agricultural (soil quality) and environmental (less CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere) benefits derived from conservation tillage make this system recommendable for semi-arid Mediterranean rainfed agriculture. (Author) 50 refs.

  16. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  17. Interaction between compressional and transcurrent structures: insights from the Sicilian Channel and SW Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, J.; Toscani, G.; Lodolo, E.; Bonini, L.; Seno, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Sicilian Channel presents a very remarkable structural complexity due to the presence and superposition of compressional, extensional and transcurrent structures. In particular, the SW Sicily and its offshore area are affected by two different tectonic processes: (1) compressional, responsible of the Late Miocene Maghrebian Fold-Thrust Belt; (2) transcurrent, responsible of the NS trending lineaments modeled offshore. A geophysical data set composed by seismic reflection profiles (VIDEPI, MS, CROP, OGS profiles) and GEBCO bathymetric data, in addition with analog models, have been used here to shed light on the interaction between the thrust belt and transcurrent deformation.We use clay box with thrust front precut and an undergoing mobile plate for the simulation of the transcurrent movement. Through this setup the interaction angle between the thrust belt and transcurrent displacement was varied in order to check the influence of the interaction angle on the newly formed structures. From the 3D model, we have seen that the region is dominated by N-NE transpressional structure called Sciacca structural high. In the southern part of this structure some faults are still active, as they deform the sea-floor. Lateral branches composing positive flower structures form an open horsetail splays. The plate on the eastern side of the Sciacca high is uplifted due a transpressional displacement and shortening in front of Maghrebian Fold-Thrust Belt. The analog modelling supports the structural setting of Sciacca high, where we equally observe comparable positive flower structures, horsetail splays, and uplift of the moving plate. From the offshore dataset we have seen that these two geodynamic processes coexist independently, but from the onshore structural map, the transcurrent strike-slip deformation affects the Maghrebian Fold-Thrust Belt. These two coexisting geodynamic processes can help in interpreting the 1968 Belice earthquake sequence, where both right

  18. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis in SW620 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquer-Rosselló, Mª Del Mar; Hernández-López, Reyniel; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi; Valle, Adamo

    2017-02-01

    The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) is found in the skin of red grapes and has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. The antitumor effects of RSV in the gastrointestinal tract have gained considerable interest due to the high exposure of this tissue to this dietary compound. One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is their particular metabolism mainly relying on glycolysis for ATP production rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although RSV has been described to act as a calorie-restriction mimetic, modulating energy metabolism in normal tissues, little efforts have been done to study the effects of this polyphenol in the metabolism of cancer cells. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to explore metabolic effects of this polyphenol in colon cancer. Oxygen consumption, ATP levels, Western blotting and other molecular biology techniques were carried out to characterize the metabolic signature of RSV in SW620 colon cancer cells. Paradoxically, the cytotoxic effects of RSV were associated with an increase in oxygen consumption supported by mitochondrial biogenesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. This partial reversion of the Warburg effect was followed by hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane and ROS production, leading to an increased apoptosis. Our results propose that the anticancer mechanisms of RSV could reside in targeting cancer cell metabolism, promoting mitochondrial electron transport chain overload and, ultimately, increasing ROS production. These results shed new light into the anticancer mechanism of RSV supporting the ability of this compound in potentiating the effects of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microplankton composition, production and upwelling dynamics in Sagres (SW Portugal during summer of 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Loureiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Microplankton community, production, and respiration were studied alongside physical and chemical conditions at Sagres (SW Portugal during the upwelling season, from May to September 2001. The sampling station was 5 km east of the upwelling centre off Cabo S. Vicente, and 2 km west of an offshore installation for bivalve aquaculture. Three major periods were distinguished according to sea surface temperature (SST: period 1 (P1; May and June, characterised by high temperature values (17.0±1.8°C; period 2 (P2; July, characterised by lower temperatures (14.6±0.3°C, identified as an upwelling-blooming stage; and period 3 (P3; August, characterised by a high temperature pattern (16.25±1.14°C. Chaetoceros spp., Thalassiosira spp., Lauderia spp., Detonula spp. and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were the major taxa contributing to the dissimilarities between P2 (July and the other periods. In July (P2, the average gross production (GP; 52.5±12.3 µM O2 d-1 and net community production (NCP; 46.9±15.3 µM O2 d-1 peaked with the maximal concentrations of diatom-chl a. Dark community respiration (DCR remained low and more constant throughout (4.6±3.6 µM O2 d-1. The plankton assemblage was dominated by diatoms throughout the survey. Physical events were the primary factors determining the microplankton structure and distribution at this location.

  20. Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qishlaqi, Afshin; Moore, Farid; Forghani, Giti

    2008-06-01

    In this study an assessment is made of the negative impacts of wastewater irrigation on soils and crops sampled along the Khoshk River channel in suburban area of Shiraz City, SW Iran. For this purpose, samples of soil profiles (0-60 cm in depth) and crops were collected from two wastewater irrigated sites and a tube well-irrigated (control) site. Total concentrations of the five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr) and their phytoavailable contents were determined. The Pollution Load Indexes (PLIs) and Contamination Factors (CFs) for soils and Hazard quotients (Sigma HQ) for some vegetables were also calculated. The results showed the use of untreated wastewater has caused the following changes as compared to control site: (1) a 20-30% increase in organic matter content of soil; (2) increase in pH by 2-3 units; (3) significant concentration increase in Ex-Ca especially in top layers of soil resulting in high CEC; (4) build up of heavy metals (notably Pb and Ni) in topsoil above Maximum Permissible Limits (MPLs) indicating a moderate contamination (PLI > 1, CF > 2.5); (5) contamination of some vegetables (spinach and lettuce) with Cd due to its high phytoavailability in topsoil causing a HQ > 1; (6) excessive accumulation of Ni and Pb in wheat due to continual addition of heavy metals through long-term wastewater application. The study concludes that strict protection measures, stringent guidelines and an integrated system for the treatment and recycling of wastewater are needed to minimize the negative impacts of wastewater irrigation in the study area.

  1. LREE Enrichments of Altered Alkaline Pyroclastics at Kuyubasi Region Burdur, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Tugcan Unluer, Ali; Doner, Zeynep; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Sezai Kırıkoǧlu, M.

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the Kuyubasi region of Burdur, Bucak district, Inner Isparta Apex, SW Anatolia, Turkey, the investigation carried out for the potential in-situ enrichments of REE in highly altered alkaline tuffs originated from Golcuk volcano. This volcano is the most significant product of the widely known post collisional, Afyon-Isparta potassic-ultrapotassic volcanic province in southwestern Turkey. Partial melting of oceanic crust and subcontinental lithospheric mantle resulted in the formation of florocarbonates and pyrochlore group minerals which are responsible for the LREE enrichment in Golcuk volcanics. These extrusive rocks are mainly trachyandesites, augite-trachytes, porphyry trachytes and tephriphonolite dikes which are formed in several eruptive cycles. Pyroclastics from the last eruptions can be encountered in various locations beneath the Isparta apex. The pyroclastics in study area described as mafic crystal metatuffs which predominantly consist of calcic-plagioclase with clinopyroxene, K-feldspar, and quartz set in a hyalo-microcrystalline tuffaceous matrix of microcrystalline aggregates of kaolinized and sericitized feldspar, biotite, chlorite, quartz, and dusty iron oxide. The results indicate high values for the LREE elements such as La (251-369 ppm), Ce (412-660 ppm), Sc (45-48 ppm). The average ΣREE content of samples are 1012 ppm. These results are compatible with the samples from Golcuk Caldera which is located 30 km north of study area in terms of LREE contents (La and Ce values are 400-500 ppm and 500-600 ppm respectively). Key words: Rare earth elements (REE), Pyroclastic occurrences, Bucak region, Burdur, Southwest Turkey *This research was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) project. Principal Investigator (PI) of this ongoing TUBITAK, CAYDAG-114Y646 project is Prof.Dr. M. Sezai KIRIKOGLU.

  2. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  3. Benthic foraminiferal responses to operational drill cutting discharge in the SW Barents Sea - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Junttila, Juho; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum related exploration activities started in the Barents Sea 1980, reaching 97 exploration wells drilled per January 2013. The biggest operational discharge from drilling operations in the Barents Sea is the release of drill cuttings (crushed seabed and/or bedrock) and water based drilling muds including the commonly used weighing material barite (BaSO4). Barium (Ba), a constituent of barite, does not degrade and can be used to evaluate dispersion and accumulation of drill waste. The environmental impact associated with exploration drilling within the Goliat Field, SW Barents Sea in 2006 was evaluated via a multiproxy investigation of local sediments. The sediments were retrieved in November 2014 at ~350 meters water depth and coring sites were selected at distances of 5, 30, 60, 125 and 250 meters from the drill hole in the eastward downstream direction. The dispersion pattern of drill waste was estimated via measurements of sediment parameters including grain size distribution and water content in addition to heavy metal and total organic carbon contents. The environmental impact was evaluated via micro faunal analysis based on benthic foraminiferal (marine shell bearing protists) fauna composition and concentration changes. Observing the sediment parameters, most notably Ba levels, reveals that dispersion of drill waste was limited to waste thicknesses decreasing downstream. The abruptness and quantity of drill waste sedimentation initially smothered the foraminiferal fauna at ≤ 30 meters from the drill site, while at a distance of 60 meters, the fauna seemingly survived and bioturbation persisted. Analysis of the live (Nov 2014) foraminiferal fauna reveals a natural species composition at all distances from the drill site within the top sediments (0-5 cm core depth). Furthermore, the fossil foraminiferal fauna composition found within post-impacted top sediment sections, particularly in the cores situated at 30 and 60 meters from the drill site

  4. SW#db: GPU-Accelerated Exact Sequence Similarity Database Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Korpar

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed a growth in sequencing yield, the number of samples sequenced, and as a result-the growth of publicly maintained sequence databases. The increase of data present all around has put high requirements on protein similarity search algorithms with two ever-opposite goals: how to keep the running times acceptable while maintaining a high-enough level of sensitivity. The most time consuming step of similarity search are the local alignments between query and database sequences. This step is usually performed using exact local alignment algorithms such as Smith-Waterman. Due to its quadratic time complexity, alignments of a query to the whole database are usually too slow. Therefore, the majority of the protein similarity search methods prior to doing the exact local alignment apply heuristics to reduce the number of possible candidate sequences in the database. However, there is still a need for the alignment of a query sequence to a reduced database. In this paper we present the SW#db tool and a library for fast exact similarity search. Although its running times, as a standalone tool, are comparable to the running times of BLAST, it is primarily intended to be used for exact local alignment phase in which the database of sequences has already been reduced. It uses both GPU and CPU parallelization and was 4-5 times faster than SSEARCH, 6-25 times faster than CUDASW++ and more than 20 times faster than SSW at the time of writing, using multiple queries on Swiss-prot and Uniref90 databases.

  5. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  6. Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Bo

    Full Text Available Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea. L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection.

  7. Dynamic modulation of DNA replication and gene transcription in deep-sea filamentous phage SW1 in response to changes of host growth and temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Jian

    Full Text Available Little is known about the response of deep-sea virus and their relationship with their host towards environmental change. Although viruses are thought to play key roles in the deep-sea ecological evolution and biogeochemical cycling, these roles are yet to be defined. This study aims to delineate the relationship between a deep-sea filamentous phage SW1 and its host Shewanella piezotolerans (S. piezotolerans WP3, and their response towards temperature change. The copy number of SW1's replicative form (RF- DNA and single-stranded (ss- DNA along the different growth phases of WP3 were quantified at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. The copy number of SW1 RF-DNA was found to be temperature and growth phase-dependent, while the ssDNA of SW1 was only produced at 4°C. This is the first report showing low-temperature dependence of phage DNA replication. The transcription of SW1 key genes fpsA and fpsR were also found to be induced at low temperature during all the monitored growth periods of WP3. Additionally, the transcription of SW1 was found to be induced by cold-shock while its DNA replication was not changed. Our data demonstrates a dynamic change of virus DNA replication and transcription in accordance with host growth, and the low temperature adapted mechanisms for SW1 activities in the deep sea. This low temperature adapted deep-sea virus-bacterium system could serve as an ideal model to further study the mechanism and relationship of deep-sea virus-bacteria ecosystems.

  8. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  9. Rainfall events as landslide triggers - implications for the evolution of the SW-German cuesta landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Götz, Joachim; Berger, Hannah; Jäger, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The cuesta landscape of southwestern Germany (Swabian Alb) is characterized by layered sedimentary rocks (Jurassic) of variable strength. Due to this geologic preconditioning, where porous limestone (Malm) is underlain by impermeable claystone (Dogger), and the deeply incised valleys of the Rhine river system, landslides play an important role in the landscape evolution of the region, continually eroding the slopes of the Swabian Alb and displacing the escarpment further backwards. One of the largest (well documented) landslides happened in April 1983, when an estimated volume of 6 x 106 m3 (˜0.5 x 106 m2) was mobilized at the Hirschkopf close to Mössingen, after 1/3 of the mean annual precipitation was delivered in only a few days. The historic record holds further evidence of at least four landslides of similar size (>0.25 x 106 m2) in the past 250 years, most of which have been attributed to high-intensity and/or long-duration precipitation events. During summer 2013, at least eight landslides have been initiated in the vicinity (period before these events was very wet, suggesting that high-intensity and/or long-duration precipitation plays a key role in the evolution of the SW German cuesta landscape. We take this opportunity to a) quantify the volume of material mobilized during the events and b) to estimate the sediment output from the affected catchments. By comparing post-event digital elevation models (DEMs) obtained from UAV/SfM and TLS surveys with a pre-event DEM (ALS), we estimate that at least 2.5 x 106 m3have been mobilized by these landslides, with the largest of them accounting for >1 x 106 m3 of material. Assessing data from more than 20 rainfall stations in the region (<40 km distance) reveals the June 2013 precipitation to exceed the 95th percentile of the past decade by far, in six locations constituting the maximum of the ten-year record. Preliminary results of suspended sediment export that we estimate from sediment-discharge rating curves

  10. Development of soil quality along a chronosequence under natural succession in the Dragonja catchment, SW Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hall, Rutger; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural fields have been increasingly abandoned in several regions in Southern Europe. In many cases this leads to natural vegetation succession which may have a direct impact on soil quality,biodiversity and hydrological connectivity. This research aims at getting insight on the effects of natural vegetation succession on the development of soil quality in the Sub-Mediterranean Dragonja catchment in SW Slovenia. This site was chosen due to its uniform geology, geomorphology and soil types. Four different stages of vegetation succession (i.e. field, abandoned field, young forest, semi-mature forest) were selected and sampled on both north-, and south-facing slopes, resulting in 8 treatments for which 6 representative sites were sampled. Samples were analysed on OC and TN content, EC, pH, bulk density, aggregate stability and grain size distribution. To get insight on the changes in biodiversity vegetation records were made distinguishing five different plant functional groups (i.e. juveniles, grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees). Age group (i.e. stage of vegetation succession) significantly influenced the OC and TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Directly after abandonment, between age group 0 and 1, OC and TN content, aggregate stability and pH increased significantly and bulk density decreased significantly. OC content was most affected by age group and furthermore significantly correlated to TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Regarding biodiversity, there was a significant increase in cover by trees between age group 1 and 2 and a significant decrease between age group 2 and 3. Cover by herbs decreased significantly between age group 1 and 2. The number of different trees and shrubs increased significantly between age group 0 and 1, and the number of different juveniles increased significantly between age group 2 and 3. Another factor significantly influencing the soil's quality is aspect. Although not found for each age

  11. 450,000 years of groundwater (234U/238U)0 variations in SW Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kathleen A.; Moseley, Gina E.; Pythoud, Mathieu; Dublyansky, Yuri; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Subaqueous speleothems represent a unique archive for geochemical variations in regional groundwater systems. Devils Hole 2 cave, located in SW Nevada, USA, is an open fault zone intersecting the Ash Meadows groundwater flow system. Speleothem layers that coat the submerged walls of Devils Hole 2 cave record the isotopic composition of groundwater uranium at the time of precipitation. Past variations of 234U/238U initial activity ratios in groundwater may provide insight into paleohydrological conditions, such as changes to groundwater flow rates or source inputs. We aim to reconstruct 450 ka of groundwater (234U/238U)0 variations at Devils Hole 2 cave. To do so, an 80 cm-long core was drilled from the cave wall. Over 100 (234U/238U) and U-Th ages were measured in order to calculate initial activity ratios. Despite relatively constant uranium concentrations and growth rates throughout the core, preliminary results show a range in values (2.851 -2.616) deviating from modern day groundwater (234U/238U)0 which we measured to 2.762 (±0.002). (234U/238U)0 variations appear to follow interglacial-glacial cycles from 450 ka to present day, such that maximum (234U/238U)0 ratios identified at roughly 43, 185, 289, 374, and 449 ka correspond to glacial periods, while minimum (234U/238U)0 ratios at roughly 5, 121, 239, 336 and 422 ka correspond to interglacial periods. Focusing on the last 200 ka, we observe increasing (234U/238U)0 ratios coupled with depleted Devils Hole 2 δ18O values and water table high-stands (Moseley et al. 2016, Science 2016). We suggest that (234U/238U)0 variations are positively correlated to precipitation amount, contrary to dripstone speleothem records in the Great Basin region. Mechanisms driving the fluctuation in (234U/238U)0 values are still uncertain, but may be due to increased inputs of additional minor groundwater sources to the Ash Meadows flow system during pluvial periods.

  12. Long-Term Water Quality Studies in a Eutrophic Lake Catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring is the process by which we keep the behaviour of the environment in view, an essential way of discovering whether there are significant undesirable changes taking place. Long-term datasets reveal important patterns for scientists to explain and are essential for testing hypotheses undreamt of at the time monitoring scheme was set up. Many environmental processes take place over relatively long periods of time; very often, subtle processes are embedded within highly variable systems so that their weak signal cannot be extracted without a long record. Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, wetland 116 ha in area which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is open water. In the 1960s it became apparent that the Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in late 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large rivers like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for small rural basins. Other issues to be explored will be the phosphorus legacy in lake sediments and a long-term decline in lake pH. The Slapton water quality record has confirmed that undesirable changes are taking place, revealed evidence of important patterns to be explained, allowed testing of new hypotheses (e.g. links with land-use change) and helped

  13. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  14. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2017-09-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  15. Molybdenite Re Os dating constrains gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen, SW Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Stein, Holly J.; Bogaerts, Michel; Bolle, Olivier; Mansfeld, Joakim

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite from small deposits is used to define crustal domains exhibiting ductile versus brittle behaviour during gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen in SW Scandinavia. A 1019 ± 3 Ma planar quartz vein defines a minimum age for brittle behaviour in central Telemark. In Rogaland-Vest Agder, molybdenite associated with deformed quartz and pegmatite veins formed between 982 ± 3 and 947 ± 3 Ma in the amphibolite-facies domain (three deposits) and between 953 ± 3 and 931 ± 3 Ma west of the clinopyroxene-in isograd (two deposits) in the vicinity of the 0.93-0.92 Ga Rogaland anorthosite complex. The data constrain the last increment of ductile deformation to be younger than 0.95 and 0.93 Ga in these two metamorphic zones, respectively. Molybdenite is the product of an equilibrium between biotite, oxide and sulfide minerals and a fluid or hydrated melt phase, after the peak of 1.03-0.97 Ga regional metamorphism. Molybdenite precipitation is locally episodic. A model for gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen controlled by lithospheric extension after 0.97 Ga is proposed. In the west of the orogen, the Rogaland-Vest Agder sector is interpreted as a large shallow gneiss dome, formed slowly in two stages in a warm and structurally weak crust. The first stage at 0.96-0.93 Ga was associated with intrusion of the post-collisional hornblende-biotite granite suite. The second stage at 0.93-0.92 Ga, restricted to the southwesternmost area, was associated with intrusion of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite. Most of the central part of the orogen was already situated in the brittle upper crust well before 0.97 Ga, and did not undergo significant exhumation during collapse. In the east of the orogen, situated against the colder cratonic foreland, exhumation of high-grade rocks of the Eastern Segment occurred between 0.97 and 0.95 Ga, and included preservation of high-pressure rocks but no plutonism.

  16. A millennial-scale record of tidewater glacier advance and retreat, SW Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Mair, Doug; Rea, Brice; Schofield, Ed; Lea, James; Barr, Iestyn; Kamenos, Nick; Schoenrock, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Tidewater glaciers (TWGs) exert a major control on the short- and long-term mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and have experienced widespread retreat over the last century. However, in many cases inferences on their dynamics, prior to this, are poorly constrained due to a lack of observations and paucity of mapped or mappable deglacial geomorphology. Especially lacking is evidence associated with TWG advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD c. 1300 to 1850). Such data are crucial for numerical model calibration and validation in order to more confidently forward model ice sheet dynamics and projection future sea-level rise. Therefore, empirical data constraints from the palaeo-record, that span such timescales (decadal to millennial), are essential. Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) is the most dynamic TWG in SW Greenland, located c. 100 km inland from Nuuk, at the head of Godthabsfjord. KNS has received considerable research attention over the last decade but glacial geomorphological and numerical dating investigations have been limited. However, the adjacent topography and geomorphology presents a unique opportunity to reconstruct the advance and retreat dynamics over the LIA. We present detailed glacial geomorphological mapping for KNS, which followed a morphostratigraphic approach, using a combination of aerial photos, Landsat, a DEM and field mapping. This identified a three landsystems, which are associated with the LIA, pre-LIA and neoglacial. From the mapping inferences on rapid changes in meltwater routing have been inferred. When KNS reached its LIA maximum (c. 1761), the calving front was c. >22 km further along the fjord than present and a number of ice-dammed lakes were formed. We present new 14C dating from peat underlying lake sediments associated with an ice-dammed lake and buried palaeosols resulting from meltwater re-routing over topographic spillways. The ages support an early and rapid LIA advance phase, with advance rates being

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Gallego Volcanic Field, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific and geotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, M. G.; Haldane, M. I.; Smith, D. J.; Billy, D.; Jordan, N. J.

    2011-08-01

    The Upper Miocene to present day Gallego Volcanic Field (GVF) is located in northwest Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific, and potentially includes the offshore Savo volcano. The GVF is a multi-centred complex covering an area of ~ 800 km 2 on Guadalcanal and a further ~ 30 km 2 on the island of Savo, north of west Guadalcanal. GVF volcanism is characterised by effusive eruptions of lava, intrusion of sub-volcanic plutons, as well as pyroclastic flow and fall deposits dominated by block and ash flow deposits. Geochemical analysis of a representative suite of samples from the GVF demonstrates that the GVF comprise largely a 'main suite' of basalts to andesites and minor trachyandesites. The predominant mineralogy of the GVF comprises plagioclase, amphibole, clinopyroxene and magnetite-ilmenite. Associated with the 'main suite' are cognate nodules composed of hornblendite, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite. Interpretation of major and trace element geochemistry and petrographic studies suggests that fractionation was dominated by early clinopyroxene, and later amphibole + clinopyroxene + minor plagioclase. Geochemical features such as the incompatibility of Sr suggest that plagioclase largely crystallised en-masse late in the fractionation sequence. The presence of amphibole and late fractionation of plagioclase is suggestive of derivation from initially water-rich magmas. The region is characterised by strong geographically-related geochemical variations as evidenced by the Woodlark (and Manus) basins: basalts become more arc-like within the ocean basins with decreasing distance to the subducting trench. The GVF-Savo volcanoes are spatially and geochemically affected by deep N-S fractures that show some evidence of sympathetic geochemical variations with distance from the trench (e.g. Sr/Y ratios). Comparison with a range of international data for Th/Nb vs Pb/Nb and Dy/Yb vs SiO 2 indicate that: amphibole was indeed a strong controlling phase on magmatic evolution

  18. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Eocene Lailishan Sn deposit in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Pei, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Zhang, Lin-Kui; Tang, Li; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo

    2017-04-01

    The Lailishan deposit is an important tin deposit that is genetically associated with an Early Eocene biotite granite in the western Yunnan metallogenic belt in the Sanjiang region, SW China. This study reports new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, whole-rock elements, mica Ar-Ar age and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope for the Lailishan Sn deposit. The mineralization-related biotite granite crystallized during the Early Eocene (50.5 Ma), with its zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -11.5 to -7.6 and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 Ga. The rocks are peraluminous with A/CNK values of 0.99-1.08. The granites display high Si, Al and K contents but low Mg, Fe and Ca contents. The rocks show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong Eu negative anomalies. These characteristics indicate that the magma originated from a continental crustal source. The hydrothermal muscovite exhibits an Ar-Ar plateau age of 50.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The δ18O and δD values of hydrothermal quartz from the deposit range from -7.32‰ to 4.01‰ and from -124.9‰ to -87.1‰, respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite range from -11.3‰ to -3.7‰ and from +2.2‰ to +12.7‰, respectively. The sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) range from +3.3‰ to +8.6‰ for sulfide separates, and the lead isotopic ratios 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb range from 18.668 to 18.746, from 15.710 to 15.743 and from 39.202 to 39.295, respectively. These isotopic compositions are similar to those of magma-derived fluids, indicating that the ore-forming fluids and materials mainly originated from magmatic rocks with some input from meteoric water. This evidence suggests that the tin mineralization is closely linked to the Lailishan I-type granites. In combination with previous data, it is proposed in this study that widespread early Eocene magmatism resulted from the slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan slab at ca. 55 Ma.

  19. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  20. Estudio fitoquímico de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Márquez Hernández

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio fitoquímico preliminar de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W. Se practicó un tamizaje fitoquímico sobre material seco y fresco, en el que se obtuvieron resultados positivos para mucílagos, sustancias reductoras, antocianinas, aminoácidos, taninos y flavonoides. Se determinó que las antocianinas se afectan durante el proceso de secado. Para la realización del estudio químico se maceró el material vegetal con 4 menstruos (fracciones A, B, C y D. A partir de las fracciones A y B se aisló el producto HE1, el cual se analizó por espectroscopia ultravioleta, infrarroja, de resonancia magnética nuclear protónica, de carbono 13, mediante uso de técnicas especiales y por espectrometría de masas, lo que permitió identificarlo como el flavonoide gossypitrina. La fracción C se sometió a un fraccionamiento según el método de absorción-desorción sobre silicagel, lo que permitió la detección de rutina y quercetina. Los flavonoides identificados se reportan por primera vez para la especie.A preliminary phytochemical study of Hibiscus elatus species was undertaken. A phytochemical sieving of fresch dry material made it possible to obtain positive results for mucilages, reducing substances, anthocyamins, aminoacids, tanines and flavonoids. Anthocyamines were determined to be affected during dryng process. For carry ing uot the chemical study, the plant was mecrated into 4 solvents (A, B, C and D fractions. Taking A and B fractions as a basis, product HE1 was isolated and analyzed by ultra - violet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, proton and carbon 13 spectroscopies as well as special techniques and mass spectrometry. This resulted in the identification of this product as gossypitrin flavonoid. Fraction C was fractioned by silicagel absorption - desorption methods which allowed us to detec rutin and quercetin. The identified flavonoids are reported for the first time in this species.

  1. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Van Wert, Michael J; Ewing, Whitney F; Grosso, Ashley L; Holland, Claire E; Katterl, Rachel; Rosman, Lori; Agarwal, Arnav; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men. This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%), were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma. With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  2. Present-day strain partitioning and strain transfer across the Fairweather and Denali Faults in SW Yukon - SE Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-12-01

    In SW Yukon - SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific - North America relative motion is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen-Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny and accretion of the allochthonous Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. We present results from new campaign and permanent GPS stations deployed in SW Yukon, combined with STEEP data from SE Alaska, straddling the Fairweather and Denali Faults. GPS data are processed with the NRCan PPP software to derive long-term velocities and are corrected for transient effects primarily due to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to recent ice mass loss. In the southern region (from Yakutat, AK to Whitehorse, YK), our preferred model gives slip rates of 49.9 +/- 2.6 mm/a on the Fairweather Fault and 1.1 +/- 1.0 mm/a on the Denali Fault; i.e., over 95% the Pacific - North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the main plate-boundary fault. However, the fault-normal component is strongly partitioned, with ~25% of the Pacific - North America convergence transferred inland, into the Yukon and Northern Cordillera. This strain transfer could explain the seismicity observed in the Mackenzie Mountains 500 - 800 km from the coast. In the northern region (from Yakutat, AK to Beaver Creek, YK), the Pacific - North America convergence is strongly partitioned, with less than ~60% accommodated on the Chugach-St. Elias Fault and the residual motion distributed between the Pamplona thrust zone to the south (~15%) and internal shortening of the St. Elias Mountains to the north (~25%), where few faults and little seismicity are observed. The new GPS data also helps address the activity and slip rate of a potential "Connector Fault" that would link the Fairweather and Totschunda Faults, bypassing the Denali Fault in SW Yukon.

  3. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek

    Full Text Available Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men.This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%, were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma.With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  4. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  5. Critical applications of SW 846 US EPA methods to evaluation of marine samples quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira Silvério

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical evaluation of analytical data is of extreme relevance considering it can be used for comparisons with environmental quality standards and decision-making as related to the management of disposal of dredged sediments and the evaluation of salt and brackish water quality in accordance with CONAMA 357/05 Resolution. It is, therefore, essential that the project manager discusses the environmental agency's technical requirements with the laboratory contracted for the follow-up of the analysis underway and even with a view to possible re-analysis when anomalous data are identified. The main technical requirements are: (1 method quantitation limits (QLs should fall below environmental standards; (2 analyses should be carried out in laboratories whose analytical scope is accredited by the National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO or qualified or accepted by a licensing agency; (3 chain of custody should be provided in order to ensure sample traceability; (4 control charts should be provided to prove method performance; (5 certified reference material analysis or, if that is not available, matrix spike analysis, should be undertaken and (6 chromatograms should be included in the analytical report. Within this context and with a view to helping environmental managers in analytical report evaluation, this work has as objectives the discussion of the limitations of the application of SW 846 US EPA methods to marine samples, the consequences of having data based on method detection limits (MDL and not sample quantitation limits (SQL, and present possible modifications of the principal method applied by laboratories in order to comply with environmental quality standards.Avaliação técnica do resultado analítico é de extrema relevância, pois o mesmo será utilizado para comparação com legislações e tomadas de decisão, tais como, disposição adequada de sedimento dragado e avaliação da qualidade de água superficial salobra e salina

  6. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  7. Influência de diferentes concentrações dos fitorreguladores ácido 6-benzilaminopurina e ácido naftalenoacético na propagação vegetativa de Malva sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Filter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris L. (família Malvaceae, conhecida como malva, é uma espécie medicinal nativa da Europa, cultivada no sul do Brasil. A espécie tem propriedade adstringente, suaviza a irritação dos tecidos e reduz inflamações, entre outras características e atributos medicinais. O estudo teve como objetivo verificar a eficiência dos hormônios ANA (ácido naftalenoacético e BAP (ácido 6-Benzilaminopurina na propagação vegetativa a partir do estabelecimento in vitro de segmentos nodais. Segmentos nodais obtidos de plantas matrizes mantidas em casa de vegetação foram submetidos à desinfestação e inoculados em meio MS (Murashige e Skoog com diferentes concentrações e combinações de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético e BAP (ácido 6-Benzilaminopurina totalizando oito tratamentos com 60 repetições cada. Os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento e, ao completar sete dias, as plântulas obtidas foram retiradas e avaliadas quanto ao número de folhas, altura total (cm e massa fresca (g. As plântulas foram fixadas em substrato "Big bio" e transferidas para casa de vegetação com nebulização. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, seguido pelo Teste de Tukey. As plântulas obtidas em meio MS acrescido de 2,0 mg/Lˉ¹ de BAP e de 0,5 mg/Lˉ¹ de ANA foram as que apresentaram maior média nas três variáveis avaliadas, sendo então o mais indicado para a produção de mudas. Em 10 dias foi observado o enraizamento de todas as plântulas transferidas para casa de vegetação. A aclimatização e o enraizamento ex vitro ocorrem em uma única etapa sem a necessidade da utilização de enraizadores. A técnica desenvolvida demonstra a possibilidade de produção de mudas com custos reduzidos, em larga escala, e com a garantia de fornecer mudas aptas para o cultivo em apenas 17 dias.

  8. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  9. A microbial carbonate response in synchrony with the end-Triassic mass extinction across the SW UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Yadira; Corsetti, Frank A; Greene, Sarah E; Bottjer, David J

    2016-01-27

    The eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)-the largest igneous province known-has been linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction event, however reconciling the response of the biosphere (at local and nonlocal scales) to potential CAMP-induced geochemical excursions has remained challenging. Here we present a combined sedimentary and biological response to an ecosystem collapse in Triassic-Jurassic strata of the southwest United Kingdom (SW UK) expressed as widely distributed carbonate microbialites and associated biogeochemical facies. The microbialites (1) occur at the same stratigraphic level as the mass extinction extinction, (2) host a negative isotope excursion in δ(13)Corg found in other successions around the world, and (3) co-occur with an acme of prasinophyte algae 'disaster taxa' also dominant in Triassic-Jurassic boundary strata of other European sections. Although the duration of microbialite deposition is uncertain, it is likely that they formed rapidly (perhaps fewer than ten thousand years), thus providing a high-resolution glimpse into the initial carbon isotopic perturbation coincident with the end-Triassic mass extinction. These findings indicate microbialites from the SW UK capture a nonlocal biosedimentary response to the cascading effects of massive volcanism and add to the current understanding of paleoecology in the aftermath of the end-Triassic extinction.

  10. Regulation of FGF23 expression in IDG-SW3 osteocytes and human bone by pro-inflammatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuaki; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Prideaux, Matthew; Kogawa, Masakazu; Ormsby, Renee T; Evdokiou, Andreas; Bonewald, Lynda F; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J

    2015-01-05

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), produced by osteocytes, is the key physiological regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Sepsis patients often experience transient hypophosphataemia, suggesting the regulation of FGF23 levels by pro-inflammatory factors. Here, we used the osteocyte-like cell line IDG-SW3 to investigate the effect of pro-inflammatory stimuli on FGF23 production. In differentiated IDG-SW3 cultures, basal Fgf23 mRNA was dose-dependently up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1β and TWEAK, and bacterial LPS. Similar effects were observed in human bone samples. TNF- and IL-1β-induced Fgf23 expression was NF-κB-dependent. Conversely, mRNA encoding negative regulators of FGF23, Phex, Dmp1 and Enpp1, were suppressed by TNF, IL-1β, TWEAK and LPS, independent of NF-κβ signalling. Galnt3, the protein product of which protects intact FGF23 protein from furin/furin-like proprotein convertase cleavage, increased in response to these treatments. C-terminal FGF23 and intact FGF23 protein levels also increased, the latter only in the presence of Furin inhibitors, suggesting that enzymatic cleavage exerts critical control of active FGF23 secretion by osteocytes. Our results demonstrate in principle that pro-inflammatory stimuli are capable of increasing osteocyte secretion of FGF23, which may contribute to hypophosphataemia during sepsis and possibly other inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphoproteome Characterization of Human Colorectal Cancer SW620 Cell-Derived Exosomes and New Phosphosite Discovery for C-HPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahui; Cui, Yizhi; Yan, Ziqi; Luo, Yanzhang; Zhang, Wanling; Deng, Suyuan; Tang, Shengquan; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu; Wang, Tong

    2016-11-04

    Identification of all phosphorylation forms of known proteins is a major goal of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP). Recent studies have found that certain phosphoproteins can be encapsulated in exosomes and function as key regulators in tumor microenvironment, but no deep coverage phosphoproteome of human exosomes has been reported to date, which makes the exosome a potential source for the new phosphosite discovery. In this study, we performed highly optimized MS analyses on the exosomal and cellular proteins isolated from human colorectal cancer SW620 cells. With stringent data quality control, 313 phosphoproteins with 1091 phosphosites were confidently identified from the SW620 exosome, from which 202 new phosphosites were detected. Exosomal phosphoproteins were significantly enriched in the 11q12.1-13.5 region of chromosome 11 and had a remarkably high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins (6.4%), which were functionally relevant to ephrin signaling pathway-directed cytoskeleton remodeling. In conclusion, we here report the first high-coverage phosphoproteome of human cell-secreted exosomes, which leads to the identification of new phosphosites for C-HPP. Our findings provide insights into the exosomal phosphoprotein systems that help to understand the signaling language being delivered by exosomes in cell-cell communications. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange consortium with the data set identifier PXD004079, and iProX database (accession number: IPX00076800).

  12. Assessing the environmental sensitivity to land degradation. A validation of the MEDALUS method in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado Contador, J. F.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez Gutiérrez, A.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    In places where drought is one of the main climatic constraints, land degradation and desertification can take place if soils have suffered from a loss of biological production and resilience caused by both, natural and anthropogenic factors. It is important to identify such sensitive areas and to describe the driving forces leading to land degradation in order to properly understand the phenomenon. The main goal of this work is to identify places with different sensitivity to land degradation in Extremadura (Spain) by means of a modeling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification Land Use) (Kosmas et al., 1999), which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index, Environmental Sensitive Area index) in which environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as anthropogenic factors (management) are included. A geographical information system approach was applied in this study. Sensitivity to degradation is analyzed by combining four quality indexes (soil, climate, vegetation and management). The first three giving information about environmental conditions and the later about man-related factors. Each of those quality indexes result from averaging several parameters involved in their calculation. The study area covered the whole region of the Extremadura (41.633 km²), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. For the classification of soil cover classes, the CORINE land cover 2000 maps were used and reclassified according to the requirements. Some information was also gathered from the National Forest Inventory. A digital elevation model of 25 m pixel size was used to calculate terrain slope and aspect and the climate data were obtained from the Digital Climatic Atlas of the Iberian Peninsula. Two maps of environmental sensitivity to land degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes) were established and tested by comparing the results obtained (classes of sensitivity) with

  13. Timing of Svecofennian crustal growth and collisional tectonics in Åland, SW Finland

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    Carl Ehlers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to quantify the time parameter in the tectonomagmatic evolution of what has been called the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC of SW Finland, advanced radiometric dating techniques have here been applied to rock groups of key importance in that area. In this paper we report the results of 131 high-resolution ionmicroprobe spot analyses (SIMS of zircons, and 33 measurements using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS on zircon, monazite and titanite, and employing both large-sample multi-grain as well as single-grain techniques. The Torsholma area of the Åland archipelago, situated between southern Finland and central Sweden, is a key structural area significant to resolve the time dimension in Svecofennian tectonics. There a collage of imbricated rock slabs was formed by tectonic shortening representing the culmination of large-scale penetrative Svecofennian deformation. Another structurally significant feature investigated is the South FinlandShear Zone (SFSZ that transects the southwest-Finnish archipelago and further east follows the southern coast of Finland. This shear zone forms the southern limit of the c. 1830 Ma Late Svecofennian Granite and Migmatite Zone (LSGM and also features deformations of a later stage when the considered region of Svecofennian crust was consolidated. The obtained age results and their tectonic analysis can be summarized as follows. The Enklinge volcanic sequence (1885±6 Ma is within error limits coeval with the intrusion of abundant early-kinematic gneissose granodiorites whose average age of 1884±5 Ma marks the formation of new crust in this region. Some of these geisses contain a significant amount of 2000–2080 Ma zircon. Although many Svecofennian granitoids are known to contain heterogeneous zircon populations, mainly formed c. 1890 Ma ago but also containing an inherited component, the Kökar gneiss is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case where inheritance from c. 2030

  14. Structural and Petrophysical Characterization of Fault Zones in Shales: Example from the Tournemire Url (sw, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DICK, P.; Du Peloux de Saint Romain, A.; Moreno, E.; Homberg, C.; Renel, F.; Dauzères, A.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL) operated by IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) is located on the western border of the Mesozoic sedimentary Causses Basin (SW France). The URL crosses a thick Toarcian shale formation (≈250 m) and is interbedded between two aquiferous limestone formations. In addition to the 250 m thick overlying limestones, the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of this site exhibit similarities with those measured by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of Bure (Meuse/Haute Marne, France). The Tournemire site is marked by numerous minor shear bands that affect not only the shale formation but also the over- and underlying limestone units. Since analogous discontinuities in an underground deep geological repository could act as a preferential pathway for radionuclide migration, the Tournemire site appears as an ideal location to understand the internal and permeability structures of such clay-based faults. In this study, we investigate the structural and petrophysical variations observed in a 10-15 m thick, subvertical, strike-slip shear band. For this, eight fully cored and logged horizontal boreholes were drilled normal to the fault's direction. The internal architecture and permeability of the fault was revealed through a combination of different tools (AMS, SEM, XRD and helium pycnometer) used on samples, as well as optical, induction and neutron porosity logging used in boreholes. The analysis of core samples from the different boreholes indicates that the studied fault zone is divided into a fault core (gouge), surrounded by a damaged zone (e.g., kinematically related fracture sets, small faults, and veins). Porosity and hydraulic conductivity values are low in the undisturbed shale (respectively, 9% and 10-14 m.s-1) and increase progressively towards the fault core (respectively, 15-20% and 5.10-12 m.s-1

  15. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  16. Dynamic uplift and erosion history of the Colorado Plateau: New insights from a SW-NE thermochronologic transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, X.; Reiners, P.; Whipple, K. X.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Colorado Plateau (CP), Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments overlapped by Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous marine sediments is uplifted nowadays at ~1.9 km mean elevation with extremely limited crustal shortening. Deep buoyancy-driven dynamics are sometimes proposed to explain part of this uplift, but the lack of critical data and the inherently non-observable convective mantle contribute to a lack of consensus on the forces that are responsible for such features. Given recent advances in the dynamic interpretations of tomographic density variations in the mantle, [Moucha et al., 2009] simulate realistic 3D mantle convection in response to the observed mantle heterogeneity, and predict back- and forward in time the evolution of mantle flow, and thus mantle-driven dynamic surface uplift and/or subsidence. This 30 Ma retrodictions of mantle convection model carries intriguing implications for the post-Laramide evolution of the Grand Canyon (GC), the Colorado River (CR) and Lake Bidahochi that may help reconcile numerous geologic, geomorphic, and low-temperature thermochronologic data. Our analysis of the CR profile inferred from the dynamic uplift retrodictions suggests 3 major events in the post-Laramide evolution of the CP. (1) 30 to 15 Ma: Regular and homogeneous uplift (300 to 400 m) throughout the whole plateau with potential incision of the western GC with Grand Wash Cliffs tectonic relief development ~18 Ma. (2) ~15 to ~8 Ma: further uplift concentrated in the SW CP, tilting the plateau back to the E and possibly ponding the upper CR, plausibly explaining the formation of Lake Bidahochi (~190 m of observed lake sediments) and sustaining the incision of western GC. (3) ~8 to 0 Ma: NE migration of the wave of uplift, tilting the southwestern CP back to the W. It coincides with (and may have triggered) hypothesized Lake Bidahochi spillover that may have caused the dramatic post-6Ma incision of the GC. We also obtained single-grains apatite (U

  17. Knockdown of β-catenin by siRNA influences proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of the colon cancer cell line SW480

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kui; Zhou, Zhong-Yin; JI, PAN-PAN; Luo,He-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of knocking down the expression of β-catenin by small interference (si)RNA on the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion abilities of the human colon cancer cell line SW480. For that purpose, double-stranded siRNA targeting β-catenin (β-catenin-siRNA) was synthesized and transfected into SW480 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were u...

  18. Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of the Ni–Cu Sulfide Ores in the Tejadillas Prospect (Cortegana Igneous Complex, SW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Piña García, Rubén; Gervilla, Fernando; Ortega Menor, Lorena; Lunar Hernández, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of theAguablanca ore deposit (the unique Ni–Cu mine operating in SW Europe), a number of mafic-ultramafic intrusions bearing Ni–Cu magmatic sulfides have been found in the Ossa–Morena Zone of the Iberian Massif (SW Iberian Peninsula). The Tejadillas prospect is one of these intrusions, situated close to the border between the Ossa–Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone of the Iberian Massif. This prospect contains an average grade of 0.16 wt%Ni and 0.08 wt%Cu with peaks...

  19. Novel virus influenza A (H1N1sw in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009.

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    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii One early (May 2009 and one late (July 2009 viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in

  20. Aerosol radiative effect in UV, VIS, NIR, and SW spectra under haze and high-humidity urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Che, Huizheng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Boming

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol properties derived from sun-photometric observations at Wuhan during a haze period were analyzed and used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) in ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave (SW) spectra. The results showed that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased from 0.32 under clear-air conditions to 0.85 during common haze and 1.39 during severe haze. An unusual inverse relationship was found between the Ångström exponent (AE) and AOD during the haze period at Wuhan. Under high-humidity conditions, the fine-mode median radius of aerosols increased from 0.113 μm to approximately 0.2-0.5 μm as a result of hygroscopic growth, which led to increases in the AOD and decreases in the AE simultaneously. These changes were responsible for the inverse relationship between AE and AOD at Wuhan. The surface ARE in the UV (AREUV), VIS (AREVIS), NIR (ARENIR), and SW (ARESW) spectra changed from -4.46, -25.37, -12.15, and -41.99 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -9.48, -53.96, -29.81, and -93.25 W/m2 during common hazy days and -12.89, -80.16, -55.17, and -148.22 W/m2 during severe hazy days, respectively, and the percentages of AREUV, AREVIS, and ARENIR in ARESW changed from 11%, 61%, and 28%-9%, 54%, and 37%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ARE efficiencies (REE) in SW varied from -206.5 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -152.94 W/m2 during the common haze period and -131.47 W/m2 during the severe haze period. The smallest decreasing rate of the REE in NIR was associated with the increase of ARENIR. The weakened REE values were related to the strong forward scattering and weak backward scattering of fine aerosol particles with increasing size resulting from hygroscopic growth, while the variation of the single scattering albedo showed less impact. Source region analysis by back trajectories and the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) method showed that black carbon came

  1. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  2. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    , approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such

  3. Cordilleran vein type Pb-Zn-polymetallic deposits of the Xidamingshan district, Guangxi, SW China: Fluid inclusion and geochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei; Du, Yang Song; Wang, Gong Wen; Lei, Ying Ping

    2013-11-01

    There are a lot of clastic-sedimentary-rock-hosted hydrothermal vein type polymetallic deposits in the Xidamingshan district, Guangxi, SW China. Two major ones of them, the Fenghuangshan Pb-Zn-Ag-Mn deposit and the Lujing Pb-Zn deposit, have been selected for fluid inclusion and geochemical research in this paper. From fluid inclusion microthermometry, it has been found that they were deposited from fluid with low salinities at medium to low temperatures and low pressures. From hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and carbon stable isotope studies as well as some trace element composition of sulfides, we have got the conclusion that they were formed in an intrusion-related ore-forming system, which means that they belong to Cordilleran vein type deposits.

  4. Effects of taxol and ionizing radiation on cytotoxicity and prostaglandin production in KB, RPMI-2650, SW-13 and L929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon Il [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan(Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The author evaluated the effects of taxol, a microtubular inhibitor, as a possible radiation sensitizer and the production of prostaglandins on three human cancer cell lines (KB, RPMI-2650 and SW-13) and one murine cell line (L929). Each cell line was divided into four groups (control, taxol only, radiation only and combination of taxol and radiation). The treatment consisted of a single irradiation of 10 Gy and graded doses (5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 nM) of taxol for a 24-h period. The cytotoxicity of taxol alone was measured at 1 day after (1-day group) and 4 days after (4-day group) the treatment. The survival ratio of cell was analyzed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyl tetrazolium bromide) test. Prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGI2) were measured in the culture medium by a radioimmunoassay. The results obtained were as follows: 1. There was a significantly in creased cytotoxicity of KB cells in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. There was a high correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.82741, 4-day group R=0.84655). 2. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of RPMI-2650 cells treated with high concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. Also there was a high correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in 4-day group (R=0.93917). 3. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of SW-13 cell treated with high concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. However no high correlation was observed between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.46362, 4-day group R=0.65425). 4. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of L929 cells treated with low concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. At the same time, there was a low correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.34237, 4-day group R=0.23381). 5. In 1-day group of L929 cells, higher

  5. Occurrence, origin and possible accumulationsof oil in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep (SE Moravia - Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Čížek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The drilling exploration in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep, in the vicinity of the gas deposit and UGS Dolní Dunajovice encountered the influx of gas, water and oil in Carpathian, Eggenburgian sandstones and Upper Jurassic carbonates. Similar shows were observed in the region at the base of the Jurassic and Miocene in older exploration wells. The new interpretations of 3D seismic and 2D profiles provide a new geological model integrated with petrophysical properties and geochemistry. A molecular and isotopic composition of gas indicates its mixed bacterial and thermal origin. Biomarkers in the new oils suggest a close genetic relationship to the Upper Jurassic marls and economically successful oil accumulations in the southern part of the south-eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif. The new findings increase the prospects of finding new structures with oil and gas accumulations in this region.

  6. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK18 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as part of Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The E-W striking, ca. 55 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island adjacent to investigation trenches OL-TK12 and OL-TK4. The trench was cleaned with a pressure washer and pressurized air. The rock types were determined macroscopically. The rock types in investigation trench OL-TK18 is of heterogeneous character, with a large variation in their composition. The rocks vary from tonalitic-granodioritic gneiss to diatexitic gneiss, with portions of K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. Inclusions of mica gneiss and a well-preserved schollen migmatite is encountered. The trench ends in a feldspar-rich pegmatoid. The most dominant tectonic feature is D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain and associated S{sub 4} foliation. This domain and hence the S{sub 4} foliation is striking NE-SW with a moderate dip towards SE. Both ends of the trench are dominated by the earlier deformation phase, showing S{sub 3} foliation striking ENE-WSW and roughly dipping towards the S. The S{sub 3} foliation is associated with small-scaled granitic leucosome veining, while the S{sub 4} foliation have a schistose character and it is more sheared. D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain is also characterised by a sheared blastomylonitic rock having growth of roundish feldspar porphyroblasts and BTschlierens indicating high alteration of the protolith. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 117 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency of the trench is 2.11 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations one main set can be distinguished striking NE-SW (foliation parallel) with a moderate dip towards the SE. The median fracture trace length is 1.6 m and over half of the fractures exceed 1.5 m trace length, the longest

  7. Long-term persistence of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in the colon cancer cell line SW620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentes, I.K., E-mail: itentes@med.duth.gr [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Schmidt, W.M. [Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Waehringer Strasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krupitza, G. [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steger, G.G.; Mikulits, W. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kortsaris, A. [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Mader, R.M. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Treatment resistance to antineoplastic drugs represents a major clinical problem. Here, we investigated the long-term stability of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (FU) in an in vitro colon cancer model, using four sub-clones characterised by increasing FU-resistance derived from the cell line SW620. The resistance phenotype was preserved after FU withdrawal for 15 weeks ({approx} 100 cell divisions) independent of the established level of drug resistance and of epigenetic silencing. Remarkably, resistant clones tolerated serum deprivation, adopted a CD133{sup +} CD44{sup -} phenotype, and further exhibited loss of membrane-bound E-cadherin together with predominant nuclear {beta}-catenin localisation. Thus, we provide evidence for a long-term memory of acquired drug resistance, driven by multiple cellular strategies (epithelial-mesenchymal transition and selective propagation of CD133{sup +} cells). These resistance phenomena, in turn, accentuate the malignant phenotype.

  8. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  9. Genetic mapping of the Tsw locus for resistance to the Tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus in Capsicum spp. and its relationship to the Sw-5 gene for resistance to the same pathogen in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, M; Paran, I; Hoffmann, K; Radwanski, E R; Livingstone, K D; Grube, R C; Aftergoot, E; Lapidot, M; Moyer, J

    2000-06-01

    The Tsw gene conferring dominant resistance to the Tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Capsicum spp. has been tagged with a random amplified polymorphic DNA marker and mapped to the distal portion of chromosome 10. No mapped homologues of Sw-5, a phenotypically similar dominant TSWV resistance gene in tomato, map to this region in C. annuum, although a number of Sw-5 homologues are found at corresponding positions in pepper and tomato. The relationship between Tsw and Sw-5 was also examined through genetic studies of TSWV. The capacity of TSWV-A to overcome the Tsw gene in pepper and the Sw-5 gene in tomato maps to different TSWV genome segments. Therefore, despite phenotypic and genetic similarities of resistance in tomato and pepper, we infer that distinct viral gene products control the outcome of infection in plants carrying Sw-5 and Tsw, and that these loci do not appear to share a recent common evolutionary ancestor.

  10. Source Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes occurred in the Fethiye-Rhodes Basin and Anaximander Seamounts (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the active tectonics of southern Turkey involves integrating earthquake source parameters with the regional tectonics. In this respect, seismological studies have played important roles in deciphering tectonic deformations and existing stress accumulations in the region. This study is concerned with the source mechanism parameters and spatio-temporal finite-fault slip distributions of recent earthquakes occurred along the Pliny-Strabo Trench (PST), which constitutes the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Region, and along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey). The study area is located at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs along which the African plate plunges northwards beneath the Aegean Sea and the Anatolian block. Bathymetry and topography including large-scale tectonic structures such as the Rhodes Basin, Anaximander Seamounts, the Florence Rise, the Isparta Angle, the Taurus Mountains, and Kyrenia Range also reflect the tectonic complexities in the region. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-fault slip distributions of recent Fethiye-Rhodes earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.0) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30 - 90 degrees, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained rupture histories of the earthquakes to determine the fault area (fault length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. Inversion results exhibit that recent earthquakes show left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms with relatively deeper focal depths (h > 40 km) consistent with tectonic characteristics of the region, for example, the June 10, 2012 Fethiye earthquake (Mw

  11. Flooding in river mouths: human caused or natural events? Five centuries of flooding events in the SW Netherlands, 1500-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks into flood events of the past 500 years in the SW Netherlands, addressing the issue of what kind of flooding events have occurred and which ones have mainly natural causes and which ones are predominantly human induced. The flood events are classified into two major categories: (a)

  12. Hydrography and climate of the last 4,400 years in a SW Greenland fjord – implications for Labrador Sea palaeoceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Sulsbrück, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A multiproxy record including benthic foraminifera, diatoms and XRF data of a marine sediment core from a SW Greenland fjord provides a detailed reconstruction of the oceanographic and climatic variations of the region during the last 4,400 cal. years. The lower part of our record represents...

  13. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  14. Description of the early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a defoliator of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC (Fabaceae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry are described and illustrated for the first time; details of the adults also are provided. Under outbreak conditions, the species has become a serious pest of algarrobo tree (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae) in Colombia. Al...

  15. The NSm proteins of phylogenetically related tospoviruses trigger Sw-5b–mediated resistance dissociated of their cell-to-cell movement function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leastro, Mikhail Oliveira; Oliveira, De Athos Silva; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A.; Kormelink, Richard; Resende, Renato Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM) in members of the tospovirus species Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been recently identified as the effector of the single dominant Sw-5b resistance gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Although most TSWV isolates shows a

  16. Coupling between SW monsoon-related surface and deep ocean processes as discerned from continuous particle flux measurements and correlated satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Guptha, M. V. S.; Nair, R. R.; Schlüssel, P.

    1996-12-01

    Particle flux data obtained by time series sediment traps deployed at water depths of approximately 3000 m in the western, central, and eastern Arabian Sea since 1986 were compared with wind speeds derived from measurements made by microwave radiometer flying on polar orbiting satellites and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) provided by the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This comparison has allowed us to trace the link between the oceanographic and biological processes related to the development of the SW monsoon with the pattern and interannual variability of particle fluxes to the interior of the Arabian Sea. We could recognize the well-known upwelling systems along the coasts of Somalia and Oman as well as open ocean upwelling at the beginning of the SW monsoon. Both open ocean upwelling and coastal upwelling off Oman cause a cooling of surface waters at our western and central Arabian Sea stations. When SSTs fall below their long-term average, an increase in fluxes which are dominated by coccolithophorid-derived carbonates occurs. The timing of this increase is determined by the rate of surface water cooling. Further intensification of upwelling as the SW monsoon progresses causes additional increases in biogenic opal fluxes denoting diatom blooms in the overlying waters. The total fluxes during this period are the highest measured in the open Arabian Sea. At the central Arabian Sea location the fluxes are only randomly affected by these blooms. The particle flux in the eastern Arabian Sea is as high as in the central Arabian Sea but is influenced by a weaker upwelling system along the Indian coast. The observed interannual variability in the pattern of particle fluxes during the SW monsoons is most pronounced in the western Arabian Sea. This is controlled by the intensity of the upwelling systems on the one hand and the transport of cold, nutrient-poor, south equatorial water into the Oman region on the

  17. Análisis retrospectivo del decaimiento en Pinus sylvestris L. (Sierra de Gúdar, Teruel) mediante el análisis de la composición isotópica (13C/12C, 18O/16O) en anillos de crecimiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Carulla Montañés, David

    2010-01-01

    Al 2002 es van detectar els primers símptomes de decaïment en Pinus sylvestris, a la Serra de Gúdar (Teruel). Individus afectats i sans es trobaven barrejats. El contrast tèrmic de finals de 2001 es presumeix com a factor incitador del decaïment, degut a la manca d’enduriment i pèrdua de la conductivitat hidràulica. També es va detectar un factor de predisposició dels arbres en relació a una possible inanició del carboni sota un estrés hídric perllongat. Possiblement això va afectar prèviamen...

  18. The Relationships Between Diameter Stump Height (d0.30 and Diameter Breast Height (d1.30 for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris (L. in West Black Sea RegionThe Relationships Between Diameter Stump Height (d0.30 and Diameter Breast Height (d1.30 for Scotc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Şenyurt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is proposed to determine the relationship between the diameter at stump height (d0.3 and diameter breast height (d1.30 for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris (L. in West Black Sea Region including Kastamonu, Bolu and Ankara forest regional offices. For this purpose, 101 temporary sample plots were obtained and 1111 tree measurements for stump height (d0.3 and diameter breast height (d1.3 were carried out. The different regression models were selected and compared to some success criteria. The most successful results were achieved with the parabolic equation. This regression model explains 96.7 % of the variability in diameter breast height (d1.3. It is concluded that the model predicting the diameter at breast height from diameter at stump height (d0.3 can be used confidentially.

  19. Membrane separation in dairy industry; Separazioni su membrana nell'industria lattiero-casearia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, C. [Parmalat SpA, Direzione Scientifica, Parma (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Many different techniques of membrane separation are widely used in the dairy industry. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. Also 'Parmalat' has introduced in its productions of yoghurt, UHT and pasteurized milk some of these techniques, obtaining new-concept products such as Plus milk, very rich in calcium, and a very high quality pasteurized milk, in the Canadian market, under the brand name Lactantia Pure Filtre, characterized by a double life compared to traditional products. As for yoghurt, in some plants, milk pre-concentration through ultra-filtration permits a considerable increase in the product's creaminess. [Italian] Le diverse tecniche di separazione su membrana consentono di operare forti risparmi e sensibili miglioramenti qualitativi. Anche la Parmalat ha inserito nelle produzioni di yogurt, latte UHT e latte pastorizzato, alcune di queste tecniche, ottenendo prodotti di nuova concezione come il latte Plus, particolarmente ricco in Calcio e, sul mercato Canadese, un latte pastorizzato di alta qualita' dal marchio Lactantia Pure Filtre caratterizzato da conservabilita' doppia rispetto al prodotto tradizionale. Nel caso dello yogurt, in alcuni stabilimenti, la preconcezione del latte per ultrafiltrazione aumenta considerevolmente la cremosita' del prodotto.

  20. Diferentes níveis de cálcio e o desenvolvimento de plantas de estilosantes (Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl. Sw. cv "Cook" Growth of stylo plants as affected by calcium levels (Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl. Sw. cv "Cook"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Rodrigues

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como finalidade estudar os efeitos de níveis de cálcio no desenvolvimento de plantas de Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl. Sw. cv "Cook", em sua fase vegetativa, através dos parâmetros que compõem a análise fisiológica de crescimento e de que forma estes parâmetros se alteram, em função dos tratamentos utilizados. Delinearam-se quatro tratamentos, a saber: T1 (200 mg de cálcio/litro; T2 (133,33 mg de cálcio/litro; T3 (66,66 mg de cálcio/litro; T4 (omisso em cálcio. O experimento foi instalado em cultivo hidropônico, empregando-se solução nutritiva n° 1 de Hoagland & Arnon (1950 e conduzido em casa de vegetação. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, obedeceu ao delineamento de parcelas sub-divididas, considerando-se as cinco coletas, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias como parcelas, sendo os tratamentos empregados definidos como sub-parcelas. A influência dos diferentes tratamentos, foi avaliada através da área foliar (AF, área foliar específica (AFE, razão de massa foliar (RMF e razão de área foliar (RAF. Dos resultados obtidos, pôde-se concluir que plantas de estilosantes, durante a fase de crescimento vegetativo, alcançaram melhor desenvolvimento em níveis de 200 mg de cálcio/litro de solução nutritiva.The influence of calcium levels on the growth of Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl. SW. c v "Cook" plants was studied under the following treatments: T1 (200 mg of calcium/litre; T2 (133.33 mg of calcium/litre; T3 (66.66 mg of calcium/litre and T4 (without calcium. The study was carried out in a hydroponic media with Hoagland & Arnon's number one nutrient solution. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized split-plot design, considering the five samplings performed in 14 day intervals as main plots. The influence of different treatments was evaluated through leaf area (LA, specific leaf area (SLA, leaf weight ratio (LWR, and leaf area ratio (LAR. The results obtained indicated

  1. Características tecnológicas da Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. e alternativas para o uso racional Technological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. and alternatives for its rational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juáres J. Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando contribuir para maior conhecimento sobre as essências arbóreas existentes no nordeste brasileiro, buscou-se através deste trabalho determinar as características tecnológicas da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC e indicar alternativas de uso de sua madeira para construções rurais. A caracterização da espécie foi feita conforme valores, referentes à condição padrão de umidade (12%, obtidos em ensaios realizados de acordo com a NBR 7190 da Associação Brasileira de Norma Técnicas. Foram realizados ensaios de densidades básica e aparente, teor de umidade e de resistência à compressão paralela, tração paralela e cisalhamento, paralelo às fibras. Os resultados foram analisados pela comparação dos valores obtidos com aqueles encontrados na literatura, para outras madeiras. De acordo com os resultados, conclui-se que a madeira da algaroba se equipara em resistência e rigidez, às madeiras tradicionalmente utilizadas nas construções, no Brasil.This work was carried out with the objective of increasing the knowledge on the existing wild trees species in north-eastern Brazil. The main purpose was to determine the technological characteristics of the Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC and to indicate alternative use of its wood for agricultural constructions. The procedures adapted for the characterization of the species were in agreement with the Brazilian Norm 7190 of Brasilian Association of Technical Norms referring to the standard conditions moisture content of 12%. Tests of basic and apparent densities were carried out, moisture content and parallel fibers resistance to compression, traction and shear, were measured. The results were analyzed through the comparison of the values obtained with those found in literature for other kinds of wood. In agreement with the results, it was concluded that the Prosopis juliflora's wood can be compared with other traditional kinds of wood used in Brazil.

  2. Thermal and metasomatic rejuvenation and dunitization in lithospheric mantle beneath Central Europe - The Grodziec (SW Poland) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ćwiek, Mateusz; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    The 32 Ma Grodziec nephelinite (Lower Silesia, SW Poland) contains xenolith of peridotite (mostly lherzolite) and clinopyroxenite/olivine clinopyroxenite composition. The forsterite content in olivine classifies these rocks into three groups: groups A and B consist of peridotites, while group C xenoliths are pyroxenitic cumulates. Group A xenoliths contain olivine Fo 87.90-91.8% and pyroxenes with high Mg# ( 0.91-0.92); clinopyroxene is strongly LREE-enriched (LaN/LuN = 2.19-17.74) and strongly impoverished in Zr, Hf and Ti relative to primitive mantle. The group B xenoliths (dunites and wehrlite) are orthopyroxene-free, olivine and clinopyroxene are less magnesian than those in the A group (Fo = 85.2-87.2%, Mg# = 0.86-0.88), clinopyroxene is less LREE-enriched (LaN/LuN = 4.07-4.15) and only slightly impoverished in Zr, Hf and Ti. Group C xenoliths contain olivine with forsterite content from 78.6 to 86.6% and clinopyroxene of Mg# from 0.84 to 0.85, with LREE/trace element characteristics similar to those of B group (LaN/LuN = 1.96-3.10). Group A xenoliths from Grodziec record migration of mixed carbonatite-alkaline silicate melts through the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Lower Silesia, which preceded the migration of melts similar to the Grodziec nephelinite. The peridotitic protoliths were dunitized at the direct contacts with the migrating nephelinite melt and are now represented by group B. Group C pyroxenites originated in mantle conditions by crystal settling in places of transient nephelinite melt stagnation. The mantle section beneath Grodziec was reheated to ca 1000-1100 °C. The Grodziec scenario is similar to that of Księginki (northern extension of Eger Rift, SW Poland), which shares a similar age of xenolith entrainment. Both sites show that the processes of mantle metasomatism and thermal rejuvenation of subcontinental lithospheric mantle were more intense during the Lower Oligocene volcanic climax compared to those recorded in younger

  3. Nature and distribution of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia and regional geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence

  4. Millennial-Scale Climatic Changes during MIS 11 in SW Europe: Linkages with Eastern North Atlantic Hydrological Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprat, S.; Rodrigues, T.; Rossignol, L.

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of records show that millennial-scale changes appear as an inherent pattern of the Earth's climate superimposed to the glacial-interglacial variability. However, the origin and controlling factors modulating these climatic instabilities remain unclear. While Holocene rapid climate changes are widely investigated, few studies have focused on instabilities of past interglacial periods. Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 11 (from ~425,000 to 370,000 years ago) appears of particular interest to investigate the recurrence, amplitude and nature of climatic instabilities during period of dominant greenhouse gases-induced warming and higher than present-day sea-level probably resulting from the Greenland Ice Sheet and West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse. Based on North Atlantic records, MIS11c is often considered as a long and relative stable interglacial. Sporadic information shows, however, that rapid climatic changes occurred during this interglacial period for instance in Antarctica and northern Europe. Previous work on NW Iberian sediments also reported some apparent rapid vegetation and climatic changes in SW Europe during MIS 11 but the low time-resolution of the records prevented any further discussion. In the present study, we have revisited the NW Iberian margin record (core MD01-2447) to document MIS 11 climatic instabilities in SW Europe and mid-eastern North Atlantic, and have evaluated the marine and terrestrial linkages during those events. We will present new pollen and planktonic foraminifera-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data at higher time-resolution than that of the published MIS11c record. In addition, we will present new biomarker records (n-alkanes & n-alkan-1-ols, alkenones) to reconstruct variations in SST, continental input and deep water ventilation on the Iberian margin. Our results show suborbital vegetation changes in NW Iberia throughout MIS 11. In contrast with what we observed for other MIS, substantial variations in

  5. Seismotectonic Investigation of Biga Peninsula in SW Marmara Region Using Steerable Filter Technique, Potential Field Data and Recent Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgün, Ethem; Albora, A. Muhittin

    2017-10-01

    We examine seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula in western Anatolia (Çanakkale region) using the steerable filter technique and recent seismicity. One of the most important issues in geophysics is to observe borders or margins of tectonic/geologic discontinues. For this purpose, we apply this filter technique to gravity anomaly map of Biga Peninsula. We observe undetected/buried faults in Biga Peninsula using the steerable technique where they have never been seen in the geological maps before. These buried faults comply with recent seismicity for this region. Focal mechanisms of past earthquakes ( M ≥ 3.5) are in good agreement with fault orientations. This observation shows that we have to take into account these fault locations and consider for preparing future seismic hazard maps. The geometry of fault segments reveals mostly strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire study region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the Biga earthquake sequences in the observation period between 5 January 2005 and 14 November 2015 extends from N to S direction. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress ( S H). According to strong discrepancy of density in the Biga Peninsula is characterized by numerous small segmented secondary faults. These buried or undetected fault locations indicate that these segments are large enough to increase earthquake stress failure towards NW-SE and N-S directions, respectively. Seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula is divided into sub-regions by NE-SW trending secondary faults with normal and major strike-slip components. This output is verified by steerable filter and local/regional seismotectonic analysis. We propose a new seismotectonic model for Biga Peninsula and update the orientation of active fault segments. According to our model, North Anatolian Fault Zone cross-cuts the

  6. Roles of Transpiration, Forest Bioproductivity and Fire on a Long-Term Dripwater Hydrochemistry Dataset from Golgotha Cave, SW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, P. C.; Baker, A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Bradley, C.; Mahmud, K.; Andersen, M. S.; Meredith, K.; Mariethoz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Golgotha Cave is located in a forested catchment in SW Australia where evapotranspiration losses from the vadose-zone are high and forest biomass has been disturbed by fire. The cave has been continuously monitored since 2005 and this extensive dataset has been used to quantify key processes determining dripwater hydrology and chemistry (Mahmud et al., 2015; Treble et al., 2013; 2015). In this paper we present a synthesis of these findings and derive a conceptual model to illustrate the main hydrochemical processes that will impact cave dripwater in similar environments. We applied mass-balance techniques to quantify sources (water/rock interactions and aerosol) and sinks (prior calcite precipitation and biomass uptake). Mass-balance results suggest that transpiration and elemental sequestration into biomass modifies dripwater ion concentrations. The vegetation uptake impacts dripwater Mg, K and SO4, with the largest impact on SO4, estimated to be up to 60% at some drip sites. Overall, our findings suggest that varying amounts of transpiration by deeply-rooted trees contribute significantly to spatial and temporal variability in dripwater solute concentrations. This is in addition to the partitioning of infiltrating water between characteristic flow pathways. Applying principal components analysis, we identify a common long-term rising trend in dripwater Cl, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Si. We assess whether the long-term trends in dripwater solutes are driven by post-fire biomass recovery and/or the impacts of a drying climate in SW Australia.ReferencesMahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to Identify Infiltration Properties in the Tamala Limestone, Western Australia, doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2451088. Treble et al. (2013), An isotopic and modelling study of flow paths and storage in Quaternary calcarenite, doi:10.1016/J.Quascirev.2012.12.015. Treble et al. (2015), Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on

  7. Major and Trace Element Geochemistry of Coals and Intra-Seam Claystones from the Songzao Coalfield, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicic, mafic and alkali intra-seam tonsteins have been known from SW China for a number of years. This paper reports on the geochemical compositions of coals and tonsteins from three seam sections of the Songzao Coalfield, SW China, and evaluates the geological factors responsible for the chemical characteristics of the coal seams, with emphasis on the influence from different types of volcanic ashes. The roof and floor samples of the Songzao coal seams mostly have high TiO2 contents, consistent with a high TiO2 content in the detrital sediment input from the source region, namely mafic basalts from the Kangdian Upland on the western margin of the coal basin. The coals from the Songzao Coalfield generally have high ash yields and are highly enriched in trace elements including Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, rare earth elements (REE, Y, Hg and Se; some variation occurs among different seam sections due to input of geochemically different volcanic ash materials. The geochemistry of the Songzao coals has also been affected by the adjacent tonstein/K-bentonite bands. The relatively immobile elements that are enriched in the altered volcanic ashes also tend to be enriched in the adjacent coal plies, possibly due to leaching by groundwaters. The coals near the alkali tonstein bands in the Tonghua and Yuyang sections of the Songzao Coalfield are mostly high in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, REE and Y. Coal samples overlying the mafic K-bentonite in the Tonghua section are high in V, Cr, Zn and Cu. The Datong coal, which has neither visible tonstein layers nor obvious volcanogenic minerals, has high TiO2, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn concentrations in the intervals between the coal plies affected by mafic and alkaline volcanic ashes. This is consistent with the suggestion that a common source material was supplied to the coal basin, derived from the erosion of mafic basaltic rocks of the Kangdian Upland. Although the Songzao coal is generally a high-sulfur coal, most of the

  8. Mid-Pleistocene Orbital and Millennial Scale Climate Change in a 200 ky lacustrine sediment core from SW North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Brown, E. T.; Berke, M. A.; Smith, S.; Goff, F. E.; Hurley, L. L.; Cisneros Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J. L.; Fessenden, J. E.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Allen, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    How anthropogenic climate change will affect hydroclimate of the arid regions of SW North America over the next century is a concern. Model projections suggest permanent “dust bowl-like” conditions; however, any anthropogenic change will be superimposed on long-term natural climate variability. We use the paleoclimatic record from an 82-m deep lacustrine sediment core (VC-3) from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico to examine continental climate variations spanning two glacial cycles through the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 to MIS 10 (552 ka to ~360 ka). Both orbital and millennial-scale variations are evident in multiple proxies, and a strong relationship occurs between the warmest temperatures in the record and periods of extended aridity. We suggest that these periods of aridity are characterized by decreased winter as well as summer precipitation amounts. A new group of organic geochemical proxies (MBT and CBT) allow us to reconstruct the annual mean air temperature (MAT) of the Valles Caldera watershed as well as the watershed soil pH down the length of the core. We compare these proxies to climatically sensitive pollen taxa and other core properties. The MAT record of VC-3 shows considerable glacial-interglacial variation and significant variability within individual glacial and interglacial periods. The warmest interglacial MATs (5 to 7°C) compare favorably with modern MATs of ~5°C in the Valle Grande. MIS 11 has three warm substages, based on MAT estimates (2°C warmer than the cool substages), warm (Juniperus, Quercus, Rosaceae) vs. cool (Abies, Picea, Artemisia) pollen taxa and variation in aquatic productivity proxies (TOC, Si:Ti). The three warm substages of MIS 11 appear to correspond to the three precessional peaks that occur during this interval. Glacial MATs range from -5 to +2°C, with multiple millennial-scale temperature oscillations evident. Several of the interstadials show a distinct pattern of relatively slower temperature increases and

  9. Deep-Sea Mega-Epibenthic Assemblages from the SW Portuguese Margin (NE Atlantic Subjected to Bottom-Trawling Fisheries

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    Sofia P. Ramalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-trawling fisheries are a common threat to the health of continental margins worldwide. Together with numerous environmental and biological processes, physical disturbance induced by trawlers can largely shape the benthic habitats and their associated assemblages. At the SW Portuguese Margin, crustacean bottom trawlers have exploited deep-sea habitats for a few decades, but its effects on the benthic biodiversity are practically unknown. During the spring-summer of 2013 and 2014, several Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video transects were used to investigate mega-epibenthic abundance, composition, and diversity in soft-sediment areas subjected to varying trawling pressures off Sines and Setúbal (200–800 m. Differences in mega-epibenthic assemblages were linked with environmental changes (depth, grain size, primary productivity and trawling disturbance. The effect of trawling was assessed between segments with similar habitat characteristics, i.e., muddy-sand bottoms between 300 and 500 m. Areas subjected to intensive trawling pressure showed a generally flattened seabed, with abundant recent trawl marks (up to 3 scars.100 m−1, indicating that the seabed physical integrity was compromised. Significant negative correlations were detected between various mega-epibenthic diversity indices [S, H′, and ET(20] and trawling pressure (h.cell−1.y−1. Furthermore, the distinct mega-epibenthic assemblages and absence of several sessile erect morphospecies at both low and highly disturbed locations by trawling off Sines, namely all seapen morphospecies found in non-trawled areas, demonstrates the negative influence of trawling fisheries on the benthic component of the study area. Also, low dissimilarity between assemblages from the main fishing grounds and the adjacent low-disturbance locations, suggests that the potentially negative influence of trawling can extend beyond the targeted areas (e.g., by the plumes of re-suspended sediments. The

  10. Quantitative assessment of current and future risks related rainfall in processing tomato in the Guadiana river basin (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Vera, Alba; Garrido, Alberto; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Inés Mínguez, M.

    2013-04-01

    An extension of risk coverages in the insurance policies for processing tomato, mainly related to rainfall events, has resulted in an important increase in claims. This suggests that damages related to extreme or ill-timed showers have been underestimated in previous years. An estimation of damages related to rainfall in the last thirty years and the impact of climate change in the risk related to rainfall in processing tomato crops in the Guadiana river basin (SW Spain) were studied through a risk index. First, the risk index was defined with temperature and relative humidity thresholds related to different damage magnitudes. Then, this index was applied to current climate and to future climate scenarios in nine weather stations representative of the studied area to determine the trends in losses related to extreme or inopportune rainfall events. Thresholds of temperature and relative humidity were obtained from cross-checking agricultural insurance records and meteorological data from local weather stations (REDAREX, http://sw-aperos.juntaex.es/redarex). To consider longer time series, the reanalysis database ERA-INTERIM (Dee et al., 2011) was used. Simulated climate was obtained from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). Trends in climatic risk were analysed by applying the risk index to three sets of data defining current climate (1980-2010), mid-future climate (2010-2040) and long-term future climate (2040-2070). An algorithm to choose the surrounding cell that minimizes the temperature and precipitation climatic biases and maximizes seasonal correlation when comparing ENSEMBLES regional climate model simulations and observed climate was applied before index calculation. The results show the trends in frequency and magnitude of the risk of suffering damages related to rainfall events. The methodology decreased the uncertainty on risk levels. Results contribute to detect the periods during the growing season with larger risk of damage

  11. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  12. Trace element accumulation in woody plants of the Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain: A large-scale phytomanagement case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Maria T. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, P.O. Box 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: maitedn@irnase.csic.es; Maranon, Teodoro; Murillo, Jose M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, P.O. Box 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain); Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H. [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    Phytomanagement employs vegetation and soil amendments to reduce the environmental risk posed by contaminated sites. We investigated the distribution of trace elements in soils and woody plants from a large phytomanaged site, the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain), 7 years after a mine spill, which contaminated the area in 1998. At spill-affected sites, topsoils (0-25 cm) had elevated concentrations of As (129 mg kg{sup -1}), Bi (1.64 mg kg{sup -1}), Cd (1.44 mg kg{sup -1}), Cu (115 mg kg{sup -1}), Pb (210 mg kg{sup -1}), Sb (13.8 mg kg{sup -1}), Tl (1.17 mg kg{sup -1}) and Zn (457 mg kg{sup -1}). Trace element concentrations in the studied species were, on average, within the normal ranges for higher plants. An exception was white poplar (Populus alba), which accumulated Cd and Zn in leaves up to 3 and 410 mg kg{sup -1} respectively. We discuss the results with regard to the phytomanagement of trace element contaminated sites. - There is a low trace element transfer from contaminated soils to the aboveground parts of afforested woody plants under a semi-arid climate.

  13. Characterization and effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diully Mata Balisteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are excellent sources of bioactive compounds of phenolic nature. Some of these compounds are able to inhibit carbohydrate- metabolizing enzymes (in vitro, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, delaying carbohydrate digestion. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in humans after consumption of 25 g of available carbohydrates (approximately 50 g of white bread and characterize the phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of araçá juice and pulp. The results showed that the clarified juice had a positive effect on postprandial glycemia reducing the total amount of glucose absorbed, lengthening the time to reach maximum blood glucose concentration, reducing glucose incremental velocity, and decreasing glucose incremental percentage. Both frozen pulp and clarified juice had high amounts of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and proanthocyanidins, among which oligomers (monomers to tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, decamers, and polymers were detected, and they are probably associated with in vivo effects.

  14. Sewage-induced disturbance on polychaetes inhabiting intertidal mussel beds of Brachidontes rodriguezii off Mar del Plata (SW Atlantic, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Elías

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous and short-term disturbances are produced on intertidal Brachidontes rodriguezii mussel beds by the sewage outfall of Mar del Plata, SW Atlantic. The effects on the associated polychaetes living on and between mussels were investigated, in both the spatial and short-term temporal scales. Multivariate methods show that the polychaete fauna was influenced by tidal level, total amount of sediment accumulated between mussels, distance from the sewage outfall, organic carbon of interstitial sediments, and sewage volume before and after the summer season. Environmental variables in the water column fitted with a spatial and temporal organic gradient. Capitella ‘capitata’ sp. showed typical opportunistic behaviour in relation to organic enrichment, as did Neanthes succinea, both being numerically dominant near the sewage discharge. Cirratulus sp., Caulleriella alata, and Boccardia polybranchia were common at intermediate distances from the outfall. Syllis prolixa, S. gracilis, and Protoariciella uncinata reached their highest abundance at intermediate stations and were characteristic of the control site. Close to the outfall mussel density and dominance is low, and opportunist polychaetes successfully colonize organically enriched interstitial sediments. At intermediate distances from the outfall sediments retained by mussels reach their maximum values, and density of polychaetes is also high. The control station is characterized by monolayered mussel beds and very low diversity of polychaetes. Opportunistic polychaetes increase in response to short-term increases of sewage discharge during the summer season (November-March.

  15. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjie; Shen, Youxin; Li, Yuhui; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30%) of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch. PMID:27509199

  16. Detrital zircon provenance analysis in the Zagros Orogen, SW Iran: implications for the amalgamation history of the Neo-Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Xiao, Wenjiao; Majidifard, Mahmoud Reza; Zhu, Rixiang; Wan, Bo; Ao, Songjian; Chen, Ling; Rezaeian, Mahnaz; Esmaeili, Rasoul

    2017-06-01

    The Zagros Orogen developed as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. New in situ detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses from a Cenozoic sedimentary sequence in SW Iran are used to unravel the amalgamation history of Neo-Tethys. Data indicate that: (1) Paleocene and Eocene strata (58 and 45 Ma, respectively) were sourced from obducted ophiolite and Triassic volcanics, (2) Lower Miocene ( 18 Ma) strata indicate mixed provenance from obducted ophiolite and Iranian magmatic rocks, (3) Mid to Upper Miocene sediments ( 14 to 11.2 Ma) were mainly sourced from Sanandaj-Sirjan zone granitoids to the north, and (4) Lower Pliocene ( 5 Ma) sediments mainly show Arabian age characteristics, with a minor Eurasian affinity component. Two hypotheses are outlined to highlight the key events: Hypothesis A, previously published by several workers, suggests that the sequence studied lay on the Arabia passive margin and that initial collision occurred prior to 18 Ma; Hypothesis B, modified from the Makran model, which is here preferred, suggests that Paleogene to Upper Miocene sediments were sourced from the northern Neo-Tethyan accretionary complex or Eurasia, and carry no input from Arabia, whereas the Lower Pliocene sample shows a mixed provenance from both Arabia and Eurasia, suggesting that collision occurred between 11.2 and 5 Ma.

  17. Production of ethanol from mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.] pods mash by Zymomonas mobilis in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Celiane Gomes Maia da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Domesticas; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Evandro Leite de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao; Stamford, Tania Lucia Montenegro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao], E-mail: tlmstamford@yahoo.com.br

    2011-01-15

    Mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.], a perennial tropical plant commonly found in Brazilian semi-arid region, is a viable raw material for fermentative processes because of its low cost and production of pods with high content of hydrolyzable sugars which generate many compounds, including ethanol. This study aimed to evaluate the use of mesquite pods as substrate for ethanol production by Z. mobilis UFPEDA- 205 in a submerged fermentation. The fermentation was assessed for rate of substrate yield to ethanol, rate of ethanol production and efficiency of fermentation. The very close theoretical (170 g L{sup -1}) and experimental (165 g L{sup -1}) maximum ethanol yields were achieved at 36 h of fermentation. The highest counts of Z. mobilis UFEPEDA-205 (both close to 6 Log cfu mL{sup -1}) were also noted at 36 h. Highest rates of substrate yield to ethanol (0.44 g ethanol g glucose{sup -1}), of ethanol production (4.69 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and of efficiency of fermentation (86.81%) were found after 30 h. These findings suggest mesquite pods as an interesting substrate for ethanol production using submerged fermentation by Z. mobilis. (author)

  18. Trace element accumulation in woody plants of the Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain: a large-scale phytomanagement case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, María T; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M; Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H

    2008-03-01

    Phytomanagement employs vegetation and soil amendments to reduce the environmental risk posed by contaminated sites. We investigated the distribution of trace elements in soils and woody plants from a large phytomanaged site, the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain), 7 years after a mine spill, which contaminated the area in 1998. At spill-affected sites, topsoils (0-25 cm) had elevated concentrations of As (129 mg kg(-1)), Bi (1.64 mg kg(-1)), Cd (1.44 mg kg(-1)), Cu (115 mg kg(-1)), Pb (210 mg kg(-1)), Sb (13.8 mg kg(-1)), Tl (1.17 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (457 mg kg(-1)). Trace element concentrations in the studied species were, on average, within the normal ranges for higher plants. An exception was white poplar (Populus alba), which accumulated Cd and Zn in leaves up to 3 and 410 mg kg(-1) respectively. We discuss the results with regard to the phytomanagement of trace element contaminated sites.

  19. The influence of a large SW Atlantic shelf-break frontal system on epibenthic community composition, trophic guilds, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauna, A. Cecilia; Acha, E. Marcelo; Lasta, Mario L.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2011-08-01

    Productivity gradients (i.e., through bottom-up control) have an important influence on variability in species diversity and community composition in marine systems. At the SW Atlantic shelf-break front (SBF), we hypothesized that a high and stable food supply in areas under the core of a frontal influence (F) promotes a different benthic community structure (i.e., species diversity, taxa biomasses, and composition of feeding guilds) than in areas located under marginal influences of the front (M). In 2007, we sampled 34 trawling stations located across the SBF to evaluate this hypothesis. We compared epibenthic community composition, diversity indices, and species and trophic guild biomass in F and M areas. We observed differences in community composition, predator biomass, and the biomass of some taxa. However, we did not detect any changes in diversity indices, suspension feeder biomass, or grazer-omnivore biomass. The scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica, sponges, and the brittle star, Ophiacantha vivipara, together with the sea star Diplasterias brandtii characterized frontal areas. Marginal areas were characterized by the scallop, Z. patagonica, the parchment worm, Chaetopterus variopedatus, the basket star, Gorgonocephalus chilensis, the sea urchin, Austrocidaris canaliculata, and the sea star, Ctenodiscus australis. These shifts in taxa were not always reflected in biomass differences between areas. These results demonstrate that spatial variations in oceanographic structure, even over spatial scales of tens of kilometers, can affect composition and shift species dominance in benthic communities.

  20. Alluvial plain dynamics and human occupation in SW Amazonia during the Holocene: A paleosol-based reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Rodrigues, Leonor; Veit, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The present study reconstructs Holocene fluvial dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin through the analysis of 36 stratigraphic profiles taken along a 300 km long transect across the Llanos de Moxos (LM), in the Bolivian Amazon. Based on 50 radiocarbon ages from paleosols intercalated with fluvial sediments, the most important changes in floodplain dynamics on a millennial scale are reconstructed and the links between pre-Columbian cultural processes and environmental change in the region explored. Results show that the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses, as inferred from the number and age of the cored paleosols, is stable from 8k cal. yrs BP to 4k cal. yrs BP and increases significantly from 4k to 2k cal. yrs BP, following the strengthening of el Niño/la Niña cycle and an increase in average precipitation. Fluvial activity then decreases and reaches its minimum after 2k cal BP. A comparison between the stratigraphic record and the archaeological record shows a match between periods of landscape stability in SW Amazonia (low river activity) and periods of pre-Columbian human occupation. The first Amazonians lived in the LM until 4k yrs. BP, when an abrupt increase in the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses forced the abandonment of the region. After two thousand years of archaeological hiatus, which matches the period of highest river activity in the region, agriculturists reoccupied the Bolivian Amazon.

  1. Deep-sea dives reveal an unexpected hexactinellid sponge garden on the Rio Grande Rise (SW Atlantic). A mimicking habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana; Lopes, Daniela A.; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Long overlooked, sponge grounds are now recognised as important habitats which support high biodiversity. Some of these deep-sea sponge aggregations are formed by hexactinellids, in varying densities, which can occur on both soft and hard substrates. Despite their ecological importance as habitat framework building taxa, hexactinellids have been little studied and only 33 species in this Class were reported from the entire South Atlantic until now. Most of this knowledge was gained from studies conducted on the eastern South America continental slope. Here we report a new hexactinellid sponge garden found by the Shinkai 6500 manned submersible on the Rio Grande Rise, a prominent topographic feature of the deep SW Atlantic. This is the first sponge garden worldwide found to be dominated by the stiff, often dichotomously branching, Sarostegia oculata which may occur in densities of over 5 individuals per square meter. This sponge, of uncertain familial allocation, seems to always carry epibiotic zoanthids, thus mimicking the 3D skeletal framework of actual coral gardens

  2. Bergy Bit and Melt Water Trajectories in Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland Observed by the Expendable Ice Tracker

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    Daniel F. Carlson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Icebergs and bergy bits makes up a significant component of the total freshwater flux from the Greenland Ice Sheet to the ocean. Observations of iceberg trajectories are biased toward larger icebergs and, as a result, the drift characteristics of smaller icebergs and bergy bits are poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this critical knowledge gap, we developed the open-source EXpendable Ice TrackEr (EXITE. EXITE is a low-cost, satellite-tracked GPS beacon capable of high-resolution temporal measurements over extended deployment periods (30 days or more. Furthermore, EXITE can transform to a surface drifter when its host iceberg capsizes or fragments. Here we describe basic construction of an EXITE beacon and present results from a deployment in Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland in August 2016. Overall, EXITE trajectories show out-fjord surface transport, in agreement with a simple estuarine circulation paradigm. However, eddies and abrupt wind-driven reversals reveal complex surface transport pathways at time scales of hours to days.

  3. Decreasing concentrations of metals in Sphagnum mosses in ombrotrophic mires of the Sudety mountains (SW Poland) since late 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the evaluation of changes in metal pollution between 1986 until 2011 by Sphagnum species as bioindicators in 100 km part of the Sudety mountains influenced by the former Black Triangle Region. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in various Sphagnum species all from ombrotrophic bogs in the Sudety mountains (SW Poland). The tested hypothesis was that overall improvements in pollution control in the former Black Triangle Region between 1986 until recent reduced the amount of metals deposited and accumulated by these plants. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Sphagnum species were very high in 1986 indicating a heavy pollution of the examined bogs in this period, and significantly higher than in samples collected in 2011. The PCCA ordination showed the similar pattern in all bogs. In 2011 concentration of the Co was significantly higher in hollow species and concentration of Mn was significantly higher in those from hummocks. Differences between hollow/hummock sites were more important than species-specific abilities of Sphagnum mosses to accumulate metals. Species from hollows were better bioindicators of Co and those from hummocks were better bioindicators of Mn pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feeding preferences of estuarine mysids Neomysis integer and Rhopalophthalmus tartessicus in a temperate estuary (Guadalquivir Estuary, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar; Fockedey, Nancy

    2008-04-01

    Mysid shrimps are an important component of estuarine food webs because they play a key role in energy transfer as intermediate prey. We investigated the seasonal, tidal and depth specific variation in the diet of the estuarine mysids Neomysis integer and Rhopalophthalmus tartessicus and explored its implications for the planktonic community structure of a temperate estuary (Guadalquivir Estuary, SW Spain). Neomysis integer is an opportunistic omnivore feeding mainly on mesozooplankton and on members of the detrital-microbial loop, shifting prey seasonally according to availability. In contrast, R. tartessicus showed a more carnivorous diet and shifted its target prey during seasons of low resource availability. Despite statistically significant differences in diet composition, both species shared prey of similar size, particularly juvenile Mesopodopsis slabberi, the most abundant mysid species in this estuary, and copepods. Although these similarities imply inter-specific resource competition, their co-existence is achieved by niche partitioning and spatial segregation: the higher osmoregulatory capacity and foraging plasticity of N. integer confers a broader niche breadth for this species allowing N. integer to inhabit the more stressful oligohaline region of the estuary where R. tartessicus cannot survive. We propose that this mechanism relaxes the potential for competition between N. integer and R. tartessicus.

  5. Inorganic carbon dynamic and air-water CO 2 exchange in the Guadalquivir Estuary (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz, M.; Gómez-Parra, A.; Forja, J.

    2007-11-01

    The distribution of inorganic carbon and the CO 2 exchange between atmosphere and water along the Guadalquivir Estuary (SW Iberian Peninsula) have been evaluated, on the basis of field observation performed from 2000 to 2003. The study consisted of the measurement of Total Alkalinity (TAlk), pH, continuous underway CO 2 partial pressure ( pCO 2), dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll. The Guadalquivir river water is rich in TAlk and DIC and its behaviour is mainly conservative along the salinity gradient. Estuarine waters were CO 2 oversaturated in all the samplings in space and time. It has been suggested some biogeochemical processes affecting the water pCO 2 such as the CO 2 flux to the atmosphere, aerobic respiration of organic matter, and carbonate dissolution. The average CO 2 flux to the atmosphere is 85.2 mmol m - 2 d - 1 and the total CO 2 emission to the atmosphere is 3.2 mol C 10 6 d - 1 . Ventilation of riverine CO 2 can contribute to the emission of CO 2 from inner estuaries although this factor seems highly variable among European estuaries. It has been estimated that, in the Guadalquivir Estuary, 34% of the total inorganic carbon exported is emitted to the atmosphere.

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of the dominant Diatom and Dinoflagellate species in the Bay of Tunis (SW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. DALY YAHIA-KEFI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Microphytoplankton composition and its relationships with hydrology and nutrient distributions were investigated over 24 months (December 1993 - November 1995 in the Bay of Tunis ( SW Mediterranean Sea. A new index, the ‘Specific Preference Index’ (SPI obtained by computing the median value of each parameter weighed by the numerical value of each species density was developed. Using this index, the relationships between each species and temperature, salinity and major nutrients were analysed. The distribution of chlorophyll a did not show a clear correlation with microplankton abundance suggesting that other factors contribute to chlorophyll concentration, such as smaller phytoplankton size fractions or detritus. The winter-spring diatom blooms did not show a regular pattern during both years. High nutrient inputs in late summer, associated with mild meteorological conditions, contributed to the development of a large diatom bloom in autumn 1995 where significant silicate depletion was witnessed. Generally, diatoms were more stenotherm than dinoflagellates in the Bay, whereas dinoflagellates were more stenohaline than diatoms. The statistical analyses showed that the two species, Bellerochea horologicalis , and Lithodesmioides polymorpha, var., tunisiense, appeared in a wide range of environmental conditions. An excess of phosphateversus nitrate appeared to be associated with red tides of, Gymnodinium spp, whereas Peridinium quinquecorne, showed the opposite. Phosphate concentrations appear to be crucial in this coastal environment, where diatom blooms are often limited by low silicate availability.

  7. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianjie Wang

    Full Text Available Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (N, total phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30% of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

  8. Sediment Sources and Transport Pathway Identification Based on Grain-Size Distributions on the SW Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Espichel-Sines is an embayed coast in SW Portugal, consisting of two capes at both extremities, a tidal inlet and associated ebb tidal delta, a barrier spit, sandy beaches, sea cliffs, and a submarine canyon. Beach berm, backshore, near shore and inner shelf sediment samples were taken. Samples were analyzed for their grain-size compositions. This study ranks the hypothetical sediment sources influences on the sediment distributions in the study area using the multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF techniques. Transport pathways in this study were independently identified using the grain size trend analysis (GSTA technique to verify the EOF findings. The results show that the cliff-erosion sediment is composed of pebbles and sand and is the most important sediment source for the entire embayment. The sediment at the inlet mouth is a mixture of pebbles, sand, silt, and clay, which is a minor sediment source that only has local influence. The overall grain-size distributions on the shelf are dominated by the sand except for the high mud content around the tidal delta front in the northern embayment. Sediment transport patterns on the inner shelf at the landward and north sides of the canyon head are landward and northward along the barrier spit, respectively. On the south side of the canyon head, the prevailing sediment transport is seaward. Sediment transport occurs in both directions along the shore.

  9. Crustal age domains in the Kibaran belt of SW-Uganda: Combined zircon geochronology and Sm Nd isotopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwaldt, Robert; Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Todt, Wolfgang; Ucakuwun, Elias K.

    2008-04-01

    Combination of geochemistry, Nd mean crustal residence ages and single zircon ages reveal distinct provinces not recognized previously within the Kibaran belt of SW-Uganda. Geochemical analyses (HFSE and REE) of four granitoids, namely the Ntungamo, Chitwe, Rwentobo and Kamwezi from the Karagwe Tinfield have been interpreted to be mainly composed of melt components from subduction modified parts of the continental lithospheric mantle. In addition we can demonstrate, from these distinctive batholiths crystallization ages that lead to the result of three age groups, one at around 1566 Ma, the second at 1444 Ma to and the third clusters between 1329 Ma and 1363 Ma. The ɛNd( t) values from the now precisely dated intrusions of the Kibaran belt indicate subsequently two distinctive groups. The older granites have ɛNd( t) values of -20.1 to -23.1 and Nd mean crustal residence ages, based on a depleted mantle model, from 3.52 Ga to 3.84 Ga while the younger granite batholiths show lower ɛNd( t) values of -10.1 to -14.0 and Nd mean crustal residence ages from 2.86 Ga to 3.06 Ga, respectively. The distinct geochemical, geochronological and isotopic characteristics and the unrelated geological evolution reconstructed from these data strongly implies that the two now adjacent Precambrian complexes were geologically unrelated crustal packages prior to high grade metamorphism and, as such, represent "suspect terranes" which were most probably brought together during a middle Proterozoic collision event.

  10. Novel polyhedral gold nanoparticles: green synthesis, optimization and characterization by environmental isolate of Acinetobacter sp. SW30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Sweety A; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Singh, Richa; Karve, Meena S; Chopade, Balu A

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles have enormous applications in cancer treatment, drug delivery and nanobiosensor due to their biocompatibility. Biological route of synthesis of metal nanoparticles are cost effective and eco-friendly. Acinetobacter sp. SW 30 isolated from activated sewage sludge produced cell bound as well as intracellular gold nanoparticles when challenged with HAuCl4 salt solution. We first time report the optimization of various physiological parameters such as age of culture, cell density and physicochemical parameters viz HAuCl4 concentration, temperature and pH which influence the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles thus produced were characterized by various analytical techniques viz. UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Polyhedral gold nanoparticles of size 20 ± 10 nm were synthesized by 24 h grown culture of cell density 2.4 × 10(9) cfu/ml at 50 °C and pH 9 in 0.5 mM HAuCl4. It was found that most of the gold nanoparticles were released into solution from bacterial cell surface of Acinetobacter sp. at pH 9 and 50 °C.

  11. Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Espinosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW MediterraneanPatella ferruginea is the most endangered endemic marine inverte¬brate on the Western Mediterranean coasts according to the European Council Directive 92/43/EEC. A total of 1,017 individuals were recorded in the present study along western Algerian islands, with mean densities ranging from 0.8 to 35.3 ind/m per linear transect and averages of 4.8 ind/m per linear transect for Western Habibas Island and 22 ind/m for Plane Island, making these islands a hot spot for the species in the Medi¬terranean. The expected total number of specimens in Habibas would therefore be 50,400. The mean size of P. ferruginea on the Habibas Islands (4.45 cm was significantly (p < 0.001 greater than on Plane Island (2.78 cm. Recruitment was high in Plane Island and the northern sector of the western Habibas Islands. Lar¬ge adults had very conical shells. The fact that Habibas Islands is now a marine reserve could explain these differences in populations. Conservation of these populations should be a priority in order to avoid extinction of the species.

  12. Ichthyoplankton spatial pattern in the inner shelf off Bahía Blanca Estuary, SW Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Clara, Menéndez María; Florencia, Biancalana; Mabel, Nizovoy Alicia; Ramón, Torres Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on the composition, abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the inner shelf area off Bahía Blanca Estuary on the SW Atlantic Ocean during late spring. Eggs and larvae of Brevoortia aurea, Engraulis anchoita, Parona signata, Sciaenidae spp. - such as Cynoscion guatucupa and Micropogonias furnieri -, and Odontesthes argentinensis were found. Species richness was low probably as a result of season and shallow depths. Ichthyoplankton abundance reached values close to 10 000 per 10 m -3 (eggs) and 4000 per 10 m -3 (larvae) and displayed a spatial distribution pattern with maximum abundance values restricted to a band parallel to the coast. Differences between egg and larval patterns, probably derived from a different displacement and hydrodynamic behavior, were observed. Egg and larvae distribution patterns were found related with spawning areas and to directly depend on salinity and mesozooplankton. The larvae distribution pattern, in particular, was found to inversely depend on particulate organic carbon. In addition, the geographic location of egg and larvae maxima strongly coincided with a saline front reported for this area in springtime, thus suggesting a direct relationship with it.

  13. Total Mercury in Squalid Callista Megapitaria squalida from the SW Gulf of California, Mexico: Tissue Distribution and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Piñera, Abril K; Escobar-Sánchez, Ofelia; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G

    2018-01-15

    We evaluated the total Hg concentration in different tissues of squalid callista Megapitaria squalida in order to measure Hg distribution in tissue and to estimate human health risk. Samples were obtained by free diving in the SW Gulf of California, Mexico. Concentrations are given on a wet weight basis. A total of 89 squalid callista specimens were obtained, presenting an average Hg concentration of 0.07 ± 0.04 µg g-1. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in Hg concentration between tissues (visceral mass = 0.09 ± 0.08 µg g-1; mantle = 0.06 ± 0.07 µg g-1; muscle = 0.06 ± 0.04 µg g-1). The low Hg values found in squalid callista and its low risk quotient (HQ = 0.03) suggest that the consumption of squalid callista does not represent a human health risk. However, HQ calculated using MeHg was > 1, it which could indicate a potential risk related to consumption of clams.

  14. Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masero, José A.; Pérez-González, Maite; Basadre, Marta; Otero-Saavedra, Mónica

    1999-07-01

    We studied the composition, density, size distribution and biomass of the food supply for waders in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), in winter (January-February) and in the pre-migratory period (late March). The estuarine area comprises an intertidal mudflat and an adjacent salina or salt-pan. On the intertidal mudflat, the biomass was 53 and 37 g AFDW .m -2in winter and the pre-migratory period, respectively. The main food source on mudflat was the polychaete Nereis diversicolor (44-54 % of the total biomass). On the other hand, the biomass in the salina was comparatively very poor, ranging from 0.008 to 0.079 g AFDW .m -2in winter and ranging from 0.011 to 0.09 g AFDW in late March. The main source of food in the salina was the crustacean Artemia. The total biomass on the mudflat during the pre-migratory period was 1.4 times lower than in February. This depletion could be caused by wader predation, mainly by Nereis diversicolor consumption. Although the potential food on the mudflats could allow high intertidal densities of waders, the availability of high tide foraging areas in the salina seems to contribute to the maintenance of these high intertidal densities.

  15. Groundwater chemistry characterization using multi-criteria approach: The upper Samalá River basin (SW Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Arianna; Franchino, Elisa; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Malandrino, Mery; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Hernández Sac, Humberto Osvaldo; Coyoy, Israel Macario; Sac Escobar, Edwin Osvaldo; Hernández, Ardany

    2017-10-01

    Improving understanding on groundwater chemistry is a key priority for water supply from groundwater resources, especially in developing countries. A hydrochemical study was performed in an area of SW Guatemala (Samalà River basin), where water supply to population is groundwater-based and no systematic studies on its groundwater resources have been performed so far. Traditional hydrochemical analyses on major ions and some trace elements metals coupled with chemometric approach were performed, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results evidence that chemical differentiation is linked to the spatial distribution of sampled waters. The most common hydrochemical facies, bicarbonate calcium and magnesium, is linked to infiltration of meteoric waters in recharge areas represented by highlands surrounding Xela caldera, a wide plateau where most of population is concentrated. This trend undergoes chemical evolution in proximity of active volcanic complexes in the southern area, with enrichment in sulphate, chloride and magnesium. Chemical evolution also occurs towards the centre of Xela caldera due to slow circulation in aquifer and consequent sodium enrichment due to ion exchange with the porous medium. Water quality did not reveal severe concerns, even though some sources of contamination could be identified; in particular, agriculture and urban wastewater could be responsible for observed threshold exceedances in nitrate and lead. This integrated multi-approach to hydrochemical data interpretation yielded to the achievement of important information that poses the basis for future groundwater protection in an area where main water features were almost unknown.

  16. Controls on Quaternary incision of the Northern Pyrenean foreland: Chronological and geomorphological constraints from the Lannemezan megafan, SW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchené, Margaux; van der Beek, Peter; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Carcaillet, Julien

    2017-03-01

    Alluvial fans and megafans hold a key position in the sediment routing system and are particularly sensitive to changes in geodynamic and climatic forcing, as well as autogenic fluvial processes. The Lannemezan megafan in the Northern Pyrenean foreland (SW France) was built during Miocene to Pliocene times and subsequently abandoned as the stream network deeply entrenched the foreland. We report new cosmogenic nuclide (10Be, 26Al) exposure dates for the abandoned fan surface and a series of alluvial terraces along the Neste and Garonne rivers. Our results show that abandonment of the fan occurred at or before 300 ka, and we suggest that this abandonment is the result of the autogenic dynamics of the river system leading to the capture of the feeding Neste River by the Garonne. However, the incision episodes that produced the terrace levels are concomitant to major climatic shifts. Detailed analysis of stream network morphometry does not reveal knickpoints or patterns in the steepness index and chi-values that could be linked to either active tectonic features, base-level change or network reorganization. We therefore suggest that fan abandonment and long-term incision occurred through autogenic processes and that climate shifts may have modulated the incision, allowing for the formation and persistence of alluvial terraces.

  17. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  18. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjie; Shen, Youxin; Li, Yuhui; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30%) of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

  19. Cellular processing in the SW1222 cell line of mAb A33 directly and indirectly radiohalogenated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johanna; Orlova, Anna; Sundin, Anders; Lundqvist, Hans; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2006-07-01

    Investigations into the cellular processing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their further use in radioimmunodiagnosis and cancer therapy are needed in order to understand the fate of internalized and catabolized mAbs. The anti-colorectal cancer mAb, A33, was labelled with 76Br and 125I using the direct Chloramine-T method, or by labelling N-succinimidyl para-(tri-methylstannyl) benzoate and its further conjugation to the mAb. The cellular processing of the four conjugates was investigated in SW1222 cells in vitro. Uptake of mAb was rapid, peaking after 14-16 h. Intracellular degradation was slow and the early loss of radioactivity was due to dissociation of cell-surface bound mAb. The indirect labelling resulted in stronger binding of the mAb as well as prolonged intracellular retention of the radiolabel. Direct and indirect halogen radiolabelling results in different cell-processing patterns of radiolabels, and radioactive catabolic products follow different routes of cellular excretion. The results of this cellular study indicate that indirect labelling is preferable to the direct Chloramine-T method.

  20. A multiple dating-method approach applied to the Sanabria Lake moraine complex (NW Iberian Peninsula, SW Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María José; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2014-01-01

    New evidence in the NW region of the Iberian Peninsula (˜42°N 6°W) of a glacial advance coeval with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the Marine Isotope Stage 2 has been identified through a dataset of exposure ages based on 23 10Be concentration measurements carried out on boulder samples taken from a set of latero-frontal moraines. Results span the interval 19.2-15.4 10Be ka, matching the last deglaciation period when Iberia experienced the coldest and driest conditions of the last 25 ka, and are consistent with Lateglacial chronologies established in other mountain regions from SW Europe. The extent of the LGM stade identified in this work is similar to the local maximum ice extent stade recorded and dated as prior to 33 ka using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. This work showcases how multiple-dating approaches and detailed geomorphological mapping are required to reconstruct realistic palaeoglacier evolution models.

  1. A high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from carbonate deposits in the Roman aqueduct of Patara, SW Turkey, from the time of Nero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Cornelis; Sürmelihindi, Gül; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    An inscription on the supporting wall of the inverted siphon of the aqueduct of the ancient Roman city of Patara, SW Turkey, explains how the wall collapsed during an earthquake and was subsequently restored. Carbonate deposits formed inside the aqueduct channel show cyclic stable isotope changes representing 17 years of deposition. This sequence, together with the text of the inscription, allows dating the earthquake to 68 AD and the original inauguration of the aqueduct to the winter of 51/52 AD. Thus, the carbonate deposits represent a high-resolution record of palaeotemperature and precipitation for SW Turkey covering the complete reign of the Emperor Nero. The period shows a cooling and drying trend after an initial warm and more humid period, interrupted by a few anomalous years. These 2 cm of calcite highlight the significance of carbonate deposits in ancient water supply systems as a high-resolution archive for palaeoclimate, palaeoseismology and archaeology.

  2. Gene cloning and characterization of a novel highly organic solvent tolerant lipase from Proteus sp. SW1 and its application for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Sungkeeree, Pareenart; Thiengmag, Sirinthra; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Loprasert, Suvit

    2013-01-01

    Proteus sp. SW1 was found to produce an extracellular solvent tolerant lipase. The gene, lipA, encoding a bacterial lipase, was cloned from total Proteus sp. SW1 DNA. lipA was predicted to encode a 287 amino acid protein of 31.2 kDa belonging to the Group I proteobacterial lipases. Purified His-tagged LipA exhibited optimal activity at pH 10.0 and 55°C. It was highly stable in organic solvents retaining 112% of its activity in 100% isopropanol after 24 h, and exhibited more than 200% of its initial activity upon exposure to 60% acetone, ethanol, and hexane for 18 h. Biodiesel synthesis reactions, using a single step addition of 13% an acyl acceptor ethanol, showed that LipA was highly effective at converting palm oil into biodiesel.

  3. Natural hybridization between Vanilla claviculata (W. Wright) Sw. and V. barbellata Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae): genetic, morphological, and pollination experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD

    2000-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata (W. Wright) Sw. and V. barbellata Rchb.f. grow sympatrically in the southwestern part of herto Rico. At three localities in the range of the two species, individuals with flowers that appeared different from previously known species were found. To test whether these were hybri...... the hypothesis that the individuals are hybrids, which is further augmented by interspecific pollination experiments between the putative parental species. This is the first case of natural hybridization reported in the genus Vanilla....

  4. γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairunnisa' Md Yusof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3 and 6-gingerol (6G in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 (0–150 µg/mL and 6G (0–300 µg/mL on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg/mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg/mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 (CI: 0.89 ± 0.02, and SW837 (CI: 0.79 ± 0.10 apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 (p < 0.05 after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells.

  5. Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/β-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hae-Duck

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. Methods The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. Results PL (125-1000 μg/mL significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. Conclusions These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells.

  6. Perancangan Alat Ukur Getaran Sebagai Indikator Simulasi Gempa Dengan Mengkomparasikan Sensor HDX 2 dan SW 18020P Berbasis Mikrokontroler ATmega 16A

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia, Rifanti

    2015-01-01

    Kajian ini merupakan pembahasan mengenai perancangan alat ukur getaran sebagai indikator simulasi gempa. Miniatur wilayah pegunungan dipakai untuk menunjang dari alat ukur ini. Getaran yang terjadi dihasilkan dari motor penggerak yang ada pada dasar miniatur gunung. Untuk mendeteksi adanya getaran yang terjadi maka digunakan sensor HDX 2 dan SW 18020P sebagai alat pendeteksi getaran dengan sensitivitas yang tinggi. Digunakan dua sensor tersebut untuk membandingkan sensor mana yang lebih cepat...

  7. Pangaea amalgamation and break-up: new radiometric constraints on sediment provenance in late Carboniferous and late Triassic basins of SW Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M. francisco; Chichorro, Martim; Ribeiro, Carlos; Vilallonga, Filipa; Drost, Kerstin; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this provenance study are greywacke and sandstone strata that define a key unconformity in SW Iberia, where late Triassic strata (Algarve Basin) overlie previously deformed and metamorphosed late Carboniferous basement (South Portuguese Zone). This angular unconformity records the transition from Pangaea´s amalgamation to its break-up with: i) development of marine basins of Moscovian age with turbiditic sedimentation (Brejeira Formation; ca. 310-305 Ma); ii) post-305 Ma deform...

  8. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Getachew; Sebsebe Demissew; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2012-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L.) Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt) A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if a...

  9. Heterogeneity of the acid phosphatase and ribonuclease from protocorms of the orchids Cymbidium Sw. and changes occurring after treatment with streptomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular forms of the acid phosphatase and RNase in protocorms of Cymbidium Sw. were studied by disc electrophoresis. The effect of streptomycin added to the culture medium on both enzymes was investigated. Significant changes in enzyme activity and electrophoretic patterns occured after addition of streptomycin at the beginning of culture growth. This indicates that the enzymes are affected by streptomycin in early stages of development of the protocorms.

  10. Perbandingan Morfologi Dua Jenis Anggrek Epifit pada Pohon Rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum L. : Acriopsis liliifolia (J.Koenig Seidenf. dan Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The stem of rambutan tree (Nephelium lappaceum has suitable microenvironment for the growth of epiphytic flora, due to its rugose stem. Therefore, it may trap and collect plant debrish or other organic material as well as rain drops. One of plant group found on the rambutan tree is orchid (Orchidaceae. This study aimed to observed the morphology of epihytic orchids on rambutan tree. The result showed two orchid species, Acriopsisliliifolia (J. Koenig Seidenf. and Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

  11. Suppressed invasive and migratory behaviors of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells through the regulation of Src, Rac1 GTPase, and MMP13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenxiao; Wan, Qiaoqiao; Na, Sungsoo; Yokota, Hiroki; Yan, Jing-Long; Hamamura, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second frequent type of primary bone cancer. In response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, activation of eIF2α-mediated signaling is reported to induce apoptosis. However, its effects on invasive and migratory behaviors of chondrosarcoma have not been understood. Focusing on potential roles of Src kinase, Rac1 GTPase, and MMP13, we investigated eIF2α-driven regulation of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. In particular, we employed two chemical agents (salubrinal, Sal; and guanabenz, Gu) that elevate the level of eIF2α phosphorylation. The result revealed that both Sal and Gu reduced invasion and motility of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells in a dose dependent manner. Live imaging using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that Sal and Gu downregulated activities of Src kinase as well as Rac1 GTPase in an eIF2α dependent manner. RNA interference experiments supported an eIF2α-mediated regulatory network in the inhibitory role of Sal and Gu. Partial silencing of MMP13 also suppressed malignant phenotypes of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. However, MMP13 was not regulated via eIF2α since administration of Sal but not Gu reduced expression of MMP13. In summary, we demonstrate that eIF2α dependent and independent pathways regulate invasion and motility of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells, and inactivation of Src, Rac1, and MMP13 by Sal could provide a potential adjuvant therapy for combating metastatic chondrosarcoma cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitorização da força da ondulação na base da arriba (Pessegueiro, SW Portugal. Primeiros resultados

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    Mário Neves

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available MEASUREMENT OF THE WAVE FORCE AT THE CLIFF BASE (PESSEGUEIRO, SW PORTUGAL. FIRST RESULTS. In this article the characteristicsof a new wave force sensor (EWIN are briefly described. This instrument was bolted to the shore platform of Pessegueiro on a first trial experience in Portugal. The maximum wave force records are also analysed in correlation with the wave climate accured in these occasions.