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  1. Consanguinity and neonatal death: a nested case-control study.

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    Reza Chaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have found higher rates of abortion and still births following consanguinity (familial marriages, the question of whether consanguinity significantly increases the risk of neonatal death has inadequately been addressed.This study aims to evaluate familial marriage effects on neonatal death in rural areas in Iran.In this nested case-control study, 6900 newbornswho were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province (South-West of Iranwere followed till the end of neonatal period, and neonatal death was the outcome of interest. Subsequently 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort by using risk set sampling model. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR were estimated by usinga conditional logistic regression model.In the final model, prematurity (OR = 5.57, low birthweight (LBW (OR = 7.68, consanguinity (first cousins (OR = 5.23, C-section (OR = 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR = 6.95 and birthsinterval less than 24 months (OR = 4.65 showed significant statistical association with neonatal mortality (p < 0.05.According to our findings, after adjusting the effects of other significant risk factors, familial marriageto first cousins is considered asan important risk factor for neonatal death.

  2. Risk factors for gastroenteritis: a nested case-control study.

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    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Wolfe, R; Leder, K

    2011-04-01

    This nested case-control study investigated the risk factors for gastroenteritis in a cohort using rainwater as their primary domestic water source. Consumption of beef [odds ratio (OR) 2·74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·56-4·80], handling of raw fresh chicken in the household (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·02-2·29) and animal contact (OR 1·83, 95% CI 1·20-2·83) were found to be significant risk factors (P>0·05). Significant protective effects were observed with raw salad prepared at home (OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·18-0·58), consumption of salami (OR 0·60, 95% CI 0·36-0·98), and shellfish (OR 0·31, 95% CI 0·14-0·67). This study provides novel insight into community-based endemic gastroenteritis showing that consumption of beef was associated with increased odds of illness and with a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 57·6%. Detecting such a high PAF for beef in a non-outbreak setting was unexpected.

  3. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes;

    2015-01-01

    , homocysteine, adiponectin, or body-mass index. Conclusions: In these parallel nested case-control studies, we found no relationship of multilocus heterozygosity with risk of CHD or its major risk factors. Studies in other populations are needed to rule out associations with lower levels of heterozygosity....

  4. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

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    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  5. ESTIMATING HAZARD RATIOS IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES BY MANTEL-HAENSZEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠占

    2001-01-01

    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  6. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

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    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

  7. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

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    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  8. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  9. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  10. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran. They were under follow up till the end of neonatal period and the outcome of interest was neonatal death. By using risk set sampling method, 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort."nResults: Prematurity (OR= 5.57, LBW (OR= 7.68, C-section (OR= 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR=6.95 and birth spac­ing less than 24 months (OR= 4.65 showed significant statistical association (P< 0.05 with neonatal mortality. The Popula­tion Attributable Fraction (PAF was 0.45 for LBW, 0.40 for prematurity, 0.28 for C-section, 0.30 for birth rank more than 3, and 0.16 for birth spacing less than 24 months."nConclusion: Prematurity, low birth weight, C-section, birth spacing less than 24 months and birth rank more than 3 are impor­tant risk factors for neonatal mortality.

  11. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  12. Antidepressants and Valvular Heart Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

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    Lin, Chia-Hui; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Liu, Yen-Bin; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2016-04-01

    Empirical evidence regarding the association between antidepressants and valvular heart disease (VHD) is scarce.Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research database, this nested case-control study assessed the association between antidepressants and VHD in a Chinese population.Among a cohort of patients who used at least 3 prescription antidepressants, 874 cases with VHD and 3496 matched controls (1:4 ratio) were identified. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the timing, duration, dose and type of antidepressants use, and the risk of VHD.Current use of antidepressants was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of VHD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.77). Among current users, a dose-response association was observed in terms of the cumulative duration and the cumulative antidepressant dose. Significantly higher risks of VHD were observed among the current users of tricyclic antidepressants (aOR 1.40 [1.05-1.87]).We found that the use of antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of VHD and that the risks varied according to different antidepressants.

  13. Varenicline and Risk of Self-Harm: A Nested Case-Control Study

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    Martins, Diana; Yao, Zhan; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains a serious public health concern. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including bupropion and varenicline, are proven means to increase quit rates. Post-marketing reports describing suicidal behaviours have raised concerns about the safety of varenicline. However, whether varenicline imparts a higher risk of suicide relative to bupropion remains uncertain. Methods A population-based nested case-control study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2015 was conducted. Subjects were residents of Ontario aged 18 years and older with publicly funded drug coverage receiving either bupropion or varenicline for smoking cessation. We defined cases were those with a hospitalization or emergency department visit for suicide or non-fatal self-harm within 90 days of treatment. For each case, we identified up to fifty controls from the same cohort matched on age, sex, history of self-harm, use of selected psychotropic medications, alcohol abuse and prior admission to a mental health unit. Adjusted odds ratio were used to compare the risk of suicide/self-harm of varenicline to bupropion. Results We identified 331 cases and 5,346 matched-controls. Following adjustment for potential confounders, we found that varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of suicide/self-harm relative to bupropion (adjusted odds ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.87). Interpretation Treatment with varenicline does not appear to significantly increase the risk of suicide or self-harm relative to bupropion. PMID:27662654

  14. Antipsychotic Medications and Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Nested Case-Control Study

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    Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Yang, Shu-Yu; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization in association with the use of certain antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia patients. Methods A nationwide cohort of 31,177 inpatients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years whose records were enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008 and were studied after encrypting the identifications. Cases (n = 147) were patients with subsequent acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization after their first psychiatric admission. Based on a nested case-control design, each case was matched with 20 controls for age, sex and the year of first psychiatric admission using risk-set sampling. The effects of antipsychotic agents on the development of acute coronary syndrome were assessed using multiple conditional logistic regression and sensitivity analyses to confirm any association. Results We found that current use of aripiprazole (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.27–10.64, p<0.05) and chlorpromazine (adjusted RR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.40–6.24, p<0.001) were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome. Although haloperidol was associated with an increased risk (adjusted RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20–3.44, p<0.01), there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. These three antipsychotic agents were also associated with an increased risk in the first 30 days of use, and the risk decreased as the duration of therapy increased. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score-adjusted modeling showed that the results were similar to those of multiple regression analysis. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who received aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, or haloperidol could have a potentially elevated risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, particularly at the start of therapy. PMID:27657540

  15. Diet and alcohol as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, B; Johansson, I; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and diet, assessed as both macronutrients and dietary patterns, increased the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a nested case-control design in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. Individuals in the VIP who had developed RA after the dietary survey were identified from medical records at the department of rheumatology at the University Hospital, Umeå (n = 386), and matched to 1,886 controls from the same database. Diet was assessed as food groups, as macronutrients and as scores of dietary patterns, namely the carbohydrate-restricted diet score, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy diet indicator score. When analysing the dietary patterns, consumption of food groups and different macronutrients, a significant association was found in the highest tertile of carbohydrate-restricted diet among the cases with a subsequent anti-CCP-positive disease 1.40 (1.02-1.92), as well as in the highest tertile of protein consumption among smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.95). However, after additional adjustment for sodium intake, these associations were no longer statistically significant. No association was observed between alcohol consumption and the risk of RA. To summarize, there were no significant associations between diet, or alcohol consumption, and the risk of development of RA within this cohort. The lack of any significant associations of alcohol consumption may be explained by a low consumption in the studied population overall or alternatively by methodological issues raised recently.

  16. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A; Juurlink, David N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Up to four controls for each case were identified from the same cohort, matched on age, sex, and presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and required to have received one of the study antibiotics within 14 days before the case’s index date. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for association between admission to hospital with hyperkalaemia and receipt of a study antibiotic in the preceding 14 days, adjusted for conditions and drugs that may influence risk of hyperkalaemia. Results During the 18 year study period, 6903 admissions for hyperkalaemia were identified, 306 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic use. Of these, 248 (81%) cases were matched to 783 controls. 10.8% (17 859/165 754) of spironolactone users received at least one prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared with amoxicillin, prescription of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a marked increase in the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 21.6). The population attributable fraction was 59.7%, suggesting that approximately 60% of all cases of hyperkalaemia in older patients taking spironolactone and treated with an antibiotic for a urinary tract infection could be avoided if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not prescribed. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was also associated with an increase in the risk of

  17. Determinants of skilled attendance for delivery in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based nested case control study

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    Mengesha Zelalem Birhanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal calls for a reduction of maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. A key indicator to measure this goal is the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel. The maternal mortality ratio of Ethiopia is 676 deaths per 100,000 live births. Skilled birth attendance is correlated with lower maternal mortality rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proportion of births with a skilled attendant is only 10% in Ethiopia. Therefore identifying the determinants of skilled attendance for delivery is a priority area to give policy recommendations. Methods A community based nested case control study was conducted from October 2009 – August 2011 at the University of Gondar health and demographic surveillance systems site located at Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the infant mortality prospective follow up study conducted to identify the determinants of infant survival. A pretested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data on the different variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of skilled birth attendance. Strength of the association was assessed using odds ratio with 95% CI. Results A total of 1065 mothers (213 cases and 852 controls were included in the analysis. Among the cases, 166 (77.9% were from urban areas. More than half (54% of the cases have secondary and above level of education. Secondary and above level of education [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.29, 3.68] and urban residence [AOR (95%CI = 8.8 (5.32, 14.46] were associated with skilled attendance for delivery. Similarly, women who had ANC during their pregnancy four or more times [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.56, 4.98] and who own TV [AOR (95%CI = 2.5 (1.32, 4.76] were more likely to deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Conclusions Women’s education, place of residence, frequency of antenatal

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  19. Oral bisphosphonates do not increase the risk of severe upper gastrointestinal complications: A nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardi, Arianna; Scotti, Lorenza; Vedova, Gianluca; D'Oro, Luca; Lapi, Francesco; Cipriani, Francesco; Caputi, Achille; Vaccheri, Alberto; Gregori, Dario; Gesuita, Rosaria; Vestri, Annarita; Staniscia, Tommaso; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Corrao, Giovanni; Sessa, E

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data on the effect of oral bisphosphonates (BPs) on risk of upper gastrointestinal complications (UGIC) are conflicting. We conducted a large population-based study from a network of Italian healthcare utilization databases aimed to assess the UGIC risk associated with use of BPs in the setting of secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures.Methods: A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort of 68,970 patients aged 45 years or older, who have been h...

  20. Urinary flavonoid excretion and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a nested case-control study123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Obel, Tina; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that a higher intake of flavonoids may be associated with lower risk of ischemic heart disease. However, the traditional estimation of flavonoid intake by using dietary assessment methods is affected by subjective measures. Objective: We examined...... whether the objective measurement of dietary flavonoids excreted in urine is associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design: A case-control study was nested in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Cases were identified in participants who had received a first-time ACS...... diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry after the time of enrollment into the Diet, Cancer and Health study. The excretion of 10 flavonoids, which represent 5 subclasses, was measured in spot urine samples by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 393 eligible cases...

  1. Plasma Enterolignan Concentrations and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijsten, A.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Buijsman, M.N.C.P.; Veer, van 't P.; Kok, F.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Enterolignans are biphenolic compounds that possess several biologic activities whereby they may influence carcinogenesis. The authors investigated the association between plasma enterolactone and enterodiol and colorectal cancer risk in a Dutch prospective study. Among more than 35,000 participants

  2. Lung Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Radon and Role of Smoking in Two Czech Nested Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Tomasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952–2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960–2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively. The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population.

  3. Use of Hypoprothrombinemia-Inducing Cephalosporins and the Risk of Hemorrhagic Events: A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Existing data regarding the risk of hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins are limited by the small sample size. This population-based study aimed to examine the association between exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and hemorrhagic events using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan.A nationwide nested case-control study.National Health Insurance Research database.We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 6191 patients who received hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and other antibiotics for more than 48 hours. Multivariable conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI for hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins (overall, cumulative dose measured as defined daily dose (DDD, and individual cephalosporins.Within the cohort, we identified 704 patients with hemorrhagic events and 2816 matched controls. Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins was associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic events (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.42-2.06, which increased with higher cumulative doses (5 DDDs, aOR 1.89. The aOR for individual cephalosporin was 2.88 (95% CI, 2.08-4.00, 1.35 (1.09-1.67 and 4.57 (2.63-7.95 for cefmetazole, flomoxef, and cefoperazone, respectively. Other risk factors included use of anticoagulants (aOR 2.08 [95% CI, 1.64-2.63], liver failure (aOR 1.69 [1.30-2.18], poor nutritional status (aOR 1.41 [1.15-1.73], and history of hemorrhagic events (aOR 2.57 [1.94-3.41] 6 months prior to the index date.Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins increases risk of hemorrhagic events. Close watch for hemorrhagic events is recommended when prescribing these cephalosporins, especially in patients who are at higher risk.

  4. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, Vitaly; Gheit, Tarik; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Eklund, Carina; Tommasino, Massimo; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Background A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited. Methods A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls) were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG) assay. Results Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively. Conclusions A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection. Impact C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas. PMID:27227411

  5. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited.A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls, and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG assay.Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively.A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection.C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  6. Risk factors for levofloxacin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-I; Song, J-H; Kim, S H; Chung, D R; Peck, K R; So, T M; Hsueh, P-R

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical features of community-onset levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia and to identify risk factors for levofloxacin resistance. Using the database of a surveillance study of community-acquired pneumococcal infections in Asian countries, we conducted a nested case-control study to identify risk factors for levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Of 981 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, 46 (4.7 %) had levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of whom 39 evaluable cases were included in the analysis. All cases were from Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Among patients with levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, 490 controls were selected based on patient country. Of the 39 cases of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia, 23 (59.0 %) were classified as healthcare-associated, while 164 (33.5 %) of the 490 controls of levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (P = 0.001) were classified as healthcare-associated. Multivariate analysis showed that previous treatment with fluoroquinolones, cerebrovascular disease, and healthcare-associated infection were significantly associated with levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia (all P < 0.05). Levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococci pose an important new public health threat in our region, and more information on the emergence and spread of these resistant strains will be necessary to prevent spread throughout the population.

  7. Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations : a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ferrari, Pietro; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias; Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Morois, Sophie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Misirli, Gesthimani; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Hallmans, Goeran; Palmqvist, Richard; Roddam, Andrew; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Autier, Philippe; Hainaut, Pierre; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration, dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations. Design Nested case-control study. Setting The study was conducted within the EPIC study, a cohort of mo

  8. Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations:a nested case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenab, M.; Bueno De Mesquita, H.B.; Ferrari, P.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Norat, T.; Pischon, T.; Jansen, E.H.; Slimani, N.; Byrnes, G.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Morois, S.; Kaaks, R.; Linseisen, J.; Boeing, H.; Bergmann, M.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Misirli, G.; Trichopoulos, D.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Tormo, M.J.; Ardanaz, E.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.J.; Dorronsoro, M.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Hallmans, G.; Palmqvist, R.; Roddam, A.; Key, T.J.; Khaw, K.T.; Autier, P.; Hainaut, P.; Riboli, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration, dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Setting The study was conducted within the EPIC study, a cohort of

  9. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Camilla T., E-mail: Camilla.thellenberg@onkologi.umu.se [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE-171 77 (Sweden); Bergh, Anders [Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Melin, Beatrice [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

    2011-11-08

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35) ], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73) ]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening.

  10. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Camilla T; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bergh, Anders; Melin, Beatrice

    2011-11-08

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17-1.35)], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47-0.73)]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening.

  11. Diarrhoea in general practice: when should a Clostridium difficile infection be considered? Results of a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgens, M P M; Dekkers, O M; Demeulemeester, A; Buiting, A G M; Bloembergen, P; van Benthem, B H B; Le Cessie, S; Kuijper, E J

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are frequent in hospitals, but also seem to increase in the community. Here, we aim to determine the incidence of CDI in general practice and to evaluate current testing algorithms for CDI. Three Dutch laboratories tested all unformed faeces (12,714) for C. difficile when diagnostic testing (for any enteric pathogen) was requested by a general practitioner (GP). Additionally, a nested case-control study was initiated, including 152 CDI patients and 304 age and sex-matched controls. Patients were compared using weighted multivariable logistic regression. One hundred and ninety-four samples (1.5%) were positive for C. difficile (incidence 0.67/10,000 patient years). This incidence was comparable to that of Salmonella spp. Compared with diarrhoeal controls, CDI was associated with more severe complaints, underlying diseases, antibiotic use and prior hospitalization. In our study, GPs requested a test for C. difficile in 7% of the stool samples, thereby detecting 40% of all CDIs. Dutch national recommendations advise testing for C. difficile when prior antibiotic use or hospitalization is present (18% of samples). If these recommendations were followed, 61% of all CDIs would have been detected. In conclusion, C. difficile is relatively frequent in general practice. Currently, testing for C. difficile is rare and only 40% of CDI in general practice is detected. Following recommendations that are based on traditional risk factors for CDI, would improve detection of CDI.

  12. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Melin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden identified BPH cases (n = 7,901 that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR. Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR, and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening.

  13. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Campos, Hannia; Ma, Jing; Stampfer1, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating fatty acids are highly correlated with each other and analyzing fatty acid patterns could better capture their interactions and their relation to prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the associations between data-derived blood fatty acid patterns and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the Physicians’ Health Study. Fatty acids levels were measured in whole blood samples of 476 cases and their matched controls by age and smoking status. Fatty acid patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Two patterns explaining 40.9% of total variation in blood fatty acid levels were identified. Pattern 1, which mainly reflects polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, was suggestively positively related to prostate cancer risk (ORquintile 5 vs. quintile 1=1.37, 95%CI=0.91–2.05, Ptrend=0.07). Pattern 2, which largely reflects de novo lipogenesis, was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer risk (ORquintile5 vs quintile1=1.63, 95%CI=1.04–2.55, Ptrend=0.02). This association was similar across tumor stage, grade, clinical aggressiveness categories and follow-up time. Conclusion The two patterns of fatty acids we identified were consistent with known interactions between fatty acid intake and metabolism. A pattern suggestive of higher activity in the de novo lipogenesis pathway was related to higher risk of prostate cancer. PMID:27488836

  14. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or worsening of the health status at an

  15. The incidence, risk factors, and outcome of transfusion-related acute lung injury in a cohort of cardiac surgery patients: a prospective nested case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A.P.J.; Hofstra, J.J.; Determann, R.M.; Veelo, D.P.; Paulus, F.; Kulik, W.; Korevaar, J.; Mol, B.A. de; Koopman, M.M.W.; Porcelijn, L.; Binnekade, J.M.; Vroom, M.B.; Schultz, M.J.; Juffermans, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Both antibodies and bioactive lipids that have accumulated during storage of blood have been implicated in TRALI pathogenesis. In a single-center, nested, case-control study, patients w

  16. Circulating C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Boeing, Heiner; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Morois, Sophie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Leufkens, Anke M.; Peeters, Petra H.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bonet, Catalina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using

  17. Presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and risk of spontaneous abortion: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Yde Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. It is well established that Q fever causes fetal loss in small ruminants. The suspicion has been raised that pregnant women may also experience adverse pregnancy outcome when the infection is acquired or reactivated during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential association between serologic markers of infection with C. burnetii and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of 100,418 pregnancies recruited from 1996-2002. Women were recruited in first trimester of pregnancy and followed prospectively. Median gestational age at enrolment was 8 weeks (25 and 75 percentiles: 7 weeks; 10 weeks. During pregnancy, a blood sample was collected at gestational week 6-12 and stored in a bio bank. For this study, a case sample of 218 pregnancies was drawn randomly among the pregnancies in the cohort which ended with a miscarriage before 22 gestational weeks, and a reference group of 482 pregnancies was selected in a random fashion among all pregnancies in the cohort. From these pregnancies, serum samples were screened for antibodies against C. burnetii in a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples that proved IgG or IgM antibody positive were subsequently confirmatory tested by an immunofluorescence (IFA test. RESULTS: Among cases, 11 (5% were C. burnetii positive in ELISA of which one was confirmed in the IFA assay compared to 29 (6% ELISA positive and 3 IFA confirmed in the random sample. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of a higher prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies in serum samples from women who later miscarried and the present study does not indicate a major association between Q fever infection and spontaneous abortion in humans. Very early first trimester abortions were, however, not included in the study.

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Metabolism and Signaling Genes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism and signaling genes have been inconsistently associated with risk of breast cancer, though few studies have examined SNPs in vitamin D-related genes other than the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene and particularly have not examined the association with the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA gene which may be a key vitamin D pathway gene. We conducted a nested case-control study of 734 cases and 1435 individually matched controls from a population-based prospective cohort study, the Northern Sweden Mammary Screening Cohort. Tag and functional SNPs were genotyped for the VDR, cytochrome p450 24A1 (CYP24A1, and RXRA genes. We also genotyped specific SNPs in four other genes related to vitamin D metabolism and signaling (GC/VDBP, CYP2R1, DHCR7, and CYP27B1. SNPs in the CYP2R1, DHCR7, and VDBP gene regions that were associated with circulating 25(OHD concentration in GWAS were also associated with plasma 25(OHD in our study (p-trend <0.005. After taking into account the false discovery rate, these SNPs were not significantly associated with breast cancer risk, nor were any of the other SNPs or haplotypes in VDR, RXRA, and CYP24A1. We observed no statistically significant associations between polymorphisms or haplotypes in key vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer. These results, combined with the observation in this cohort and most other prospective studies of no association of circulating 25(OHD with breast cancer risk, do not support an association between vitamin D and breast cancer risk.

  19. Impact of Urate Level on Cardiovascular Risk in Allopurinol Treated Patients. A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Søltoft Larsen

    Full Text Available Gout gives rise to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs, and allopurinol potentially reduces cardiovascular risk. What target level of urate is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known.To investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case-control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol.We identified long-term users of allopurinol in Funen County, Denmark. Among these, we identified all cases of cardiovascular events and sampled 4 controls to each case from the same population. The cases and controls were compared with respect to whether they reached a urate target below 0.36 mmol/l on allopurinol. The derived odds ratios were controlled for potential confounders available from data on prescriptions, laboratory values and in- and outpatient contacts.No association between treatment-to-target urate level and cardiovascular events were found (adjusted odds ratio of 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.28. No significant effect was seen in any subgroup defined by age, gender, renal function, allopurinol dose or the achieved urate level. Overall, the doses of allopurinol used in this study were low (mean ≈ 140 mg/day.We were unable to demonstrate a link between achieved urate level in patients treated with allopurinol and risk of cardiovascular events. Possible explanations include that allopurinol doses higher than those used in this study are required to achieve cardiovascular risk reduction or that the cardiovascular effect of allopurinol is not mediated through low urate levels. It remains to be seen whether allopurinol has a dose-response relationship with cardiovascular events at higher doses.

  20. Polymorphic variants in PTGS2 and prostate cancer risk: results from two large nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Kim N; Hayes, Richard B; Rodriguez, Carmen; Yu, Kai; Sakoda, Lori C; Huang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Bingshu E; Chen, Jinbo; Andriole, Gerald L; Calle, Eugenia E; Jacobs, Eric J; Chu, Lisa W; Figueroa, Jonine D; Yeager, Meredith; Platz, Elizabeth A; Michaud, Dominique S; Chanock, Stephen J; Thun, Michael J; Hsing, Ann W

    2008-03-01

    Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to increase prostate cancer risk. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) encodes the proinflammatory cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme believed to be the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of prostaglandins, important mediators of inflammation. We investigated associations between PTGS2 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk among 2321 prostate cancer cases and 2560 controls in two large case-control studies nested within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs5277, rs20432, rs4648276, rs5275 and rs689470) were examined in SNP and haplotype analyses (five SNPs in PLCO and four SNPs in the Nutrition Cohort). In PLCO, the Ex10 +837 T>C marker (rs5275) was initially associated with prostate cancer risk (P-trend = 0.02) but became non-significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P = 0.08); this SNP showed no association with prostate cancer risk in the Nutrition Cohort (P-trend = 0.54) or in an analysis pooling the two cohorts (P-trend = 0.20). No other SNP was associated with prostate cancer risk in PLCO or the Nutrition Cohort individually or combined. Haplotype analyses suggested an association between PTGS2 variants in PLCO alone (global P = 0.007), but not in the Nutrition Cohort (global P = 0.78) or pooled analysis (global P = 0.18). In conclusion, despite the potential importance of inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis, results from our large study of five PTGS2 SNPs does not support a strong association between PTGS2 variants and prostate cancer risk in non-Hispanic white men.

  1. A nested case-control study of maternal-neonatal transmission of hepatitis B virus in a Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Zhang Chen; Wen-Qi Zhou; Shu-Shan Zhao; Zhi-Yu Liu; Shi-Wu Wen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the determinants of maternal-neo?natal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV).METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China from January 1, 2005 to September 31, 2006. To avoid po?tential maternal blood contamination, we collected vein blood of newborns immediately after birth and before initial hepatitis B vaccination to determine the HBV in?fection status of the newborn. For each HBsAg-positive infant, one HBsAg-negative infant born to an HBsAg-positive mother was matched by hospital at birth (same), gender (same), and date of birth (within 1 mo). A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect clinical and epidemiological data. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effects of various determinants on maternal-neonatal transmis?sion of HBV.RESULTS: A total of 141 HBsAg-positive infants and 141 individually matched HBsAg-negative infants were included in the final analysis. Maternal first-degree family history of HBV infection, intrahepatic cholesta-sis, and premature rupture of membranes were risk factors for perinatal transmission of HBV, whereas sys?tematic treatment and HBV immunoglobulin injections for mothers with HBV infection were protective factors for maternal-neonatal transmission of HBV, after ad?justment for potential confounding factors.CONCLUSION: For HBsAg-positive mothers, system?atic treatment, HBV immunoglobulin administration, and controlling intrahepatic cholestasis and pregnancy complications may reduce the incidence of perinatal transmission of HBV.

  2. Diabetes mellitus increases the prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: A nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutradis, Charalampos; Skodra, Alexandra; Georgianos, Panagiotis; Tolika, Panagiota; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Avdelidou, Afroditi; Sarafidis, Pantelis A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare anemia prevalence between matched chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and to assess factors associated with anemia development. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study of 184 type-2 diabetic and 184 non-diabetic CKD patients from a prospectively assembled database of a Nephrology outpatient clinic, matched for gender, age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin: Men: recombinant erythropoietin) was examined in comparison, in the total population and by CKD Stage. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with anemia. RESULTS: The total prevalence of anemia was higher in diabetics (47.8% vs 33.2%, P = 0.004). Accordingly, prevalence was higher in diabetics in CKD Stage 3 (53.5% vs 33.1%, P < 0.001) and particularly in Stage 3a (60.4% vs 26.4%, P < 0.001), whereas it was non-significantly higher in Stage 4 (61.3% vs 48.4%; P = 0.307). Serum ferritin was higher in diabetics in total and in CKD stages, while serum iron was similar between groups. In multivariate analyses, DM (OR = 2.206, 95%CI: 1.196-4.069), CKD Stages 3a, 3b, 4 (Stage 4: OR = 12.169, 95%CI: 3.783-39.147) and serum iron (OR = 0.976, 95%CI: 0.968-0.985 per mg/dL increase) were independently associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of anemia progressively increases with advancing stages of CKD and is higher in diabetic than matched non-diabetic CKD patients and diabetes is independently associated with anemia occurrence. Detection and treatment of anemia in diabetic CKD patients should be performed earlier than non-diabetic counterparts. PMID:27458564

  3. Incidence and Risk Factors of De novo Stress Urinary Incontinence after Pelvic Floor Reconstruction: A Nested Case-control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Yan; Cao, Ting-Ting; Wang, Run-Zhi; Yang, Xin; Sun, Xiu-Li; Wang, Jian-Liu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some patients with pelvic organ prolapse may suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially stress urinary incontinence (SUI) named de novo SUI after pelvic floor reconstruction. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of de novo SUI. Methods: This is a nested case-control study of 533 patients who underwent pelvic floor reconstruction due to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) at the Department of Gynecology in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2011 to March 2013. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 401 patients were enrolled in the study with the follow-up rate of 74.8% (101 patients lost to follow-up). There were 75 patients with de novo SUI postoperatively. According to the ratio of 1:3, we ensured the number of control group (n = 225). The preoperative urinary dynamics, POP-quantification scores, and LUTS were compared between the two groups by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to investigate the risk factors of de novo SUI. Results: The incidence of de novo SUI was 25% (75/300). Univariate analysis showed that the ratio of lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) before surgery in de novo SUI group was significantly higher than the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.1–4.0], P = 0.022). The interaction test of LUTO and other factors displayed that Aa value was an interaction factor. With the increasing score of Aa, the incidence of de novo SUI become higher (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.0–3.7], P = 0.045). After multivariable adjustment, multiple regression analysis showed that LUTO was independently associated with a greater risk of de novo SUI after pelvic floor surgery (OR = 2.3, 95% CI [1.2–4.6], P = 0.013). Conclusions: Preoperative LUTO in patients with POP is a high-risk factor of de novo SUI, and high score of Aa-point is related to the occurrence of de novo SUI, which might be due to the outlet obstruction caused by bladder

  4. Risk of preterm delivery with increasing depth of excision for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in England: nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Brocklehurst, Peter; Evans, Heather; Peebles, Donald; Singh, Naveena; Walker, Patrick; Patnick, Julietta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between depth of excision of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and risk of preterm birth. Design Case-control study nested in record linkage cohort study. Setting 12 hospitals in England. Participants From a cohort of 11 471 women with at least one histological sample taken at colposcopy and a live singleton birth (before or after colposcopy), 1313 women with a preterm birth (20-36 weeks) were identified and frequency matched on maternal age at delivery, parity, and study site to 1313 women with term births (38-42 weeks). Main outcome measures Risk of preterm birth and very/extreme preterm birth by depth of excisional treatment of the cervical transformation zone. Results After exclusions, 768 preterm births (cases) and 830 term births after colposcopy remained. The risk of preterm birth was no greater in women with a previous small (<10 mm) excision (absolute risk 7.5%, 95% confidence interval 6.0% to 8.9%) than in women with a diagnostic punch biopsy (7.2%, 5.9% to 8.5%). Women with a medium (10-14 mm) (absolute risk 9.6%; relative risk 1.28, 0.98 to 1.68), large (15-19 mm) (15.3%; 2.04, 1.41 to 2.96), or very large (≥20 mm) excision (18.0%; 2.40, 1.53 to 3.75) had a higher risk of preterm delivery than those with small excision. The same pattern was seen in 161 women with very/extremely preterm births (20-31 weeks) and with increasing volume excised. Most births were conceived more than three years after colposcopy, and the risk of preterm delivery did not seem to depend on time from excision to conception. Conclusions The risk of preterm birth is at most minimally affected by a small excision. Larger excisions, particularly over 15 mm or 2.66 cm3, are associated with a doubling of the risk of both preterm and very preterm births. The risk does not decrease with increasing time from excision to conception. Efforts should be made to excise the entire lesion while preserving as much healthy cervical tissue as possible

  5. Seroprevalence of Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses and the Risk of External Genital Lesions in Men: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Rollison, Dana E.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Wang, Wei; Borenstein, Amy R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) are detectable in genital epithelial lesions in men and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. It remains unclear whether these viruses are associated causally with skin lesions. To date, no study has prospectively examined the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and development of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men. Objectives To examine the association between seropositivity to cutaneous HPV types and the risk of subsequent development of EGLs. Methods A nested case-control study including 163 incident EGL cases and 352 EGL-free controls in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study cohort was conducted. Cases were ascertained at each of up to 10 biannual clinical visits and verified through biopsy and pathological diagnoses. EGLs were categorized as condyloma, suggestive of condyloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), and other EGLs. Archived serum specimens collected at baseline were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV types (β types (5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 38, and 47), α type 27, γ type 4, μ type 1, and ν type 41) using a GST L1-based multiplex serology assay. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were collected through a questionnaire. Using logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results Overall, seropositivity to ≥1 cutaneous HPV type (any-HPV) and ≥1 β types (any-β) was 58.3% and 37.5% among other EGL cases, 71.6% and 46.8% among condyloma, 66.8% and 50.0% among PeIN, and 71.9% and 38.4% among controls, respectively. Type-specific seropositivity was most common for ɤ-HPV 4, μ-HPV 1, and β-HPV 8. No statistically significant association was observed between any-HPV, any-β, and type-specific HPV seropositivity and subsequent development of EGLs across all pathological diagnoses. Conclusions Overall, seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was common among men; however, it appears that cutaneous

  6. Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ngo, Yen; Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Westberg, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and current measurement data. To evaluate the exposure-response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period, and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case-control evaluation. In our database, the overall individual, daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m(3), averaging 0.083 mg/m(3). Job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m(3) were fettlers (0.087 mg/m(3)), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m(3)), and maintenance (0.054 mg/m(3)) workers. The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (β = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-5.93). For all jobs, significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (β = 2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10-year time periods up to 2006 (β = 1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (β = 1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and β = 1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium, and high exposure (0.5-0.05 mg/m(3) of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels.

  7. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M;

    2015-01-01

    : This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins......BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS...

  8. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  9. The association between component malalignment and post-operative pain following navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty: results of a cohort/nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czurda, Thomas; Fennema, Peter; Baumgartner, Martin; Ritschl, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have noted an adverse relationship between implant malalignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and post-operative pain. Although some evidence exists indicating that computer-assisted surgical navigation for TKA can improve the accuracy of component alignment, its impact on clinical outcomes is currently unknown. The dual goals of the present cohort/nested case-control study were to (1) compare self-reported responses to the Western Ontario-McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire between computer-assisted TKA (123 patients) using the imageless PiGalileo navigation system and conventional TKA (207 patients) [cohort analysis], and (2) to investigate a potential association between malalignment and post-operative pain in 19 painful knees and 19 asymptomatic knees obtained from the cohort analysis using matched sampling [nested case-control study]. In the cohort analysis, a relevant but non-significant (P = 0.06) difference in the occurrence of chronic pain was observed between the navigated (12%) and conventional arms (20%). Median post-operative WOMAC pain score was 100 (range, 50-100) in the conventional group and 100 (range, 65-100) in the navigated group. However, the Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference in favor of the navigated group (P = 0.01). In the nested case-control analysis, radiological outcomes and computer tomography (CT) measurements of femoral rotation were compared between the groups. The CT rotation measurements yielded evidence of a relationship between post-operative pain and incorrect rotational alignment of the femoral component of more than 3 degrees (OR: 7; 95% CI: 1.2-42; P = .033). In conclusion, there was no clinical benefit to computer-assisted navigation; however, a statistically significant relationship was observed between incorrect rotational alignment of the femoral component and symptoms of post-operative pain following TKA.

  10. Efficacy of PIVKA-II in prediction and early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study in Chinese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rentao Yu; Xiaomei Xiang; Zhaoxia Tan; Yi Zhou; Haoliang Wang; Guohong Deng

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unsatisfying due to a lack of early detecting methods. Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) has been proved to be an efficient biomarker for HCC. However, the predicting efficacy of PIVKA-II has barely been reported. In the Hepatitis Biobank of Southwest Hospital (HBS) cohort at Southwest Hospital, we did a two-stage nested case-control study. Totally, 45 HCC cases versus 138 matched controls were enrolled to comp...

  11. Oncogenic CagA promotes gastric cancer risk via activating ERK signaling pathways: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jeong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CagA cellular interaction via activation of the ERK signaling pathway may be a starting point in the development of gastric cancer. This study aimed to evaluate whether genes involved in ERK downstream signaling pathways activated by CagA are susceptible genetic markers for gastric cancer. METHODS: In the discovery phase, a total of 580 SNPs within +/-5 kbp of 30 candidate genes were genotyped to examine an association with gastric cancer risk in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (100 incident gastric cancer case-control sets. The most significant SNPs (raw or permutated p value<0.02 identified in the discovery analysis were re-evaluated in the extension phase using unconditional logistic regression model (400 gastric cancer case-control sets. Combined analyses including pooled- and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize all the results. RESULTS: 24 SNPs in eight genes (ERK, Dock180, C3G, Rap1, Src, CrkL, Mek and Crk were significantly associated with gastric cancer risk in the individual SNP analyses in the discovery phase (p<0.05. In the extension analyses, ERK rs5999749, Dock180 rs4635002 and C3G rs7853122 showed marginally significant gene-dose effects for gastric cancer. Consistently, final combined analysis presented the SNPs as significantly associated with gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.56, [95% CI: 1.19-2.06], OR = 0.61, [95% CI: 0.43-0.87], OR = 0.59, [95% CI: 0.54-0.76], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ERK rs5999749, Dock180 rs4635002 and C3G rs7853122 are genetic determinants in gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Juul, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Nested case-control sampling is designed to reduce the costs of large cohort studies. It is important to estimate the parameters of interest as efficiently as possible. We present a new maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for nested case-control sampling in the context of Cox's proportional hazards...... model. The MLE is computed by the EM-algorithm, which is easy to implement in the proportional hazards setting. Standard errors are estimated by a numerical profile likelihood approach based on EM aided differentiation. The work was motivated by a nested case-control study that hypothesized that insulin...

  13. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children' s Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  14. Delirium and high fever are associated with subacute motor deterioration in Parkinson disease: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammation caused by respiratory infections such as pneumonia frequently occurs, often resulting in delirium in the advanced stages of this disease. Delirium can lead to cognitive and functional decline, institutionalization, and mortality, especially in the elderly. Inflammation causes rapid worsening of PD motor symptoms and signs, sometimes irreversibly in some, but not all, patients. PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with subacute motor deterioration in PD patients with systemic inflammation. METHODS: The association of clinical factors with subacute motor deterioration was analyzed by a case-control study. Subacute motor deterioration was defined as sustained worsening by one or more modified Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y stages. Using multivariable logistic regression incorporating baseline characteristics (age, sex, PD duration, modified H-Y stage, dementia, and psychosis history and statistically selected possible predictors (peak body temperature, duration of leukocytosis, and presence of delirium, the odds ratios for these factors were estimated as relative risks. RESULTS: Of 80 PD patients with systemic inflammation, 26 with associated subacute motor deterioration were designated as cases and the remainder as controls. In the 26 cases, 6 months after its onset the motor deterioration had persisted in 19 patients and resolved in four (three were lost for follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that delirium and body temperature are significantly associated with motor deterioration after systemic inflammation (P = 0.001 for delirium and P = 0.026 for body temperature, the adjusted odds ratios being 15.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23-78.14 and 2.78 (95% CI: 1.13-6.83, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with PD and systemic inflammation, delirium and high body temperature are strong risk factors for subsequent subacute motor deterioration and such deterioration

  15. Tissue-type plasminogen activator and C-reactive protein in acute coronary heart disease. A nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Bladbjerg, E-M; Møller, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the importance of inflammation and fibrinolysis for evolution of ischaemic heart disease in a cohort of initially healthy subjects. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Follow-up periods 7-15 years. SUBJECTS: Included in the study were 133 cases with coronary heart disease...... and 258 controls. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects with ischaemic heart disease identified in 1991 by the Danish National Hospital Register. Protein concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured with ELISA methods in stored serum...... samples. RESULTS: CRP and t-PA concentrations were both significantly higher in cases than in controls (P difference between cases and controls for CRP and t-PA was present in both men (CRP: P = 0.022; t-PA: P = 0.001) and women (CRP: P = 0.013; t-PA: P = 0...

  16. Freshman year mental health symptoms and level of adaptation as predictors of Internet addiction: a retrospective nested case-control study of male Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bin; Han, Wei; Zeng, Lingxia; Guo, Xiong

    2013-12-15

    A retrospective nested case-control study was designed to explore whether freshman year mental health status and level of adaptation are predictors of Internet addiction. The study cohort was 977 college students at a university in northwest China. In the first college year, the students' mental health status and adaptation level were assessed using the Chinese College Student Mental Health Scale (CCSMHS) and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS). In the following 1-3 years, 62 Internet-addicted subjects were identified using Young's 8-item diagnostic questionnaire. Controls were matched for demographic characteristics. Using logistic regression analysis, freshman year mental health status, including factors such as somatization, anxiety, depression and self-contempt, and freshman year adaptive problems were found to be causal factors and predictors of Internet addiction. Freshman with features of depression, learning maladaptation and dissatisfaction could be an important target-intervention population for reducing Internet addiction.

  17. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that exposure to high levels of microbial agents such as endotoxin in the farm environment decreases the risk of atopic sensitization. Genetic variation in innate immunity genes may modulate the response to microbial agents and thus influence susceptibility to asthma...... and atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We....../-651 promoter polymorphisms are associated with atopy prevalence among young adults exposed to farm environments. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-related components and the risk of liver cancer in a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasushi; Nojima, Masanori; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Akutsu, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Endo, Takao; Kurozawa, Youichi; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potent mitogen. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) binds and inhibits IGF1. High circulating IGF1 levels and low IGFBP3 levels are associated with increased risk of several cancers. We examined relationships between serum levels of these factors and hepatoma risk in a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort study (the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study)). A baseline survey was conducted from 1988 to 1990, and 39,242 subjects donated blood samples. Participants diagnosed with hepatoma by 1997 were considered cases for nested case-control studies. Ninety-one cases and 263 sex- and age-matched controls were analyzed. A conditional logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the incidence of hepatoma associated with serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels. Neither IGF1 nor the molar ratio of IGF1/IGFBP3 was correlated with hepatoma risk. After adjustment for hepatitis viral infection, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake, a higher molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1) was associated with a decreased hepatoma risk more than IGFBP3 alone (p for trend <0.001 and = 0.003, respectively). People in the highest quartile had a lower risk (OR = 0.098; 95 % confidence interval = 0.026-0.368). In subgroup analyses of males and females, the molar difference was associated with a decreased hepatoma risk (p for trend <0.05). In non-elderly individuals, the difference was inversely correlated with the incidence of hepatoma (p for trend <0.01). The molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1) may be inversely associated with the incidence of hepatoma.

  19. External validation of a COPD prediction model using population-based primary care data: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Emerging models for predicting risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require external validation in order to assess their clinical value. We validated a previous model for predicting new onset COPD in a different database. We randomly drew 38,597 case-control pairs (total N = 77,194) of individuals aged ≥35 years and matched for sex, age, and general practice from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. We assessed accuracy of the model to discriminate between COPD cases and non-cases by calculating area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROCAUC) for the prediction scores. Analogous to the development model, ever smoking (OR 6.70; 95%CI 6.41–6.99), prior asthma (OR 6.43; 95%CI 5.85–7.07), and higher socioeconomic deprivation (OR 2.90; 95%CI 2.72–3.09 for highest vs. lowest quintile) increased the risk of COPD. The validated prediction scores ranged from 0–5.71 (ROCAUC 0.66; 95%CI 0.65–0.66) for males and 0–5.95 (ROCAUC 0.71; 95%CI 0.70–0.71) for females. We have confirmed that smoking, prior asthma, and socioeconomic deprivation are key risk factors for new onset COPD. Our model seems externally valid at identifying patients at risk of developing COPD. An impact assessment now needs to be undertaken to assess whether this prediction model can be applied in clinical care settings. PMID:28304375

  20. Oral bisphosphonates do not increase the risk of severe upper gastrointestinal complications: A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ghirardi (Arianna); L. Scotti (Lorenza); G.D. Vedova (Gianluca); L.C. D'Oro (Luca); F. Lapi (Francesco); F. Cipriani (Francesco); A.P. Caputi (Achille); A. Vaccheri (Alberto); D Gregori (Dario); R. Gesuita (Rosaria); A. Vestri (Annarita); T. Staniscia (Tommaso); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); G. Corrao (Giovanni); E. Sessa (E.); V. Arcoraci (Vincenzo); A. Parodi (Andrea); A. Zambon (A.); N. Montanaro (N.); C. Piccinni (C.); C. Suzzi (C.); A. Puccini (A.); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Geppetti (P.); L. Sati (L.); M. Di Bari (M.); F. Forlan (F.); F. Carle (F.); A. Menna (A.); R. Valenti (Renato)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data on the effect of oral bisphosphonates (BPs) on risk of upper gastrointestinal complications (UGIC) are conflicting. We conducted a large population-based study from a network of Italian healthcare utilization databases aimed to assess the UGIC risk associated with use of

  1. Long-term psychosocial sequelae of stillbirth: phase II of a nested case-control cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Penelope; Evans, Chris; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Stillbirth is associated with increased psychological morbidity in the subsequent pregnancy and puerperium. This study aimed to assess longer-term psychological and social outcomes of stillbirth and to identify factors associated with adverse outcome. We conducted seven-year follow-up of a cohort of women who were initially assessed during and after a pregnancy subsequent to stillbirth, together with pair-matched controls. All women were living with a partner at baseline and none had live children. Measured outcomes at follow-up included depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partnership breakdown. Comparison variables included social and psychological factors and, for the stillbirth group, factors relating to the lost pregnancy. There were no differences between groups in case level psychological morbidity, but significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms persisted in stillbirth group mothers who had case level PTSD 7 years earlier. Stillbirth group mothers were more likely to have experienced subsequent partnership breakdown. In the stillbirth group such breakdown was associated with having held the stillborn infant and having had case-level PTSD. Interpretations and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer risk: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin M Mahmud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite strong laboratory evidence that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs could prevent prostate cancer, epidemiological studies have so far reported conflicting results. Most studies were limited by lack of information on dosage and duration of use of the different classes of NSAIDs. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using data from Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan (SPDP and Cancer Registry to examine the effects of dose and duration of use of five classes of NSAIDs on prostate cancer risk. Cases (N = 9,007 were men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with prostatic carcinoma between 1985 and 2000, and were matched to four controls on age and duration of SPDP membership. Detailed histories of exposure to prescription NSAIDs and other drugs were obtained from the SPDP. RESULTS: Any use of propionates (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen was associated with a modest reduction in prostate cancer risk (Odds ratio = 0.90; 95%CI 0.84-0.95, whereas use of other NSAIDs was not. In particular, we did not observe the hypothesized inverse association with aspirin use (1.01; 0.95-1.07. There was no clear evidence of dose-response or duration-response relationships for any of the examined NSAID classes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest modest benefits of at least some NSAIDs in reducing prostate cancer risk.

  3. Association of Serum Magnesium Level with Odds of Prediabetes and Diabetes in a Southern Chinese Population: a Prospective Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chenchen; Wang, Xuebao; Wu, Wenjun; Gu, Xuejiang; Ye, Tingting; Deng, Huihui; Wang, Xianqin; Shen, Feixia

    2016-08-01

    Although emerging clinical evidence supports that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, there are sparse studies concerning the dynamic change of serum magnesium with the risk of diabetes and its early stages. In this nested case-control study, we performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test or a standardized steamed bread meal test in 178 subjects with incident glucose metabolism impairment (33 with type 2 diabetes and 145 with prediabetes) and 178 matched controls at baseline and at 3-year follow-up and determined the associations between baseline serum magnesium levels as well as changes in serum magnesium levels at follow-up and odds of prediabetes and diabetes. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratios of risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the highest quartile of serum magnesium levels were 0.22 (95 % confidence intervals [CI] 0.10-0.49; p for trend magnesium level was detected in type 2 diabetes cases (p = 0.015) at 3 years as compared with at baseline. These results suggest that a low magnesium level is an independent risk factor for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, and that the reduction of serum magnesium is associated with type 2 diabetes in a southern Chinese population.

  4. Genetic analysis of TOR complex gene variation with human longevity: a nested case-control study of American men of Japanese ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Donlon, Timothy A; He, Qimei; Grove, John S; Masaki, Kamal H; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, D Craig; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J

    2015-02-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is crucial for life span determination in model organisms. The aim of the present study was to test tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms that captured most of the genetic variation across key TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2) genes MTOR, RPTOR, and RICTOR and the important downstream effector gene RPS6KA1 for association with human longevity (defined as attainment of at least 95 years of age) as well as health span phenotypes. Subjects comprised a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for aging phenotypes and who have been followed for 48 years. The study used a nested case-control design involving 440 subjects aged 95 years and older and 374 controls. It found no association of 6 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms for MTOR, 61 for RPTOR, 7 for RICTOR, or 5 for RPS6KA1 with longevity. Of 40 aging-related phenotypes, no significant association with genotype was seen. Thus common genetic variation (minor allele frequency ≥10%) in MTOR, RPTOR, RICTOR, and RPS6KA1 is not associated with extreme old age or aging phenotypes in this population. Further research is needed to assess the potential genetic contribution of other mTOR pathway genes to human longevity, gene expression, upstream and downstream targets, and clinically relevant aging phenotypes.

  5. Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer: a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Boeing, Heiner; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Leufkens, Anke M; Peeters, Petra H; Rodríguez, Laudina; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E; Spencer, Elizabeth; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias

    2010-08-15

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.

  6. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  7. Trends in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus antibodies prior to the development of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: A nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Katie; Johnston, W Thomas; Nalwoga, Angela; Webb, Emily L; Mayanja, Billy N; Miley, Wendell; Elliott, Alison M; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa since both the causative agent, Kaposi's sarcoma associated-herpesvirus (KSHV), and the major risk factor, HIV, are prevalent. In a nested case-control study within a long-standing clinical cohort in rural Uganda, we used stored sera to examine the evolution of antibody titres against the KSHV antigens K8.1 and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) among 30 HIV-infected subjects who subsequently developed HIV-related KS (cases) and among 108 matched HIV/KSHV coinfected controls who did not develop KS. Throughout the 6 years prior to diagnosis, antibody titres to K8.1 and LANA were significantly higher among cases than controls (p < 0.0001), and titres increased prior to diagnosis in the cases. K8.1 titres differed more between KS cases and controls, compared to LANA titres. These differences in titre between cases and controls suggest a role for lytic viral replication in the pathogenesis of HIV-related KS in this setting. PMID:25395177

  8. Polymorphism in xenobiotic and estrogen metabolizing genes, exposure to perfluorinated compounds and subsequent breast cancer risk: A nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Røge, Durita Mohr; Olsen, Jørn; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2017-04-01

    In the present case-cohort study based on prospective data from Danish women, we aimed to estimate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes known to be involved in the steroid hormone metabolic pathway and xenobiotic metabolism on the risk of developing breast cancer. We also studied a possible effect measure modification between genotypes and levels of serum perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) on the risk to breast cancer. We have previously reported a weak association between serum PFASs levels and the risk of breast cancer for this study population of Danish pregnant nulliparous women as well as in a smaller case-control study of Greenlandic women. The study population consisted of 178 breast cancer cases and 233 controls (tabnulliparous and frequency matched on age) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which was established in 1996-2002. Blood samples were drawn at the time of enrollment (6-14 week of gestation). Serum levels of 10 perfluorocarboxylated acids (PFCAs), 5 perfluorosulfonated acids (PFSAs) and 1 sulfonamide (perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PFOSA) were measured. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1→ A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C→T; rs10046) by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. In overall, no significant associations were found between the investigated polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in this study among Danish women. The previously found association between PFOSA and risk of breast cancer did vary between different genotypes, with significantly increased risk confined to homozygous carriers of the following alleles: COMT (Met), CYP17 (A1) and CYP19 (C).

  9. Innate immunity and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL related genes in a nested case-control study for gastric cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue K Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genetic variants regulating the host immune system may contribute to the susceptibility for the development of gastric cancer. Little is known about the role of the innate immunity- and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL-related genes for gastric cancer risk. This nested case-control study was conducted to identify candidate genes for gastric cancer risk for future studies. METHODS: In the Discovery phase, 3,072 SNPs in 203 innate immunity- and 264 NHL-related genes using the Illumine GoldenGateTM OPA Panel were analyzed in 42 matched case-control sets selected from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC. Six significant SNPs in four innate immunity (DEFA6, DEFB1, JAK3, and ACAA1 and 11 SNPs in nine NHL-related genes (INSL3, CHMP7, BCL2L11, TNFRSF8, RAD50, CASP7, CHUK, CD79B, and CLDN9 with a permutated p-value <0.01 were re-genotyped in the Replication phase among 386 cases and 348 controls. Odds ratios (ORs for gastric cancer risk were estimated adjusting for age, smoking status, and H. pylori and CagA sero-positivity. Summarized ORs in the total study population (428 cases and 390 controls are presented using pooled- and meta-analyses. RESULTS: Four SNPS had no heterogeneity across the phases: in the meta-analysis, DEFA6 rs13275170 and DEFB1 rs2738169 had both a 1.3-fold increased odds ratio (OR for gastric cancer (95% CIs = 1.1-1.6; and 1.1-1.5, respectively. INSL3 rs10421916 and rs11088680 had both a 0.8-fold decreased OR for gastric cancer (95% CIs = 0.7-0.97; and 0.7-0.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that certain variants in the innate immunity and NHL-related genes affect the gastric cancer risk, perhaps by modulating infection-inflammation-immunity mechanisms that remain to be defined.

  10. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Carol; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism, taking the type of progestogen into account. Design Two nested case-control studies. Setting General practices in the United Kingdom contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD; 618 practices) and QResearch primary care database (722 practices). Participants Women aged 15-49 years with a first diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in 2001-13, each matched with up to five controls by age, practice, and calendar year. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for incident venous thromboembolism and use of combined oral contraceptives in the previous year, adjusted for smoking status, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, body mass index, comorbidities, and other contraceptive drugs. Results were combined across the two datasets. Results 5062 cases of venous thromboembolism from CPRD and 5500 from QResearch were analysed. Current exposure to any combined oral contraceptive was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (adjusted odds ratio 2.97, 95% confidence interval 2.78 to 3.17) compared with no exposure in the previous year. Corresponding risks associated with current exposure to desogestrel (4.28, 3.66 to 5.01), gestodene (3.64, 3.00 to 4.43), drospirenone (4.12, 3.43 to 4.96), and cyproterone (4.27, 3.57 to 5.11) were significantly higher than those for second generation contraceptives levonorgestrel (2.38, 2.18 to 2.59) and norethisterone (2.56, 2.15 to 3.06), and for norgestimate (2.53, 2.17 to 2.96). The number of extra cases of venous thromboembolism per year per 10 000 treated women was lowest for levonorgestrel (6, 95% confidence interval 5 to 7) and norgestimate (6, 5 to 8), and highest for desogestrel (14, 11 to 17) and cyproterone (14, 11 to 17). Conclusions In these population based, case-control studies using two large primary care databases, risks of venous thromboembolism associated with combined oral

  11. Beta-Blockers, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, and the Risk of Hyperkalemia Requiring Hospitalization in the Elderly: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Matthew A.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad; Hackam, Daniel G.; Jain, Arsh K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The simultaneous use of beta adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) may confer a high risk of hyperkalemia. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Two nested case-control studies were conducted to examine the association between hospitalization for hyperkalemia and the use of TMP-SMX in older patients receiving β-blockers. Linked health administrative records from Ontario, Canada, were used to assemble a cohort of 299,749 β-blockers users, aged 66 years or older and capture data regarding medication use and hospital admissions for hyperkalemia. Results: Over the study period from 1994 to 2008, 189 patients in this cohort were hospitalized for hyperkalemia within 14 days of receiving a study antibiotic. Compared with amoxicillin, the use of TMP-SMX was associated with a substantially greater risk of hyperkalemia requiring hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 9.4). No such risk was identified with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. When dosing was considered, the association was greater at higher doses of TMP-SMX. When the primary analysis was repeated in a cohort of non-β-blocker users, the risk of hyperkalemia comparing TMP-SMX to amoxicillin was not significantly different from that found among β-blocker users. Conclusions: Although TMP-SMX is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in older adults, these findings show no added risk when used in combination with β-blockers. PMID:20595693

  12. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate: nationwide cohort and nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. Design Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. Setting Nationwide study of population of Denmark. Participants 61 990 men and women aged 50-94 at the start of treatment, who had not previously taken alendronate, 1996-2007. Interventions Treatment with alendronate. Main outcome measures Incident fracture of the subtrochanteric femur or femoral shaft (ST/FS) or the hip. Non-fracture controls from the cohort were matched to fracture cases by sex, year of birth, and year of initiation of alendronate treatment. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios with and without adjustment for comorbidity and comedications. Sensitivity analyses investigated subsequent treatment with other drugs for osteoporosis. Results 1428 participants sustained a ST/FS (incidence rate 3.4/1000 person years, 95% confidence interval 3.2 to 3.6), and 6784 sustained a hip fracture (16.2/1000 person years, 15.8 to 16.6). The risk of ST/FS was lower with high adherence to treatment with alendronate (medication possession ratio (MPR, a proxy for compliance) >80%) compared with poor adherence (MPR 80% was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture (0.73, 0.68 to 0.78; Pfracture outcomes, even for over 10 years of continuous use. PMID:27353596

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction < 0.01). Our findings provided evidence supporting the null association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk in western European populations. However, the suggested association between chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Low-Grade Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Risk of Invasive Post-Menopausal Breast Cancer - A Nested Case-Control Study from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana A Dias

    Full Text Available Although cancer promotes inflammation, the role of inflammation in tumor-genesis is less well established. The aim was to examine if low-grade inflammation is related to post-menopausal breast cancer risk, and if obesity modifies this association.In the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, a nested case-control study was defined among 8,513 women free of cancer and aged 55-73 years at baseline (1991-96; 459 were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up (until December 31st, 2010. In laboratory analyses of blood from 446 cases, and 885 controls (matched on age and date of blood sampling we examined systemic inflammation markers: oxidized (ox-LDL, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for breast cancer risk was calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression.Inverse associations with breast cancer were seen in fully-adjusted models, for 2nd and 3rd tertiles of ox-LDL, OR (95% CI: 0.65 (0.47-0.90, 0.63 (0.45-0.89 respectively, p-trend = 0.01; and for the 3rd tertile of TNF-α, 0.65 (0.43-0.99, p-trend = 0.04. In contrast, those in the highest IL-1β category had higher risk, 1.71 (1.05-2.79, p-trend = 0.01. Obesity did not modify associations between inflammation biomarkers and breast cancer.Our study does not suggest that low-grade inflammation increase the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer.

  15. Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-10) in Children in Chile: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Nationwide Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cristiana M.; Alencar, Gizelton P.; Alvarez, Andrés; Valenzuela, Maria T.; Andrus, Jon; del Aguila, Roberto; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Araya, Pamela; Pidal, Paola; Matus, Cuauhtemoc R.; de Oliveira, Lucia H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Chilean National Immunization Program (NIP) in January 2011 with a 3+1 schedule (2, 4, 6 and 12 months) without catch-up vaccination. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCV10 on pneumonia morbidity and mortality among infants during the first two years after vaccine introduction. Methods This is a population-based nested case-control study using four merged nationwide case-based electronic health data registries: live birth, vaccination, hospitalization and mortality. Children born in 2010 and 2011 were followed from two moths of age for a period of two years. Using four different case definitions of pneumonia hospitalization and/or mortality (all-cause and pneumonia related deaths), all cases and four randomly selected matched controls per case were selected. Controls were matched to cases on analysis time. Vaccination status was then assessed. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There were a total of 497,996 children in the 2010 and 2011 Chilean live-birth cohorts. PCV10 VE was 11.2% (95%CI 8.5–13.6) when all pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths were used to define cases. VE increased to 20.7 (95%CI 17.3–23.8) when ICD10 codes used to denote viral pneumonia were excluded from the case definition. VE estimates on pneumonia deaths and all-cause deaths were 71.5 (95%CI 9.0–91.8) and 34.8 (95% CI 23.7–44.4), respectively. Conclusion PCV10 vaccination substantially reduced the number of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and deaths due to pneumonia and to all-causes over this study period. Our findings also reinforce the importance of having quality health information systems for measuring VE. PMID:27058873

  16. Infection, antibiotic therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: a nationwide nested case-control study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiun-Ling; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wu, Li-Chiu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2014-08-15

    Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of our study was to examine the inter-relationship among infection sites, systemic antibiotic use and risk of CRC among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a diabetic cohort from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we identified 3,593 incident colon cancer cases, 1,979 rectal cancer cases and 22,288 controls and conducted a nested case-control study to examine the association between antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between infection sites, antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Patients with intra-abdominal infection were significantly associated with increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.35) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.00). Any antianaerobic antibiotic use was associated with a higher risk of colon cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.12-2.52) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.50-1.90) but without an obvious dose-response relationship for cumulative use. Antianaerobic antibiotics also increased the risks for those with nonintra-abdominal infection. No association was found between antiaerobic agent use and the CRC risk. The results suggest intra-abdominal infections and antianaerobic antibiotic use may be a marker for precancerous lesions or early CRC, although the possibility of antianaerobic antibiotics playing an additional role cannot be excluded. Further research examining the relationship between intra-abdominal infection, antianaerobic antibiotics use and possible change of microbiota leading to colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  17. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  18. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rank Fritz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. Methods The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78. The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. Results The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01. Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, but no dose-response relation was apparent. Conclusion The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified.

  19. Advantages of the nested case-control design in diagnostic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, Cornelis J.; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Oudega, Ruud; Hoes, Arno W.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Moons, Karel Gm

    2008-01-01

    Background: Despite its benefits, it is uncommon to apply the nested case-control design in diagnostic research. We aim to show advantages of this design for diagnostic accuracy studies. Methods: We used data from a full cross-sectional diagnostic study comprising a cohort of 1295 consecutive patien

  20. The incidence, risk factors, and outcome of transfusion-related acute lung injury in a cohort of cardiac surgery patients: a prospective nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaar, Alexander P J; Hofstra, Jorrit J; Determann, Rogier M; Veelo, Denise P; Paulus, Frederique; Kulik, Wim; Korevaar, Johanna; de Mol, Bas A; Koopman, Marianne M W; Porcelijn, Leendert; Binnekade, Jan M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Schultz, Marcus J; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2011-04-21

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Both antibodies and bioactive lipids that have accumulated during storage of blood have been implicated in TRALI pathogenesis. In a single-center, nested, case-control study, patients were prospectively observed for onset of TRALI according to the consensus definition. Of 668 patients, 16 patients (2.4%) developed TRALI. Patient-related risk factors for onset of TRALI were age and time on the cardiopulmonary bypass. Transfusion-related risk factors were total amount of blood products (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.44), number of red blood cells stored more than 14 days (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.04-2.37), total amount of plasma (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.44), presence of antibodies in donor plasma (OR = 8.8; 95% CI, 1.8-44), and total amount of transfused bioactive lipids (OR = 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07). When adjusted for patient risk factors, only the presence of antibodies in the associated blood products remained a risk factor for TRALI (OR = 14.2; 95% CI, 1.5-132). In-hospital mortality of TRALI was 13% compared with 0% and 3% in transfused and nontransfused patients, respectively (P < .05). In conclusion, the incidence of TRALI is high in cardiac surgery patients and associated with adverse outcome. Our results suggest that cardiac surgery patients may benefit from exclusion of blood products containing HLA/HNA antibodies.

  1. Implementation of mental health service has an impact on retention in HIV care: a nested case-control study in a japanese HIV care facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Tominari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor retention in the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with adverse patient outcomes such as antiretroviral therapy failure and death. Therefore, appropriate case management is required for better patient retention; however, which intervention in case management is important has not been fully investigated. Meanwhile, in Japan, each local government is required to organize mental health services for patients with HIV so that a case manager at an HIV care facility can utilize them, but little is known about the association between implementation of the services and loss to follow-up. Therefore, we investigated that by a nested case-control study. METHODS: The target population consisted of all patients with HIV who visited Osaka National Hospital, the largest HIV care facility in western Japan, between 2000 and 2010. Loss to follow-up was defined as not returning for follow-up care more than 1 year after the last visit. Independent variables included patient demographics, characteristics of the disease and treatment, and whether the patients have received mental health services. For each case, three controls were randomly selected and matched. RESULTS: Of the 1620 eligible patients, 88 loss to follow-up cases were identified and 264 controls were matched. Multivariate-adjusted conditional logistic regression revealed that loss to follow-up was less frequent among patients who had received mental health services implemented by their case managers (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.35 [0.16-0.76]. Loss to follow-up also occurred more frequently in patients who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 7.51 [3.34-16.9], who were under 30 years old (2.74 [1.36-5.50], or who were without jobs (3.38 [1.58-7.23]. CONCLUSION: Mental health service implementation by case managers has a significant impact on patient retention.

  2. Excess body iron and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nested case-control in the PREDIMED (PREvention with MEDiterranean Diet) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, Victoria; Fernández-Cao, José C; Basora, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Aranda, Nuria; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-12-14

    A prospective nested case-control study within the PREvention with MEDiterranean Diet (PREDIMED) was conducted to evaluate the relationship between excess body Fe (measured as serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR:ferritin ratio) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Mediterranean population at a high risk of CVD, without T2DM at the start of the study. The study contained 459 subjects, 153 with incident T2DM (cases) and 306 without incident T2DM (controls). The follow-up period was for 6.0 (interquartile range 3.9-6.5) years. For each incident diabetic subject, two subjects were selected as controls who were matched broadly for age as well as for sex, intervention group and BMI. We observed a relationship between SF values >257 μg/l in males and >139 μg/l in females and the risk of T2DM, following adjustment in the conditional logistic regression model for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose and other components of the metabolic syndrome (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.32, 19.95; P= 0.022). We also found an association between low sTfR:ferritin ratio levels and the incidence of T2DM (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.09, 8.39; P= 0.042), but no association with sTfR (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.51, 3.23; P= 0.722). Oxidative stress has been hypothesised to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, the two key events in the clinical development of T2DM. Following adjustment for other risk factors for T2DM, excess body Fe (measured as SF and sTfR:ferritin ratio) was associated with an increased risk of developing T2DM in a Mediterranean population at a high risk of CVD.

  3. Risk of bleeding and antibiotic use in patients receiving continuous phenprocoumon therapy. A case-control study nested in a large insurance- and population-based German cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Sascha; Ihle, Peter; Harder, Sebastian; Schubert, Ingrid

    2014-05-05

    There is major concern about coumarins interacting with various drug classes and increasing the risk of overanticoagulation. The aim of the study was to assess bleeding risk in patients with concurrent use of antibiotics and phenprocoumon, the most widely prescribed coumarin in many European countries. We conducted a nested-case-control study within a cohort of 513,338 incident and continuous phenprocoumon users ≥ 18 years of age using claims data of the statutory health insurance company AOK, covering 30% of the German population. Bleeding risk associated with current use of antibiotics for systemic use (antibacterials/antimycotics) was calculated using conditional logistic regression in 13,785 cases with a bleeding event and 55,140 risk-set sampling-matched controls. Bleeding risk associated with any antibacterial use in phenprocoumon users was significantly increased [odds ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20-2.56]. The association was stronger for gastrointestinal than for cerebral bleeding (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84-2.38 and OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.74, respectively) and highest for other/unspecified bleeding (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.62-3.26). Specific antibiotic classes were strongly associated with bleeding risk, e.g. cotrimoxazole (OR 3.86, 95% CI 3.08-4.84) and fluorquinolones (OR 3.13, 95% CI 2.74-3.59), among those highest for ofloxacin (OR 5.00, 95% CI 3.01-8.32). Combined use of phenprocoumon and antimycotics was not significantly associated with bleeding risk. Risk was not significantly modified by age (pint=0.25) or sex (pint=0.96). The association was stronger the closer the antibiotic exposure was to the bleeding event. Among continuous phenprocoumon users, antibiotics - particularly quinolones and cotrimoxazole - should be prescribed after careful consideration due to an increased bleeding risk. Close monitoring of international normalised ratio levels after prescription is recommended.

  4. Interactions between genetic admixture, ethnic identity, APOE genotype and dementia prevalence in an admixed Cuban sample; a cross-sectional population survey and nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Milagros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and incidence of dementia are low in Nigeria, but high among African-Americans. In these populations there is a high frequency of the risk-conferring APOE-e4 allele, but the risk ratio is less than in Europeans. In an admixed population of older Cubans we explored the effects of ethnic identity and genetic admixture on APOE genotype, its association with dementia, and dementia prevalence. Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 2928 residents aged 65 and over, with a nested case-control study of individual admixture. Dementia diagnosis was established using 10/66 Dementia and DSM-IV criteria. APOE genotype was determined in 2520 participants, and genetic admixture in 235 dementia cases and 349 controls. Results Mean African admixture proportions were 5.8% for 'white', 28.6% for 'mixed' and 49.6% for 'black' ethnic identities. All three groups were substantially admixed with considerable overlap. African admixture was linearly related to number of APOE-e4 alleles. One or more APOE-e4 alleles was associated with dementia in 'white' and 'black' but not 'mixed' groups but neither this, nor the interaction between APOE-e4 and African admixture (PR 0.52, 95% CI 0.13-2.08 were statistically significant. Neither ethnic identity nor African admixture was associated with dementia prevalence when assessed separately. However, considering their joint effects African versus European admixture was independently associated with a higher prevalence, and 'mixed' or 'black' identity with a lower prevalence of dementia. Conclusions APOE genotype is strongly associated with ancestry. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether the concentration of the high-risk allele in those with African ancestry is offset by an attenuation of its effect. Counter to our hypothesis, African admixture may be associated with higher risk of dementia. Although strongly correlated, effects of admixture and ethnic identity should be

  5. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Implementation of Regressing Suboptimal Health Status among College Students in China: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suboptimal health status (SHS is the intermediate health state between health and disease, it is medically undiagnosed and is also termed functional somatic syndrome. Although its clinical manifestations are complicated and various, SHS has not reached the disease status. Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with many chronic diseases and mortality. In accordance with the impact of lifestyle on health, it is intriguing to determine the association between unhealthy lifestyle and SHS risk. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study among healthy Chinese college students from March 2012 to September 2013, which was nested in a prospective cohort of 5676 students. We performed 1:1 incidence density sampling with matched controls for birth year, sex, grade, specialty and individual character. SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0. Exposure was defined as an unhealthy lifestyle per the frequency of six behavioral dimensions from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II. Results: We matched 543 cases of SHS (42.66% in a cohort of 1273 students during the 1.5 years mean follow-up time with controls. A significant difference (t = 9.79, p < 0.001 and a reduction in HPLP-II total score was present at 1.5 years follow-up (135.93 ± 17.65 compared to baseline (144.48 ± 18.66. A level-response effect was recorded with an increase of the total HPLP-II (every dimension was correlated with a decreased SHS risk. Compared to respondents with the least exposure (excellent level, those reporting a general HPLP-II level were approximately 2.3 times more likely to develop SHS (odd ratio = 2.333, 95% CI = 1.471 to 3.700; and those with less HPLP-II level (good level were approximately 1.6 times more likely (1.644, 1.119–2.414 to develop SHS (p < 0.05. Our data indicated that unhealthy lifestyle behavior with respect to behavioral dimensions significantly affected SHS likelihood

  6. Potential self-selection bias in a nested case-control study on indoor environmental factors and their association with asthma and allergic symptoms among pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Sigsgaard, T.;

    2006-01-01

    , including health, building characteristics of the home, and socioeconomic factors between participating and non-participating families in a nested case-control study on asthma and allergy among children. Information was collected in a baseline questionnaire to the parents of 14,077 children aged 1-6 years...... in a first step. In a second step 2,156 of the children were invited to participate in a case-control study. Of these, 198 cases and 202 controls were finally selected. For identifying potential selection bias, information concerning all invited families in the case-control study was obtained from...... the baseline questionnaire. Results show that there are several possible biases due to self-selection involved in an extensive study on the impact of the home environment on asthma and allergy among children. Factors associated with participating were high socioeconomic status of the family, more health...

  7. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  8. Sex Steroid Hormone Gene Variants, Pesticide Use and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol H Christensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism and regulation (N=1100, as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations as identified by genome-wide association studies (N=17. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction=4.0x10-5; q-value=0.03, such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR=0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93, and high use of dicamba (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68, compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both

  9. Comparison of nested case-control and survival analysis methodologies for analysis of time-dependent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Robert W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. Methods A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Results Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using four controls per case. Conclusions The nested case-control approach is a useful alternative for cohort analysis when studying time-dependent exposures. Its superior computational efficiency may be particularly useful when studying rare outcomes in databases, where the ability to analyze larger sample sizes can improve the power of the study.

  10. Performance of the colorectal cancer screening marker Sept9 is influenced by age, diabetes and arthritis: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Mai-Britt Worm; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Ørntoft, Torben Falck;

    2015-01-01

    Using a retrospective nested case–control study design, we studied plasma from 150 cancer and 150 controls selected from a well-characterized cohort of 4698 subjects referred for diagnostic colonoscopy due to CRC-related symptoms. The cases and controls were matched on age and gender, and moreover cases......Background Annually, colorectal cancer (CRC) is diagnosed in >1.4 million subjects worldwide and incidence is increasing. Much effort has therefore been focused on screening, which has proven to reduce cancer-related mortality. The Sept9 DNA-methylation assay is among the most well studied blood...... sensitivity 73 % (95 % CI, 64–80 %) and specificity 82 % (95 % CI, 75–88 %), respectively. Age >65 was associated with both increased false positive and false negative results (p Arthritis was associated with a higher false negative rate (p = 0.005) whereas Arteriosclerosis was associated...

  11. Oral Bisphosphonates and Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Risks in Asians with Osteoporosis: A Nested Case-Control Study Using National Retrospective Cohort Sample Data from Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Jung

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa and increase the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer. The relatively high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancers and the widespread use of bisphosphonate in Korea call for further investigation. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer after exposure to oral bisphosphonates in Korean patients with osteoporosis.We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database of Korea from 2002 to 2013. Among osteoporotic patients (>40 years, cases were defined as incident diagnosis of esophageal or gastric cancer between 2006 and 2013. For each case, four controls were matched for age, sex, and income level by type of insurance. We categorized bisphosphonate use as non-user, recent user, past user, and past and recent user, depending on prescription in two periods (1 to 2 years and 2 to 4 years prior to the index date. We also assessed the duration of bisphosphonate use by measuring cumulative duration of exposure (CDE. To examine the association between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for concomitant diseases.A total of 1,708 cases and 6,832 controls were identified. The aORs (95% CIs of recent, past, and continuous bisphosphonate use compared to non-users were 1.18 (0.93-1.51, 1.04 (0.83-1.29, and 1.25 (0.95-1.58, respectively. In addition, no significant association was observed by CDE, even when different outcome definitions were applied.This study did not prove an increased risk of esophageal or gastric cancer risk associated with bisphosphonate use, with respect to both risk windows and duration of exposure, in an Asian population-based, real-world setting.

  12. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a nested case control study in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Marjorie L.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Patel, Roshni; Jacobs, Eric J.; Bain, Elizabeth B; Horst, Ronald L.; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael J.; Calle, Eugenia E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D status measured during adulthood has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk in some, but not all, studies. Vitamin D has been hypothesized to prevent breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic actions in cell-cycle regulation. Methods A subset (n = 21,965) of female participants from the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort provided a blood sample from 1998-2001 and were followed through 2005. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin...

  13. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The c

  14. Plasma cytokines and future risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): a case-control study nested in the Italian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, F.; Krop, E.J.M.; Scoccianti, C.; Krogh, V.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacredote, C.; Nawroly, N.; Portengen, L.; Linseisen, J.; Vineis, P.; Vermeulen, R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, biological markers related to the immune system such as cytokines have been studied to further understand the etiology of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). However, to date, there are no studies that have studied cytokine levels prospectively in relation to NHL risk in the general po

  15. No effect or no information? Comments on a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European rock and slag wool production workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva S

    2002-01-01

    and asbestos exposure, an odd finding that casts doubt on its validity. This article deals with bias towards the null and other aspects of the reviewed study that may explain its failure to demonstrate an effect of asbestos, concluding that the study does not add to knowledge about a possible carcinogenic...

  16. Risk of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepines: Applying common protocol to a multi-database nested case-control study. The protect project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Requena, Gema; Logie, John; González-González, Rocío; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Afonso, Ana; Souverein, Patrick C.; Merino, Elisa Martin; Boudiaf, Nada; Huerta, Consuelo; Bate, Andrew; Alvarez, Yolanda; García-Rodríguez, Luis A.; Reynolds, Robert; Schlienger, Raymond G.; De Groot, Mark C.H.; Klungel, Olaf H.; De Abajo, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between benzodiazepines (BZD) and hip fractures has been estimated in several observational studies although diverse methodologies and definitions have hampered comparability. Objectives: To evaluate the discrepancies in the risk estimates of hip/femur fractures associate

  17. Important risk factors of mortality among children aged 1-59 months in rural areas of Shahroud, Iran: A community-based nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Chaman

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators.

  18. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  19. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  20. Antipsychotic polypharmacy and risk of death from natural causes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Gasse, Christiane; Jensen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    , 2005, obtained from central Danish registers. From the study population of 27,633 patients with ICD-8- and ICD-10-diagnosed schizophrenia or other mainly nonaffective psychoses, aged 18-53 years, we identified 193 cases who died of natural causes within a 2-year period and 1,937 age- and sex...

  1. Risk of major bleeding at different PT-INR ranges in elderly Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgushi, Atsushi; Ohtani, Takayuki; Nakayama, Natsumi; Asai, Shigeo; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Namiki, Atsuo; Akazawa, Manabu; Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Debate continues about the optimal anticoagulation level for elderly Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) receiving warfarin. The Japanese Circulation Society guideline has recommended prothrombin time-international normalized ratios (PT-INR) of 1.6 – 2.6 for elderly patients and 2.0 – 3.0 for non-elderly patients, because previous observational studies indicated increased risk of bleeding when the ratio exceeded 2.6. We aimed to reappraise the relationshi...

  2. Maternal smoking, obesity, and risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the puerperium: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gislum, Mette

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking and obesity are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between smoking, obesity (BMI>30), and risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy and the puerperium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a population......) for VTE as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: Smoking and obesity were associated with increased risk of VTE during pregnancy and the puerperium (adjusted OR 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5, 4.9) and 5.3 (95% CI: 2.1, 13.5), respectively). Obesity appeared to be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary embolism...... (adjusted OR: 14.9 (95% CI: 3.0, 74.8) than of deep venous thrombosis (adjusted OR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 11.9). CONCLUSION: Smoking and obesity are risk factors for VTE in pregnancy and the puerperium....

  3. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benninga Marc A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194. The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on

  4. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted.

  5. Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Francesco; Azoulay, Laurent; Yin, Hui; Nessim, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether a double therapy combination consisting of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers with addition of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the triple therapy combination of two of the aforementioned antihypertensive drugs to which NSAIDs are added are associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. Design Retrospective cohort study using nested case-control analysis. Setting General practices contributing data to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database. Participants A cohort of 487 372 users of antihypertensive drugs. Main outcome measures Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals of acute kidney injury associated with current use of double and triple therapy combinations of antihypertensive drugs with NSAIDs. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.9 (SD 3.4) years, 2215 cases of acute kidney injury were identified (incidence rate 7/10 000 person years). Overall, current use of a double therapy combination containing either diuretics or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with NSAIDs was not associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury. In contrast, current use of a triple therapy combination was associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury (rate ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.53). In secondary analyses, the highest risk was observed in the first 30 days of use (rate ratio 1.82, 1.35 to 2.46). Conclusions A triple therapy combination consisting of diuretics with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. The risk was greatest at the start of treatment. Although antihypertensive drugs have cardiovascular benefits, vigilance may be warranted when they are used concurrently with NSAIDs. PMID:23299844

  6. Nested Case-control Study on Risk Factors of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding%上消化道出血危险因素的巢式病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅鸿; 邵伟; 王怡; 周达成; 严飞飞; 冯靓; 郑荣远

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To evaluate aspirin-related medication risk and independent risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods;Adopting the nested case control study to investigate 293 patients with more than 50-years-old who undergone gastroscopy at a hospital. 145 patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal bleeding selected as the case group and another 148 patients diagnosed with non upper gastrointestinal bleeding selected as the control group. To screen the medication risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the data of patients from the retrospective study was gone on statistical analysis. A retrospective cohort study was nested in the case control study, which 73 patients took aspirin selected as the exposure group and 220 patients did not take aspirin selected as the non-exposure group. The incidence rate of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with two groups were compared and analyzed. Results;The case control study showed that old age (elderly) , smoking, aspirin taking, and NSAIDs taking were independent risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding ( aspirin: OR = 1. 802, 95 % CI: 1. 005 ~ 3. 230). The cohort study analysis showed that the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the exposure group taking aspirin in patients was 61. 6% , significantly higher than the non-exposed group with incidence of 45. 5% (P <0. 05 , RR = 1. 354, AR = 16. 1% ). Conclusion: Four independent risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding were selected out from hospital population of elderly patients undergone with gastroscopy. Taking aspirin is an independent risk factor, closely associated with the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We recommend that aspirin should avoid to be used in the patients with underlying diseases of the gastrointestinal mucosa or stroke with only a low recurrence risk.%目的:评价卒中预防药物阿司匹林引发上消化道出血的用药风险.方法:采用回顾性巢式

  7. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits

  8. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  9. 痰热清注射液所致静脉炎危险因素巢式病例对照研究%A nested case control study on risk factors of phlebitis caused by Tanreqing Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立宏; 芮婷; 李家珍; 韩旭; 李莉; 张素秋

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors of Tanreqing Injection related phlebitis. To help for the development of nursing interventions which can prevent the occurrence of phlebitis related to Tanreqing Injection. Methods: A nested case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors. Patients admitted to pulmonary department from Jan.2010 to Dec.2011 and injected with Tanreqing were reviewed. Patients who developed phlebitis were identified as cases and others as control group. Two random controls were selected from control group to match with one individul case according to sex, age. A univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OS) of different risk factors. Results: The phlebitis caused by infusion Tanreqing Injection have greatly correlation in infusion time and the catheter indwelling time. Conclusion: The phlebitis caused by Tanreqing Injection were related to many factors. The nurses should pay attention to it in daily practices.%目的:探讨痰热清注射液易引起静脉炎的危险因素,为制订合理使用痰热清注射液,预防静脉炎的护理措施提供参考.方法:样本来自中国中医科学院广安门医院呼吸科自2010年1月至2011年12月2年内输注痰热清的病人,发生静脉炎者与未发生者根据性别、年龄按1∶2比例进行匹配.采取巢式病例对照研究方法,采用优势比(OR)与条件Logistic回归方法,最终确定痰热清注射液导致静脉炎的相关因素.结果:痰热清注射液导致静脉炎与痰热清注射液输注时间以及留置针留滞时间有很大相关性.结论:痰热清注射液导致静脉炎与很多因素有关,在临床护理工作中,应引起护理人员重视.

  10. Simulated nest study guide

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The instructions outlined here will provide uniform methods for measuring total predator activity in blocks of nesting cover or at special kinds of nest sites. The...

  11. Recruitment study nest card

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey on waterfowl nests in Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. Visits were made to each nest on an approximately weekly basis, and the stage of the eggs...

  12. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  13. 吸烟与原发性肝癌关系的巢式病例对照研究%Cigarette smoking and primary liver cancer risk: a nested case-control study in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 高玉堂; 王学励; 张玉兰; Jian-min Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Methods A nested case- control study was conducted based on a cohort of 18 244 men who were 45-64 years of age in 1986-1989 and had no history of cancer at recruitment in Shanghai. As of Dec 31, 2000, a total of 213 incident cases of PLC were identified. 1094 matched controls were randomly selected among the cohort subjects who were free of cancer and alive at the time of cancer diagnosis of the index case. The matching criteria were date of birth (within 2 years), date of biospsy specimen collection (within 1 month), and neighborhood of residence at recruitment. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After controlling for potential confounders, cigarette smoking (ever vs. never) was associated with risk of PLC (OR=1.91; 95% CI:1.28-2.86). Risk of PLC increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day, as well as duration of cigarette smoking,pack-years of cigarettes consumed over lifetime and earlier age started smoking. The ORs were 2.16 (95%CI=1.37~3.40), 2.14(95%CI=1.18~3.87), 2.12(95%CI=1.21~3.74) and 2.57 (95% CI=1.50~4.40) for men who smoked 20 cigarettes or more daily, smoked for 40 or more years, consumed more than 37 pack-years of cigarettes, and began smoking before 20 years of age, respectively. Conclusion This study confirms that cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for primary liver cancer among males in Shanghai.%目的 分析吸烟与上海市区中老年男性原发性肝癌的关系.方法 应用巢式病例对照研究方法,对一个18 244名男性队列随访11年,以队列中213例新发肝癌患者作为病例组,按照患者年龄、采样日期、同居住区等配对条件,从队列中随机抽取1094名健康人作为对照组.使用配

  14. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort (ncases = 687 and ncontrols = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions....... Association between the CYP19A1 polymorphisms and hormone levels was also examined among 339 non-HRT users. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we performed a pilot randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the PPARG Pro(12)Ala polymorphism......Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome...

  15. Selective chromosome analysis in couples with two or more miscarriages : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, MTM; Korevaar, JC; Leschot, NJ; Bossuyt, PMM; Knegt, AC; Gerssen-Schoorl, KBJ; Wouters, CH; Hansson, KBM; Hochstenbach, R; Madan, K; van der Veen, F; Goddijn, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify additional factors, such as maternal age or factors related to previous reproductive outcome or family history, and the corresponding probability of carrying a chromosome abnormality in couples with two or more miscarriages. Design Nested case-control study. Setting Six centres

  16. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  17. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: A nested case-control study : Plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Ros, M.M.; Leenders, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–

  18. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Ros, M.M.; Leenders, M.; Duijnhoven, F.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Jansen, E.H.; Gils, C.H. van; Bakker, M.F.; Overvad, K.; Roswall, N.; Tjonneland, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Racine, A.; Cadeau, C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Benetou, V.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Castano, J.M.; Duell, E.J.; Barricarte, A.; Molina-Montes, E.; Arguelles, M.; Dorronsoro, M.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Crowe, F.L.; Khaw, K.T.; Jenab, M.; Fedirko, V.; Riboli, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-

  19. A nested case control study for risk factors impacting Hepatitis B Vaccination in Hebei, China%乙肝疫苗免疫预防效果影响因素的巢式病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马景臣; 韩彩芝; 齐顺祥; 田茶; 李军; 赵守军; 张勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究影响乙肝免疫效果的因素,探讨提高乙肝免疫预防效果的方法 .方法 使用巢式病例对照研究方法 ,以2006年全国乙肝等疾病血清流行病调查河北现场的1734名1-15岁儿童作为研究对象,按其HBsAg是否阳性分为病例组和对照组,分析造成儿童HBsA9阳性的危险因素.结果 母亲HBsAg阳性和儿童年龄、出生医院是影响乙肝疫苗预防效果的主要因素(P<0.0001).结论 当前乙肝免疫预防的工作重点在于发现HBsAg阳性孕妇,同时改进农村地区的新生儿乙肝免疫预防条件.%Objective Study the risk factors that impact the effectiveness of mass hepatitis B vaccination, and try to amend them in the future. Method Based on the national surveillance of hepatitis B, all the 1734 of 1-15 years old children from Hebei Province were enrolled in the present study and they were divided into case and control group according to their sera HBsAg were positive or not. Results Mother sera HBsAg positive and the hospital the children were born and earlier year of birth were risk factors. Conclusion The effectiveness of mass neonate hepatitis B vaccination has greatly improved and the future focus should be on finding pregnant HBsAg positive women, and encourage them to give birth in better hospitals, and at the mean time, try to make the neonate hepatitis B vaccination perfect, especially in country areas.

  20. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort (ncases = 687 and ncontrols = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions......Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome...... and the PPARγ stimulator Ibuprofen on sex-hormone levels following alcohol intake in postmenopausal women (n = 25) using linear regression. Genetic variations in CYP19A1 were associated with hormone levels (estrone: P rs11070844 = 0.009, estrone sulphate: P rs11070844 = 0.01, P rs749292 = 0.004, P rs1062033 = 0...

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas Harder; Juul, Anders

    2004-01-01

    -like growth factor I was associated with ischemic heart disease. The study was based on a population of 3784 Danes and 231 cases of ischemic heart disease where controls were matched on age and gender. We illustrate the use of the MLE for these data and show how the maximum likelihood framework can be used...

  2. The relationship between weight gain during pregnancy and urinary tract infections in pregnant women of Shahrekord, by using the “Nested case-control study”, in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejali, Mehri; Ahmadi, Seyede Soghra; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Yazdani, Rezvan; Ahmadi, Seyede Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is one of the most important and risky periods in mothers and the fetus life, which plays a key role in health and social activity of the person, family and community. This study is trying to see if there is a relation between increasing weight and urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy by using the open nested case-control study in the city of Shahrekord. Materials and Methods: In a nested case-control study, one cohort including 832 patients was examined until week 26 to 30 of pregnancy and their UTIs were studied. The required information was collected by examining the health records of pregnant women and completion of the data registration forms. Data collection was controlled by using SPSS and analyzed by using an independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Results: According to the results of the cohort study with 832 individuals, average weight gain of the group with a UTI was 11.13 ± 3.9 kg and it was 10.63 ± 3.9 kg in the group without UTI, showing no statistically significant difference (P = 0.245). According to the results, genitourinary problems had the highest predictive value for UTIs and the numbers of infertility and the childbirth variables were in the second and third positions, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results study we can conclude that screening and treatment of UTIs have been on time and appropriate in health systems of the city of Shahrekord which have lead to the reduction of infant and maternal diseases even with the condition in having no UTI, and continuing this process for screening and treatment is recommended. PMID:27462626

  3. Young people's risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department - a nested case-control design using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background:  There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk...... discharge from last contact with a psychiatric department. The risk of suicide attempt is highest for children and adolescents suffering from personality disorders, depression and substance use disorders. Children and adolescents with previous contact with a psychiatric department and parental income....... Methods:  A complete extraction of Danish register data for every individual born in the period 1983-1989 was made. Of these 403,431 individuals, 3,465 had attempted suicide. In order to control for confounder effects from gender, age and calendar-time, a nested case-control study was designed. A total...

  4. Case-control studies for identifying novel teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werler, Martha M; Louik, Carol; Mitchell, Allen A

    2011-08-15

    The case-control study design offers an operationally efficient approach to measuring an association between an exposure and an outcome, especially when the outcome is rare, as is true for specific birth defects. For example, instead of following 50,000 pregnant women to have sufficient statistical power to identify a doubling in risk of oral clefts associated with a common exposure (e.g., cigarette smoking), 75 cases and 3 controls per case could be studied with equal statistical power. Examples of case sources include hospital or clinical series, or birth defect registries. For validity, control subjects should represent the population base of the cases, which can be difficult to identify for non-population-based case groups. Case-control studies typically rely on retrospective exposure measurement, which presents a major challenge and sets up the possibility of recall bias. Approaches are discussed to keep sources of bias to a minimum, including recall, non-differential information, and selection biases. Case-control studies can play an important role in this process for both hypothesis-generation and hypothesis-testing of potential teratogens. Examples of case-control studies and their contributions to the field are presented. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in...

  6. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  7. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias.

  8. Selection of controls in case-control studies. I. Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacholder, S; McLaughlin, J K; Silverman, D T; Mandel, J S

    1992-05-01

    A synthesis of classical and recent thinking on the issues involved in selecting controls for case-control studies is presented in this and two companion papers (S. Wacholder et al. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:1029-50). In this paper, a theoretical framework for selecting controls in case-control studies is developed. Three principles of comparability are described: 1) study base, that all comparisons be made within the study base; 2) deconfounding, that comparisons of the effects of the levels of exposure on disease risk not be distorted by the effects of other factors; and 3) comparable accuracy, that any errors in measurement of exposure be nondifferential between cases and controls. These principles, if adhered to in a study, can reduce selection, confounding, and information bias, respectively. The principles, however, are constrained by an additional efficiency principle regarding resources and time. Most problems and controversies in control selection reflect trade-offs among these four principles.

  9. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, S.M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chro...

  10. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  11. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. METHODS: Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. RESULTS: Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while ca...

  12. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S.M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, im...

  14. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; McKinney, P A; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; Lauder, I; Darwin, C M; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a case control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Yorkshire Health Region. In all, 437 cases and 724 controls were interviewed. Risk factors associated with past skin conditions, family history of cancer and infectious mononucleosis, aspects of social life and contact with wood dust and epoxy glues all emerge. A comparison of high and low grade morphological forms of disease reveal contrasting risks and suggest separate aetiologies for these conditions.

  15. A semiparametric efficient estimator in case-control studies

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-01-01

    We construct a semiparametric estimator in case-control studies where the gene and the environment are assumed to be independent. A discrete or continuous parametric distribution of the genes is assumed in the model. A discrete distribution of the genes can be used to model the mutation or presence of certain group of genes. A continuous distribution allows the distribution of the gene effects to be in a finite-dimensional parametric family and can hence be used to model the gene expression levels. We leave the distribution of the environment totally unspecified. The estimator is derived through calculating the efficiency score function in a hypothetical setting where a close approximation to the samples is random. The resulting estimator is proved to be efficient in the hypothetical situation. The efficiency of the estimator is further demonstrated to hold in the case-control setting as well.

  16. Duck-nesting Studies: Lower Souris Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report an attempt has been made to summarize some of the notes made during the nesting studies at the Lower Souris Refuge in 1937. While assisting Mr....

  17. A nested case-control study on the influencing factors of tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in Hunan province%湖南省HIV/AIDS人群结核发病影响因素的巢式病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦施; 杨华林; 陈艳芳; 谭红专; 白丽琼; 张艳辉; 刘军; 李桂平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to tuberculosis infection among people living with HIV/AIDS and to develop strategies for preventing the co-infection.Methods A 1:2matched nested case-control study was carried out to analyze the influencing factors of tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS.Results 1018 people living with HIV/AIDS were followed up for one year with a total number of 736.75 person-years,among them 62 tuberculosis cases were diagnosed.The incidence density of tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS was 8.42 persons per 100 person-years.Factors as education level(OR=0.483),vaccination history of Bacille Calmette Guerin(OR=0.561),CD_4~+ count T-lymphocyte(OR=0.356),unemployment(OR=1.976),living alone(OR=2.646),and smoking(OR=2.215)were significantly related to the prevalence of tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS.Conclusion High education level,with vaccination history of Bacille Calmette Guerin and high level of CD_4~+ T-lymphocyte count were protective factors while being unemployed,living alone,and smoking habit were risk factors related to the prevalence of tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS.%目的 探讨HIV/AIDS人群发生结核病的危险因素.方法 采用1:2匹配的巢式病例对照研究方法分析HIV/AIDS人群发生结核的危险因素.结果 对1018例未患结核的HIV/AIDS人群随访观察1年,累计观察736.75人年,共检查出结核病患者62例,HIV/AIDS人群结核病发病密度为8.42人/100人年(62人/736.75人年).文化程度(OR=0.483)、卡介苗接种史(OR=0.561)、CD_4~+T淋巴细胞数(OR=0.356)、无业(OR=1.976)、单身(OR=2.646)和吸烟(OR=2.215)等因素与HIV/AIDS人群发生结核病有关.结论 文化程度高、有卡介苗接种史和CD_4~+T淋巴细胞数高是HIV/AIDS人群患结核病的保护因素;无业、单身和吸烟是HIV/AIDS人群患结核病的危险因素.

  18. A nested case-control study on the relationship between depression and relapse in patients with condyloma acuminatum%尖锐湿疣患者的抑郁情绪与治疗后复发关联的巢式病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚海燕; 郑莉; 包满珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between depression and relapse irt patients with condyloma acuminatum (CA) prospectively.Methods Using nested case-control study, the depression score was measured prospectively in a CA patient cohort, and 46 cases with relapse of CA and 46 controls without relapse of CA matched for gender and age ( ± 5 a) were recruited in follow-up phase.Conditional Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate OR and 95% CI.Results Compared with matched controls, the cases with relapse of CA in 3 month follow-up phase showed higher depression score significantly (t = 6.77, P< 0.001 ).After adjustment for the course of the disease, mild depression ( OR = 1.13,95 % CI = 1.01 ~ 1.58), moderate depression ( OR = 2.31,95% CI = 1.12 ~ 2.84), and major depression ( OR = 4.1O,95% CI = 2.69~ 5.85 ) were significantly associated with relapse of CA and a clear dose-response effect was also observed.Conclusions The prevention and treatment of depression are beneficial to the decrease of relapse incidence in patients with CA.%目的 前瞻性地探讨尖锐湿疣(condyloma acuminatum,CA)患者就诊时的抑郁状态与治疗后复发的关系.方法 采用巢氏病例对照研究的方法,先对160名门诊接受治疗的CA患者近1周的抑郁状态进行测定,并采用抑郁自评量表进行评分,以3个月随诊期间出现的46名CA复发患者组成病例组,从同期未复发的患者中选择对照,对照与病例按1∶1匹配性别、年龄(±5岁).应用条件Logistic回归模型计算OR值及其95% CI,分析就诊时CA患者的抑郁状态与治疗后病情复发的关系.结果 CA复发病例的抑郁评分高于同期未复发病例的抑郁评分,且差异有统计学意义(t=6.77,P<0.001).调整病程对抑郁与CA复发可能造成的影响后,轻度抑郁(50~59)、中度抑郁(60~69)和重度抑郁(70~)与CA复发关联的OR值及95% CI分别为1.13(1.01~1.58)、2.31(1.12~2.84)和4.10(2.69~5

  19. Study designs may influence results: the problems with questionnaire-based case-control studies on the epidemiology of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-03-07

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed results. When reviewing the association between three exposures, medical radiation, exogenous hormone use and allergy, we critically appraised the evidence from both case-control and cohort studies. For medical radiation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), questionnaire-based case-control studies appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise, such studies cannot be regarded as 'hypothesis testing' but only 'hypothesis generating'. We consider that this holds true for all questionnaire-based case-control studies on cancer and other chronic diseases, although perhaps not to the same extent for each exposure-outcome combination.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 March 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.46 www.bjcancer.com.

  20. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    between medical student behaviours and performances and subsequent professional misconduct or disciplinary action with the same study design and found positive associations.4,7 Our results (positive or negative) is of importance in the general discussion of the transition and handing-over of medical......, James D. Risk factors at medical school for subsequent professional misconduct: multicenter retrospective case-control study. BMJ 2010;340:c2040. Evans DE, Alstead EM, Brown J. Applying your clinical skills to students and trainees in academic difficulty. Clin Teach 2010;7(4):230-235. Yao DC, Wright SM...

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C; Darwin, C M; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-07-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis.

  2. 1988 Duck nesting study: Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer, 1988, we conducted a duck nesting study to determine nest success for ducks at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). We calculated nest...

  3. Metabolic Derangements in Lichen Planus - A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Panda, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome has been established in previous studies. Lichen Planus (LP) is also a chronic inflammatory disease morphologically related to psoriasis and few studies have shown association of metabolic derangements in LP. Aim To study the association of metabolic derangements in LP. Materials and Methods A prospective case control study was undertaken for a period of one year. Age and sex matched patients of LP and other non-inflammatory diseases were taken as cases and controls respectively. Data on height, weight, lipid profile and fasting blood glucose levels were collected for all the patients. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Results A total of 80 patients were recruited, 40 cases and 40 controls. The mean values for all the lipid and glucose parameters were high in cases as compared to controls with significant p-values. Conclusion In the present study metabolic derangements were seen in patients with LP. PMID:28050485

  4. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  5. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  6. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  7. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  8. A Prospective Nested Case Control Study on the RisK Factors of Cryptococcus Neoformans Meningitis%新型隐球菌性脑膜炎发病相关危险因素的前瞻性巢式病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江顺福; 曹铭华; 曹玮; 吴明超; 朱殊

    2014-01-01

    ,we had chosen citizens from 2 villages in the 2 countries and 1 district according to certain proportion and finally 8 348 citizens were brought into our research. The cohort was followed for two years from July,2O11 to July,2O13. We used the 1:1 matching prospective nested case-control study method to explore the relatedfactorsofcryptococcusneoformansmeningitisandLogisticregressionmodeltodeterminetheriskfactors.Results Until July,2O13,63 cases of cryptococcus neoformans meningitis were found in the follow-up cohort including 38 males and 25 fe-males,aged 5~64 with a median age of 39. 5(case group). According to matching principle,another 63 citizen without the case were selected including 38 males and 25 females,aged 4~67 with a median age of 38. 7(control group). Single factor a-nalysis of the 1:1 matching material indicated that educational background,single,unemployed,dove bird feces,diabetes mel-litus,AIDS,contacting with dead animals factors were into the regression equation(P

  9. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

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    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  10. Nonparametric Bayes modeling for case control studies with many predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Herring, Amy H; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Olshan, Andrew F; Dunson, David B

    2016-03-01

    It is common in biomedical research to run case-control studies involving high-dimensional predictors, with the main goal being detection of the sparse subset of predictors having a significant association with disease. Usual analyses rely on independent screening, considering each predictor one at a time, or in some cases on logistic regression assuming no interactions. We propose a fundamentally different approach based on a nonparametric Bayesian low rank tensor factorization model for the retrospective likelihood. Our model allows a very flexible structure in characterizing the distribution of multivariate variables as unknown and without any linear assumptions as in logistic regression. Predictors are excluded only if they have no impact on disease risk, either directly or through interactions with other predictors. Hence, we obtain an omnibus approach for screening for important predictors. Computation relies on an efficient Gibbs sampler. The methods are shown to have high power and low false discovery rates in simulation studies, and we consider an application to an epidemiology study of birth defects.

  11. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

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    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  12. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk.

  13. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

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    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  14. Nutrient patterns and asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, G; Amirjannati, N; Rashidkhani, B; Sadeghi, M-R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2017-04-01

    The association of dietary nutrient patterns and sperm motility is not yet well elucidated, and previous studies have just focused on the isolated nutrients. This case-control study examined the association of nutrient patterns with asthenozoospermia among Iranian men. In total, 107 incident asthenozoospermic men and 235 age-matched controls were interviewed through the infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2012 to November 2013. Semen quality data were analysed according to the fifth edition of WHO guideline. Nutrient patterns were identified using principal component analysis based on semiquantitative 168-item food frequency questionnaires. All nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted by the residual method. In principal component analysis, three dietary patterns emerged. The first pattern, which was high in vitamin E, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, folate, total fibre, selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly associated with lower risk of asthenozoospermia. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores had 51% lower risk of asthenozoospermia compared with those in the lowest (p-trend: .004). Our findings suggest that adherence to the pattern comprising mainly of antioxidant nutrients may be inversely associated with asthenozoospermia.

  15. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

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    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  16. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan Martins; de Araújo, Gleide Santos; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; de Oliveira, Maeli Gomes; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94). CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. PMID:28099656

  17. Case-Control Study of Parturient Hemoglobinuria in Buffaloes

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    Altaf Mahmood*, Muhammad Athar Khan, Muhammad Younus1, Muhammad Arif Khan2, Hafiz Javed Iqbal3 and Abdul Ahad4

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population based case control study of parturient hemoglobinuria was conducted in District Chakwal during April 2009 to January 2011 for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with condition. Data of 180 case–control pairs were analyzed for various hypothesized risk factors. Odds ratios calculated for ≥7 years age (5.56, ≥7 months pregnancy (15.80, ≥3 lactation number (6.39, ≥8 liters daily milk yield (1.07, ≤60 days postpartum period (6.23, previous history of hemoglobinuria (3.41 and ingestion of cruciferous plants (2.51 were significant (P˂0.05; whereas, those recorded for cottonseed cake (1, use of mineral mixture (0.81, use of drugs (1.07, use of oxytocin injection (1.32, vaccination (1, grazing (0.91 and previous history of diseases other than parturient hemoglobinuria (1.19 were insignificant (P>0.05. It was concluded that parturient hemoglobinuria is strongly associated with age, lactation number, stage of pregnancy, postpartum period and previous disease history of affected animals.

  18. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

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    Susan Martins Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial, and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2 years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3 years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61% were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42, which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94. CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies.

  19. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  20. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

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    Guidetti Daniela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112 were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142. Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  1. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  2. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  3. Risk factors for episiotomy: a case-control study

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    Giordana Campos Braga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: obtaining information on the factors associated with episiotomy will be useful in sensitizing professionals to the need to minimize its incidence. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for episiotomy in pregnant women who had undergone vaginal delivery at a university maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil. Methods: a case-control study was conducted with pregnant women submitted to episiotomy (cases and pregnant women not submitted to episiotomy (controls between March 2009 and July 2010 at the Professor Fernando Figueira Integral Medicine Institute (IMIP in Recife, Brazil, in a ratio of 1 case to 2 controls. The study variables consisted of: whether episiotomy was performed, demographic, obstetric and fetal characteristics (primiparity, analgesia, instrumental delivery, fetal distress, etc., external factors (day and time of delivery, professional attending delivery and factors directly related to delivery. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the adjusted risk of episiotomy. Results: a total of 522 women (173 cases and 349 controls were included. It was found that deliveries with episiotomy were more likely to have been attended by staff physicians (OR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.01 - 3.48, to have required forceps (OR = 12.31; 95%CI: 4.9 - 30.1 and to have occurred in primiparas (OR = 4.24; 95%CI: 2.61 - 6.89. The likelihood of a nurse having attended the delivery with episiotomy was significantly lower (OR = 0.29; 95%CI: 0.16 - 0.55. Conclusion: episiotomy was found to be strongly associated with deliveries attended by staff physicians, with primiparity, and with instrumental delivery, and was less common in deliveries attended by nurses.

  4. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  5. Lupus Myocarditis: A Case-Control Study from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Yan-Lin Zhu; Meng-Tao Li; Na Gao; Xin You; Qing-Jun Wu; Jin-Mei Su

    2015-01-01

    Background:Myocarditis is an uncommon but serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of lupus myocarditis (LM) and to determine risk factors of LM in hospitalized Chinese patients with SLE.Methods:We conducted a retrospective case-control study.A total of 25 patients with LM from 2001 to 2012 were enrolled as the study group,and 1 O0 patients with SLE but without LM were randomly pooled as the control group.Univariable analysis was performed using Chi-square tests for categorical variables,and the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test was performed for continuous variables according to the normality.Results:LM presented as the initial manifestation of SLE in 7 patients (28%) and occurred mostly at earlier stages compared to the controls (20.88 ± 35.73 vs.44.08 ± 61.56 months,P =0.008).Twenty-one patients (84%) experienced episodes of symptomatic heart failure.Echocardiography showed that 23 patients (92%) had decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (<50%) and all patients had wall motion abnormalities.A high SLE Disease Activity Index was the independent risk factor in the development of LM (odds ratio =1.322,P < 0.001).With aggressive immunosuppressive therapies,most patients achieved satisfactory outcome.The in-hospital mortality was not significantly higher in the LM group than in the controls (4% vs.2%,P =0.491).Conclusions:LM could result in cardiac dysfunction and even sudden death.High SLE disease activity might potentially predict the occurrence of LM at the early stage of SLE.Characteristic echocardiographic findings could confirm the diagnosis of LM.Early aggressive immunosuppressive therapy could improve the cardiac outcome of LM.

  6. Risk factors of Cancer Prostate A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nahed M; Tayel, Eiman S; El Abbady, Ahmed A; Khashab, Sahar S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the different risk factors related to this cancer particularly that there is no agreement about which factors affect the risk. A fishing expedition hospital based case control study was carried out. Cases and controls were identified from the Urology Department of Alexandria Main University Hospital, 2004. All cases diagnosed as having the tumor were included in the case series. For each case the second subject proved to have a negative pathological examination was included in the control group (50).Data collection was carried out blindly using a structured interview schedule. Analysis was applied using Chi-square test, Fisher exact and Student's t-test. Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Results indicated that regular consumption of sausages was greater among cases than controls (X(2)= 10.19, p= 0.001 and an odds ratio of 5.92 (CI: 1.69-25.99). Also more cases claimed consuming regularly butter and natural ghee than controls (X(2)= 5.47, p= 0.019). The estimate risk was as high as 2.79 (Cl: 1.07-7.33). However regular consumption of vegetables was more encountered among controls than cases (X(2) = 5.005, p= 0.025 where the odds ratio was 0.19 (Cl: 0.02-1.01). Moreover the multiple regression analysis confirmed the results obtained from univariate analysis. The consistency of results of current work as regards sausages and butter with several other research works can support the identification of these specific possible risk factors. Also other research workers pointed out to the protective effect of vegetables. However further research is needed to address other risk factors.

  7. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

    2011-12-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi'an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (≥5 mites/cm(2)) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

  8. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Yah PENG; Xiang-lan WANG; Li-ping WU; Mei WANG; Hu-ling YAN; Sheng-xiang XIAO

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders,but controversy persists.In this case-control study,a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi'an,China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex.Amongst the patients,539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis.Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method.Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation,and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation.The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%.Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years.Compared to patients with neutral skin,patients with mixed,oily,or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5,2.4,and 1.6,respectively).Moreover,Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1),steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7),seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2),and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1).In particular,ORs calculated from the severe infestation (≥5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate.Therefore,we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea,steroid-induced dermatitis,seborrheic dermatitis,and primary irritation dermatitis.The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate.The risk factors of Demodex infestation,age,and skin types were identified.Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

  9. Toxocara infection in psychiatric inpatients: a case control seroprevalence study.

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is poor knowledge about the epidemiology of toxocariasis in psychiatric patients. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Through a case-control seroprevalence study, 128 psychiatric inpatients and 276 control subjects were compared for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies in Durango, Mexico. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of inpatients associated with toxocariasis were also investigated. RESULTS: Six of the 128 (4.7% psychiatric inpatients, and 3 (1.1% of the 276 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (P = 0.03. Stratification by age showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.02 higher in patients aged ≤50 years old (6/90∶6.7% than controls of the same age (2/163∶1.2%. While Toxocara seroprevalence was similar in patients and controls aged >50 years old. Stratification by gender showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.03 higher in female patients (2/37∶5.4% than in female controls (0/166∶0%. No statistically significant associations between Toxocara seropositivity and clinical characteristics were found. In contrast, Toxocara seropositivity was associated with consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of toxocariasis in psychiatric inpatients in Mexico. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of toxocariasis with psychiatric diseases. The role of the consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail in the transmission of Toxocara deserve further investigation.

  10. A case-control study on the causes of new HIV infection among heroin addicts attendees at the methadone maintenance treatment clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常合

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the routes and factors associated with HIV new infection of heroin addicts who had been attending the methadone maintenance treatment(MMT)program.Methods A 1∶1 nested case-control study was implemented with the cases(new HIV infections)and controls(HIV negative)selected from the treatment cohort of China MMT clients.Questionnaire

  11. Determinants of brushite stone formation: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha Siener

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. METHODS: Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. RESULTS: Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p = 0.035, calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p = 0.001 and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p = 0.005 as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA. Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect.

  12. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  13. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  14. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

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    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  15. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

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    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  16. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper; Thygesen, Lau C; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within ever-users (≥one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis and the corresponding date for controls were disregarded. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer associated with long-term (≥500 daily defined doses) versus one-time (one prescription) use of disulfiram. Among 53 856 disulfiram users, we identified 166, 644, and 464 cases, respectively, of melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer. Adjusted odds ratios for melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer associated with long-term disulfiram use were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.60-1.78), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.70-1.22), and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56-1.06), respectively. For prostate cancer, dose-response analyses showed a further risk reduction with the highest cumulative dose level of disulfiram; however, the test for trend did not reach statistical significance. Our study provides some epidemiological support for a protective effect of disulfiram against prostate and breast cancer.

  17. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

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    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  18. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

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    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  19. Breast cancer screening case-control study design: impact on breast cancer mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, E.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Puliti, D.; Paci, E.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on the effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening show differences in the magnitude of breast cancer mortality reduction. We investigated the role played by aspects of the case-control study design on these differences, e.g. the definition of ca

  20. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control stu

  1. A nested case-control study on the relationship between occupational physical activity,heredity factors and metabolic syndrome%职业体力活动和遗传因素与代谢综合征关系的巢式病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建梅; 王临池; 陈秋; 俞浩; 杨婕; 郭志荣; 武鸣; 陈晓东

    2010-01-01

    with eases by region,gender and age (±2 years).In total,389 MS patients and 389 eontrols were recruited as study subjects.Nested ease-control study was applied for the present analysis.TaqMan fluorescence probe method was used to detect the genetic polymorphism of PPARα intron 1A/C (rs135539).Results (1)Compared to low physical activity group,the subjects with heavy physical activity were positively associated with MS (OR=2.18,95%CI:1.08-4.38).(2)The subjects,with a family history of hypertension (OR= 1.44,95% CI:1.02-2.03 )or type 2 diabetes (OR=3.25,95CI:1.28-8.20),were significantly indreased the occurrence of MS.(3)The genotype(AA,AC,CC) of PPARα intron 1A/C was not found to be related to MS.The OR of AC and CC genotype (compared to the genotype AA) were 0.98(95%CI:0.70-1.36) and 0.75 (95% CI:0.44-1.29) ,respectively.(4) Effect modifications were observed between family history of hypertension and moderate physical activity (OR=2.47,95% CI:1.00-6.06 ) or heavy physical activity (OR=3.82,95%CI:1.31-11.15) on the development of MS.Conclusion Heavy physical activity,with family history of hypertension or type 2 diabetes,seemed to be positively correlated with the risk of MS.Effect modifications were observed between occupational physical activity and family history of hypertension which might be associated with an increased risk of MS.

  2. A Data Management System for Multi-Phase Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gibeau, Joanne M.; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Stine, Mark J.; Tullis, Katherine V.; Lynch, H. Keith

    1983-01-01

    The design of a computerized system for the management of data in multi-phase epidemiologic case-control studies is described. Typical study phases include case-control selection, abstracting of data from medical records, and interview of study subjects or next of kin. In consultation with project personnel, requirements for the system were established: integration of data from all study phases into one data base, accurate follow-up of subjects through the study, sophisticated data editing ca...

  3. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I; Friedman, David J; Field, John K; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E; Hicks, Pamela J; Hocking, Lynne J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W; Raji, Olaide Y; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Plenge, Robert M; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C; Schaumberg, Debra A; Chasman, Daniel I; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9)). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2) test statistics and a

  4. Determinants of infant nutritional status in Dabat district, North Gondar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubante, Amarech Asratie

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. Methods A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied. Relevant data was extracted from the community based survey data set. Anthroplus software was used to identify cases and controls. Determinants of infant nutritional status were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Among the total of 80 cases and 320 controls, more than half (52.5%) of the cases and the controls (53.8%) were males and females, respectively. Breast Feeding (BF) was started immediately after birth in only 43.8% of the cases. Nearly 94% of the mothers of the cases had no breast feeding information as part of Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up. Maternal age (AOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11–0.76), having radio (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22–0.82), lack of toilet facility (AOR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.16–4.33), deprivation of colostrum (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.01–1.06) and method of complementary feeding (AOR: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.33–5.99) were associated with wasting. Conclusions This study has found that inappropriate infant feeding; nutritional information gap and lack of toilet facility as significant predictors of malnutrition. Hence, joint interventions, including counseling of mothers about benefits of colostrum feeding and use of appropriate feeding method, toilet utilization and mass media such as radio possession, are needed to address the problem in Dabat district. PMID:28346497

  5. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001, inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001, mother's schooling (p = 0.028 and household income (p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85. In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.

  6. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the databa

  7. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group, comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age, with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects. All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective Attention Test, Word List Generation Test, Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, a Portuguese depressive screening test (IACLIDE, STAI (anxiety trace and trait test and the Mini Mental state examination.Results: The outcomes demonstrate, for the first conclusive time in Portuguese patients, the occurrence of main deficits in terms of cognitive functioning (measured by a variety ofneuropsychological tests, and depressive and anxietysymptomatology. Conclusion: This article asset the need to pay attention in psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic and cognitive stimulation, and reinforcement of neuropsychological intervention in these types of patients.Objectivos: O impacto da artrite reumatóide nas funçõescognitivas não tem sido bem reconhecido em Portugal. Com este artigo original pretendemos elucidar este problema neste país específico.Métodos: Avaliámos os resultados de 60 pacientes femininos com artrite reumatóide (grupo de estudo, comparando cada paciente num estudo de caso-controle, emparelhando ossujeitos com Artrite Reumatóide (60 sujeitos com 60 pacientes Artrite Reumatóide, nas variáveis anos de escolaridade eidade (a variável género era uma constante = feminino.Todos os participantes foram avaliados com o Teste de Atenção Auditiva Selectiva (PASAT, teste de geração de lista de palavras, Bateria Neuropsicológica de Luria Nebraska, um teste português de despistagem de sintomatologia depressiva (IACLIDE, um teste de rastreamento de tra

  9. [School failure and epilepsy: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraoui, Chawki; Kasraoui, Sabeh; Fredj, Mohamed; Zouari, Bechir; Halayem, Mohmamed B; Mrabet, Amel

    2002-07-01

    School difficulties and educational inadequacy usually correlate with the child's epilepsy. The target of our study is to discover the most precocious possible the epilepsy and to prevent educational failure in the population of children from 6 to 15 years old. We have carried out a retrospective study on 162 children of an educational age. This population was made up of 100 epileptic children followed over a period of 3 years (1995-1997) and a witness group made up of 62 children selected from brothers and sisters of the study group, with the same sex in default of the opposed sex who are educated. We have noted that at the same age between children from the group of study and children from the witness group. The class of study was significantly inferior in the group of study: the educational average class is 4th against 5th in the witness group P = 0.11. The difference was about one year. The difference of educational results was significant. For the last educational year, the educational mark was 8.99/20 in the group of study against 12/20 in the witness one. P < 10-5. For the last educational semester, the educational mark was 9.5/20 in the group of study against 11.9/20 in the witness group. (P = 3 x 10(-4)).

  10. Healthcare utilization by abused women: a case control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Bulte, E.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and increased health problems. Early detection of IPV by general practitioners (GPs) is required to prevent further harm and provide appropriate support. In general practice, a limited number of studies are

  11. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities in the children of women treated with sulfasalazine during pregnancy. However, the amount of information is limited and additional data are needed to rule out a teratogenic effect....

  12. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindstroem, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeboeller, Heike; Donald W. Bowden; Eyre, Steve; Barry I Freedman; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals...

  13. Metabolic syndrome in migraine headache: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Salmasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation of metabolic syndrome and migraine headache was evaluated in some previous studies. However there is no study that compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the patients with and without migraine. Control of coincidental factors such as metabolic syndrome reduces therapeutic resistance in migrainous patients. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with and without migraine headache. Materials and Methods: 200 migrainous patients diagnosed according to International Headache Society and 200 healthy controls without migraine enrolled in this study. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria in these two groups and compared with each other. Results: In this study, 17% (34 of migrainous patients and 15% (30 of healthy control without migraine had metabolic syndrome. (P = 0.585. Of the metabolic syndrome components, body mass index (P = 0.05 and waist circumference in migrainous (P = 0.03 were significantly more frequent. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome and migraine headache had not significant correlation; however, higher body mass index and waist circumference as metabolic syndrome components had correlated with migraine headache.

  14. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected...... interval (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.4, 12). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find clear evidence of an increased prevalence of preceding cancer in our WG cohort, indicating that shared risk factors are of minor importance for the excess of malignancies that occur in WG patients after the vasculitis diagnosis. Furthermore...

  15. Fingernail psoriasis reconsidered: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, H.M.J. van der; Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Pasch, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Literature concerning clinical signs and frequency of nail psoriasis is incomplete. Recent studies focus only on signs included in the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe clinical characteristics of fingernail psoriasis in comparison with healthy contr

  16. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  17. Nonoliguric hyperkalemia in neonates: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Hakam

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and morbidities associated with nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) in neonates. Infants were eligible for the study if they were born at Al Qassimi Hospital and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NOHK (serum potassium [SK] > or = 7 mmol/L during the first 72 hours of life with urinary output > or = 1 mL/kg/h). The next admitted infant with gestational age +/- 1 week and normal SK acted as control. Exclusion criteria were severe congenital malformation, renal failure, failure of adequate urinary collection, and early blood transfusion within the first 72 hours of life. Fluid intake and urinary output were monitored. Infants who developed hyperkalemia (SK > or = 6.5 mmol/L in two nonhemolysed venous or arterial blood samples) had serum potassium measured every 4 hours until it reached below 6 mmol/L. Hyperkalemia was identified between 6 and 36 hours of age in 45 infants (peak SK 7 to 9.3 mmol/L). During the time of the study, the prevalence of NOHK was 24% among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (with birth weight acidosis, early hyperglycemia, and absence of antenatal steroid administration. Hyperkalemic infants had significantly lower serum calcium and higher serum phosphorous, urea, and creatinine. Early polyuric episodes and high urinary output were also more common in hyperkalemic infants. NOHK affects mainly preterm infants. Electrolyte disturbance and increased serum urea and creatinine were associated with hyperkalemia. Infants with NOHK also had high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and mortality.

  18. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  19. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhakta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC was found to be increased in both sexes of alopecia areata(statistically significant increase in alopecia areata Female while atd angles were reduced in females. In male subjects of alopecia areata, true palmar pattern (TPP was increased in both hypothenar and left interdigital-2 (ID2 areas while in females, TPP were increased in both inter digital area-2 and 3 and left ID4 areas. TPP were reduced in left thenar (Lt. Th.,Lt. ID1, ID3, ID4, Rt. ID2, ID3 and ID4 areas of alopecia areata males and both right and left thenar and hypothenar and right ID4 areas of females. This study reveals deviation in the form of reduction of number of loops and increase in number of whorls and arches in alopecia subjects. Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. These can be considered as quite useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for alopecia areata.

  20. A polytomous conditional likelihood approach for combining matched and unmatched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Guimaraes, Paulo; Cozen, Wendy; Conti, David V

    2010-04-30

    In genetic association studies it is becoming increasingly imperative to have large sample sizes to identify and replicate genetic effects. To achieve these sample sizes, many research initiatives are encouraging the collaboration and combination of several existing matched and unmatched case-control studies. Thus, it is becoming more common to compare multiple sets of controls with the same case group or multiple case groups to validate or confirm a positive or negative finding. Usually, a naive approach of fitting separate models for each case-control comparison is used to make inference about disease-exposure association. But, this approach does not make use of all the observed data and hence could lead to inconsistent results. The problem is compounded when a common case group is used in each case-control comparison. An alternative to fitting separate models is to use a polytomous logistic model but, this model does not combine matched and unmatched case-control data. Thus, we propose a polytomous logistic regression approach based on a latent group indicator and a conditional likelihood to do a combined analysis of matched and unmatched case-control data. We use simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and a case-control study of multiple myeloma and Inter-Leukin-6 as an example. Our results indicate that the proposed method leads to a more efficient homogeneity test and a pooled estimate with smaller standard error.

  1. Lichen planus and Hepatitis C: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi S Zahra

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of lichen planus with hepatitis C (HCV has been widely reported in the literature. However, there are wide geographical variations in the reported prevalence of HCV infection in patients with lichen planus. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of hepatitis C in Iranian patients with lichen planus at Razi hospital, Tehran. Methods During the years 1997 and 1998, 146 cases of lichen planus, 78 (53.1% women and 69 (46.9% men were diagnosed. They were diagnosed on the basis of the usual clinical features and, if necessary, typical histological findings. The patients were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA and liver function tests. We used the results from screening of blood donors for anti HCV (carried out by Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization for comparison as the control group. Results Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in seven cases (4.8%. This was significantly higher than that of the blood donors' antibodies (p Conclusion HCV apears to have an etiologic role for lichen planus in Iranian patients. On the other hand, liver function tests are not good screening means for HCV infection.

  2. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  3. Preoperative embolization of primary bone tumors: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Roushan; Sharma, Raju; Rastogi, Shishir; Khan, Shah Alam; Jayaswal, Arvind; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety and effectiveness of preoperative embolization of primary bone tumors in relation to intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume and surgical time. METHODS: Thirty-three patients underwent preoperative embolization of primary tumors of extremities, hip or vertebrae before resection and stabilization. The primary osseous tumors included giant cell tumors, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and chondrosarcoma. Twenty-six patients were included for the statistical analysis (embolization group) as they were operated within 0-48 h within preoperative embolization. A control group (non-embolization group, n = 28) with bone tumor having similar histological diagnosis and operated without embolization was retrieved from hospital record for statistical comparison. RESULTS: The mean intraoperative blood loss was 1300 mL (250-2900 mL), the mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 700 mL (0-1400 mL) and the mean surgical time was 221 ± 76.7 min for embolization group (group I, n = 26). Non-embolization group (group II, n = 28), the mean intraoperative blood loss was 1800 mL (800-6000 mL), the mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 1400 mL (700-8400 mL) and the mean surgical time was 250 ± 69.7 min. On comparison, statistically significant (P < 0.001) difference was found between embolisation group and non-embolisation group for the amount of blood loss and requirement of blood transfusion. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the surgical time. No patients developed any angiography or embolization related complications. CONCLUSION: Preoperative embolization of bone tumors is a safe and effective adjunct to the surgical management of primary bone tumors that leads to reduction in intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion volume. PMID:27158424

  4. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  5. Ventilation and dampness in dorms and their associations with allergy among college students in China: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Bao, L;

    2011-01-01

    the case in developing countries like China, where dorms tend to be more crowded. In dorms, a low ventilation rate is a risk factor for asthma and allergy. Sufficient fresh outdoor air should be provided to students' dormitories by controlled ventilation. Mechanical ventilation system are often needed......Abstract To study the associations between dorm environment and occupants' health, a nested case-control study on 348 college students was carried out in 2006-2007 at Tianjin University, China. Two hundred and twenty-three dorm rooms where the 'cases' and 'controls' resided were inspected. Measured...... variables were ventilation rate, air temperature, and relative humidity indoors. Allergic symptoms in the last 12 months were self-reported by occupants. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a 'localized moldy smell/moisture indicator' in 'special places' (e.g., in a room corner or close to the radiator under...

  6. Correlation between low development quotient of children and first-trimester serum level of free fatty acids in mothers: a nested case-control study%儿童低发育商与母亲孕早期血清游离脂肪酸关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蕾; 刘开永; 盛杰; 陶芳标; 郝加虎; 王磊; 蔡传兰

    2013-01-01

    were significant differences in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acis (PUFA),ω-3PUFA,ω-6PUFA,docosapentaenoic acid (DPA),docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA),EPA + DHA,DHA + anachidonic acid (AA) between the cases and the controls (P < 0.05 for all).High level of EPA served as a protective factor of child low development quotient (odds ratio [OR] =0.37,95 % confidence interval [95 % CI]:0.17-0.79).Correlation analysis demonstrated that there were relationships between EPA and DPA (r =0.608),DHA (r =0.659),AA (r =0.605),and DHA + AA (r =0.676).The level of EPA in maternal serum showed a downward trend with the reduced frequency of fish and other seafood intake (F =3.410,P =0.019).Conclusion The study suggests that there is an association of child's low development quotient with the lack of PUFA supplement of the pregnancy woman.Pregnant women should supplement PUFA to ensure normal mental development of the infant.

  7. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age hormones and ER(+)/PR(+) disease. These data suggest a positive association between high concentrations of early pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association.

  8. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid...

  9. Cardiovascular drugs and the risk of suicide: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callréus, Torbjörn; Agerskov Andersen, Ulla; Hallas, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During the past 30 years, various cardiovascular drugs have been implicated as causes of depression or suicide. Although the evidence for causal relationships has generally been conflicting, both beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) have been rela...

  10. Prenatal DDT Exposure and Testicular Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We examined maternal serum levels of DDT-related compounds in relation to son's risk of testicular cancer 30 years later. Fifteen of 9,744 live-born sons were diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and had maternal serum samples. Cases were matched to three controls on race and birth year. Maternal serum DDT-related compounds, measured in the early postpartum, were associated with her son's risk of testicular cancer. Despite low statistical power, we observed that mothers of cases had a s...

  11. Prenatal DDT exposure and testicular cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; Cirillo, Piera M; Christianson, Roberta E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined maternal serum levels of DDT-related compounds in relation to son's risk of testicular cancer 30 years later. Fifteen of 9,744 live-born sons were diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and had maternal serum samples. Cases were matched to three controls on race and birth year. Maternal serum DDT-related compounds, measured in the early postpartum, were associated with her son's risk of testicular cancer. Despite low statistical power, we observed that mothers of cases had a significantly higher ratio of p,p'-DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) to p,p'-DDE (1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) and lower o,p'-DDT (1,1,1-tricholoro-2-(p-chlororphenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane). These findings are consistent with earlier exposure to DDT and with slower p,p'-DDT elimination among mothers of cases. Whether these associations could be direct, or operate via other pathways is unknown. Further research on interindividual differences in DDT metabolism could provide clues to testicular cancer etiology.

  12. [Influential factors for anemia in pregnancy based on a nested case-control study in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shan; Li, Hongyan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; He, Qiong; Zhang, Li; Huang, Li; Xiong, Changhui; Yan, Qiang; Yan, Yan

    2016-06-28

    目的:探讨长沙市妇女妊娠期贫血的发生状况及其影响因素,为有针对性地制定预防策略提供科学依据。方法:随机整群抽取长沙市开福区3个街道2013年1月1日至2013年12月31日分娩的713例产妇,建立队列,于产后15 d内回顾性收集其孕期健康信息。采用回顾性巢式病例对照研究方法,应用条件logistic回归分析妊娠期贫血发生的影响因素。结果:长沙市妇女妊娠期贫血患病率为9.96%。多因素条件logistic回归结果显示:家庭人均月收入高(OR=0.632,P=0.020)、文化程度高(OR=0.276,P=0.033)、补叶酸(OR=0.248,P=0.050)、补铁(OR=0.272,P<0.001)及食用血制品(OR=0.588,P=0.044)是妊娠期贫血发生的保护因素,经产妇(OR=2.917,P=0.003)、孕前月经持续时间长(OR=1.335,P=0.041)、住房新装修(OR=3.690,P=0.045)及饮茶(OR=1.365,P=0.094)是妊娠期贫血发生的危险因素。结论:长沙市妇女妊娠期贫血的患病率处于中下水平。妊娠期贫血的发生与妇女的经济水平与营养状况密切相关,孕产妇加强孕期营养及居室环境监测,少喝浓茶,改善铁的营养状况,可预防或降低妊娠期贫血的发生。.

  13. Host biomarkers are associated with progression to dengue haemorrhagic fever: a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Conroy

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that inflammation and endothelial activation are important pathways in the pathogenesis of dengue and sICAM-1 levels may identify individuals at risk of plasma leakage.

  14. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  15. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  16. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes; Túlio Silva Pereira; Monize Ferreira Figueiredo de Carvalho; Joana Ramos-Jorge; Leandro Silva Marques; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2) was conducted. The case group included all children...

  17. Incremental cost effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ulcers : a pharmacoeconomic analysis linked to a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Klok, Rogier M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; van de laar, Mart A. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We estimated the cost effectiveness of concomitant proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in relation to the occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer complications. Methods This study was linked to a nested case-control study. Patients with NSAID ulcer complications were

  18. Incremental cost effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ulcers : a pharmacoeconomic analysis linked to a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, H.E.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Klok, R.M.; Postma, M.J.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; van de Laar, M.A.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We estimated the cost effectiveness of concomitant proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in relation to the occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer complications. Methods This study was linked to a nested case-control study. Patients with NSAID ulcer complications were

  19. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.; Hodiamont, P.P.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in N

  20. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment i

  1. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  2. Estimating the effectiveness of screening for scoliosis : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; Juttmann, Rikard E.; van Biezen, Frans C.; Creemers, Huub; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A. J. M.; Luttmer, Bert C. F.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that screening for scoliosis is effective in reducing the need for surgical treatment. METHODS. The study was a case-control study. A total of 125 consecutive patients who were treated surgically for idiopathic scoliosis between January 200

  3. Predictors for failure of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J M; Nuij, Chelly; Janssen-Rolf, Christel R M; Schuit, Ewoud; Bais, Joke M J; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. Study design Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was

  4. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations : systematic review and case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A.; Morris, Joan K.; Wellesley, Diana; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design A review of all published cohort studies to identify key indications and a population based case-control study to test these indications. Setting Review of P

  5. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed a

  6. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  7. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  8. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90...... with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and age (+/-5...

  9. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  10. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  11. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  12. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  13. Microbial Characteristics of Peri-Implantitis : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y C M; Eijsbouts, H V L C; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aim of this case-control study was to compare oral microbiological characteristics of subjects with healthy peri-implant conditions and subjects with peri-implantitis and to explore the influence of various patient-related and implant-related factors on the microbiological characteristic

  14. COMPARISON OF GEOCODING METHODS USED IN CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Accurate geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded maternal residence a...

  15. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to house pets during childhood and adolescence : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1997-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) might be triggered by an infectious agent early in life. In a case-control study, we compared exposure to household pets for the age periods 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years in 100 patients with MS and 100 controls. Exposure to household dogs between the ages of 0-10 years wa

  16. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Olsson, Ann; Pesch, Beate; Kromhout, Hans; Straif, Kurt; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies reported an excess of lung cancer among these workers. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control

  17. Differences in treatment approach between Dutch paediatric dentists and general practitioners, a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuin, D.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This case control study was to assess whether paediatric dentists perform significantly more diagnostic, preventive and curative care in a clinical setting then do general dental practitioners. METHODS: 16 paediatric dentists were approached and a matching control group of 16 general dental pra

  18. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals ...

  19. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  20. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  1. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong-Lenters; D. Duijster; M.A. Bruist; J. Thijssen; C. de Ruiter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  2. Ankylosing spondylitis confers substantially increased risk of clinical spine fractures : a nationwide case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto-Alhambra, D; Muñoz-Ortego, J; De Vries, F; Vosse, D; Arden, N K; Bowness, P; Cooper, C; Diez-Perez, A; Vestergaard, P

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) leads to osteopenia/osteoporosis and spine rigidity. We conducted a case-control study and found that AS-affected patients have a 5-fold and 50 % increased risk of clinical spine and all clinical fractures, respectively. Excess risk of both is highest in the f

  3. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  4. 1989 Waterfowl Nesting Study and Nesting Summary 1984-1989 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1989 nesting season marked the sixth consecutive and final year that Big Stone personnel have conducted waterfowl nesting research. In addition, an experimental...

  5. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  6. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio) to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk). The excess relative risk (ERR) used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices) is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense) between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices) in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided) using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  7. Duration of Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer in a Case-Control Study in the Midwest and the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Studies have shown a relationship between history of diabetes and the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, the temporal relation between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is not clearly established. Objectives Diabetes and diabetes duration were examined in relation to pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study and prospective cohort. Methods Case-control study: pancreatic cancer cases (n=200 from the Midwest were frequency matched by age and sex to population controls (n=673. Logistic regression yielded odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Iowa Women’s Health Study (IWHS cohort: 292 incident pancreatic cancer cases occurred between 1986-2008 among 36,084 post-menopausal, initially cancer-free women. Diabetes status and diagnosis age were ascertained at baseline and follow-ups. Proportional hazards regression yielded hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI for pancreatic cancer in relation to baseline diabetes. Time-dependent analyses accounted for diabetes diagnosed after baseline. A nested-case control analysis assessed diabetes duration as a risk factor. Results In the case-control study, compared to participants without diabetes, the multivariate ORs (95% CI for pancreatic cancer were 2.35 (1.24-4.47 for those with diabetes and 4.00 (0.94-16.9, 2.79 (0.97-8.04, and 2.40 (0.97-5.98 for diabetes durations of 2-5 years, 5.1-10 years, and more than 10 years, respectively. In IWHS, compared to no diabetes, multivariate-adjusted HRs for pancreatic cancer were 1.86 (1.23-2.83 for baseline diabetes and 1.94 (1.40-2.69 adding diabetes during follow-up. In an IWHS nested case-control analysis, ORs were 1.70 (0.78- 3.67, 2.62 (1.48-4.65, and 2.10 (1.36-3.24 for diabetes durations of 2-5 years, 5.1-10 years and more than 10 years, respectively, versus no diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes is associated with pancreatic cancer risk and this is similar across different duration categories.

  8. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  9. Alcohol Consumption-Related Metabolites in Relation to Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma: Two Case-Control Studies Using Serum Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T; Freedman, Neal D; Shebl, Fatma M; Guertin, Kristin A; Cross, Amanda J; Abnet, Christian C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may be associated with colorectal cancer. However, most epidemiologic studies assess alcoholic beverage consumption using self-reported data, leading to potential exposure misclassification. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption may provide an alternative, complementary approach that reduces misclassification and incorporates individual differences in alcohol metabolism. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between previously identified alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer and adenoma using serum metabolomics data from two studies. Data on colorectal cancer were obtained from a nested case-control study of 502 US adults (252 cases, 250 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Data on colorectal adenoma were obtained from a case-control study of 197 US adults (120 cases, 77 controls) from the Navy Colon Adenoma Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eight alcohol consumption-related metabolites identified in a previous analysis: ethyl glucuronide; 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1; 5-alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate; 16-hydroxypalmitate; bilirubin (E,Z or Z,E); cyclo (-leu-pro); dihomo-linoleate (20:2n6); and palmitoleate (16:1n7). We found no clear association between these alcohol consumption-related metabolites and either endpoint. However, we did observe an inverse association between cyclo (-leu-pro) and colorectal adenoma that was only observed in the highest metabolite quantile (OR 4th vs. 1st Quantile = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12-0.78; P-trend = 0.047), but no association for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, there were no adverse associations between alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer or adenoma.

  10. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhart-Phillips, J.; Walker, N; Garrett, N.; Bell, D; Sinclair, D; Rainger, W; Bates, M

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the contributions of major risk factors for campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. DESIGN: Case-control study. Home interviews were conducted over nine months using a standardised questionnaire to assess recent food consumption and other exposures. SETTING: Four centres in New Zealand with high notification rates of campylobacter infections--Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. PARTICIPANTS: Case patients were 621 people notified between 1 June...

  11. Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis versus Bacterial Rhinosinusitis with Orbital Complications: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications (IFSwOC) is a life-threatening condition. The incidence of mortality has been reported to be up to 80 percent. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors, presentations, clinical, and imaging findings that could help to manage this condition promptly. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 100 patients suffering from rhinosinusitis with orbital complications. The risk factors, clinical presentations, radi...

  12. Family history of hypertension increases risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortalities worldwide. Despite extensive research, the underlying cause of preeclampsia remains poorly understood. This study aimed to offer compelling evidence on the important risk factors of preeclampsia in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted in public health facilities of Bahir Dar city from September 2014 to January 2015. A total of 453 (151 cases and 302 co...

  13. Risk factors of malnutrition among preschool children in Terengganu, Malaysia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Hui Jie; Moy, Foong Ming; Nair, Sulochana

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood malnutrition is a multi-dimensional problem. An increase in household income is not sufficient to reduce childhood malnutrition if children are deprived of food security, education, access to water, sanitation and health services. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of malnourished children below five years of age and to ascertain the risk factors of childhood malnutrition in a state in Malaysia. Methods A case control study was conducted in the mater...

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor: results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Michael FalolaDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAI read with interest the article "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study)" by de Lucas-Ramos et al.1 In my opinion, the study did not use case-control design, despite its title.View original paper by de Lucas-Ramos and colleagues.

  15. Determinants of first trimester attendance at antenatal care clinics in the Amazon region of Peru: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nora; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Casapia, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify determinants which influence the timing of the first antenatal care (ANC) visit in pregnant women. Design Retrospective matched nested case-control study. Setting Two health centres, Belén and 6 de Octubre, in the Peruvian Amazon. Population All pregnant women who had attended ANC during the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Methods All cases (819 women initiating ANC in their first trimester) were selected from ANC registries from 2010 to 2012. A random sample of controls (819 women initiating ANC in their second or third trimester) was matched 1:1 to cases on health centre and date of first ANC visit. Data were obtained from ANC registries. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measure Case-control status of each woman determined by the gestational age at first ANC visit. Results Cases had higher odds of: 1) being married or cohabiting (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.41); 2) completing secondary school or attending post-secondary school (aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.06); 3) living in an urban environment (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.10) and 4) having had a previous miscarriage (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.15), compared to controls. No statistically significant difference in odds was found for parity (aOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.36). Conclusions This study provides empirical evidence of determinants of first ANC attendance. These findings are crucial to the planning and timing of local interventions, like deworming, aimed at pregnant women so that they can access and benefit fully from all government-provided ANC services. PMID:28207749

  16. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  17. Sleep and Parkinson's disease: a review of case-control polysomnography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraully, Tasneem; Yong, Ming-Hui; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Tan, Eng-King

    2012-12-01

    The link between Parkinson's disease (PD) and certain primary sleep disorders has yet to be clarified. We performed a systematic review of case-control polysomnography studies to evaluate the relationship between PD and sleep disorders. A PubMed literature search and bibliography review yielded 15 case-control polysomnography studies in patients with PD. Studies differed by recruitment methods, duration of polysomnography monitoring, and sleep parameters measured. Subjective sleepiness was greater in patients than controls (50%-66% vs 2.9%-12%) despite lack of objective increase in daytime sleepiness by mean sleep latency testing. The 4 case-control polysomnography studies investigating rapid eye movement behavior disorder support a higher prevalence in PD (0%-47% vs 0%-1.8% in controls), although differences in diagnostic criteria hamper interpretation. The preponderance of evidence did not support an increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (27%-60% vs 13%-65%) or periodic leg movements of sleep in patients compared to controls. Adequately powered, prospective studies with uniform methodology and healthy controls are needed to further address the association and pathophysiological significance between PD and sleep problems.

  18. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi-associated cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study in Eastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Mendoza, Eder; Torres-Hillera, Martin; Pinto, Neyla; Prada, Janette; Silva, Clara A; Vera, Silvia J; Castillo, Erwin; Valderrama, Vladimir; Prada, Didier G; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Garcia, Ingrid

    2004-01-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a common cause of cardiopathy in South America leading it eventually to an established stroke; however, the association between T. cruzi infection itself and cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. We did a case-control study at Eastern Colombia and found that T. cruzi infection was more frequent and statistically significant in stroke cases (24.4%) than controls (1.9%), (Chi square: 21.72; OR: 16.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.64-71.4; p<0.00001). After removing the seropositive patients with cardiological abnormalities, the significance still remained by multivariate analysis (p<0.05). This is the first case-control study that demonstrated a significant link between this infection and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, mainly ischemic, regardless of cardiac abnormalities. Therefore, we recommend that patients with stroke must be screened for T. cruzi infection if they currently live or have lived in places where this parasite is considered endemic.

  20. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka; Latiffah Hassan; Siti Khairani-Bejo; Mohamed Abidin Zainal; Ramlan Bin Mohamad; Annas Salleh; Azri Adzhar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-fiv...

  1. Neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm babies: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, D. J.; Hope, P. L.; Johnson, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy among very preterm babies and in particular the associations independent of the coexistence of antenatal and intrapartum factors. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Oxford health region. SUBJECTS: Singleton babies born between 1984 and 1990 at less than 32 weeks' gestation who survived to discharge from hospital: 59 with cerebral palsy and 234 randomly selected controls without cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neo...

  2. Benzodiazepine use and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relation between the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and exposure to benzodiazepines started at least five years before, considering both the dose-response relation and prodromes (anxiety, depression, insomnia) possibly linked with treatment. Design Case-control study. Setting The Quebec health insurance program database (RAMQ). Participants 1796 people with a first diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and followed up for at least six years before were matched with 7184 ...

  3. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Parazzini, F; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E; FASOLI, M.; Cecchetti, G.

    1988-01-01

    To assess risk factors for cervical adenocarcinoma data were collected in a case-control study of 39 cases and 409 controls conducted in the greater Milan area. Questions were asked about personal characteristics and habits, gynaecologic and obstetric data, history of lifetime use of oral contraceptives and other female hormones, and general indicators of sexual habits (age at first intercourse and total number of sexual partners). The relative risk of cervical adenocarcinoma increased with n...

  4. Community-based case-control study of childhood stroke risk associated with congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CK; Sidney, S.; Fullerton, HJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : A better understanding of the stroke risk factors in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) could inform stroke prevention strategies. We analyzed pediatric stroke associated with CHD in a large community-based case-control study. METHODS - : From 2.5 million children (aged 30-fold (odds ratio, 31; confidence interval 4-241) increased risk of stroke in children with CHD when compared with controls. After excluding periop...

  5. Acute myeloid leukemia in adults: a case-control study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C; McKinney, P A; Roberts, B; Richards, I D; Bird, C C

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a case-control analysis of 161 cases of acute myeloid leukemia and 310 matched hospital controls. The patients were interviewed between 1982 and 1986. The study shows a weak association for cases with previous malignant disease. Furnace workers show excess risks. Urticaria and vertigo are in excess, as well as some aspects of family medical histories, including multiple sclerosis and cases of leukemia/lymphoma in blood relations.

  6. What Is the Real Impact of Urinary Incontinence on Female Sexual Dysfunction? A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Rhein Felippe, ScM; Joao Paulo Zambon, MD, PhD; Marcia Eli Girotti, ScM; Juliana Schulze Burti, ScM; Claudia Rosenblatt Hacad, ScM; Lina Cadamuro, PT; Fernando Almeida, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI) has been associated with negative effects on women's sexuality. Women's sexuality and sexual function are a complex issue, and the role of UI is not completely clear. Aim: To assess the impact of UI on female sexual function by comparing this population with a control group of continent women. Methods: We performed a case-control study from August 2012 to September 2013. We evaluated continent and incontinent women (age range = 30–70 years) for th...

  7. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  8. A Two-Stage Penalized Logistic Regression Approach to Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-stage penalized logistic regression approach to case-control genome-wide association studies. This approach consists of a screening stage and a selection stage. In the screening stage, main-effect and interaction-effect features are screened by using L1-penalized logistic like-lihoods. In the selection stage, the retained features are ranked by the logistic likelihood with the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD penalty (Fan and Li, 2001 and Jeffrey’s Prior penalty (Firth, 1993, a sequence of nested candidate models are formed, and the models are assessed by a family of extended Bayesian information criteria (J. Chen and Z. Chen, 2008. The proposed approach is applied to the analysis of the prostate cancer data of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project in the National Cancer Institute, USA. Simulation studies are carried out to compare the approach with the pair-wise multiple testing approach (Marchini et al. 2005 and the LASSO-patternsearch algorithm (Shi et al. 2007.

  9. Valid statistical inference methods for a case-control study with missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-05-19

    The main objective of this paper is to derive the valid sampling distribution of the observed counts in a case-control study with missing data under the assumption of missing at random by employing the conditional sampling method and the mechanism augmentation method. The proposed sampling distribution, called the case-control sampling distribution, can be used to calculate the standard errors of the maximum likelihood estimates of parameters via the Fisher information matrix and to generate independent samples for constructing small-sample bootstrap confidence intervals. Theoretical comparisons of the new case-control sampling distribution with two existing sampling distributions exhibit a large difference. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of the three different sampling distributions on statistical inferences. One finding is that the conclusion by the Wald test for testing independency under the two existing sampling distributions could be completely different (even contradictory) from the Wald test for testing the equality of the success probabilities in control/case groups under the proposed distribution. A real cervical cancer data set is used to illustrate the proposed statistical methods.

  10. First-Trimester Use of Paroxetine and Congenital Heart Defects : A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marian K.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for case-control studies of the effect of paroxetine on the occurrence of specific heart defects. METHODS: We performed a case-control study with data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands. All the children born between 1997 and 2006 were selec

  11. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K;

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  12. Multicenter Case-Control Study on Restless Legs Syndrome in Multiple Sclerosis: the REMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Filippi, Massimo; Bonanni, Enrica; Iudice, Alfonso; Murri, Luigi; Gigli, Gian Luigi; Fratticci, Lara; Merlino, Giovanni; Terzano, Giovanni; Granella, Franco; Parrino, Liborio; Silvestri, Rosalia; Aricò, Irene; Dattola, Vincenzo; Russo, Giovanna; Luongo, Carmela; Cicolin, Alessandro; Tribolo, Antonella; Cavalla, Paola; Savarese, Mariantonietta; Trojano, Maria; Ottaviano, Salvatore; Cirignotta, Fabio; Simioni, Valentina; Salvi, Fabrizio; Mondino, Fiorella; Perla, Franco; Chinaglia, Giorgia; Zuliani, Cristina; Cesnik, Edward; Granieri, Enrico; Placidi, Fabio; Palmieri, Maria Giuseppina; Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Rocchi, Raffaele; Ulivelli, Monica; Bartalini, Sabina; Ferri, Raffaele; Fermo, Salvatore Lo; Ubiali, Emilio; Viscardi, Massimo; Rottoli, Mariarosa; Nobili, Lino; Protti, Alessandra; Ferrillo, Franco; Allena, Marta; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Londrillo, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Study objectives: To verify the existence of a symptomatic form of restless legs syndrome (RLS) secondary to multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify possible associated risk factors. Design: Prospective, multicenter, case-control epidemiologic survey. Settings: Twenty sleep centers certified by the Italian Association of Sleep Medicine. Patients: Eight hundred and sixty-one patients affected by MS and 649 control subjects. Interventions: N/A. Measures and results: Data regarding demographic and clinical factors, presence and severity of RLS, the results of hematologic tests, and visual analysis of cerebrospinal magnetic resonance imaging studies were collected. The prevalence of RLS was 19% in MS and 4.2% in control subjects, with a risk to be affected by RLS of 5.4 (95%confidence interval: 3.56–8.26) times greater for patients with MS than for control subjects. In patients with MS, the following risk factors for RLS were significant: older age; longer MS duration; the primary progressive MS form; higher global, pyramidal, and sensory disability; and the presence of leg jerks before sleep onset. Patients with MS and RLS more often had sleep complaints and a higher intake of hypnotic medications than patients with MS without RLS. RLS associated with MS was more severe than that of control subjects. Conclusions: RLS is significantly associated with MS, especially in patients with severe pyramidal and sensory disability. These results strengthen the idea that the inflammatory damage correlated with MS may induce a secondary form of RLS. As it does in idiopathic cases, RLS has a significant impact on sleep quality in patients with MS; therefore, it should be always searched for, particularly in the presence of insomnia unresponsive to treatment with common hypnotic drugs. Citation: Manconi M; Ferini-Strambi L; Filippi M; Bonanni E; Iudice A; Murri L; Gigli GL; Fratticci L; Merlino G; Terzano G; Granella F; Parrino L; Silvestri R; Aricò I; Dattola V; Russo G; Luongo

  13. Maternal geohelminth infections are associated with an increased susceptibility to geohelminth infection in children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj S Mehta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children of mothers infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH may have an increased susceptibility to STH infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We did a case-control study nested in a birth cohort in Ecuador. Data from 1,004 children aged 7 months to 3 years were analyzed. Cases were defined as children with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura, controls without. Exposure was defined as maternal infection with A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura, detected during the third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to households with a documented infection to control for infection risk. Children of mothers with STH infections had a greater risk of infection compared to children of uninfected mothers (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.88-3.63, p<0.001. This effect was particularly strong in children of mothers with both STH infections (adjusted OR: 5.91, 95% CI: 3.55-9.81, p<0.001. Newborns of infected mothers had greater levels of plasma IL-10 than those of uninfected mothers (p=0.033, and there was evidence that cord blood IL-10 was increased among newborns who became infected later in childhood (p=0.060. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that maternal STH infections increase susceptibility to infection during early childhood, an effect that was associated with elevated IL-10 in cord plasma.

  14. Study of environmental and genetic factors in children with craniosynostosis: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes one or more sutures on an infant's skull to close earlier than normal. Though both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis, there is no published Indian data to verify this. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we investigated the association of craniosynostosis with parental age in 50 children with craniosynostosis attending the surgical outpatient department of a tertiary care institution in North India. Results: There was a significant association of craniosynostosis with advanced parental [OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 4.36)] but not maternal age. Education status of parents also revealed that those having a higher education had an increased risk of having a child with craniosynostosis [maternal education, OR 2.32 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.76); paternal education, OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.0)]. Molecular analysis by sequencing confirmed following amino-acid substitution in different Exons of the FGFR2 gene. Besides these, we found other novel identical mutations in FGFR2 gene in both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in India that provides evidence that, advanced paternal age and higher parental education level might be associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis. New mutations were identified in cases of both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:24082921

  15. Study of environmental and genetic factors in children with craniosynostosis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes one or more sutures on an infant′s skull to close earlier than normal. Though both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis, there is no published Indian data to verify this. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we investigated the association of craniosynostosis with parental age in 50 children with craniosynostosis attending the surgical outpatient department of a tertiary care institution in North India. Results: There was a significant association of craniosynostosis with advanced parental [OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 4.36] but not maternal age. Education status of parents also revealed that those having a higher education had an increased risk of having a child with craniosynostosis [maternal education, OR 2.32 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.76; paternal education, OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.0]. Molecular analysis by sequencing confirmed following amino-acid substitution in differentExons of the FGFR2 gene. Besides these, we found other novel identical mutations in FGFR2 gene in both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in India that provides evidence that, advanced paternal age and higher parental education level might be associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis. New mutations were identified in cases of both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis.

  16. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  17. A case-control study and analyze the epidemiological importance risk of family history of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a case-control study to analyze the epidemiological importance risk of family history of psoriasis. The retrospective study was done on 1236 patients diagnosed with psoriasis on clinical and histopathological grounds, between 2004-2011, in an Out-patient Clinic in North-Eastern part of Romania.The sex ratio of psoriasis was 1.18:1 (male patients 54.13%, female patients 45.87%, median age at the diagnosis was 29.34±15.24SD; family history of psoriasis (by declaration was 29.53% (Tabl. I.

  18. A FORTRAN program for stratified analysis of data from case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, T D

    1983-04-01

    Stratification of study subjects by one or more covariates is a commonly accepted method for dealing with confounding and effect modification in epidemiologic case-control studies. A flexible FORTRAN program is described which facilitates simultaneous stratification by several covariates and which produces summary odds ratio estimates and chi-square statistics by the Mantel-Haenszel method. It also facilitates detection of effect modification by each covariate considered individually. Straightforward means are provided for the user to modify input data before analysis or to exclude certain subjects from analysis, simulating such capabilities in larger statistical packages.

  19. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  20. A Comparative Study of Streptococal Infection in Children With PANDAS: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence suggest that group A ß-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection may increase the risk of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS composed of the clinical signs of obsessive-compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. The objective of this study was to compare the titer of antibodies against GABHS between children with PANDS and the controls.Methods : This cross-sectional, case-control study was done in Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, in Tehran, Iran during 2008-2010. We compared serum antibodies streptolysin O, deoxyribonuclease B, and streptokinase against GABHS quantitatively in 79 cases with PANDAS and 39 age-matched controls. The area under ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV of tests were calculated.Results : Most cases were studied in summer (57% and spring (23%. The three aforesaid antibodies were higher in the cases (P=0.001. Antisterptolysin O (cut-off point 195 had a 90% sensitivity, 82% specificity and a 92% PPV, (CI=95%, 0.99-0.91. Anti streptokinase (cut-off point 223 had an 82% sensitivity, 82% specificity and a 95% PPV, (CI=95%, 0.934-0.735. Anti-DNase (cut-off point 140 had an 82% sensitivity, 82% specificity and a 95% PPV, (CI=95%, 0.99-0.91. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a possible role for streptococcal infection in PANDAS. We found a significantly higher antibody titer against GABHS in OCD and ADHD cases in comparison with healthy children. Treatment of streptococcal infection is achievable by the use of long-acting penicillin. Use of aggressive treatment schedules like plasmaphresis, IVIG, etc needs further RCT studies.

  1. Case-control study of occupation and cancer of the prostate in New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N.E.; Sheppard, R A; Fraser, J.

    1987-01-01

    A New Zealand Cancer Registry based case-control study involved 617 male patients with prostate cancer registered during 1979 and aged 20 years or more at the time of registration. Controls were also males chosen from the Cancer Registry with two controls per case, matched on age and year of registration. There was an elevated risk in the upper social class groupings. The data did not support the findings, from other countries, of elevated risks in agricultural workers (odds ratio = 1.08, 90%...

  2. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: An increasing research literature has identified a statistical association between trauma exposure and psychosis. Methodological limitations, primarily relating to failures to establish the temporal ordering of events and relying on retrospective self-reports, have made the argument...... for a causal association difficult to establish. Method: A case-control study was conducted based on data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. All female visitors to a rape center during the index year (2003) were matched with controls based on age and area...

  3. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...... for rare alleles with multiplicative or dominant effects, it performs poorly for rare recessive alleles. Power is drastically reduced when nonagenarians are considered cases, with a more than 5-fold difference in the size of the case sample required to achieve comparable power as that found...

  4. Interaction and Its Solution in Individual Matching Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To indicate the deficiency of the classical method for analyzing data on individual matching case-control study in consideration of the interaction between the study factor (exposure) and the matching factor, and to find out a proper method for handling this deficiency. Method First, experimental data with 50 pairs of cases and controls were used for strata analysis according to the values of a matching factor to illustrate the possible interaction between a risk factor (exposure) and the matching factor. Second, a detailed procedure was proposed for analyzing such data. Results Interaction between the study factor and matching factor was demonstrated by using strata analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis. Therefore the results from the classical analysis for such data might be incorrect. Conclusion Data from individual matching case-control study design should be dealt with strata analysis or multivariate analysis to explore and evaluate the possible interaction between the study factor and matching factor. The conclusion would be valid only after such analysis is conducted.

  5. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mohitey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Material and Methods: 150 patients, 75 with AMI and 75 with CHD were included in the study. Data on hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol consumption were recorded. AMI patients were clinically examined 3-4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Clinical examination of CHD patients was carried out during the hospital stay. All teeth excluding third molars were studied and clinical data were recorded regarding Plaque Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Depth and Clinical Attachment Loss. Results: Percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing and the number of sites with more probing depth were significantly higher among AMI patients than those with CHD (P=0.05 and p=0.001 respectively.There was abundant plaque and debris around all tooth surfaces in AMI patients (p=0.001. Conclusion: Overall result of this case control study showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

  7. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Margaret; Morrison, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.62 (1.02–2.58). Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years) (OR = 0.65), high consumption of spinach/squash (OR = 0.62) and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR = 0.75), and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR = 0.78). Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:28133481

  8. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  9. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  10. Rare occurrence of occult hepatitis C virus in apparently uninfected injecting drug users: a two-centre, masked, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, P B; Pham, T N Q; Ratnarajah, S; Cameron, B; Bull, R; White, P A; Michalak, T I; Lloyd, A R

    2013-10-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a phenomenon where serum HCV RNA is not detected by sensitive commercial assays, but viral RNA is detected by ultrasensitive techniques. Occult HCV infection has not previously been studied in highly exposed, but apparently uninfected (EU) individuals. Two studies examining occult infection in EU subjects were undertaken - an initial two-centre, masked, case-control study based on cross-sectional samples (n = 35 subjects) and a single-centre confirmatory study based on longitudinal samples (n = 32 subjects). Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested for HCV RNA using an ultrasensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Two EU subjects in the first study (10%) and one in the second study (3%) were found to have consistently detectable HCV RNA. Occult HCV infection occurs in high-risk, apparently uninfected subjects.

  11. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  12. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  13. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

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    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  14. Vitamin D status during pregnancy and the risk of subsequent postpartum depression: a case-control study.

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    Nina O Nielsen

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression and other mood disorders, and a role for vitamin D in various brain functions has been suggested. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status during pregnancy might increase the risk of postpartum depression (PPD. The objective of the study was thus to determine whether low vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with postpartum depression. In a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort, we measured late pregnancy serum concentrations of 25[OH]D3 in 605 women with PPD and 875 controls. Odds ratios [OR for PPD were calculated for six levels of 25[OH]D3. Overall, we found no association between vitamin D concentrations and risk of PPD (p = 0.08. Compared with women with vitamin D concentrations between 50 and 79 nmol/L, the adjusted odds ratios for PPD were 1.35 (95% CI: 0.64; 2.85, 0.83 (CI: 0.50; 1.39 and 1.13 (CI: 0.84; 1.51 among women with vitamin D concentrations < 15 nmol/L, 15-24 nmol/L and 25-49 nmol/L, respectively, and 1.53 (CI: 1.04; 2.26 and 1.89 (CI: 1.06; 3.37 among women with vitamin D concentrations of 80-99 nmol/L and ≥ 100 nmol/L, respectively. In an additional analysis among women with sufficient vitamin D (≥ 50 nmol/L, we observed a significant positive association between vitamin D concentrations and PPD. Our results did not support an association between low maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and risk of PPD. Instead, an increased risk of PPD was found among women with the highest vitamin D concentrations.

  15. Determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2011-04-19

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  16. Opioid system genes in alcoholism: a case-control study in Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupic, B; Stefulj, J; Zapletal, E; Matosic, A; Bordukalo-Niksic, T; Cicin-Sain, L; Gabrilovac, J

    2013-10-01

    Due to their involvement in dependence pathways, opioid system genes represent strong candidates for association studies investigating alcoholism. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms within the genes for mu (OPRM1) and kappa (OPRK1) opioid receptors and precursors of their ligands - proopiomelanocortin (POMC), coding for beta-endorphin and prodynorphin (PDYN) coding for dynorphins, were analyzed in a case-control study that included 354 male alcohol-dependent and 357 male control subjects from Croatian population. Analysis of allele and genotype frequencies of the selected polymorphisms of the genes OPRM1/POMC and OPRK1/PDYN revealed no differences between the tested groups. The same was true when alcohol-dependent persons were subdivided according to the Cloninger's criteria into type-1 and type-2 groups, known to differ in the extent of genetic control. Thus, the data obtained suggest no association of the selected polymorphisms of the genes OPRM1/POMC and OPRK1/PDYN with alcoholism in Croatian population.

  17. Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, B; Sinclair, M I; Forbes, A B; Veitch, M; Kirk, M; Cunliffe, D; Willis, J; Fairley, C K

    2002-06-01

    Few studies have assessed risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in industrialized countries, even though it may be numerically more common than outbreaks of disease. We carried out case-control studies assessing risk factors for sporadic disease in Melbourne and Adelaide, which have water supplies from different ends of the raw water spectrum. In addition to examining drinking water, we assessed several other exposures. 201 cases and 795 controls were recruited for Melbourne and 134 cases and 536 controls were recruited for Adelaide. Risk factors were similar for the two cities, with swimming in public pools and contact with a person with diarrhoea being most important. The consumption of plain tap water was not found to be associated with disease. This study emphasizes the need for regular public health messages to the public and swimming pool managers in an attempt to prevent sporadic cryptosporidiosis, as well as outbreaks of disease.

  18. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Cold Symptoms and other Historical Triggering Factors in Asthma Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Tarlo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations can be provoked by many triggers such as allergens, respiratory irritants and viral infections. The relative importance of these has not been prospectively documented in a case-control study.

  19. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Liu, Na; Li, Li-Li; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1) was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5%) and 13 (2.8%) of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571) or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400) were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774). The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB) shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  20. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

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    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  1. Diagonal Earlobe Crease as a Significant Marker for Coronary Artery Disease: A Case-control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rida; Kausar, Komal; Minto, Moeed H; Ilyas, Fariha; Assad, Salman; Shah, Saeed U

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between diagonal earlobe crease (DELC) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Limited data exists in South Asia and no prior studies have been performed in Pakistan to assess this relationship. Methods: In this case-control study, 200 participants from December 2015 to March 2016 at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan were enrolled. Consecutive non-probability sampling was used to recruit patients. Cases were enrolled from cardiac care unit (CCU) of the hospital with angiography-proven CAD. Controls were selected from surgical, medical and neurology units of the hospital if they had no previously established evidence or symptoms of CAD. Patients were evaluated in terms of age and any history of hypertension, diabetes and/or smoking. Cases and controls were examined separately by two investigators for the unilateral or bilateral presence of DELC of the lobular portion of either auricle. Patients with ear piercings were excluded from the study. The data was analyzed in statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) (IBM, Delaware, Chicago), and an online statistical software. Results: Out of the 200 patients, 126 (63%) were males and 74 (37%) were females. In the 100 cases, 76 had DELC and 24 had no crease whereas, among the 100 controls, 36 had DELC and 64 had no DELC (p statistically significant (p 0.05). Conclusion: There is a significant association between DELC and CAD. This is the first case-control study from South Asia disclosing this important correlation. Our study also reports a high frequency of DELC in patients suffering from hypertension and diabetes mellitus. No association between smoking and DELC was found.

  2. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  3. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  4. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  5. Melasma and its association with different types of nevi in women: A case-control study

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    Amini-sani Nayereh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about possible association of nevi and melasma. The study objective was to determine if there is an association between melasma and existence of different kinds of nevi. Methods In a case-control study, 120 female melasma patients referred to dermatology clinic of Ardabil and 120 patients referred to other specialty clinics who lacked melasma were enrolled after matching for age. Number of different types of nevi including lentigines and melanocytic nevi were compared between case and control group patients. Data were entered into the computer and analyzed by SPSS 13 statistical software. Results Mean number of lentigines was 25.5 in melasma group compared to 8 in control group(P Conclusion Existence of lentigines and melanocytic nevi increases chance of having melasma

  6. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

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    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  7. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

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    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  8. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

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    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  9. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

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    Harrild Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361 were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083 were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05. A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99. Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  10. Case-control association study of TGOLN2 in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Pamela B; Stütz, Adrian M; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Huo, Yuqing; Goes, Fernando S; Jancic, Dubravka; Judy, Jennifer T; Depaulo, J Raymond; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, Francis J; Zandi, Peter P; Potash, James B; Willour, Virginia L

    2010-07-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies provide convincing evidence for a genetic contribution to suicidal behavior. The heritability for suicidal behavior depends in part on the transmission of psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders and substance use disorders, but is also partly independent of them. Three linkage studies using the attempted suicide phenotype in pedigrees with bipolar disorder, major depression, or alcoholism have provided consistent evidence that 2p11-12 harbors a susceptibility gene for attempted suicide. A microarray expression study using postmortem brain samples has implicated a gene from the 2p11-12 candidate region, the trans-Golgi network protein 2 (TGOLN2) gene, as being consistently up-regulated in suicide cases as compared to controls. Here, we present a TGOLN2 case-control association study using nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These nine SNPs, which include seven tag SNPs and two coding SNPs, have been genotyped in 517 mood disorder subjects with a history of attempted suicide and 515 normal controls. Allelic and genotypic analyses of the case-control sample did not provide evidence for association with the attempted suicide phenotype. Eight of the nine SNPs provided supportive evidence for association (P-values ranging from 0.008 to 0.03) when we compared the attempted suicide cases with a history of alcoholism to the attempted suicide cases without a history of alcoholism. However, this association finding was not replicated in an independent sample. Taken together, these analyses do not provide support for the hypothesis that common genetic variation in TGOLN2 contributes significantly to the risk for attempted suicide in subjects with major mood disorders.

  11. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  12. Poorer prognosis with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: a single-center case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi-Fukuda, Naoko; Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nakamura, Kensuke; Iwagami, Masao; Wada, Tomoki; Jona, Masahiro; Hisasue, Takashi; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    In ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP), automated platelet counts are lower than actual counts because of EDTA-induced aggregation. Factors contributing to the incidence of EDTA-PTCP are unknown, and no study has assessed the prognosis of EDTA-PTCP patients. This retrospective study assessed characteristics in EDTA-PTCP patients and matched controls to determine differences in prognosis. A retrospective case-control study was designed. From the University of Tokyo Hospital database, we identified patients diagnosed with EDTA-PTCP between 2009 and 2012, and performed 1:2 case:control matching for age and sex. A control group of sex- and age-matched patients was selected at random from the same database. We investigated differences in the frequency of complications, medication history, and blood transfusion history between the groups at the time of blood collection. Prognosis was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, autoimmune disease, liver disease, and malignant tumor. We identified 104 EDTA-PTCP patients and 208 matched controls. The median age was 69.0 years (interquartile range: 54-76), with men comprising 51%. EDTA-PTCP patients had a higher frequency of malignant tumor and a lower frequency of hypertension and diabetes than controls. After adjustment for background factors, prognosis of EDTA-PTCP patients was significantly poorer than controls (hazard ratio, 11.8; 95% confidence intervals, 2.62-53.54). In conclusion, EDTA-PTCP patients had higher mortality, and EDTA-PTCP may need to be recognized as an indicator of worse prognosis.

  13. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

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    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghasemi F, Valizadeh F, Taee N. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:38-44.ObjectiveConsidering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission wasmeasured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%.Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17 compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46 compared to the healthy group. ConclusionChildren with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS.References1. Østergaard J R. Febrile Seizures. Acta Pædiatr 2009;98(5:771-3.2. Jones T, Jacobsen SJ. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications. Int J Med Sci. 2007; 4(2:110-4.3. Flury T, Aebi

  14. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  15. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup. A t...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims........ A total of 98 controls and 39 cases were examined using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine blue dye followed by colposcopy. The overall frequency of having at least one lesion was strikingly similar in the two groups, but cases had significantly more abrasions, a trend towards more haematomas...

  16. Risk factors in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Smith, C; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

    2013-02-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition, but relatively little is known about its aetiology and associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for lateral epicondylitis in the community. Our dataset included 4998 patients with lateral epicondylitis who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice. The median age at diagnosis was 49 (interquartile range 42-56) years . Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis were rotator cuff pathology (OR 4.95), De Quervain's disease (OR 2.48), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 1.50), oral corticosteroid therapy (OR 1.68), and previous smoking history (OR 1.20). Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, trigger finger, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol intake, and obesity were not found to be associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  17. Breast cancer and smoking, vodka drinking and dietary habits. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlega, J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking, vodka drinking and consumption of 44 food items typical of the Polish diet were analysed in a case-control study in Cracow, Poland, among 127 cases of breast cancer and 250 controls randomly selected from the general population. Cigarette smoking was not significantly influencing the breast cancer risk. Compared with never-drinkers, the habit of vodka drinking 20 years earlier significantly increased breast cancer risk in women below 50 years of age (multivariate OR was 4.4 with 95% CI 1.6-12.4). Frequent consumption of boiled vegetables 20 years earlier (greater than 3 times per week) was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in women aged 50 years and more (multivariate OR was 0.4 with 95% CI 0.2-0.8).

  18. Case-control study of occupation and cancer of the prostate in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, N E; Sheppard, R A; Fraser, J

    1987-06-01

    A New Zealand Cancer Registry based case-control study involved 617 male patients with prostate cancer registered during 1979 and aged 20 years or more at the time of registration. Controls were also males chosen from the Cancer Registry with two controls per case, matched on age and year of registration. There was an elevated risk in the upper social class groupings. The data did not support the findings, from other countries, of elevated risks in agricultural workers (odds ratio = 1.08, 90% confidence limits 0.86-1.36). The only occupational groups showing elevated risks were sales and service workers (odds ratio = 1.29, 90% confidence limits 0.99-1.69) and teachers (odds ratio = 2.44, 90% confidence limits 1.05-5.70). The New Zealand data do not in general suggest that occupational factors--or lifestyle factors associated with occupation--are of major direct importance in the aetiology of prostate cancer.

  19. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Simon; Sidani, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT). A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P PERT), and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO. PMID:27446865

  20. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  1. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  2. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour SADEGHZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  How to cite this article: Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevis P, Mahboubi E. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:27-31.Abstract Objective: Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, serum iron (SI, total iron binding capacity (TIBC and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. ReferencesBidabadi E, Mashouf M.. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion: A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jan;18(5:347-51.Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevisasl P, Moussavinassab N, Koosha A, Norouzi M. The Relation Between Serum Zinc Level and Febrile Seizures in Children Admitted to Zanjan Valie-Asr Hospital. J Zanjan Uni Med Sci. 2011;19(74:17-24.Kumari PL, Nair MK, Nair SM, Kailas L, Geetha S. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for simple febrile seizures-a case control study. Indian Pediatr. 2012 Jan;49(1:17-9.Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D'Apuzzo A, Tregrossi C. Iron deficiency anaemia and

  3. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  4. Usefulness of blink reflex in hypothyroid patients with or without polyneuropathy: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin; Udan, Vikas; Jain, Jyoti; Shende, Vinod; Singh, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is an important consequence of thyroid deficiency. Cranial nerves are frequently affected in hypothyroid process. On routine nerve conduction studies, symptomatic peripheral and cranial neuropathy can be detected, however, diagnosing subclinical cranial neuropathy pose the major problem. Blink reflex (BR), has been shown to be an effective method for revealing subclinical involvement of cranial nerves in generalized neuropathies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of BR as a method for early diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in hypothyroid patients with or without overt peripheral polyneuropathy. A case control study was conducted on 150 subjects aged 18 years and above (100 controls, 50 cases). A routine nerve conduction study and BR evaluation was done in all the subjects. We found abnormal BR response in 50% of hypothyroid patients studied. In hypothyroid patient without polyneuropathy R1 latency was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05 Vs control). Ipsilateral and contralateral R2 latencies were significantly prolonged in hypothyroid cases with or without polyneuropathy on bilateral stimulation. Magnitude of prolongation was greater in with polyneuropathy group. In conclusion, study suggests that BR is a useful non-invasive method for the detection of clinically silent cranial nerve compromise in hypothyroid patients.

  5. Case-control studies of gene-environment interaction: Bayesian design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Gruber, Stephen B; Ghosh, Malay; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2010-09-01

    With increasing frequency, epidemiologic studies are addressing hypotheses regarding gene-environment interaction. In many well-studied candidate genes and for standard dietary and behavioral epidemiologic exposures, there is often substantial prior information available that may be used to analyze current data as well as for designing a new study. In this article, first, we propose a proper full Bayesian approach for analyzing studies of gene-environment interaction. The Bayesian approach provides a natural way to incorporate uncertainties around the assumption of gene-environment independence, often used in such an analysis. We then consider Bayesian sample size determination criteria for both estimation and hypothesis testing regarding the multiplicative gene-environment interaction parameter. We illustrate our proposed methods using data from a large ongoing case-control study of colorectal cancer investigating the interaction of N-acetyl transferase type 2 (NAT2) with smoking and red meat consumption. We use the existing data to elicit a design prior and show how to use this information in allocating cases and controls in planning a future study that investigates the same interaction parameters. The Bayesian design and analysis strategies are compared with their corresponding frequentist counterparts.

  6. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  7. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score recovery (aOR 4.41, 95% CI 1.93-10.07 and aOR 3.87, 95% CI 1.13-13.24, respectively). Concussions resulting from playing a

  8. Parental occupation and childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, R R; Bunin, G R; Nass, C C; Meadows, A T

    1992-02-15

    Parental occupations were investigated as possible risk factors for astrocytoma, the most frequently occurring brain tumor in children. A case-control study of 163 pairs was performed. Cases under 15 years of age at diagnosis in 1980-1986 were identified through the tumor registries of eight hospitals in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were matched to cases on age, race, and telephone area code. Occupations before the child's conception, during the pregnancy, and after the child's birth were studied separately. We did not observe any strong associations. Significantly more fathers of cases were electrical or electronic repairmen, a subgroup of an occupational category previously associated with increased risk. An excess of case mothers employed as nurses was observed, which was significant for mothers of children diagnosed before 5 years of age. Elevated although not significant odds ratios were observed for some white collar and professional occupations in case parents; for paternal exposure to paint and paternal occupation in the paper and pulp mill industry, both in the period after the child's birth; and for maternal occupation as a hairdresser. The lack of strong associations may have resulted from low statistical power for some job groupings. Our study, unlike previous studies, focused on a single type of brain tumor: childhood astrocytoma. Thus our results suggest that some parental occupations associated with childhood brain tumors in previous studies may not be risk factors for childhood astrocytoma.

  9. Oral and pharyngeal cancer and occupation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W W; Schoenberg, J B; Kelsey, J L; Wilcox, H B; McLaughlin, J K; Greenberg, R S; Preston-Martin, S; Austin, D F; Stemhagen, A; Blot, W J

    1992-07-01

    We studied the relation between occupation and oral and pharyngeal cancer with a population-based case-control study conducted in four areas of the United States. The study group included 1,114 incident male and female cases and 1,268 frequency-matched controls. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, alcohol, and study location, an analysis of lifetime occupational histories revealed a small number of noteworthy associations. Risk was increased among male carpet installers (23 cases, 4 controls), with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4-24.9], and tended to rise with longer duration of employment. A decreased risk was found among male and female textile mill workers (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88). Previously reported increases in oral cancer risks among printing workers, electrical and electronics workers, and workers other than carpet installers who were possibly exposed to formaldehyde were not found in this study. For several employment groups, including male machinists, primary metal industry workers, petroleum industry workers, painters, furniture and fixture industry workers, woodworking machine operators, and workers with inferred exposure to fossil fuel combustion, odds ratios were approximately 2.0 for cancers of pharyngeal sites.

  10. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk.

  11. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  12. Certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension: a case-control study

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    Sunil M. Sagare, S. S. Rajderkar B. S. Girigosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension accounts for 90% of all cases of hypertension. Though it is a one of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, it is a condition with its own risk factors. Overall prevalence of hypertension is increasing over the years in India (from 3.57% in 1977 to 20-30% after 1995. Considering the public health importance of ‘Essential Hypertension’ the present study was conducted. The objective was to study role of certain risk factors in essential hypertension. A case control study was conducted in rural township of Tasgaon; in Sangli district of Maharashtra during 2001-2002, to study role of certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension in 21-60 years age group. 165 cases of essential hypertension were selected by systematic random sampling from two private hospitals & O.P.D. of RHTC, Tasgaon and 330, age & sex matched controls were selected in the ratio of 1:2. A significant association was found between essential hypertension and various risk factors including smoking, its frequency and duration, alcoholic status, leisure time physical inactivity, restless sleep, BMI, mental stress, mixed diet and salt intake. Smoking of more than 10 cigarettes or bidi had 3.23 times risk of developing hypertension than smoking up to 10 cigarettes or bidi.

  13. Dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

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    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Ho, Suzanne C; Fu, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Shou-Zhen; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The results of dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk are conflicting, and their relationship has not previously been studied in China. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among Chinese women in the Guangdong province from June 2007 to August 2008. Four hundred and thirty-eight consecutively recruited cases with primary breast cancer were frequency-matched to 438 controls on age and residence. Dietary intake information was collected by interviewers using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression adjusted for various potential confounders. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of dietary calcium intake with breast cancer risk, with the adjusted OR (95% CI) of 0.35 (0.22-0.56) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant association was found between dairy products measured either by dry weight of dairy product or dairy product protein intake and breast cancer risk. Our study supports a protective effect of high intake of dietary calcium on breast cancer risk, and no association with dairy product intake.

  14. Lifestyle factors and breast cancer: a case-control study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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    Kamarudin, Rozanim; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Hidayah, Noor

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and the commonest cause of death due to cancer for women in Malaysia. This study was performed to identify the relationship with lifestyle factors. A case-control study was conducted among females with breast cancer who came for treatment to the Breast Clinic Hospital Kuala Lumpur in July until September 2004. A total of 203 female patients were recruited as cases along with 203 patients who attended the Outpatient Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur during the study period as the controls. The study showed women who did not exercise regularly to have four times higher risk (adjusted odds ratio is 3.49, 95% CI is 1.84 to 6.62) compared to those who exercised regularly. Women with a high fat diet were also at elevated risk (adjusted odds ratio 3.84, 95% CI is 1.20 to 12.34) compared to those consuming a low fat diet. Women without breast cancer generally had a longer duration of lifetime lactation with a median of thirty-three months compared to women with breast cancer (twenty months, phealthy life style should be emphasized.

  15. Risk factors of female breast carcinoma: A case control study at Puducherry

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    S M Balasubramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and quantify various demographic, reproductive, socio-economic and dietary risk factors among women with breast cancer. Study Design: Case control study. Study Period: February 2004 to May 2005. Study Setting: Departments of Surgery, Medicine and Radiotherapy of Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Sciences and Research (JIPMER, Pondicherry. Materials and Methods: Cases were women with pathologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls were age-matched women from medicine and surgery wards without any current breast problem or previous breast cancer. A total of 152 cases and 152 controls were enrolled. They were interviewed for parity, breast feeding, past history of benign breast lesion, family history and dietary history with a pre-tested interview schedule after obtaining informed written consent. Results: The significant risk factors were (odds ratios with 95% CI previous history of biopsy for benign breast lesion 10.4 (1.3-86.3, nulliparity 2.4 (1.14-5.08, consumption of fats more than 30 g/day 2.4 (1.14-5.45 and consumption of oils containing more of saturated fat 2.0 (1.03-4.52. Conclusions: Nulliparity, past history of benign breast lesion, high fat diet and consumption of oils with more saturated fats were the risk factors.

  16. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

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    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  17. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

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    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  18. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

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    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  19. XPG Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: A Two-Stage Case-Control Study

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    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhuo, Zhen-Jian; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene polymorphisms may modulate colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. In this study, we performed a two-stage case-control study to comprehensively investigate the associations of five polymorphisms in the XPG gene with CRC risk in 1,901 cases and 1,976 controls from Southern China, including rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs1047768 T>C and rs873601 G>A. After combining data from two stages, we found that three of the studied polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, and rs873601 G>A) were significantly associated with CRC susceptibility. After adjustment for age and gender, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that carriers of the rs2094258 T alleles had an increased CRC risk [CT vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.36; TT vs. CC: adjusted OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.18-1.89; TT vs. CT/CC: adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.72]. Likely, rs873601 A allele also conferred increased CRC susceptibility. In contrast, a protective association was identified between rs751402 C>T polymorphism and the risk of CRC. In summary, our results indicated that these three polymorphisms were found to associate with CRC susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population.

  20. A CASE CONTROL STUDY OF INTRAVENOUS MAGNESIUM SULPHATE IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING

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    James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To study the efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulphate in the treatment of OPC poisoning and its outcome. To assess merits and demerits of use of MgSO4 with conventional therapy. METHOD This is a case control study of patients admitted with severe OPC poisoning in intensive care medical unit of tertiary care hospital. RESULTS Total of 69 cases and 64 control patients were compared. Among both cases and controls incidence of poisoning was more common among male sex and common among patients belonging to third decade of age. When compared to control arm, there is statistically significant reduction in mortality when intravenous MgSO4 was given to patients in addition to standard treatment protocol for severe OPC poisoning. CONCLUSION In our study, addition of MgSO4 has shown significant clinical improvement of severe OPC poisoning with no adverse outcome. Long term and large studies are needed to determine the efficacy of MgSO4 in treatment of OPC poisoning

  1. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

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    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  2. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

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    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  3. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

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    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  4. The role of the CHRNA4 gene in Internet addiction: a case-control study.

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    Montag, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Sauer, Carina; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies from Asia provided first evidence for a molecular genetic link between serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission and Internet addiction. The present report offers data on a new candidate gene in the investigation of Internet addiction-the gene coding for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 (CHRNA4). A case-control study was carried out. The participants were recruited from a large gene data bank, including people from the general population and from a university setting. A total of 132 participants with problematic Internet use and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. Participants provided DNA samples and filled in the Internet Addiction Test Questionnaire. The T- variant (CC genotype) of the rs1044396 polymorphism on the CHRNA4 gene occurred significantly more frequently in the case group. Further analyses revealed that this effect was driven by females. Combined with the findings from other studies, the present data point in the direction that rs1044396 exerts pleiotropic effects on a vast range of behaviors, including cognition, emotion, and addiction.

  5. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

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    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of attempted suicide--a case-control study in Gent, Belgium.

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    van Heeringen, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of attempted suicide among the population of Gent, exploratory and analytical case-control studies were carried out. The strength of the association between attempted suicide and marital and employment status was calculated taking into account the confounding and/or effect-modifying roles of age, gender, and the living situation. Unmarried individuals who were not living alone were at increased risk of attempted suicide compared to (cohabiting) married individuals. Young and middle-aged unemployed males and middle-aged unemployed females had significantly increased risks compared to employed individuals. In addition to a causal interpretation of the demonstrated associations, the roles of chance, reverse causality, and confounding or bias were considered. Selection and information biases may have accounted for the observed associations. For instance, in previous monitoring studies on attempted suicide, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the reliability of the information collected. The question of how one can reliably assess patients who may provide unreliable information remains unanswered. However, several findings support a role of causality in explaining the associations. The present studies therefore provide additional evidence for a detrimental affect of certain socio-demographic or -economic conditions on the occurrence of attempted suicide.

  7. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: A case-control study

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    Abbas Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS and latitude gradient indicates the importance of environmental factors in MS susceptibility. Sunlight′s ultraviolet radiation, its ability to influence melatonin, and an imbalance of melatonin in the central nervous system (CNS may be involved in this process. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Isfahan MS Society (IMSS, Isfahan, Iran. Enrollment was limited to patients with MS referring to the MS clinic of Alzahra and Kashani hospital during January and February 2012. Results: Thirty-five patients with MS and 35 healthy individuals were included in our study. The melatonin levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. There was no significant difference between saliva melatonin level of two groups (patients and healthy individuals (P = 0.417; however, after controlling the effect of age, a significant difference (P = 0.022 was found. Conclusions: In the present study, it is proposed that environmental conditions in Isfahan city might have increased the susceptibility to MS, but more studies in different parts of the world are needed to evaluate this claim.

  8. Diet as risk for lung cancer: a Swedish case-control study.

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    Axelsson, Gosta; Rylander, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to study lung cancer in relation to dietary habits, occupational exposure, and living in urban or country areas. Suspect lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. The study comprised 177 female and 359 male cases and 916 controls. The cases mainly comprised former and current smokers (82% female, 95% male). For the analysis, cases were divided into the histological diagnoses adenocarcinoma and squamous cell, small cell, and adenosquamous cell carcinomas, as well as into smoking categories. A high frequency of consumption of vegetables was significantly related to a lower risk for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell and adenosquamous cell carcinoma among men and adenocarcinoma among women. A low odds ratio in the highest quartile of vegetable consumption in men was seen in all smoking categories. There were no significant protective effects from fruit in the different lung cancer subgroups, although a significant trend was found for heavy-smoking females. A high consumption of milk was related to an increased risk for lung cancer, especially adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The results suggest that the protective effect or risk due to dietary factors may affect different forms of lung cancer. The results from this as well as previous studies suggest a complex interaction between diet and lung cancer risk, involving the types of lung cancer as well as consumption patterns in the population.

  9. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

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    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; Preptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  10. ASSOCIATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS WITH STROKE: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

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    Manoj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of death above the age of 60 years and the fifth leading cause of death in people aged 15-59 years old. In addition to specific complications of diabetes mellitus like nephropathy, retinopathy, etc., some other non-specific complications, notably coronary artery disease and stroke are also increasing in frequency in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a case-control study conducted from Feb-2016 to Apr-2016 (3 months. Study was done among stroke patients aged 20 years and above hospitalized in TMMC and RC, Moradabad, UP, Age and gender matched control subjects were selected among neurologically healthy people who were admitted for other ailments in this hospital. Sample size was 312 people containing 156 cases and 156 controls. Statistical analysis was done using Med Calc Version 12.7.5.0 software. Chi-square test was used as test of significance and p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. OBSERVATION Male:Female ratio among the cases and control was 1.51:1. Mean age of cases and controls were 51.30±11.13 and 51.93±14.60. Out of 156 cases, 77 (49.36% were suffering from Diabetes mellitus, while only 46 (29.48% controls were having diabetes mellitus. P value was 0.0003, which is highly significant. CONCLUSION In the present hospital-based case-control study, diabetes mellitus was found to be a significant risk factor in patients with stroke. Risk factor assessment is an important step towards better understanding of pathogenesis, prevention and control of stroke. RECOMMENDATIONS Physicians caring for patients at risk for stroke should be vigilant for diabetes as well as other concurrent stroke risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidaemia, heart diseases, etc., that tend to cluster with diabetes. Lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions for the modifiable risk

  11. Symptoms and sources of Yersinia enterocolitica-infection: a case-control study

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    Siitonen Anja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica (YE is the causative agent of yersiniosis. YE encompass strains of diverse pathogenicity: YE biotypes 1B and 2-5 are considered pathogenic, whereas biotype 1A is in general considered nonvirulent. Also YE-like species, which can sometimes be misidentified as YE, are considered nonvirulent. Methods In order to study differences in clinical picture caused by different YE types and their possible sources a case-control study was conducted in 2006. In this case-control study, 295 case-patients with YE or YE-like finding and their 758 controls responded to the questionnaire about symptoms and possible sources of infection. Results Strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes 3-4/O:3 or 2/O:9 were found in 18%, YE biotype 1A in 65% and YE -like strains of 17% of the patients. Patients infected with the strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes were younger and had fever more often than those with BT 1A who suffered more from vomiting. Symptoms of reactive arthritis were reported by 10% of pathogenic YE infections, 3% of YE BT 1A, and 0.3% of the controls. Eating or tasting raw or medium done pork was a significant risk factor for pathogenic YE bio/serotype infection (OR 6.6; 95% CI 1.7-24.9 as well as eating in a canteen (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6-7.9. Imported fruits and berries were associated with increased risk of YE BT 1A finding. Conclusions The symptoms of the patients with YE BT 1A differed from yersiniosis caused by the classic pathogenic YE bio/serotypes. In addition, the patients with YE BT 1A had more protracted gastrointestinal disorders and unspecific complaints. Small children were overrepresented in classic pathogenic bio/serotypes while in BT 1A or YE-like species were not found among children younger than two years. This suggests the lacking virulence of the BT 1A strains. We can not, however, rule out the possibility that some strains of genetically heterogeneous group of BT 1A may cause an illness.

  12. Surgical glove perforation among nurses in ophthalmic surgery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Karen Mei-Yan; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Many of the ophthalmic surgical instruments are extremely fine and sharp. Due to the dim light environment required for ophthalmic surgical procedures, the passing of sharp instruments among surgeons and scrub nurses also poses a risk for glove perforations. A case-control study was performed to determine the number and site of perforations in the surgical gloves used by a group of scrub nurses during ophthalmic surgery. All six nurses working in an eye and refractive surgery centre in Hong Kong participated in the study. A total of 100 (50 pairs) used surgical gloves were collected following 50 ophthalmic surgeries. Fifty pairs of new surgical gloves were also collected. Every collected surgical glove underwent the water leak test. The surgical procedure perforation rate was 8%, and none of the perforations were detected by the scrub nurses. No perforations were found in any unused gloves. The findings indicate that glove perforations for scrub nurses during ophthalmic surgery do occur and mostly go unnoticed. Future studies should continue to explore factors contributing to surgical glove perforation.

  13. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

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    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  14. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

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    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  15. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

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    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  16. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  17. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

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    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  18. Quality of life in patients with hand eczema as health promotion: a case control study.

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    Ghaderi, Reza; Saadatjoo, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Health promotion has been defined by the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health". One of the most important determinants of health is quality of life. Hand eczema is a common skin disease that can adversely affect the quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life in patients with hand eczema. This case-control study was performed on 70 patients with hand eczema and 70 healthy controls. All the patients filled out two questionnaires: Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Dermatology Life Quality index (DLQI). The data were analyzed using the statistical software package for social sciences (SPSS). The mean score score of quality of life in dimensions of physical functioning, vitality, and general health in the SF-36 was lower compared to the control group. The mean score in DLQI in patients with hand eczema was 8.68. There was a significant negative correlation between the scores of different dimensions of QOL obtained in the two questionnaires (SF36 and DLQI). The study demonstrated that the quality of life in patients with hand eczema was lower than that of controls. It seems advisable that psychiatric consultations or psychotherapy be included in the treatment of chronic hand eczema.

  19. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

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    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  20. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

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    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  1. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

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    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis.

  2. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

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    Masoud Golpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45% were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (<0.05. Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

  3. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

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    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  4. Liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome: a large-scale case-control study.

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    Zhang, Lu; Ma, Xiangyu; Jiang, Zhi; Zhang, Kejun; Zhang, Mengxuan; Li, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaolan; Xiong, Hongyan

    2015-09-29

    Previous studies suggested that elevated liver enzymes could be used as potential novel biomarkers of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical outcomes, although the results were inconsistent and the conclusions were underpowered. A case-control study with 6,268 MetS subjects and 6,330 frequency-matched healthy controls was conducted to systematically evaluated levels of four liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP), both in overall populations and in subjects with normal liver enzymes, with MetS risk using both quartiles and continuous unit of liver enzymes. We found significant associations were detected for all above analyses. Compared with quartile 1 (Q1), other quartiles have significant higher MetS risk, with ORs ranging from 1.15 to 18.15. The highest effected was detected for GGT, for which the OR value for the highest versus lowest quartile was 18.15 (95% CI: 15.7-20.9). Mutual adjustment proved the independence of the relations for all four liver enzymes. Sensitivity analyses didn't materially changed the trend. To the best of our knowledge, this study should be the largest, which aimed at evaluating the association between liver enzymes measures and MetS risk. The results can better support that liver enzyme levels could be used as clinical predictors of MetS.

  5. Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania, 1997–2000

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    Kėvalas Rimantas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome relevant in Lithuania. Methods A nationwide case-control study surveying parents of 35 infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome during the period of 1997–2000 and parents of 145 control infants matched with SIDS infants for date of birth and for region of birth was carried out. Results Deaths incidence was greater in the warm period (60% vs. cold period (40%. Prone and side sleeping positions both carried no increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome compared with supine because of a rare prone sleeping (4.1% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants and more prevalent side than supine sleeping (84.8% of controls vs. 94.3% of dead infants in the controls as well as the cases. Bed sharing for the whole night as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome has not been confirmed, either, as bed sharing was common only for the controls (13.8% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants. Routine sleeping environment factors such as heavy wrapping (≥4 togs of an infant (odds ratio 8.49; 95% confidence interval 2.38 to 30.32, sleeping in a bassinet (4.22; 1.16 to 15.38 and maternal factors such as maternal education ≤12 years (4.48; 1.34 to 14.94, unplanned pregnancy (5.22; 1.49 to 18.18 and ≥2 previous live births (3.90; 1.00 to 15.10 were significantly associated with sudden infant death syndrome on multivariate analysis. Conclusion The results of this first population-based case-control study have shed some light on the epidemiology of the syndrome in Lithuania. Although the mortality of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania is not high, it might be lowered moreover by public informing about sudden infant death syndrome and related risk factors. Special attention must be paid to mothers with low education on potentially modifiable risk factors such as routine heavy wrapping of an infant during sleep, routine sleeping in a bassinet and unplanned pregnancy.

  6. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study

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    Doherty K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1,2 James L Rudolph1,3,4 1Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Nursing, Science & Health Professions, Regis College, Boston, MA, USA; 3Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. Methods: This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]. Results: After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201 was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit. Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7. Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3–5.8. Conclusion: In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction. Keywords: geriatrics, patient centered outcomes research, patient safety

  7. Uncertain nest fates in songbird studies and variation in Mayfield estimation

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    Manolis, J.C.; Andersen, D.E.; Cuthbert, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Determining whether nesting attempts are successful can be difficult. Yet, current protocols for estimating nesting success do not address how uncertain nest fates should be handled. We examined the problem of nest-fate uncertainty as it relates to Mayfield estimation of nesting success and in analyses of factors that influence success. We used data from Minnesota to illustrate the potential effect of uncertain fate; 40% of Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus; n = 127) nests and 30% of Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus; n = 144) nests had uncertain fates. How this uncertainty is incorporated into Mayfield estimates of success varied widely among researchers. In a survey of researchers who use the Mayfield method, 9 of 22 respondents (of 40 contacted) excluded nests with uncertain fate. Excluding uncertain fates is counter to how Mayfield first described his estimator and can result in severe downward bias. The remaining respondents (59%) included nests with uncertain fate but varied in how they terminated the exposure period. We developed a simulation model that calculated Mayfield estimates using different approaches and compared them with a known rate of nesting success. Magnitude of bias in Mayfield estimates varied considerably in our simulations. The approach with the least bias terminated exposure with the last observed active date for nests with uncertain fate, and with the midpoint between last observed active and first observed inactive dates for nests with known fate. In addition, information necessary to interpret and compare Mayfield estimates often is not reported. These values, including variance estimates and the period lengths used to estimate survival rates, should be reported with Mayfield estimates. Finally, nest fate is commonly used as a categorical variable in studies of factors affecting nesting success. In this approach, however, nests with uncertain fate must be excluded. An alternative approach is Cox regression, which incorporates nests with

  8. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

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    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-06-09

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  9. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

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    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  10. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

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    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  11. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

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    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  12. Socio-Demographic and Environmental Correlates of Leprosy: A hospital based cases control study

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    Devang A Jariwala, Bharat H Patel, Naresh R Godara, S L Kantharia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, India alone contributes approximately 50% of Leprosy cases. The Natural history of Leprosy has still many gaps about causation of Leprosy. There are very few studies focusing on all possible factors that might be associated with Leprosy. Materials and Methodology: Hospital based case-control study was carried out in Outpatient department. Interviews of 76 cases of Leprosy and 152 Age and Sex matched Non-Leprosy Controls were taken exploring Demographic, Socio-Economic, Environmental and Behavioural factors to elucidate association with Le-prosy. Results: In Univariate analysis, Residing in Rural and Urban-slum area, lower education, low per capita monthly income, Ex-tended family, unsafe water for domestic purpose, presence of animals in house/yard, unhygienic habit of sewage disposal, frequent bathing in open water bodies, working barefooted were associated with Leprosy. Presence of BCG scar was found to reduce the risk of Leprosy. In the final model of Binary Logistic Regression analysis, presence of BCG scar and higher per capita monthly income were found to be protective for Leprosy whereas family history of Leprosy and frequent bathing in open water bodies were found to be risk factors for Leprosy. Conclusion: BCG vaccine might provide some degree of protec-tion against Leprosy. Protective effect of higher per capita income emphasizes that economic development itself will help us to reduce the burden of Leprosy. Association of Frequent bathing in open water bodies with Leprosy might indicate the role of environmental factors in transmission of Leprosy.

  13. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran.

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    Abbas Mirvakili

    Full Text Available Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL.

  14. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Abbas; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechi, Saeid; Zand, Vahid; Ansari, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; Rosato, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Levi, Fabio; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Negri, Eva; Tavani, Alessandra; Zucchetto, Antonella; Franceschi, Silvia; Corrao, Giovanni; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes has been associated to the risk of a few cancer sites, though quantification of this association in various populations remains open to discussion. We analyzed the relation between diabetes and the risk of various cancers in an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2009. The studies included 1,468 oral and pharyngeal, 505 esophageal, 230 gastric, 2,390 colorectal, 185 liver, 326 pancreatic, 852 laryngeal, 3,034 breast, 607 endometrial, 1,031 ovarian, 1,294 prostate, and 767 renal cell cancer cases and 12,060 hospital controls. The multivariate odds ratios (OR) for subjects with diabetes as compared to those without-adjusted for major identified confounding factors for the cancers considered through logistic regression models-were significantly elevated for cancers of the oral cavity/pharynx (OR = 1.58), esophagus (OR = 2.52), colorectum (OR = 1.23), liver (OR = 3.52), pancreas (OR = 3.32), postmenopausal breast (OR = 1.76), and endometrium (OR = 1.70). For cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, colorectum, liver, and postmenopausal breast, the excess risk persisted over 10 yr since diagnosis of diabetes. Our data confirm and further quantify the association of diabetes with colorectal, liver, pancreatic, postmenopausal breast, and endometrial cancer and suggest forthe first time that diabetes may also increase the risk of oral/pharyngeal and esophageal cancer.

  16. A case-control study of Parkinson's disease and tobacco use: gene-tobacco interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giuseppe; Dick, Finlay D; Calzetti, Stefano; Scott, Neil W; Prescott, Gordon J; Osborne, Aileen; Haites, Neva; Mozzoni, Paola; Negrotti, Anna; Scaglioni, Augusto; Mutti, Antonio

    2010-05-15

    A case-control study of genetic, environmental, and occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) was carried out in five European countries (Italy, Malta, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden) to explore the possible contribution of interactions among host and environmental factors in sporadic PD. Whereas smoking habits confirmed its negative association with PD, a possible modulatory role of genetic polymorphisms was investigated to obtain further mechanistic insights. We recruited 767 cases of PD and 1989 age-matched and gender-matched controls. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including the history of smoking habits. The polymorphisms of genes involved either in metabolism of compounds contained in tobacco smoke (CYP2D6, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, SOD2, EPHX and NAT2) or in dopaminergic neurotransmission (MAOA, MAOB, DAT1 and DRD2) were characterized by PCR based methods on genomic DNA. We found evidence of statistically significant gene-tobacco interaction for GSTM1, NAT2, and GSTP1, the negative association between tobacco smoking and PD being significantly enhanced in subjects expressing GSTM1-1 activity, in NAT2 fast acetylators, and in those with the GSTP1*B*C haplotype. Owing to the retrospective design of the study, these results require confirmation.

  17. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

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    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  18. Serum Fatty Acids and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

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    Marco Vinceti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some observational studies have suggested that excess dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid increases cutaneous melanoma risk. We aimed at examining the association between serum fatty acids and melanoma risk by conducting a population-based case-control study in a northern Italy community. Methods. The percentage composition of 12 fatty acids was determined in 51 newly diagnosed melanoma patients and 51 age- and sex-matched population controls by extracting total lipids from serum samples using thin layer and gas chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of melanoma associated with tertiles of percentage composition of each fatty acid as well as groupings including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results. We found a slightly increased melanoma risk for stearic and arachidic acids proportion, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. For an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid, we found a male-specific direct association with melanoma risk. No other associations emerged for the other saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, individually or grouped by type. Conclusions. These findings do not suggest a major role of fatty acids, including linoleic acid, on risk of cutaneous melanoma, though their evaluation is limited by the small sample size.

  19. Serum Chemerin Levels in relation to Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density: A Case-Control Study

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    Jing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate serum chemerin levels in patients with osteoporosis and healthy controls and to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods. An age- and gender-matched case-control study was conducted. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and BMD. Results. There were 93 patients included in the osteoporosis group and 93 matched controls. Serum chemerin level was significantly higher in patients with osteoporosis (87.27±5.80 ng/mL than patients in control (71.13±5.12 ng/mL (P<0.01. There was a negative correlation between femoral bone mineral density and chemerin in both groups (R=-0.395, P<0.01 in osteoporosis group; R=-0.680, P<0.01 in control and also a negative correlation between lumbar bone mineral density with chemerin in both groups (R=-0.306, P<0.01 in osteoporosis group; R=-0.362, P<0.01 in control. Conclusions. Patients with osteoporosis presented a higher level of serum chemerin, which witnessed an inverse correlation with BMD. Further studies are needed to explore the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.

  20. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

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    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  1. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

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    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  2. Opium addiction and severity of coronary artery disease: A case-control study

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    Mohammad Masoumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Determina-tion of the risk factors and high risk groups plays an important role in the prevention and controlling programs. The present study aims to determine the relationship between opium consumption and severity of CAD. Methods: In this hospital based case- control study, 299 patients who were candidates for coronary angiography from 2006 to 2007 were recruited. The patients′ history of opium addiction was taken. Based on their history, they were cate-gorized into three groups: non users, occasional users and current users. The relationship between opium addiction and severity of CAD was analyzed by a multiple logistic regression model, STATA v.10. Results: According to angiographic data, patients were divided into 3 groups: 84 patients (28.09% as non coronary artery disease, 81 patients (27.09% as mild CAD and the remaining 134 patients (44.82% as severe CAD. Univariate analysis showed that current opium users had higher odds of severe CAD compared with non users. Multivariate analy-sis showed a significant relationship between age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gender and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Conclusions: The findings indicated that current opium users - in comparison with non users - have a higher risk for severe CAD. But it is roughly confounded by other co- factors such as cigarette smoking, age and sex. A dose- response was noticed between the type of opium consumption and the severity of CAD.

  3. Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis versus Bacterial Rhinosinusitis with Orbital Complications: A Case-Control Study

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    Patorn Piromchai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications (IFSwOC is a life-threatening condition. The incidence of mortality has been reported to be up to 80 percent. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors, presentations, clinical, and imaging findings that could help to manage this condition promptly. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 100 patients suffering from rhinosinusitis with orbital complications. The risk factors, clinical presentations, radiological findings, medical and surgical managements, durations of hospital stay, and mortality rate data were collected. Results. Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with IFSwOC, while the other thirty-five patients composed the control group. The most important risk factor for IFSwOC was diabetes mellitus. Visual loss and diplopia were the significant symptom predictors. The significant clinical predictors were nasal crust, oculomotor nerve, and optic nerve involvement. The CT findings of IFSwOC were sinus wall erosion and hyperdensity lesions. The mortality rate was 25.71 percent in the IFSwOC group and 3.17 percent in the control group. Conclusions. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications is symptomatic of a high mortality rate. The awareness of a patient’s risk factors, the presenting symptoms, signs of fungal invasion, and aggressive management will determine the success of any treatment procedures.

  4. Risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A case- control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ming Zhou; Zheng-Feng Yin; Jia-Mei Yang; Bin Li; Wen-Yu Shao; Feng Xu; Yu-Lan Wang; Dian-Qi Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To carry out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in China.METHODS: A total of 312 ICC cases and 438 matched controls were included in the study. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis), was investigated through clinical records. Blood from all participants was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.RESULTS: Compared with controls, ICC patients had a higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity (48.4% vs 9.6%, P < 0.000), and hepatolithiasis (5.4% vs 1.1%, P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for development of ICC were HBsAg seropositivity (adjusted OR, 8.876, 95% CI, 5.973-13.192), and hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR, 5.765, 95% CI, 1.972-16.851). The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HBV infection and hepatolithiasis are strong risk factors for development of ICC in China.

  5. Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States.

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    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Allan H

    2003-12-15

    Numerous epidemiologic investigations have identified links between high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and cancer, although the risks at lower exposures are largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a case-control study of arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer in seven counties in the western United States. These counties contain the largest populations historically exposed to drinking water arsenic at concentrations near 100 microg/liter. All incident cases diagnosed from 1994 to 2000 were recruited. Individual data on water sources, water consumption patterns, smoking, and other factors were collected for 181 cases and 328 controls. Overall, no increased risks were identified for arsenic intakes greater than 80 microg/day (odds ratio=0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.57; linear trend, p=0.48). These risks are below predictions based on high dose studies from Taiwan. When the analysis was focused on exposures 40 or more years ago, an odds ratio of 3.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 9.42; linear trend, p<0.01) was identified for intakes greater than 80 microg/day (median intake, 177 microg/day) in smokers. These data provide some evidence that smokers who ingest arsenic at concentrations near 200 microg/day may be at increased risk of bladder cancer.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

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    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  7. Silica exposure and lung cancer in ceramic workers: a case-control study.

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    Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Volovics, A; Slangen, J J; Van Vliet, K

    1990-03-01

    The results are presented from a case-control study, concerning the possible relation between silica exposure in the Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer. For this purpose 381 male, age-matched pairs of primary lung cancer cases and controls were selected from the pathology department of the University Hospital in the region, where two large ceramic companies are located. Information about employment in the ceramic industry was obtained from the personnel and financial administration departments of the two companies. On the basis of job titles a panel of occupational hygiene experts reached consensus about the qualitative exposures of each individual worker. Twenty one per cent of the cases were employed in the ceramic industry, compared with 19% of the controls (odds ratio 1.11; 95% Cl: 0.77-1.61). Although the average employment period of cases and their relative silica exposure surpassed those of controls, odds ratios for long duration of employment and considerable exposure to respirable silica dust did not reach statistical significance. After constructing a qualitative exposure index, based on the amount and duration of exposure, a tendency towards a positive correlation with lung cancer emerged. No relation between specific histological tumour cell types and working in the ceramic industry emerged. Although the study does not suggest a consistent cause-effect relation between silica exposure in the regional, Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer, an increased risk for the high exposure group in the past can not be totally excluded.

  8. Genetics of Myasthenia Gravis: A Case-Control Association Study in the Hellenic Population

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    Zoi Zagoriti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against proteins of the postsynaptic membrane, in the neuromuscular junction. The contribution of genetic factors to MG susceptibility has been evaluated through family and twin studies however, the precise genetic background of the disease remains elusive. We conducted a case-control association study in 101 unrelated MG patients of Hellenic origin and 101 healthy volunteers in order to assess the involvement of common genetic variants in susceptibility to MG. We focused on three candidate genes which have been clearly associated with several autoimmune diseases, aiming to investigate their potential implication in MG pathogenesis. These are interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5, TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20, and interleukin-10 (IL-10, key molecules in the regulation of immune function. A statistical trend of association (P=0.068 between IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the subgroups of early and late-onset MG patients was revealed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rest of the variants examined. As far as we are aware, this is the first worldwide attempt to address the possible association between IRF-5 and TNFAIP3 common genetic variants and the genetic basis of MG.

  9. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-02-25

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I-but not on the aMed-showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001-0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32-0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33-0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30-0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men.

  10. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

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    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  11. Contact with armadillos increases the risk of leprosy in Brazil: A case control study

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    Deps P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium leprae infection has recently been detected in wild armadillos in Brazil. Leprosy is still endemic in Brazil and although its transmission is mostly by person-to-person contact, many cases report no history of previously known leprosy contact. It has been suggested that other sources of M. leprae may contribute to the transmission of leprosy in some areas. Aim: Our objective was to investigate whether contact with armadillos is associated with leprosy. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Brazil. Data was collected from 506 leprosy patients and 594 controls on exposure to armadillos and age, sex, place of birth and living conditions. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression were conducted to investigate whether leprosy was associated with exposure to armadillos. Results: Direct armadillo exposure was reported by 68% of leprosy cases and by 48% of controls (P < 0.001 roughly doubling the risk of leprosy, with odds ratio (OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI [1.36-2.99]. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that direct exposure to armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy in Brazil.

  12. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality.

  13. SerumTrace Elements in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMAKIN, Kokab; ZARDAST, Mahmoud; SHARIFZADEH, Golamreza; BIDAR, Toktam; ZARGARIAN, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure (FS) is one of the most common neurological problems during childhood.Pathogenesis of febrile convulsion is unknown. This study investigated some trace elements among children admitted with FS compared with thoseof febrile without seizure attacks. Materials & Methods This case-control study was conducted on48 children (6 months to 5 yrold) diagnosed with febrile seizure as the cases and 48 age-matched febrile children as the control group. Serum levels of magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, and serum zinc were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS (version 15) using Student t-test. Results There were no significant differences between the cases and controls in terms of gender or age. The means of serum level of zinc, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the case group was lower than those of the control group. There was no significant difference onserum potassium mean level between the case and control groups. Conclusion Deficiency of trace elements was correlated significantly with febrile convulsion, while further investigations on trace elements are required. PMID:27375757

  14. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  15. Melasma and its association with different types of nevi in women: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi-bazargani, Homayoun; Amini-sani, Nayereh; Zeynizadeh, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Background Very little is known about possible association of nevi and melasma. The study objective was to determine if there is an association between melasma and existence of different kinds of nevi. Methods In a case-control study, 120 female melasma patients referred to dermatology clinic of Ardabil and 120 patients referred to other specialty clinics who lacked melasma were enrolled after matching for age. Number of different types of nevi including lentigines and melanocytic nevi were compared between case and control group patients. Data were entered into the computer and analyzed by SPSS 13 statistical software. Results Mean number of lentigines was 25.5 in melasma group compared to 8 in control group(P < 0.01). Mean number of melanocytic nevi was 13.2 in cases compared to 2.8 in control group(P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that existence of freckles, lentigines and more than three melanocytic nevi were positively related to developing melasma. The chance of melasma increased up to 23 times for patients having more than three melanocytic nevi. Congenital nevi were observed among 10% both in case and control groups. Campbell de morgan angiomas were seen among 26 patients(21.8%) in case group compared to 6 patients(5%) in control group. Conclusion Existence of lentigines and melanocytic nevi increases chance of having melasma PMID:18680608

  16. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H; Smith, A H; McMichael, A J; Jones, F S; Monson, R R; Tyroler, H A

    1981-01-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer was conducted in five United States rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. The study included 220 male cases of bladder cancer, of whom 107 were identified from hospital record reviews and 113 from death certificates. Each case was matched individually with two industry controls by sex, race, year of birth, and company. One control was matched additionally by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparisons of cases and controls not matched by year of hire and age of hire showed no differences for those variables, which suggests that age and calendar period of first exposure to the industry were not risk determinants. When the work histories of both cases and controls were contrasted it was found that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91) and calender operation (OR = 2.21) jobs. The relative risk estimates for milling and calender operation both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Milling and calender operation jobs entail potential exposures to volatilised reaction products from heated rubber stock. A better understanding of aetiological associations with job type will require more detailed characterisation of the work environment with regard to the sources and levels of aromatic amines and other suspected bladder carcinogens. PMID:7272236

  17. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Erika P. S.; Cunha, Aline T. O.; Aquino, Sephora L. S.; Pedrosa, Lucia F. C.; Lima, Severina C. V. C.; Lima, Josivan G.; Almeida, Maria G.; Sena-Evangelista, Karine C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p 0.05) between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p waist circumference (r = 0.253), triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360), glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250), homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427) (all p < 0.05) in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria. PMID:28241426

  18. Mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease: A case-control study

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    Zareen Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory response of tooth supporting structures to microbial dental plaque. It is influenced by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, systemic diseases, and psychological factors such as stress. This case-control study was performed to consider mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 subjects were selected. All the subjects were assessed for the presence of depression by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria and severity of depression was measured by Hamilton depression rating scale. For assessment of periodontal disease, clinical periodontal parameters oral hygiene index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that subjects with depression had significantly higher values of debris index, calculus index, gingival index, PPD, and CAL (P 6 months of illness were higher (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that mental depression significantly affects the periodontium. It may be considered as risk factor for periodontal disease.

  19. Familial liability, obstetric complications and childhood development abnormalities in early onset schizophrenia: a case control study

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    Lucarelli Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS. Methods We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test. Results The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02 and personality disorders (P = 0.003 in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008 and learning (P = 0.04; there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05 for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum. Conclusions This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

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    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  1. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

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    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  2. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

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    Sunanda N Shrikhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is associated with atherosclerosis. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to study the association between Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and C-reactive protein (CRP with AMI. Materials and Methods: This group-matched case-control study was carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study compared the risk of occurrence of AMI (outcome if subjects were ever-infected with H. pylori or C. pneumoniae; and their CRP positivity (exposure. Incident cases of myocardial infarctions in a tertiary care hospital were included as cases. Results: The study recruited 265 cases and 265 controls and detected an odds ratio (OR of 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-3.70 and an OR of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.71-3.65 for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori, respectively. Raised CRP levels had an OR of 3.85 (95% CI: 2.54-5.87. Conclusion: Although our study indicates the role of infections in the etiology of AMI in study population, the relative public health impact of these agents in the overall prevalence of AMI needs urgent research attention.

  3. Interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: A reanalysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca (Walter); S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen (H.); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the interaction among genetic and environmental risk factors, a reanalysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted based on the original data of all studies carried out to January 1, 1990. Seven studies were included in the present analysis, comprising

  4. Interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the interaction among genetic and environmental risk factors, a reanalysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted based on the original data of all studies carried out to January 1, 1990. Seven studies were included in the present analysis, comprising

  5. Parasites in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study

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    Gonzalez-Angulo Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS according to Rome III criteria and 209 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms different from IBS (control were identified through medical records from the Gastroenterology Clinic of the "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez General Hospital" from January 2008 to March 2010. No statistical differences in IBS data as compared with control groups were observed except in bloating, that was more frequent in the IBS group (P = 0.043. Although the pathogenicity of specific intestinal protozoa could not be demonstrated due to lack of association with the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, Blastocystis spp, in the IBS group, exhibited a trend of association to diarrhoea (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-8.80, P = 0.053, while having any parasite and diarrhoea was significant (odds ratio = 3.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-8.57, P = 0.008. The association between Blastocystis and diarrhoea in IBS patients although not conclusive is an interesting finding; nonetheless more extensive case-controlled studies are required to clearly define the role of some "non-pathogenic" parasites in intestinal disease and IBS.

  6. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  7. Outcomes of hematopoietic SCT recipients with rhinovirus infection: a matched, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abandeh, F I; Lustberg, M; Devine, S; Elder, P; Andritsos, L; Martin, S I

    2013-11-01

    The impact of rhinovirus in hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) recipients is not well defined. A retrospective, matched, case-control study of HSCT recipients with rhinovirus was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Controls were matched for timing relative to transplant, malignancy, and stem cell source. There were 47 cases and 94 controls. The cases and controls did not differ with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, donor source, malignancy, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis or significant comorbidities. There were no differences in need for intensive care unit care, 100 day mortality, hospice discharge, relapse of disease, GVHD or development of disease or infection due to CMV or EBV. Other infectious complications after rhinovirus diagnosis were also equal. However, there was an increased number of recurrent hospitalizations from any cause among the cases (46.8% vs 24.5%, P=0.007). Recurrent hospitalizations due to any infection were also more common in cases (34% vs 14.9%, P=0.015). For patients who were diagnosed with rhinovirus pre-transplant (n=13), there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. HSCT recipients with rhinovirus have an increased risk of hospital readmission. However, there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. Transplantation in patients with active rhinovirus infection appears to be safe.

  8. Outlining a Population "at Risk" of Parkinson's Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Martella, Giuseppina; D'Elia, Alessio; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; Imbriani, Paola; Madeo, Graziella; Monaco, Leonardo; Maltese, Marta; Pisani, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations "at risk" of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population "at risk" of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A sample of 65 patients and 65 controls also underwent serum dosing of iron, copper, mercury, and manganese by means of Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Positive family history, toxicants exposure, non-current-smoker, and alcohol nonconsumer status occurred as significant risk factors in our population. The number of concurring risk factors overlapping in the same subject impressively increased the overall risk. No significant differences were measured in the metal serum levels. Our findings indicate that combination of three to four concurrent PD-risk factors defines a condition "at risk" of PD. A simple stratification, based on these questionnaires, might be of help in identifying subjects suitable for neuroprotective strategies.

  9. Association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and pregnancy (case control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Verónica A; Espinosa, Irene A; Montiel, Alvaro J

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a combination of multifactoral etiological muscular-skeletal symptoms. Prevalence is greater in women, where sexual hormones are important in pathogenesis, and its behavior at different stages of the reproductive life of women has never been fully documented. The general objective was to determine the association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted on 66 pregnant patients who met with a medical specialist and 66 non-pregnant women paired by age, who visited the General Regional Hospital 36 of Mexico's Social Security Institute (IMSS). These patients were examined for the Temporomandibular (TMD) research project to establish the prevalence of TMD in both groups. Descriptive variables were calculated through him SPSS 17 program and the association between groups with Xi Square and Ratio Possibilities (OR), The average age was 28.23 +/- 5.9 years in both groups, with median gestation 32.97 weeks. Most of the participants had a domestic partner. The prevalence of TDM in the non-pregnant group was 45.5% and only 15.2% in the pregnant group (chi2 = 14.34, p disorders.

  10. Lung cancer and occupation in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002-2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence.

  11. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  12. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic campylobacter infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, J.; Engberg, J.; Molbak, K.;

    2003-01-01

    A case control study comprising 282 cases and 319 matched controls was conducted in Denmark during 1996-7. Two estimates of the odds ratio (OR) were determined for each risk factor with and without 'protective factors' fitted into the final model. Consumption of undercooked poultry (OR 4(.)5; 8......(.)2), consumption of red meat at a barbecue (OR 2(.)3; 4(.)1), consumption of grapes (OR 1(.)6; 2(.)8) and drinking unpasteurized milk (OR 2(.)3; 11(.)8) were identified as risk factors in both models. Frequent consumption of pork chops (OR 4(.)4) and daily contact with domestic animals and pets were identified...... as risk factors in one of the two models only. Finally, foreign travel was found to be a significant risk factor (OR 2(.)5). Seasonal and regional interaction was observed for several risk factors and the time elapsed from interviewing of cases to interviewing of controls seemed to influence the effect...

  14. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuepersonalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation.

  15. Mode of Delivery in Drug-Dependent Pregnant Women: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana Raquel; Neves, Fabiane; Santos Silva, Isabel; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Monteiro, Pitorra

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the contribution of drug use during pregnancy to the route of delivery. Methods. A case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal, between 2001 and 2014. Drug-dependent pregnant women (n = 236) were compared with a control group of low risk women (n = 228) in terms of maternal characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy complications, and labor details. Factors that influenced the mode of delivery were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v. 23.0 (IBM Corp.). p values Drug-dependent women presented a lower rate of cesarean delivery (18.2 versus 28.9%, p = 0.006). After adjusting for the factors that were significantly related to the mode of delivery, drug dependency influenced the rate of cesarean section (β = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.328-0.980). Within the drug-dependent group, the mode of delivery was significantly related to previous cesarean or vaginal delivery (p = 0.008 and p drug, route of administration, or substitution maintenance therapy. Conclusions. The drug-dependent group presented a significantly higher rate of vaginal delivery. However, this was not associated with the behavioral factors analyzed. We hypothesize that other social and psychological factors might explain this difference.

  16. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT. A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01. The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01. A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056. The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT, and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO.

  17. Benfluorex and unexplained valvular heart disease: a case-control study.

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    Irène Frachon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent case reports suggest that benfluorex, a fenfluramine derivative used in the management of overweight diabetic patients and dyslipidemia, is associated with cardiac valve regurgitation. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Eligible patients were those admitted in the cardiology or the cardiac surgery units of our hospital between January, 1(st 2003 and June 30(th 2009, with mitral insufficiency diagnostic codes (ICD-10 I340 and I051. Patients with either a primary cause (degenerative, known rheumatic heart disease, infectious endocarditis, congenital, radiation-induced valvular disease, associated connective and/or vasculitis disease, trauma, tumor or a secondary (functional cause were considered as having an "explained" mitral regurgitation. Other patients were considered as having an "unexplained" mitral regurgitation and were included as cases. For each case, two controls were matched for gender and for the closest date of birth, among a list of patients with an "explained" mitral regurgitation. Drug exposures were assessed blindly regarding the case or control status, through contacts with patients, their family and/or their physicians. RESULTS: Out of the 682 eligible patients, 27 cases and 54 matched controls were identified. The use of benfluorex was reported in 22 patients: 19 of the 27 cases, versus 3 of the 54 controls, odds-ratio 17.1 (3.5 to 83, adjusted for body mass index, diabetes and dexfenfluramine use. CONCLUSION: The use of benfluorex is associated with unexplained mitral regurgitation.

  18. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

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    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  19. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Kruse, Torben A; Christensen, Kaare

    2008-10-15

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper, the authors use the current Danish life tables to simulate individual life span by using a variety of scenarios and assess the empirical power for different sample sizes when cases are defined as centenarians or as nonagenarians. Results show that, although using small samples of centenarians (several hundred) provides power to detect only common alleles with large effects (a >20% reduction in hazard rate), large samples of centenarians (>1,000) achieve power to capture genes responsible for minor effects (5%-10% hazard reduction depending on the mode of inheritance). Although the method provides good power for rare alleles with multiplicative or dominant effects, it performs poorly for rare recessive alleles. Power is drastically reduced when nonagenarians are considered cases, with a more than 5-fold difference in the size of the case sample required to achieve comparable power as that found with centenarians.

  20. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  1. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Case Control Study

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    Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder in women of reproductive age. Psychosocial factors can play a role in PCOS. Methods: To determine the psychosocial factors associated with PCOS in a case control study, 742 PCOS cases were compared to 798 women without PCOS for psychiatric disorders and social conditions. The data were collected using a validated questionnaire of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire (DSM-IV was used to diagnose major psychopathological disorders and other depressive and anxiety syndromes. The suspected psychopathology was evaluated by a clinical psychiatrist. Results: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in education level (71.8% vs. 80.4%; (P<0.001, and employment status (60% vs. 53%; P=0.01 (respectively. Chronic anxiety (35.7% vs. 26.8%; P<0.001, depression (18.9% vs. 7.9 %; P<0.001, anxiety disorders (7.7% vs. 3.3%; P<0.001, and personality disorders (2.9% vs. 1.7%; P=0.01, were higher in the PCOS patients compared controls, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that chronic anxiety and depression were the most pscycologic pattern in PCO patients. Lower educational level and unemployment were higher in the cases than controls.

  2. The Serum Antioxidant Status in Chinese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome:a Case-Control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-rong LI; Kun XUE; Hong-wei GUO; Min WU; Ming LIU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and analyze the association between serum antioxidant status and MS components.MethodsA case-control study was conducted with 221 MS cases and 329 controls aged 18-70 years. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E,β-carotene and lycopene were examined.Results Mean serum SOD activity,β-carotene level were significantly lower, and MDA higher (P<0.05) in MS subjects than in controls after adjusting for age and gender. Serum SOD, GSH-Px andβ-carotene level were also decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased number of MS components.Conclusion Serum antioxidant status was negatively correlated with risks of MS and lower SOD activity andβ-carotene level appeared to be associated with more MS components. Serum oxidative status is useful in assessing the severity of MS.

  3. Analysis of Case-Control Association Studies: SNPs, Imputation and Haplotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-11-01

    Although prospective logistic regression is the standard method of analysis for case-control data, it has been recently noted that in genetic epidemiologic studies one can use the "retrospective" likelihood to gain major power by incorporating various population genetics model assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium (HWE), gene-gene and gene-environment independence. In this article we review these modern methods and contrast them with the more classical approaches through two types of applications (i) association tests for typed and untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (ii) estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in the presence of haplotype-phase ambiguity. We provide novel insights to existing methods by construction of various score-tests and pseudo-likelihoods. In addition, we describe a novel two-stage method for analysis of untyped SNPs that can use any flexible external algorithm for genotype imputation followed by a powerful association test based on the retrospective likelihood. We illustrate applications of the methods using simulated and real data. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2009.

  4. Risk factors associated with nephrolithiasis: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Dai, Meng; Chen, Yu Juan; Chang, Hong En; Liu, Ai Ping; Wang, Pei Yu

    2015-03-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. The authors conducted a case-control study in China to explore its associated risk factors. A total of 725 nephrolithiasis patients and 553 controls were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked for information about psychological, behavioral, and dietary factors along with a physical and blood biochemical examination. For men, higher education was negatively associated with nephrolithiasis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4-1.0), whereas hypso-waist-to-hip ratio (hypso-WHR), defined as WHRs >0.9 for men and >0.8 for women (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.4); overexercise (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.5); and having experienced negative life events (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-4.1) were positively associated with nephrolithiasis. For women, higher fluid intake was negatively associated with nephrolithiasis (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9), and abnormal status of blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids was positively associated with nephrolithiasis. Varied factors were related to differences in nephrolithiasis occurrence between genders. Besides taking enough fluids, maintaining a normal metabolic status, avoiding overexercise, and reducing BP might be beneficial in preventing nephrolithiasis.

  5. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.

  6. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  7. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  8. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  9. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  10. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  11. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers. PMID:28374757

  12. Association between chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rosamma; Rajappan, Sreeraj; Nath, Sameera G; Paul, Binoy J

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities. A lot of similarities exist between RA and periodontitis at cellular and molecular levels. The relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is still unclear. This case-control study was undertaken to determine the possible association between chronic inflammatory diseases like RA and periodontitis. The case group consisted of 100 patients attending the Rheumatology clinic who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA group). Age- and gender-matched 112 patients without RA attending the Outpatient wing of Department of General Medicine formed the control group (NRA group). The number of missing teeth, gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were evaluated in both the groups. Rheumatoid disease activity was assessed by DAS-28 score system. Systemic markers of inflammation like erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in GI, OHI-S, PPD, CAL, ESR and CRP levels between cases (RA group) and controls (NRA group) (P < 0.05). Among subjects with RA, there was no association between the rheumatoid disease activity and the severity of periodontal disease. The occurrence and severity of periodontitis was found to be higher in RA subjects as compared to subjects without RA, suggesting a positive relation between these two chronic inflammatory diseases.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  14. A case-control study of wood dust exposure, mutagen sensitivity, and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Delclos, G L; Annegers, J F; Bondy, M L; Honn, S E; Henry, B; Hsu, T C; Spitz, M R

    1995-09-01

    The associations between lung cancer risk, mutagen sensitivity (a marker of cancer susceptibility), and a putative lung carcinogen, wood dust, were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study. There were 113 African -American and 67 Mexican-American cases with newly diagnosed, previously untreated lung cancer and 270 controls, frequency-matched on age, ethnicity, and sex. Mutagen sensitivity ( 1 chromatid break/cell after short-term bleomycin treatment) was associated with statistically significant elevated risk for lung cancer [odds ration (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 2.3-7.9]. Wood dust exposure was also a significant predictor of risk (overall OR = 3.5; CI = 1.4-8.6) after controlling for smoking and mutagen sensitivity. When stratified by ethnicity, wood dust exposure was s significant risk factor for African-Americans (OR = 5.5; CI = 1.6-18.9) but not for Mexican-Americans (OR = 2.0; CI = 0.5-8.1). The ORs were 3.8 and 4.8 for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican-Americans (CI = 1.2-18.5). Stratified analysis suggested evidence of strong interactions between wood dust exposure and both mutagen sensitivity and smoking in lung cancer risk.

  15. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism:A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; XI Qian Qian; WU Jun; HAN Yu; DAI Wei; SU Yuan Yuan; ZHANG Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. Results There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ2=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ2=45.248, P=0.000; χ2=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ2=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. Conclusion The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors.

  16. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

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    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  17. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

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    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  18. Facility Delivery, Postnatal Care and Neonatal Deaths in India: Nationally-Representative Case-Control Studies.

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    Shaza A Fadel

    Full Text Available Clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of interventions to reduce neonatal deaths, but there are fewer studies of their real-life effectiveness. In India, women often seek facility delivery after complications arise, rather than to avoid complications. Our objective was to quantify the association of facility delivery and postnatal checkups with neonatal mortality while examining the "reverse causality" in which the mothers deliver at a health facility due to adverse perinatal events.We conducted nationally representative case-control studies of about 300,000 live births and 4,000 neonatal deaths to examine the effect of, place of delivery and postnatal checkup on neonatal mortality. We compared neonatal deaths to all live births and to a subset of live births reporting excessive bleeding or obstructed labour that were more comparable to cases in seeking care.In the larger study of 2004-8 births, facility delivery without postnatal checkup was associated with an increased odds of neonatal death (Odds ratio = 2.5; 99% CI 2.2-2.9, especially for early versus late neonatal deaths. However, use of more comparable controls showed marked attenuation (Odds ratio = 0.5; 0.4-0.5. Facility delivery with postnatal checkup was associated with reduced odds of neonatal death. Excess risks were attenuated in the earlier study of 2001-4 births.The combined effect of facility deliveries with postnatal checks ups is substantially higher than just facility delivery alone. Evaluation of the real-life effectiveness of interventions to reduce child and maternal deaths need to consider reverse causality. If these associations are causal, facility delivery with postnatal check up could avoid about 1/3 of all neonatal deaths in India (~100,000/year.

  19. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  20. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth d

  1. Use of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine related drugs and the risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Studies of the carcinogenic potential of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZRD) have been equivocal. A recent study reported a 35% excess cancer risk among users of hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. METHOD: Using Danish nationwide registers, we conducted a matched case-control study...

  2. Pet ownership and risk of asthma: a case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the treatment of bronchial asthma, the identification, isolation, and elimination of causative allergens is the most effective part of treatment. With the recent diversification within the pet industry, pet owner exposure to many unknown antigens is on the rise. The results of population studies have been contradictory and some epidemiological studies have failed to confirm this, some indicating that keeping pets might actually reduce the risk of sensitization and asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between pet ownership and asthma. Methods: This case-control study included 300 asthmatic participants referred to the Children's Medical Center over a two-year period. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding pet ownership, pet gender and puberty, the place it was kept, how long the pet was kept and the reason for keeping the pet. The same questions were asked from 300 age- and gender-matched nonasthmatic individuals as the control group. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR of asthma morbidity in individuals who kept pets. Results: The OR for asthma morbidity in patients who kept pets was 2.59 (CI=1.60-4.21 and p>0.001. Financial aim was the most common reason for keeping a pet and most pets were mature and kept outdoors. No significant correlations for pet genders were observed. Conclusion: This survey provides evidence that pet ownership is an important risk factor for asthma, therefore we suggest that individuals at risk for asthma (atopic individuals must avoid contact with pets. However, more research in this field in Iran is necessary.

  3. A microsurgical anterior cervical approach and the immediate impact of mechanical retractors: A case control study

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    Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A microsurgical anterior cervical approach with discectomy and fusion (MACDF is one of the most widely used procedures for treating radicular disorders. This approach is highly successful; however, it is not free from complications. These can be associated with soft tissue injuries. Aim of the Study: The recognition of the risks for these complications should be identified for timely prevention and safe treatment. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Retrospective case control study. This study includes a retrospective case series of 37 patients, paying special attention to immediate complications related to the use of mechanical retraction of soft tissue (dysphagia, dysphonia, esophageal lesions and local hematoma; and a comparative analysis of the outcomes after changes in the retraction method. Results: All selected cases had a positive neurological symptom response in relation to neuropathic pain. Dysphagia and dysphonia were found during the first 72 h in 94.1% of the cases in which automatic mechanical retraction was used for more than one hour during the surgical procedure. A radical change was noted in the reduction of the symptoms after the use of only manual protective blades without automatic mechanical retraction: 5.1% dysphagia and 0% dysphonia in the immediate post-operative period, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles.

  4. Metabolic disorders and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetto, Antonella; Taborelli, Martina; Bosetti, Cristina; Montella, Maurizio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Franchin, Gianni; Libra, Massimo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-07-29

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between metabolic disorders and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, considering different histological subtypes. Between 1992 and 2008, we carried out a multicentre case-control study in Italy. One-hundred and ninety-seven White patients with histologically confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled as cases. The control group included 592 cancer-free patients, frequency matched by study centre, area of residence, sex, age and period of interview. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), for nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to obesity and self-reported history of other metabolic disorders, were calculated through logistic regression models adjusted for matching variables and tobacco smoking and drinking habits. Obesity (OR=1.44; 95% CI: 0.88-2.36), diabetes mellitus (OR=0.91; 95% CI: 0.42-1.98), hypertension (OR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.48-1.32), hypercholesterolaemia (OR=1.41; 95% CI: 0.84-2.35) and metabolic syndrome (i.e. at least three among the four previously cited metabolic disorders; OR=1.11; 95% CI: 0.86-1.43) were not significantly associated with the overall risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the associations observed for diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia and metabolic syndrome were stronger among differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas than among undifferentiated ones. In particular, 21.7% of differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases and 7.8% of controls reported a history of metabolic syndrome (OR=3.37; 95% CI: 1.05-10.81). The results of the study indicated no overall association between metabolic disorders and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Nonetheless, although the small sample size calls for caution in interpretation, metabolic disorders could increase the risk of differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This finding further supports a different aetiology of the two histological subtypes.

  5. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

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    Wagner Brant Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia and Centro de Quimioterapia Antiblástica e Imunoterapia in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 87 PABC and 252 control patients. The influence of covariables (interval between first symptoms and diagnosis, tumor histology, size of primary tumor, distant metastasis, grade of malignancy, hormone receptor status and axillary lymph node involvement and the pregnancy variable on overall survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival for PABC patients of 30.1 months (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.4-40.9 months was significantly different (P = 0.005 from that of the control group (53.1 months; 95% CI: 35.1-71.0 months. The cumulative overall survivals after five and ten years were, respectively, 29.7 and 19.2% for PABC patients, and 47.3 and 34.8% for control patients (P = 0.005. Tumor size, grade of malignancy, distant metastasis and pregnancy were independent factors that significantly modified disease prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy was an independent prognostic factor. The overall survival of PABC patients was shorter than that of non-pregnant patients.

  6. Diazepam use in relation to breast cancer: results from two case-control studies.

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    Kaufman, D W; Werler, M M; Palmer, J R; Rosenberg, L; Stolley, P D; Warshauer, M E; Clarke, E A; Miller, D R; Shapiro, S

    1990-03-01

    The relation between diazepam use and breast cancer was explored in two case-control studies. The first (1981-1987) was a hospital-based study in the United States of 3,078 cases of breast cancer, 1,259 controls with other malignancies, and 672 controls with nonmalignant conditions. The relative risk estimates for regular diazepam use (at least 4 days per week for at least 6 months) that antedated the diagnosis of breast cancer by at least 12 months were 1.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.7) using the cancer controls and 0.8 (95% CI 0.4-1.8) using the noncancer controls. Risk factors for breast cancer were taken into account in the estimates. There was no association for regular use lasting at least 5 years or for regular use that took place exclusively in the recent or more distant past. The second study (1982-1986), conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, was community-based, and included 607 cases of breast cancer and 1,214 neighbor controls selected from municipal voting and census records. After control of confounding, the relative risk estimate for regular diazepam use was 0.8 (95% CI 0.5-1.3). Again, there was no association for long-term, past, or recent regular use. The results of both studies suggest that regular diazepam use does not increase the risk of breast cancer. The findings are strengthened by the similarity of the results using three different control groups--women with cancer, women with nonmalignant conditions, and neighbors.

  7. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

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    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients.

  8. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in northeast China.

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    Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; Xu, T; Lin, Q; Wang, C; Zhao, F; Wang, G; Chen, Y; Yang, Y

    1997-06-11

    A case-control study involving interviews with 227 lung-cancer cases and 227 matched hospital controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China to examine the influence of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer. Lung-cancer cases were all incident cases judged to be suitable candidates for tumor removal by surgery. Controls were selected among hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic and non-lung disease. The overall male lung-cancer risks associated with cigarette smoking were similar to those reported in other Chinese studies but quite low compared to risks in Western countries. However, the subjects in this study were relatively young (average age 53.2), had started to smoke on average at a relatively old age (21.3 years), and only smoked an average of 18.7 cigarettes per day. Lung-cancer risk was not strongly associated with any of the nutrients examined, when all cases were compared to all controls. However, the data were suggestive of differences in the relationship of diet to risk among smokers and non-smokers. Cautious interpretation is required because of the wide confidence intervals due to limited sample size. Among the smokers, only higher beta-carotene was associated with estimates suggesting a lowered risk. Among non-smokers, the evidence suggested that increased vegetable consumption might reduce risk, consumption of any fruit might reduce risk but beta-carotene was unrelated to risk. The differences observed in the relationship of diet to lung-cancer risk between Chinese smokers and non-smokers warrant further study.

  9. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

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    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  10. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

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    Pessah Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

  12. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

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    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  13. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

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    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  14. The association between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis: A case-control study

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    Englund Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been reports both supporting and refuting an inverse relationship between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis (OA. We explore this relationship using a case-control study design. Methods Exclusion criteria were previous hip fracture (same side or contralateral side, age younger than 60 years, foreign nationality, pathological fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and cases were radiographic examinations were not found in the archives. We studied all subjects with hip fracture that remained after the exclusion process that were treated at Akureyri University Hospital, Iceland 1990-2008, n = 562 (74% women. Hip fracture cases were compared with a cohort of subjects with colon radiographs, n = 803 (54% women to determine expected population prevalence of hip OA. Presence of radiographic hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph, or Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or higher. Possible causes of secondary osteoporosis were identified by review of medical records. Results The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR for subjects with hip fracture having radiographic hip OA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.12-0.74 for men and 0.33 (95% CI 0.19-0.58 for women, compared to controls. The probability for subjects with hip fracture and hip OA having a secondary cause of osteoporosis was three times higher than for subjects with hip fracture without hip OA. Conclusion The results of our study support an inverse relationship between hip fractures and hip OA.

  15. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

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    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk. Future retrospective cohort studies by using existing biological and epidemiological databases may provide a clue to MS etiology.

  16. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

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    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  17. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

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    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children.

  18. Reproductive factors and oesophageal cancer in Chinese women: a case-control study

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    Zhang Xia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies showed that sex hormone might play a role in the development of oesophageal cancer in Western countries. However, evidence from Chinese populations is still lacking. Methods We performed a hospital-based case-control study in Guangzhou, China. From June 2006 to May 2009, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 73 cases and 157 controls. Cases were Chinese females with newly diagnosed primary oesophageal cancer. Controls were hospitalized individuals without cancer and frequency matched by age groups. The interviews included questions about childbearing and menarche history, together with potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of factors. Results Women who had given birth before were not at increased risk compared to childless women (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.48 ~ 2.85. The risk of oesophageal cancer increased with age at first birth: the adjusted OR for women first giving birth at age 25 or later was 2.02 (95% CI: 1.01 ~ 4.04 compared with those reporting their first birth before age 22. History of spontaneous abortion was not significantly associated with increased risk (adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.49 ~ 3.83. No significant association was observed between menstrual variables (age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation and risk of oesophageal cancer. Conclusions Giving birth at later age may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer in women. Further studies in Chinese populations with larger sample sizes are still needed.

  19. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients: a case-control study

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    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Kassahun, Wondwosen; Alemseged, Fessahaye

    2017-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. Methods A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS windows version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to generate summary values for the variables and those significant variables in the bivariate analysis at p-value less than 0.25 were entered to multivariable logistic regression to identify independent determinants. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than or equal to 0.05. Results A total of 90 cases and 90 controls were included in the study. Age of respondents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6–24.5), living in a household with only one room (AOR=5; 95%CI: 1.68–15.38), history of previous treatment (AOR=21; 95% CI: 17.8–28) and being HIV infected (AOR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.02–9.4) were found to be independent predictors of MDR-TB. Conclusion In light of these findings, the strategies in controlling MDR-TB should emphasize on patients with HIV coinfection, young patients, those who have a history of previous treatment, and those living in crowded places. PMID:28331350

  20. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

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    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case-control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking atorvastatin.

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  2. Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Sepehr; Salahi, Mona; Mohseni, Mona; Ahmadi, Hamed; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Jahani, Yunes; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    The association between diet and prostate cancer (PC) risk, although suggestive, still remains largely elusive particularly in the Asian population. This study sought to further evaluate the possible effects of different dietary factors on risk of PC in Iran. Using data from a prospective hospital-based multicenter case-control study, dietary intakes of red meat, fat, garlic, and tomato/tomato products, as well as thorough demographic and medical characteristics, were determined in 194 cases with the newly diagnosed, clinicopathologically confirmed PC and 317 controls, without any malignant disease, admitted to the same network of hospitals. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained after adjustment for major potential confounders, including age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, occupation, family history of PC, and total dietary calories. Comparing the highest with the lowest tertile, a significant trend of increasing risk with more frequent consumption was found for dietary fat (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.71-4.51), whereas inverse association was observed for tomato/tomato products (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.16-0.65). A nonsignificant increase in PC risk was revealed for dietary red meat (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 0.93-3.06). For garlic consumption, a borderline reduction in risk was observed (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.32-1.01; P = 0.05). In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that total fat may increase PC risk and tomatoes/tomato products and garlic may protect patients against PC.

  3. Breast cancer risk and drinking water contaminated by wastewater: a case control study

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    Swartz Christopher H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has a history of wastewater contamination in many, but not all, of its public water supplies; and the region has a history of higher breast cancer incidence that is unexplained by the population's age, in-migration, mammography use, or established breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Methods Participants were 824 Cape Cod women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988–1995 and 745 controls who lived in homes served by public drinking water supplies and never lived in a home served by a Cape Cod private well. We assessed each woman's exposure yearly since 1972 at each of her Cape Cod addresses, using nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N levels measured in public wells and pumping volumes for the wells. Nitrate-N is an established wastewater indicator in the region. As an alternative drinking water quality indicator, we calculated the fraction of recharge zones in residential, commercial, and pesticide land use areas. Results After controlling for established breast cancer risk factors, mammography, and length of residence on Cape Cod, results showed no consistent association between breast cancer and average annual nitrate-N (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.6 – 5.0 for ≥ 1.2 vs. Conclusion Results did not provide evidence of an association between breast cancer and drinking water contaminated by wastewater. The computer mapping methods used in this study to link routine measurements required by the Safe Drinking Water Act with interview data can enhance individual-level epidemiologic studies of multiple health

  4. Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

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    Kawamura Nobutoshi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some epidemiologic studies found inverse associations between alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease (PD, the majority of studies found no such significant associations. Additionally, there is only limited research into the possible interactions of alcohol intake with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 activity with respect to PD risk. We examined the relationship between alcohol intake and PD among Japanese subjects using data from a case-control study. Methods From 214 cases within 6 years of PD onset and 327 controls without neurodegenerative disease, we collected information on "peak", as opposed to average, alcohol drinking frequency and peak drinking amounts during a subject's lifetime. Alcohol flushing status was evaluated via questions, as a means of detecting inactive ALHD2. The multivariate model included adjustments for sex, age, region of residence, smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of selected medication histories, and several dietary factors. Results Alcohol intake during peak drinking periods, regardless of frequency or amount, was not associated with PD. However, when we assessed daily ethanol intake separately for each type of alcohol, only Japanese sake (rice wine was significantly associated with PD (adjusted odds ratio of ≥66.0 g ethanol per day: 3.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-11.0, P for trend = 0.001. There was no significant interaction of alcohol intake with flushing status in relation to PD risk. Conclusions We did not find significant associations between alcohol intake and PD, except for the daily amount of Japanese sake. Effect modifications by alcohol flushing status were not observed.

  5. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

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    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  6. Association of CD40 with rheumatoid arthritis confirmed in a large UK case-control study

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    Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Ke, Xiayi; Wilson, Anthony G; Bax, Deborah E; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective A recent meta-analysis of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent reported novel associations of markers mapping to the CD40, CCL21 and CDK6 genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility while a large-scale, case-control association study in a Japanese population identified association with multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD244 gene. The aim of the current study was to validate these potential RA susceptibility markers in a UK population. Methods A total of 4 SNPs (rs4810485 in CD40, rs2812378 in CCL21, rs42041 in CDK6 and rs6682654 in CD244) were genotyped in a UK cohort comprising 3962 UK patients with RA and 3531 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. Genotype counts in patients and controls were analysed with the χ2 test using Stata. Results Association to the CD40 gene was robustly replicated (p=2×10−4, OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.93) and modest evidence was found for association with the CCL21 locus (p=0.04, OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16). However, there was no evidence for association of rs42041 (CDK6) and rs6682654 (CD244) with RA susceptibility in this UK population. Following a meta-analysis including the original data, association to CD40 was confirmed (p=7.8×10−8, OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.92). Conclusion In this large UK cohort, strong association of the CD40 gene with susceptibility to RA was found, and weaker evidence for association with RA in the CCL21 locus. PMID:19435719

  7. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

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    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

  8. Risk factors for invasive Cryptococcus neoformans diseases: a case-control study.

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    Ying-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental fungus that can cause life-threatening meningitis and fungemia, often in the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, or other medical conditions. To distinguish risk factors from comorbidities, we performed a hospital-based, density-sampled, matched case-control study.All new-onset cryptococcal meningitis cases and cryptococcemia cases at a university hospital in Taiwan from 2002-2010 were retrospectively identified from the computerized inpatient registry and were included in this study. Controls were selected from those hospitalized patients not experiencing cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Controls and cases were matched by admission date, age, and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors.A total of 101 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (266 controls and 47 patients with cryptococcemia (188 controls, of whom 32 patients had both cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcemia, were included in this study. Multivariate regression analysis showed that AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 181.4; p < 0.001, decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR = 8.5; p = 0.008, and cell-mediated immunity (CMI-suppressive regimens without calcineurin inhibitors (CAs (aOR = 15.9; p < 0.001 were independent risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis. Moreover, AIDS (aOR = 216.3, p < 0.001, decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR = 23.8; p < 0.001, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs (aOR = 7.3; p = 0.034, and autoimmune diseases (aOR = 9.3; p = 0.038 were independent risk factors for developing cryptococcemia. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus and other medical conditions were not found to be risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia.The findings confirm AIDS, decompensated liver cirrhosis, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for invasive C. neoformans diseases.

  9. Superficial Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Case-Control Study

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    Berna Ülgen Altay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Dermatophytes, yeasts and some moulds settle on the skin and mucosal surfaces in immunocompetent individuals as commensals. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV-positive patients, organ transplant recipients and the patients with malignancies are predisposed to develop superficial fungal infections. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical and mycological features of superficial fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies in this case-control study.Material and Method: Eighty patients with hematologic malignancies (49 men, 31 women and 50 healthy individuals (22 men, 28 women randomly selected at our clinical department as controls were included to this study between 2003 and 2004. The mean age was 52±1.85 years in patients and 41.56±2.04 years in controls. All patients were inspected for superficial fungal infections. Skin scrapings and mucosal swabs were obtained from the toe web, inguinal region, any suspicious lesion and oral mucosa. Nail samples were also collected. All samples were examined by direct microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA. The yeasts were established in germ-tube production. Results: Fifty-six (70% of 80 patients with hematologic malignancies had fungal colonization, whereas 21 (42% of 50 controls had. For both groups, oral mucosa was the predominant area that fungus was mostly isolated from. A rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds (26% was observed. Candida albicans was the predominant agent isolated from the culture.Conclusion: The prevalence of superficial fungal infection was higher in patients with hematologic malignancies (being immunosuppressed than in the normal population. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated agent that was found in our study. We observed oral mucosa candidal infection mostly. The rising number of non-dermatophyte moulds is attributed to long-term use of antibiotics, cytotoxic chemotherapies and antifungals.

  10. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer - a matched case control study.

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    Madaras, Lilla; Kovács, Kristóf Attila; Szász, Attila Marcell; Kenessey, István; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Székely, Borbála; Baranyák, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Orsolya; Dank, Magdolna; Kulka, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) manifests during pregnancy or within a year following delivery. We sought to investigate differences in management, outcome, clinical, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) characteristics of PABC and matched controls in a retrospective case control study. PABC and control patients were selected from breast cancer cases of women ≤45 years, diagnosed in the 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary between 1998 and 2012. Histopathology information on tumor type, grade, size, T, N, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), associated in situ lesions and IHC charcteristics: ER, PgR, HER2, Ki67, p53 were recorded, IHC-based subtype was assessed, clinical, management and outcome data were analysed. Thirty-one breast cancer cases were pregnancy related. Clinical management data did not differ in cases and controls. Histopathology of disease at presentation was not significantly different, but NPI assessed the PABC group as having poor, whereas controls as having intermediate prognosis. Associated in situ lesion was more often high grade Extensive Intraductal Carcinoma Component (EIC) in PABC. Triple negative and LuminalB prol tumors predominated in PABC. Disease-free and overall survival was inferior compared to controls. PABC patients with LuminalB prol and Triple negative tumors had inferior outcomes. On multivariate analysis inferior prognosis of PABC was associated with pregnancy. Our study has demonstrated inferior outcome of PABC. Difference in tumor biology is reflected by the predominance of triple negative and LuminalB tumors in PABC. The strength of the study is the analysis of complete pathology and IHC data.

  11. Evaluation of cariogenic potential of dry powder inhalers: A case-control study

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    Navneet Godara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs are commonly employed in the management of asthma and other diseases with airway obstruction. A causal relationship of DPI use and occurrence of dental caries has been speculated. The present case-control study was therefore designed to examine the potential link between dental caries and specific use of dry powder inhalers in patients with bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 asthmatic patients aged between 10 and 45 years who were using DPIs for at least one year. The control group (n = 100 was selected from non-asthmatic individuals and were matched with the study group with respect to age, gender, and socio-economic status. Results: The results revealed that asthmatic subjects exhibited higher occurrence of dental caries in comparison to control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT indices scores in asthmatic and control group were found to be 1.71 ± 2.34 SD and 1.46 ± 1.89 SD (P = 0.408, respectively. Likewise, the mean decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS indices scores in both the groups were 2.41 ± 3.84 SD and 2.34 ± 4.48 SD (P = 0.90. However, increased frequency of DPI use was associated with significant risk of caries (P = 0.01. It has been observed that oral rinsing after an inhaler use limited the occurrence of dental caries to a certain extent although was non significant. Conclusions: Dry powder inhaler use in patients with bronchial asthma was not associated with significant risk of dental caries.

  12. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

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    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  13. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

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    Mady Hornig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of