WorldWideScience

Sample records for case-control studies

  1. Case-Control Study of Writer's Cramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, E.; Soumare, A.; Pironneau, I.; Sangla, S.; de Cock, V. Cochen; Teixeira, A.; Astorquiza, A.; Bonnet, C.; Bleton, J. P.; Vidailhet, M.; Elbaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonias are thought to be due to a combination of individual vulnerability and environmental factors. There are no case-control studies of risk factors for writer's cramp. We undertook a case-control study of 104 consecutive patients and matched controls to identify risk factors for the condition. We collected detailed data…

  2. Case-control studies in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvick, Cody L; Thompson, Clinton J; Boop, Frederick A; Klimo, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Observational studies, such as cohort and case-control studies, are valuable instruments in evidence-based medicine. Case-control studies, in particular, are becoming increasingly popular in the neurosurgical literature due to their low cost and relative ease of execution; however, no one has yet systematically assessed these types of studies for quality in methodology and reporting. The authors performed a literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE to identify all studies that explicitly identified themselves as "case-control" and were published in the JNS Publishing Group journals (Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, and Neurosurgical Focus) or Neurosurgery. Each paper was evaluated for 22 descriptive variables and then categorized as having either met or missed the basic definition of a case-control study. All studies that evaluated risk factors for a well-defined outcome were considered true case-control studies. The authors sought to identify key features or phrases that were or were not predictive of a true case-control study. Those papers that satisfied the definition were further evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. The search detected 67 papers that met the inclusion criteria, of which 32 (48%) represented true case-control studies. The frequency of true case-control studies has not changed with time. Use of odds ratios (ORs) and logistic regression (LR) analysis were strong positive predictors of true case-control studies (for odds ratios, OR 15.33 and 95% CI 4.52-51.97; for logistic regression analysis, OR 8.77 and 95% CI 2.69-28.56). Conversely, negative predictors included focus on a procedure/intervention (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.998) and use of the word "outcome" in the Results section (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.082-0.65). After exclusion of nested case-control studies, the negative correlation between focus on a procedure

  3. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen......Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions....

  4. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemann, Boris; Lavolé, Armelle; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Nunes, Hilario; Benzakin, Sylvain; Lefevre, Marine; Kambouchner, Marianne; Périé, Sophie; Valeyre, Dominique; Cadranel, Jacques

    2014-10-20

    We undertook a study on a series of laryngeal sarcoidosis (LS), a very rare and often threatening localization to better specify laryngeal manifestations, sarcoidosis clinical expression and long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective case-control study. All LS patients from two French centers were included and compared to sarcoidosis patients without laryngeal localization with two controls for one patient. Twelve consecutive LS patients were recruited between 1993 and 2011. LS revealed sarcoidosis in eight cases (67%). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (77%), inspiratory dyspnea (38%) and dysphagia (38%). Epidemiological characterisics were not different. Extrapulmonary localizations were significantly more common in LS patients than in controls (92% vs. 54%, p=0.02), particularly lupus pernio (25% vs. 0%, p=0.03) and nasosinusal involvement (83% vs. 4%, p<0.01) while thoracic involvement was less frequent (58% vs 100%, p < 0.01). Treatment rates were higher in the LS group (92% vs. 58%, p=0.04), and treatment duration was longer (median: 81 vs. 13 months, p=0.04), with frequent long-term treatment (67%, N=8/12). Two patients underwent surgery. One patient needed temporary tracheostomy during the course of the disease; Remission rates were lower in LS patients (9% vs. 58% at 2 years p<0.01). Eventually, there was no death nor definitive tracheotomy. LS is a rare condition that is often associated to other loco-regional localizations. LS are often difficult to manage. Survival is good but may require a medico-surgical approach.

  5. Dyslipidemia and Psoriasis: A Case Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. U.; Aqil, M.; Hussain, A.; Zahrani, T. A.; Hillis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design:Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology:Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-T and Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  6. Bridging case-control studies and randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendaal Frits R

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Randomized trials and observational studies, such as case-control studies, are often seen as opposing approaches. However, in many instances results obtained by different designs may complement each other. For instance, case-control studies on aetiology of disease may help to give the direction of future trials. In this commentary, the author discusses the purpose of randomization and observation, and under which conditions one design may be preferred to another. Randomization is useful to combat 'confounding by indication', and is therefore the design of choice for most therapeutic trials. When this confounding is not an issue, as in studies of genetic risk factors or side-effects, then case-control studies are preferred.

  7. Drug and alcohol crash risk : a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study used a case-control design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both. Data was collected in Virginia Beach, Virginia, for 20 months. The study obtained biological measures on more than 3,000 crash...

  8. Determinants of podoconiosis, a case control study | Feleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial swelling of lower extremity endemic in tropical regions, North America and India. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of Podoconiosis. Methods: Unmatched case control study design was ...

  9. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  10. Aetiology of handball injuries : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirx, M.; Bouter, L. M.; de Geus, G. H.

    This article presents the results of a case-control study regarding the background to handball injuries among players of 12 years and older. Data were collected by means of a written questionnaire on the nature, location and direct causes of the injuries as well as information on risk factors.

  11. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Kordi; Azra Vahed; Fariborz Rezaee Talab; Seyed Reza Mazloum; Marzieh Lotfalizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospita...

  12. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    ), or transferred (i.e. had unplanned changes in place of training/ward due to failure to thrive or due to inadequate development of competences), or dropped out (i.e. were dismissed from, had resigned from, or changed their speciality). Controls were a random sample of doctors in the source population, who were......Abstract summary The aim of this cummulative incidence case-control study was to examine: if struggling trainees in medical specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to non-struggling controls, and which performance indicators during medical school...... seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...

  13. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  14. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Garc?a, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; S?nchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; C?novas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomar?z-Pe?alver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; C?rceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Mart?nez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  15. Risk factors for gonorrhoea: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić, M; Vlajinac, H; Sipetić, S; Marinković, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define risk factors for gonococcal infection. METHODS: A case-control study comparing 200 gonorrhoea cases with 400 patients with non-gonococcal genitourinary infections and 400 patients with various skin diseases, all of them attending City Department for Skin and Venereal Diseases In Belgrade (Yugoslavia) from October 1993 to December 1994. RESULTS: According to multivariate logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to gonorrhoea in men: edu...

  16. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    not identified as cases in the case extraction period. We aimed at a case-control ratio of 1:4 and intend to match on graduation year. Ten different performance measures relating to medical school admission, first year performance and overall program performances will be examined, such as: pre-university exam...... in medical school, and program completion time. At the present we have identified 90 cases and 343 controls. We expect the study to be completed in the spring of 2014. To the best of our knowledge, nobody has examined this particular question before, though a few studies have examined the relationships...

  17. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  18. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kelly; Archambault, Elizabeth; Kelly, Brittany; Rudolph, James L

    2014-01-01

    When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR) was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]). After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201) was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years) and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit). Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.7). Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3-5.8). In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction.

  19. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  20. A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broe, G A; Henderson, A S; Creasey, H; McCusker, E; Korten, A E; Jorm, A F; Longley, W; Anthony, J C

    1990-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) on 170 cases aged 52 to 96 years, and 170 controls matched for age, sex and, where possible, the general practice of origin. Trained lay interviewers naive to the hypotheses and to the clinical status of the elderly person carried out risk-factor interviews with informants. Significant odds ratios were found for 4 variables: a history of either dementia, probable AD, or Down's syndrome in a 1st-degree relative, and underactivity as a behavioral trait in both the recent and more distant past. Previously reported or suggested associations not confirmed by this study include head injury, starvation, thyroid disease, analgesic abuse, antacid use (aluminum exposure), alcohol abuse, smoking, and being left-handed.

  1. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  2. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  3. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  4. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Prospective case-control study. Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. N/A. Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351.

  5. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  6. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  7. Hypothyroidism among SLE patients: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Gertel, Smadar; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothyroidism in SLE patients varies considerably and early reports were mainly based on small cohorts. To investigate the association between SLE and hypothyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of hypothyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age and sex-matched controls. The proportion of hypothyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (15.58% and 5.75%, respectively, Phypothyroidism (odds ratio 2.644, 95% confidence interval 2.405-2.908). Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of hypothyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  9. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

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    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  10. Case-control study of leukemia and diagnostic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Hidemichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    1997-01-01

    A case-control study of leukemia and diagnostic X-ray exposure was conducted by a multi-institution co-operative study group. The subjects were 134 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, 57 with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 56 with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 50 with myelodysplasia syndrome, who were between 15 and 79 years old, and diagnosed at one of 27 hospitals between September 1993 and August 1995. The controls were 479 first-visit patients seen at eight of these 27 hospitals. History of diagnostic X-ray tests between 1982 and 1991 was determined by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The total relative dose of radiation exposure was calculated by summing the products of given weights and frequencies of each test. The relative risk was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (C.I.), 0.58-1.19) for relative dose of 10-30 (equivalent to 4-11 times of UGI series), 0.76 (0.48-1.20) for relative dose of 30 or more (more than 12 times of UGI series), when compared with relative dose of 0-10 (0-3 times of UGI series). Analysis according to type of leukemia revealed that only acute myelogenous leukemia had an estimated relative risk above unity (1.08, 95%, C.I. 0.69-1.69, for relative dose 10-30). This study did not support the hypothesis that diagnostic X-ray tests increases leukemia risk. (author)

  11. Weighing the causal pies in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiologists are familiar with the concepts of Rothman's causal pies. Using real data the Hoffman study showed recently how to calculate the "proportion of diseased subjects who develop the disease due to classes of sufficient causes" (PDCs). The PDC is actually an attributable-fraction index. It may be specific to a particular risk factor profile but it does not correspond to any given class of causal pies. In this study, we show how to estimate the "causal-pie weights" (CPWs), so that each and every class of causal pies has one and only one CPW attached to it. To conform to Rothman's model, we apply a non-negative linear odds model to constrain all the odds ratios (ORs) to be equal to or greater than one, and the interactions between them to be additive or superadditive. Based on these constrained ORs, we calculate the population attributable fractions, and then the CPWs. We used a published case-control data to show the methodology. The CPWs succinctly quantify the relative importance of different classes of causal pies. The proposed method helps to clarify the multi-factorial and complex interactive effects in disease causation. It also provides important information for designing an efficient public health intervention strategy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Violence against women and gastroschisis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-10-17

    Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20-24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, 'green sheet' questionnaire on environmental exposures. Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional 'gender-related violence' (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  13. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  14. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  15. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

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    Masoumeh Kordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospitals of Mashhad in 2014. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg accompanied with urinary protein excretion more than 300 mg per 24 hours. The cutoff point for the presence of anxiety was the score of ≥8; the score of 8-9 was mild anxiety and the score of 20 was very severe anxiety. Data collection tools included the form of demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory signs of preeclampsia, and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS 21. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16 and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and logistic regressions model. P Results: We found significant relationship between anxiety and preeclampsia (P

  16. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

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    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  17. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

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    Susan Martins Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial, and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2 years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3 years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61% were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42, which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94. CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies.

  18. Case-control study of a gastroschisis cluster in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Leslie; Loomis, Dana; Lottritz, Lisa; Slotnick, Robert Nathan; Oki, Earle; Todd, Randall

    2009-11-01

    To identify potential risk factors associated with a sudden increase in gastroschisis cases in northern Nevada. Case-control study. Medical centers and a pregnancy care center in Reno, Nevada. Participants (n = 14) were women who gave birth to infants with gastroschisis at either of the 2 medical centers in Reno, Nevada, from April 5, 2007, through April 4, 2008. Controls (n = 57) were selected from the same pregnancy center providing perinatal care to the cases and were matched 4:1 to the case mothers by maternal date of birth within 1 year. Environmental exposures and illnesses during pregnancy. Association of gastroschisis with illnesses, medications, or environmental exposures. Gastroschisis was associated with the use of methamphetamine (odds ratio [OR], 7.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-37.99) or any vasoconstrictive recreational drug (methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy) (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.21-16.44) before pregnancy. When we limited self-reported illnesses to those occurring during the first trimester of pregnancy, chest colds (OR, 16.77; 95% CI, 1.88-150.27) and sore throats (OR, 12.72; 95% CI, 1.32-122.52) were associated with gastroschisis. These findings add strength to the hypothesis that use of methamphetamine and related drugs is a risk factor for gastroschisis and raise questions about the risks associated with infections.

  19. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  20. Inpatient pediatric consultation-liaison: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bryan D; Kronenberger, William G; Baker, Janet; Grimes, Laurie M; Crabtree, Valerie M; Smith, Courtney; McGraw, Kelly

    2003-09-01

    To conduct a prospective case-controlled study of pediatric inpatients referred for consultation in a tertiary care children's medical center. Referrals (n = 104) were matched with nonreferrals (n = 104) for age (4 to 18 years), gender, and illness type/severity and completed parent- and self-report (dependent on age) behavioral rating scales to assess for adjustment/functioning. Nurses completed in-hospital ratings of behavioral/adjustment difficulties. Goal attainment and satisfaction ratings were obtained from the referring physicians, parents/guardians, and the consultant. Referrals exhibited more behavior/adjustment/coping difficulties than nonreferrals by parent, nurse, and self report. Frequently employed interventions included coping-strategies intervention, cognitive and behavioral therapies, and case management. Referring physician and consultant ratings of goal attainment were high, as were physician ratings of satisfaction and parent/guardian ratings of overall helpfulness. Pediatric inpatients referred by their physicians had significantly more internalizing and externalizing disturbances than their nonreferred hospitalized peers. Many of the behavioral and adjustment problems that lead to in-hospital consultation referral were evident in global behavior difficulties prior to hospitalization. Referring pediatricians, parents/guardians, and consultants rate the outcome as benefiting the patients via assisting in the overall management of their health concerns, coping, and adjustment.

  1. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

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    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  2. Cooking with biomass stoves and tuberculosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Padilla, R; Pérez-Guzmán, C; Báez-Saldaña, R; Torres-Cruz, A

    2001-05-01

    To search for an association between tuberculosis and use of biomass stoves found recently in a cross sectional study. In a case-control study based in a chest referral hospital, the cases were 288 patients with active smear-positive or culture-positive tuberculosis, and the controls were 545 patients with ear nose and throat ailments with no evidence of chest disease studied at the same time as the cases. Exposure to present or previous biomass smoke by history of cooking with traditional wood stoves was assessed by positive or negative response. Exposure to biomass smoke was significantly higher in cases than in controls. Crude odds ratios for tuberculosis and biomass smoke exposure were 5.2 (95%CI 3.1-8.9) for current exposure, 3.4 (95%CI 2.4-5.0) for past or present exposure and 1.8 (95%CI 1.1-3.0) for past exposure. The association was observed only for patients living in Metropolitan Mexico City and urban or suburban areas in the center of Mexico providing most cases and controls. For rural areas, the power of the study was low and the origin of the patients heterogeneous. Odds ratio for Mexico City Metropolitan area and the center of Mexico was 2.4 (95%CI 1.04-5.6), adjusted for age, sex, level of education, crowding, smoking, socio-economic level, zone of residence and state of birth. In the same model smoking had an OR of 1.5 (95%CI 1.0-2.3) for tuberculosis. Our results support a causal role of current domestic biomass smoke exposure in tuberculosis.

  3. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  4. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

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    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  5. Sensory impairments and wrist fractures: A case-control study

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    Bergthora Baldursdottir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate vestibular function, foot sensation, postural control and functional abilities, and to evaluate whether these variables are associated with fall-related wrist fracture. Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 98 subjects, age range 50–75 years, who had sustained a fall-related wrist fracture. Forty-eight sex-, age- and physical activity-matched individuals, with no previous history of wrist fracture, served as controls. Measurements included: head-shake test (HST, tuning fork, biothesiometer, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (MF, Sensory Organization Test (SOT, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSTS, 10-m walk test (10MWT, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI scales. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations of variables with a fall-related wrist fracture. Results: Vestibular asymmetry was apparent in 82% of wrist fracture subjects and 63% of controls (p = 0.012. Plantar pressure sensation (p <0.001, SOT composite scores (p < 0.001, 10MWT (p <0.001, FTSTS (p <0.001, ABC (p <0.001 and DHI (p <0.005 were significantly poorer among cases than controls. A positive HST (odds ratio (OR 5.424; p = 0.008 and monofilament sensation (OR 3.886; p = 0.014 showed the strongest associations with having a fall-related wrist fracture. Conclusion: Asymmetrical vestibular function and reduced plantar pressure sensation are associated with fall-related wrist fractures among the ageing population. These factors are potential targets for future interventions.

  6. Androgens and hyperemesis gravidarum: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Ragnhild; Ravlo, Merethe; Carlsen, Sven M; Vanky, E Eszter

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is probably multifactorial, involving several hormones. Androgen concentrations are reported to correlate positively with emesis gravidarum. Hypothesizing a continuum between emesis gravidarum and HG, we investigated androgen concentrations in women with HG. In a case-control study, 32 women hospitalized for HG were compared with 29 control women scheduled for elective surgical abortion. Control women were matched for age, gestational length, body mass index (BMI) and parity. Patient characteristics and concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone index (FTI), androstanediol glucuronide (ADG), progesterone, TSH, free T3 and T4, beta-hCG, ferritin, insulin, estradiol and estriol were compared using Mann-Whitney tests and multivariate linear regression analyses. Women with HG had higher concentrations of ADG (8.49±4.19 vs. 6.19±1.77pmol/L; p=0.015), estradiol (2.39±1.36 vs. 1.60±9.30nmol/L; p=0.009) and ferritin (186±138 vs. 117±94pmol/L; p=0.040) compared with control women. Androstenedione (5.34±2.82 vs. 6.86±2.67; p=0.004) and insulin (63.7±35.0 vs. 75.3±25.8; p=0.050) concentrations were lower in women with HG. DHEAS, testosterone, FTI, SHBG, estriol, progesterone, beta-hCG, TSH, free T3 and free T4 concentrations did not differ between the groups. In multivariate regression analyses HG was associated with high concentrations of ADG (p=0.026) and low concentrations of androstenedione (p=0.018). Steroid hormone homeostasis may be altered in women with HG. HG may be associated with high ADG and low androstenedione concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality profile in essential tremor: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Louis, Elan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric findings described in essential tremor (ET) include depression and anxiety. There may be personality features as well; in 2004, we demonstrated higher harm avoidance (HA) scores in ET patients than controls. We now (1) determined whether this finding could be replicated in a new sample of cases and controls, and (2) analyzed HA sub-scores (HA1–HA4) to further understand case-control differences. Design/Methods 60 ET cases and 35 controls were evaluated using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), which assesses three domains of personality: HA, novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD). Results Total HA and total NS scores were marginally higher in cases than controls (14.8 ± 7.6 vs. 12.4 ± 5.3, p = 0.09) and (13.8 ± 5.4 vs. 11.8 ± 4.9, p = 0.09), respectively. When adjusted for age and gender, cases and controls differed with respect to total HA score (p = 0.03) but not total NS score (p = 0.10). Further analysis of HA subscores demonstrated that HA1 (anticipatory worry and pessimism) and HA4 (fatigability and asthenia) were most robustly elevated in cases vs. controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that ET cases have a personality profile characterized by a greater HA, with certain domains of HA most affected. It is unclear whether this personality profile is pre-morbid or is a co-morbid feature of the illness, nor it is known whether the greater tendency towards HA in ET lessens receptivity to deep brain stimulation surgery and other therapies. PMID:22703869

  8. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

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    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  9. The Misconception of Case-Control Studies in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Literature Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.

  10. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  11. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan Martins; Araújo, Gleide Santos de; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Oliveira, Maeli Gomes de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-12-22

    To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04-5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12-7.94). The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. Testar a associação entre diabetes e tuberculose. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle, pareado por idade e sexo. Foram incluídos 323 casos novos de tuberculose com resultados positivos à baciloscopia. Os controles foram 323 sintomáticos respiratórios com baciloscopia negativa, oriundos dos mesmos serviços de saúde dos casos: ambulatórios de três hospitais de referência e seis unidades básicas de saúde responsáveis pelas notificações dos casos novos de

  12. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence with special emphasis on case-control studies and nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Smith, S Jay; Stroup, Donna F; Steinberg, Karen K; Mueller, Patricia W; Thacker, Stephen B

    2002-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocyst(e)ine are thought to increase the risk of vascular diseases including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We searched MEDLINE (1966-1999), EMBASE (1974-1999), SciSearch (1974- 1999), and Dissertation Abstracts (1999) for articles and theses about homocyst(e)ine concentration and coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We included 57 publications (3 cohort studies, 12 nested case-control studies, 42 case-control studies) that reported results on 5518 people with coronary heart disease (11,068 control subjects) and 1817 people with cerebrovascular disease (4787 control subjects) in our analysis. For coronary heart disease, the summary odds ratios (OR) for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.06 (95% CI : 0.99-1.13) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.23 (95% CI : 1.07-1.41) for 10 publications of nested case-control studies, and 1.70 (95% CI : 1.50-1.93) for 26 publications of case-control studies. For cerebrovascular disease, the summary OR for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.10 (95% CI : 0.94-1.28) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.58 (95% CI : 1.35-1.85) for 5 publications of nested case-control studies, and 2.16 (95% CI : 1.65-2.82) for 17 publications of case-control studies. Prospective studies offer weaker support than case-control studies for an association between homocyst(e)ine concentration and cardiovascular disease. Although other lines of evidence support a role for homocyst(e)ine in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, more information from prospective epidemiological studies or clinical trials is needed to clarify this role.

  13. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Vilma Costa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-08-17

    To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. Determinar os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de assistência à sa

  14. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control

  15. Healthcare utilization by abused women: a case control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Bulte, E.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and increased health problems. Early detection of IPV by general practitioners (GPs) is required to prevent further harm and provide appropriate support. In general practice, a limited number of studies are

  16. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. R. Bailie, J Katzenellenbogen, M. Hoffman, G Schierhout, H Truter, D Dent, A Gudgeon, J van Zyl, L Rosenberg, S Shapiro ...

  17. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  18. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sorensen, Inge J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected...... randomly for each patient from the Danish Central Population Register. Information on malignancies was obtained through the Danish Cancer Registry. Occurrence of malignancies before WG diagnosis among patients and before WG diagnosis of their matched case among controls (reference date) was compared...

  19. A case control study of ophthalmia Neonatorum in Kaduna II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lated in this study was Staphylococcus aureus, both in cases. (69.7%) and in ... mitted disease agents in pregnant women.3 Incidence of 1 -. 24 per 100 live births .... Kanamycin (30ug) 78 70 33. Gentamicin (30ug) 77 62 67. Table 3 Percentage sensitivity of isolated bacteria from eyes of control babies. Staph. aureus E.coli.

  20. The Keith Edward scoring system: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Supriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The World health organization (WHO has accepted Keith Edward scoring system for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis (TB. In the present study, we evaluated this scoring system. Methods and Results: We included 53 children with confirmed TB involving different organs, admitted in NB Medical College, during two years period as cases; and 50 randomly selected, age, sex, and organ matched confirmed non-TB cases as controls. We noticed 15.1% false negative and 22% false positive results in our study, and the scoring system had 84.9% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 80.36% positive predictive value. Likelihood ratio positive (LR+ was 3.86, likelihood ratio negative (LR- was 0.19, and overall agreement was 81.55%. We observed that Keith Edward scoring system was less effective in children suffering from non-TB chronic diseases (false positive rate: 45.5%. We found no significant difference in nutritional status between study and control groups (P = 0.65. We noticed that more than 15-mm indurations for tuberculin test were specific for TB in children. Conclusion: We concluded that Keith Edward scoring system is good for public health purpose, but there is a scope for improvement, and further study is required for this purpose.

  1. Preeclampsia and depression: a case-control study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaghani, Roghieh; Geranmaye, Mehrnaz; Janani, Leila; Hantooshzade, Sedighe; Arbabi, Mohammad; Rahmani Bilandi, Roghieh; Bagheri, Fereshteh

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and depression. Participants in this study included 156 cases with preeclampsia and 156 controls without any history of preeclampsia who were all newly admitted to antepartum wards, emergency room wards, and labor and delivery wards of the study hospitals (Valieasr, Shariatti, Mirza Koochak Khan, Shahid Akbar Abadi, Baharloo and Arash). They consented and completed a questionnaire on demographic characteristics, obstetric, delivery and infant information and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess their depression status. Data were analyzed through independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and multiple regression by SPSS and STATA. Moderate to severe depression was found in 31.2% of the cases and 24.8% of the controls. Women with no depression in comparison with women with mild depression had a 1.81-fold (95% CI 1.05-3.14; P = 0.03) increased risk of preeclampsia, while moderate to severe depression correlated with a 2.52-fold increase (95% CI 1.05-6.02; P = 0.03) after adjustment of the probable confounding variables. With regard to the high prevalence of moderate to severe depression and its association with preeclampsia, our findings support and suggest efforts for screening depression among pregnant women and appropriate educational studies for mental and psychological problems during pregnancy.

  2. Case control study of episiotomy in the University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and identify the factors influencing the practice of episiotomy during delivery in the University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde. It is a retrospective review of all vaginal deliveries conducted in this hospital between January 2001 and December 2002 was undertaken to identify ...

  3. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  4. Dysregulated behaviors in bulimia nervosa: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara Freire Brito César; Martins, C.; Brandão, Isabel; Torres, António Roma; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is often related to self-control difficulties and to dysregulated behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of self-injurious behaviour, suicide attempts, and other dysregulated behaviours in BN, using two control groups (a healthy group and a general psychiatric group), and also to examine the association between these behaviours and alleged sexual abuse in BN.Method: Women (N = 233) aged between 13 and 38 years old were evaluated using a semi-st...

  5. Psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and disfiguring dermatological disorder with a significant effect on occupational, social, and other areas of functioning. Psychological stress has been known to have a significant role in the onset and exacerbation of this illness. To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis and the influence of specified demographic, psychological, social and illness-related variables. Methods: The study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a large urban setup. In this case–control study, 100 cases of psoriasis were studied in comparison with healthy controls who were matched for sociodemographic profile. The participants were given a sociodemographic questionnaire, clinical profile sheet, and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 was used to screen for psychological distress, and subsequently, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for screening for depression and anxiety and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scale for assessing the quality of life (QOL were administered. The results obtained were analyzed for evaluating the psychiatric morbidity and its various correlates. Appropriate statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21. Results: Using GHQ-12 cutoff score (≥3 for psychological distress, the overall prevalence of psychological distress was significantly more in cases of in comparison to healthy controls with an odds ratio of 8.54 (95% confidence interval 3.16–23.07, P < 0.0001. Statistical analysis showed a statistically significant correlation of educational status with QOL and severity of skin lesions (PASI with anxiety level. Severe skin lesions, more so on visible body parts were associated more commonly with psychological distress. Conclusions: All patients of psoriasis should be educated about the nature of the illness and screened for psychological distress. Dermatologists and family members should be educated to

  6. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal g...

  7. Nutrition and lung cancer: a case control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Jafari, Ali Moghadas; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Taslimi, Shervin; Khodadad, Kian; Mohammadi, Forouzan; Sadr, Makan; Rezaei, Mansour; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-21

    Despite many prospective and retrospective studies about the association of dietary habit and lung cancer, the topic still remains controversial. So, this study aims to investigate the association of lung cancer with dietary factors. In this study 242 lung cancer patients and their 484 matched controls on age, sex, and place of residence were enrolled between October 2002 to 2005. Trained physicians interviewed all participants with standardized questionnaires. The middle and upper third consumer groups were compared to the lower third according to the distribution in controls unless the linear trend was significant across exposure groups. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association with lung cancer. In a multivariate analysis fruit (Ptrend bread (Ptrend = 0.04), liver (P = 0.004), butter (Ptrend = 0.04), white cheese (Ptrend cancer. Generally, we found positive trend between consumption of beef (P = 0.002), bread (P cancer. In contrast, only fruits were inversely related to lung cancer (P bread, rice, beef, liver, dairy products, vegetable ghee, and animal ghee found to be possible risk factors for the development of lung cancer in Iran.

  8. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow......-up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8...

  9. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Zewdie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M.; Kuper, Hannah; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.; Rajak, Saul N.; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified ‘Stylised Activity List’ developed for the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06–3.78; pimpairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation. PMID:26600211

  10. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmael Habtamu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited.Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b Self-rated wealth, and (c Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; p<0.0001, self-rated wealth (OR, 4.41, 95%CI, 2.75-7.07; p<0.0001 and peer-rated wealth (OR, 8.22, 95% CI, 4.59-14.72; p<0.0001. Cases had less access to latrines (57% v 76.5%, p = <0.0001 and higher person-to-room density (4.0 v 3.31; P = 0.0204 than the controls. Compared to controls, cases were significantly less likely to participate in economically productive activities regardless of visual impairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities.This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth

  11. Rosacea and Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Case-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balbeesi, Amal O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between rosacea, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the clinical presentation of rosacea. Subjects and Method Twenty-eight female Saudi patients diagnosed with rosacea at the Dermatology Clinic, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between September 2011 and September 2012 and 20 age- and sex-matched control patients were included in the study. Paranasal sinus X-rays and assessments of the serum concentration of IgE (ImmunoCAP test; Phadia Laboratory Systems) were performed in both groups. Result The rosacea patients had significantly more radiological evidence of CRS than the patients without rosacea [19 (67.9%) vs. 4 (20%), p = 0.003]. The median IgE concentration was similar in both groups (225.4 vs. 223.1 kU/l). Nine rosacea patients (32.1%) without radiological evidence of CRS did not have a significantly different median concentration of IgE compared with those who had radiological evidence of CRS (190.5 vs. 111.5 kU/l, p = 0.859). Erythematotelangiectatic severity was significantly associated with CRS (p = 0.038). Serum IgE did not correlate with the severity of the facial condition. Conclusion Patients with rosacea and CRS manifested severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. There was enough evidence to suggest an association between rosacea and CRS. Clinical and radiological assessments of the paranasal sinuses are recommended. PMID:25060422

  12. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Zewdie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M; Kuper, Hannah; Bailey, Robin L; Mabey, David C W; Rajak, Saul N; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A; Burton, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; ppoverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation.

  13. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  14. Idiopathic epistaxis and meteorological factors: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelavic, B; Majstorovic, Z; Kordić, M; Leventić, M; Grgić, M V; Baudoin, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of idiopathic epistaxis and daily values of air pressure, temperature, and humidity. We also investigated whether biometeorological forecasts should be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis. We analyzed consecutive idiopathic epistaxis events over a 3-year period. Patients were included if they had been in the municipality of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina at least 24 hours before the epistaxis occurrence. The monthly variation in epistaxis events was determined. Epistaxis days (Days "0", 0 = day with epistaxis occurrence) and selected nonepistaxis days (Days "-1", -1 = each first single day without epistaxis prior to Day 0) were compared according to daily values of mean, minimum, and maximum temperature; diurnal temperature range; minimum and maximum atmospheric pressure; diurnal pressure range; and mean relative humidity. The greatest and smallest percentage of epistaxis events occurred in the months of March and August, respectively. There were no significant differences between Days 0 and Days -1 with respect to the examined meteorological factors. In this region with a Mediterranean climate, we found a seasonal variation with an incidence peak during the spring transition months, but we did not identify any meteorological trigger factors for epistaxis. Thus, there is no need for biometeorological forecasts to be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis.

  15. Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Svensson, Peter

    2008-10-15

    Somatosensory function in patients with persistent idiopathic types of orofacial pain like atypical odontalgia (AO) is not well described. This study tested the hypothesis that AO patients have significantly more somatosensory abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-six AO patients and 35 controls participated. Inclusion criteria for AO were pain in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, persistent pain >6 months, and lack of clinical and radiological findings. The examination included qualitative tests and a battery of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST). Most AO patients (85%) had qualitative somatosensory abnormality compared with few controls (14%). The most common qualitative abnormalities in AO patients were found with pin-prick 67.4%, cold 47.8%, and touch 46.5% compared with 11.4%, 8.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, in the control group (P<0.001). Between-group differences were seen for many intraoral QST: mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold (pinprick), dynamic mechanical allodynia (brush), dynamic mechanical allodynia (vibration), wind-up ratio, and pressure pain threshold (P<0.01). In the trigeminal area, between-group differences in thermal thresholds were nonsignificant while differences in cold detection at the thenar eminence were significant. Individual somatosensory profiles revealed complex patterns with hyper- and hyposensitivity to intraoral QST. Between-group differences in pressure pain thresholds (P<0.02) were observed at the thenar eminence. In conclusion, significant abnormalities in intraoral somatosensory function were observed in AO, which may reflect peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal pathways. More generalized sensitization of the nociceptive system may also be part of AO pathophysiology.

  16. Depression in Parkinson's disease: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD prognosis and the patient's onset of depression.A total of 353 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and a history of depression were enrolled. On the basis of the onset of depression before or after PD diagnosis, we divided participants into PD patients with pre- or post-diagnostic depression. Cox's regression analysis was used to detect risks between the onset of depression and outcomes (including death, accidental injury, dementia, and aspiration pneumonia. The association between the onset of depression and levodopa equivalent dosage (LED and cumulative equivalent dosage of antidepressants were assessed.PD patients with post-diagnostic depression were associated with significantly higher risks of dementia (adjusted HR = 2·01, p = 0·015, and were older (58·5 ± 17·7 vs. 53·7 ± 18·6, p = 0·020 at the time of PD diagnosis than PD patients with pre-diagnostic depression. The higher incident rate of accidental injury was also noted in PD patients with post-diagnostic depression (48·1 vs. 31·3/1000 person-years, HR = 1·60, p = 0·041, but no statistical significance was observed in the adjusted hazard ratio (HR (HR = 1·52, p = 0·069. Otherwise, mortality, motor condition and severity of depression revealed no significant difference between PD patients with pre-diagnostic and post-diagnostic depression.PD patients with post-diagnostic depression had higher incidence of dementia, implying different onset time of depression could be associated with different subtypes and spreading routes which should be examined in follow-up studies.

  17. Quantity and quality of retrograde menstruation: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drijkoningen Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that menstruation is associated with a higher concentration of endometrial cells in peritoneal fluid(PF and with increased white and red blood cell concentration in PF when compared to nonmenstrual phases of the cycle. Methods PF was obtained at laparoscopy from 107 women with endometriosis (n = 59 and controls with a normal pelvis (n = 48 during the luteal (n = 46, follicular (n = 38 or menstrual (n = 23 phase of the cycle. Endometriosis was classified according to the classification of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (rAFS into minimal (n = 25, mild(n = 20, moderate(n = 6 and severe(n = 8 disease. Cell counts (leucocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes were determined on a cell counter. In a subset of 32 patients (13 controls and 19 women with endometriosis, PF was fixed, processed and thinlayers were prepared and stained with Papanicolaou method and with immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin 7(CK 7, CK 8/18, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, calretinin and CD68. Ber-Ep4 is a marker for cells with epithelial origin (in some cases for mesothelial cells as well. CD68 is specific for cells from monocyte/macrophage lineage; CK7 and CK8/18 are markers for both endometrial epithelial and mesothelial cells, whereas calretinin and vimentin are markers for both endometrial stromal and mesothelial cells. Results In comparison with the nonmenstrual phase of the cycle, analysis of PF during menstruation showed an increased concentration of leucocytes (3.3 × 109/L vs 0.8 × 109/L, P = 0.03, erythrocytes (0.3 × 1012/L vs 0.02 × 1012/L, P = 0.006, hematocrit (0.03 L/L vs 0.003 L/L, P = 0.01 and hemoglobin (0.8 g/dL vs 0.1 g/dL, P = 0.01. Mesothelial cells stained positively with CK7, CK8/18, vimentin, and calretinin. Cells positive for Ber-Ep4 were not observed, except in 2 patients with endometriosis investigated during menses. In all patients 50-98% of

  18. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S.; Wolff, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. Material and Methods This retrospective case-control stud...

  19. Allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Guercio, Valentina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    To provide new epidemiological data and summarize evidence on the association between allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk. Data were from an Italian case-control study including 230 cases and 547 controls. Odds ratios were derived using multiple logistic regression. We combined results from all published studies using random-effect models. In our case-control study, the odds ratios were 0.59 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.25-1.41) for ≥2 portions of onion per week, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.41-1.15) for high garlic intake, and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.39-1.28) for frequent use of both onion and garlic. Besides our study, 22 case-control and four cohort studies were included in the meta-analyses (>10 000 cases). The pooled relative risks for the highest versus lowest intake category were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91) for allium vegetables (ten case-control and four cohort studies), 0.60 (95% CI, 0.47-0.76) for garlic (12 case-control studies), and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.41-0.73) for onion (13 case-control studies). The pooled relative risk for high allium vegetable intake from the four cohorts was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.88-1.18). High allium vegetable consumption is likely to reduce gastric cancer risk. This evidence is derived mainly from case-control studies. Further data from large cohorts are desirable for conclusive confirmation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa : differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Brandao, Isabel; Roma-Torres, Antonio; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN A

  1. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment

  2. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in

  3. Predictors for failure of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J M; Nuij, Chelly; Janssen-Rolf, Christel R M; Schuit, Ewoud|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341652385; Bais, Joke M J; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. Study design Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was

  4. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  5. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer. Design. A population-based case-control study of breast cancer risk in relation to the use of IPes among coloured and black women. Setting. The Western Cape, including the Cape metropole and surrounding rural areas. Study subjects. All coloured and black women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, ...

  6. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  7. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  8. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  9. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations : systematic review and case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A.; Morris, Joan K.; Wellesley, Diana; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design A review of all published cohort studies to identify key indications and a population based case-control study to test these indications. Setting Review of

  10. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  11. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  12. Macrosomia: a case-control study of risk factors and outcome | Anya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Macrosomia is associated with increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and assess impact of macrosomia on maternal and perinatal outcome. Methods: A five-year retrospective case-control study was undertaken at a referral centre. Macrosomia was ...

  13. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  14. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  15. Adaptation of Chain Event Graphs for use with Case-Control Studies in Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Claire; Thwaites, Peter Adam; Barber, Stuart; Law, Graham Richard; Baxter, Paul David

    2017-09-26

    Case-control studies are used in epidemiology to try to uncover the causes of diseases, but are a retrospective study design known to suffer from non-participation and recall bias, which may explain their decreased popularity in recent years. Traditional analyses report usually only the odds ratio for given exposures and the binary disease status. Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees which have been developed in artificial intelligence and statistics, and only recently introduced to the epidemiology literature. They are a modern Bayesian technique which enable prior knowledge to be incorporated into the data analysis using the agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm, used to form a suitable chain event graph. Additionally, they can account for missing data and be used to explore missingness mechanisms. Here we adapt the chain event graph framework to suit scenarios often encountered in case-control studies, to strengthen this study design which is time and financially efficient. We demonstrate eight adaptations to the graphs, which consist of two suitable for full case-control study analysis, four which can be used in interim analyses to explore biases, and two which aim to improve the ease and accuracy of analyses. The adaptations are illustrated with complete, reproducible, fully-interpreted examples, including the event tree and chain event graph. Chain event graphs are used here for the first time to summarise non-participation, data collection techniques, data reliability, and disease severity in case-control studies. We demonstrate how these features of a case-control study can be incorporated into the analysis to provide further insight, which can help to identify potential biases and lead to more accurate study results.

  16. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer. Design. A population-based case-control study of breast cancer risk in relation to the use of IPes among coloured and black women. Setting. The Western Cape ... tertiary care hospitals in the Western Cape are recruited. Controls are a .... are obtained to confirm the diagnosis for all cases and to determine ...

  17. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to house pets during childhood and adolescence : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1997-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) might be triggered by an infectious agent early in life. In a case-control study, we compared exposure to household pets for the age periods 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years in 100 patients with MS and 100 controls. Exposure to household dogs between the ages of 0-10 years

  18. Predictors for failure of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J.; Nuij, Chelly; Janssen-Rolf, Christel R. M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Bais, Joke M. J.; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2016-01-01

    To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was defined as a delivery

  19. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was

  20. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  1. Prevalence and Case-Control Study of Cerebral Malaria in Limbe of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West Cameroon. ... Lois E Ikome, Kenneth JN Ndamukong, Helen Kimbi ... Data were obtained using a questionnaire administered to 650 people aged between 6 months and 70 years, and by a case-control study on 90 people (30 cases and 60 ...

  2. Combinations of SNP genotypes from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Dam, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Combinations of genetic variants are the basis for polygenic disorders. We examined combinations of SNP genotypes taken from the 446 729 SNPs in The Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients. Methods: Parallel computing by graphics processing units, cloud computing, and data...

  3. Microbial Characteristics of Peri-Implantitis : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y C M; Eijsbouts, H V L C; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND: Aim of this case-control study was to compare oral microbiological characteristics of subjects with healthy peri-implant conditions and subjects with peri-implantitis and to explore the influence of various patient-related and implant-related factors on the microbiological

  4. Medical and environmental risk factors for sporadic frontotemporal dementia: a retrospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); E.J. Landweer; M. Houterman; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Donker Kaat (Laura)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective case-control study was carried out on 80 patients with sporadic frontotemporal dementia and 124 age, sex, and surrogate informant matched controls with respect to various medical and environmental risk factors. Head trauma was associated with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95%

  5. Human papillomavirus infection, cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrera, A.B.; Velema, J.P.; Figueroa, M.; Bulnes, R.; Toro, L.A.; Claros, J.M.; Barahona, O. de; Melchers, W.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence has confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central etiological agents in human cervical carcinogenesis. In Honduras, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a high annual incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study

  6. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  7. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  8. Differences in treatment approach between Dutch paediatric dentists and general practitioners, a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuin, D.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This case control study was to assess whether paediatric dentists perform significantly more diagnostic, preventive and curative care in a clinical setting then do general dental practitioners. METHODS: 16 paediatric dentists were approached and a matching control group of 16 general dental

  9. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  10. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body

  11. Case-Control Study Of Risk Factors For Breast Cancer In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for breast cancer among women in Midwestern and Southeastern Nigeria. Design: A case control study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching hospital, Benin City and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Subjects: Fifty one women with diagnosis of ...

  12. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  13. Risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in children: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); N.E. Salu (Nathalie); N.M.A. Bax (Klaas); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van Heurn (Ernst); D.C. Aronson (Daniel); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for

  14. Risk Factors for Abdominal Wound Dehiscence in Children: A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramshorst, Gabriëlle H.; Salu, Nathalie E.; Bax, Nikolaas M. A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Heurn, Ernst; Aronson, Daniel C.; Lange, Johan F.

    2009-01-01

    In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in

  15. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  16. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  18. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  19. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  20. Circulating folate levels and colorectal adenoma: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong Mi; Youn, Jiyoung; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between folate and colorectal neoplasia remains controversial. We examined the association between serum folate concentrations and colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of Korean adults and conducted a meta-analysis. Our case-control study included 113 pairs of case and control who underwent colonoscopy and provided blood samples. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models to obtain the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CIs). For meta-analysis, we identified the relevant studies by searching the PubMed database up to February 2017, included our case-control study and combined the study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random-effects model. In this case-control study, we included 58 men and 55 women with colorectal adenomas and sex and fasting status matched the controls. We did not find any significant association between the serum folate levels and colorectal adenomas in either men or women. For meta-analysis, a total of eleven studies were included in our analysis and classified into two groups; polyp clearance group (PC) for the studies that included participants who underwent endoscopies and had their polyps removed at baseline; and no polyp clearance group (NPC) for the studies that included participants whose histories of endoscopies were unknown or who underwent their first endoscopies. Four PC (1,311 cases and 1,672 non-cases) and eight NPC studies (3,501 cases and 11,347 non-cases) were included. The combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the bottom with the top categories of circulating folate levels were 1.07 (0.97-1.18) for the NPC group but 1.45 (1.16-1.74) for the PC group. Low circulating folate levels were associated with new adenoma formation.

  1. Myocardial infarction and oral contraceptives, a retrospective case control study in England and Scotland ('MICA' Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, N R; Thorogood, M; de Caestecker, L; Mann, R D

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that modern (third generation), oral contraceptives (OC) are associated with an increased incidence of venous thromboembolic disease compared to older (second generation), OC. It is not known, however, whether this association is also true for arterial thrombosis, in particular myocardial infarction. In fact, it has been suggested that third generation OC may even be protective against myocardial infarction (MI), compared to second generation OC. The protocol for a multicentre case-control study, involving the whole of England and Scotland, is described. Cases will be female patients aged 16-44 years, who suffered an MI between 1.10.93 and 1.10.95. Controls will be drawn from the community, using the GP list, to which the case belonged. Odds ratios will be calculated primarily to compare current users of third generation OC with current users of second generation OC. Copyright 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicides and Attempted Homicides – A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989–1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according ...

  3. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Akram; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Fereidooni, Foroozandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Methods This case?control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40...

  4. Risk factors for noma disease: a 6-year, prospective, matched case-control study in Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Baratti, Denise; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Francois, Patrice; Pittet Cuenod, Brigitte Maud; Huyghe, Antoine; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Gervaix, Alain; Montandon, Denys; Schrenzel, Jacques; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Background: Noma is a poorly studied disease that leads to severe facial tissue destruction in children in developing countries, but the cause remains unknown. We aimed to identify the epidemiological and microbiological risk factors associated with noma disease. Methods: We did a prospective, matched, case-control study in Niger between Aug 1, 2001, and Oct 31, 2006, in children younger than 12 years to assess risk factors for acute noma. All acute noma cases were included and four contro...

  5. Risk factors for severe hand foot mouth disease in Singapore: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, So-Phia; Chong, Shu-Ling; Barbier, Sylvaine; Matthew, Aji; Lee, Jan Hau; Chan, Yoke Hwee

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that can potentially lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors of acquiring severe HFMD in our population. Methods We performed a case control study using patients admitted to our hospital from August 2004 to July 2014. Cases were patients with severe HFMD disease while controls were age-matched patients obtained from the same year, in a 2:1 ratio. Data comprising demographic chara...

  6. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Esmailnasab; Hossein Amirian; Batoul Eskandai; Mina Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy) is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenie...

  7. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  8. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a multicenter case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Sohr, Mandy; Lang, Anthony E; Potenza, Marc N; Siderowf, Andrew D; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Weintraub, Daniel; Wunderlich, Glen R; Stacy, Mark

    2011-06-01

    To assess factors associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson disease (PD) using a multicenter case--control design. Patients enrolled in the DOMINION study, a multicenter study assessing the cross-sectional frequency of ICDs in PD, were eligible to participate in the case--control study. PD patients with and without an ICD (n = 282 each) (compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating) were matched individually on age, gender, and dopamine agonist treatment. Subjects were assessed with a comprehensive neurological, psychiatric, and cognitive assessment battery. ICD patients reported more functional impairment (p compulsive symptoms (p cognitive impairments, including affective and anxiety symptoms, as well as elevated obsessionality, novelty seeking, and impulsivity. These results highlight the importance of assessing multiple mental health domains in individuals with PD and ICDs, and suggest possible pathophysiological mechanisms and risk indicators for these disorders. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor: results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falola M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael FalolaDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAI read with interest the article "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study" by de Lucas-Ramos et al.1 In my opinion, the study did not use case-control design, despite its title.View original paper by de Lucas-Ramos and colleagues.

  10. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  11. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy

    2011-12-15

    Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  12. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims....

  13. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  14. Cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk among men with and without erectile dysfunction: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, João Paulo; Mendonça, Rafaela Rosalba de; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Karam Junior, Amir; Santos, Raul D.; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf de; Wroclawski, Eric Roger

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Erectile dysfunction has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim here was to evaluate cardiovascular risk through the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) criteria, C-reactive protein (CRP) assays and presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with and without erectile dysfunction diagnosed within a healthcare program. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. The patients were selected from a healthcare program at the Hospital Israelita...

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Maia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group), comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age), with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects). All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective At...

  16. Risk factors for candidemia in cancer patients: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Karabinis, A; Hill, C; Leclercq, B; Tancrède, C; Baume, D; Andremont, A

    1988-01-01

    Risk factors for candidemia were analyzed in a case-control study of 30 cancer patients with candidemia and 58 controls. In a univariate analysis, previous surgery, neutropenia, central catheterization, chemotherapy, specific antibiotic treatments, and peripheral cultures positive for Candida spp. were associated with a significantly increased risk of candidemia. In a multivariate logistic model, the significant risk factors for candidemia were positive peripheral cultures for Candida spp. (P...

  17. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Wolff, Larry F

    2017-11-01

    Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. This retrospective case-control study is based on 94 dental records of implants placed at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Dental records of patients who received an implant in sites with previously failed endodontic therapy in the dental school were identified from the electronic database, while control subjects were obtained from the same pool of patients with the requirement to have received an implant in a site that was not endodontically treated. The mean age of the population was 62.89±14.17 years with 57.4% of the sample being females and 42.6% of them being males. In regards to the socio-economic status and dental insurance, 84.0% of this population was classified as low socio-economic status and 68.1% had dental insurance. Tobacco use was self-reported by 9.6% and hypercholesterolemia was the most prevalent systemic medical condition. Dental implant failure was identified in two of the included records (2.1%), both of which were placed in sites with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Within the limitations of this retrospective case-control study, further investigation with a larger population group into implant failure of sites that previously had unsuccessful endodontic treatment would be warranted. Implant failure may be associated with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Key words: Implantology, endodontics, osseointegration, treatment outcome, case-control study.

  18. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  19. Risk Factors for Abdominal Wound Dehiscence in Children: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    van Ramshorst, Gabri?lle H.; Salu, Nathalie E.; Bax, Nikolaas M. A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Heurn, Ernst; Aronson, Daniel C.; Lange, Johan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2?1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8?45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in the pediatric population. Methods Patients younger than aged 18?years who developed abdominal wound dehiscence in three pediatric surgical centers during the period 1985?2005 were identifi...

  20. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced ...

  1. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Zhao, Yun; Hiramatsu, Tetsuo; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. Methods A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women), aged 50–75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory functi...

  2. Using cumulative sums of martingale residuals for model checking in nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Standard use of Cox regression requires collection of covariate information for all individuals in a cohort even when only a small fraction of them experiences the event of interest (fail). This may be very expensive for large cohorts. Further in biomarker studies, it will imply a waste of valuable biological material that one may want to save for future studies. A nested case-control study offers a useful alternative. For this design, covariate information is only needed for the failing individuals (cases) and a sample of controls selected from the cases' at-risk sets. Methods based on martingale residuals are useful for checking the fit of Cox's regression model for cohort data. But similar methods have so far not been developed for nested case-control data. In this article, it is described how one may define martingale residuals for nested case-control data, and it is shown how plots and tests based on cumulative sums of martingale residuals may be used to check model fit. The plots and tests may be obtained using available software. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-12-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control studies of enteric pathogens by waning and boosting of immunity, and by asymptomatic infections, using Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Individuals in the population are either susceptible (at risk of infection and disease), fully protected (not at risk of either) or partially protected (at risk of infection but not of disease). The force of infection is a function of the exposure frequency and the exposure dose. We show that the observed disease odds ratios are indeed strongly biased towards the null, i.e. much lower than the infection rate ratio, and furthermore even not proportional to it. The bias could theoretically be controlled by sampling controls only from the reservoir of susceptible individuals. The population at risk is in a dynamic equilibrium, and cannot be identified as those who are not and have never experienced disease. Individual-level samples to measure protective immunity would be required, complicating the design, cost and execution of case-control studies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Telomere length and ischaemic stroke in women: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürks, M; Prescott, J; Dushkes, R; De Vivo, I; Rexrode, K M

    2013-07-01

    Telomere shortening has been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, prospective data on the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and ischaemic stroke are scarce and inconclusive. We used a nested case-control design among women participating in the prospective Nurses' Health Study. Participants provided blood samples in 1990 and were followed till 2006. Women with confirmed incident ischaemic stroke were matched to controls by age, smoking, postmenopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine RTL in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of ischaemic stroke associated with RTL, using RTL quartiles and as dichotomous according to the median. Data on RTL were available from 504 case-control pairs. Results did not suggest an association between RTL and ischaemic stroke. The odds ratio (OR) for ischaemic stroke was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.32] comparing lowest with the highest RTL quartile and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65-1.24) comparing RTL below the median with RTL above the median. Associations were unchanged after additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Further analyses suggested an association between RTL and fatal ischaemic stroke (54 case-control pairs; lowest versus highest quartile OR = 1.99, 95%CI 0.26-14.9); however, results were statistically insignificant. In this large nested case-control study among women RTL was not associated with ischaemic stroke. In light of the varying study results in the literature on the association between telomere length and stroke, additional research is warranted. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  5. A random forest approach to the detection of epistatic interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Tang, Wanwan; Wu, Xuebing; Fu, Wenhui

    2009-01-30

    The key roles of epistatic interactions between multiple genetic variants in the pathogenesis of complex diseases notwithstanding, the detection of such interactions remains a great challenge in genome-wide association studies. Although some existing multi-locus approaches have shown their successes in small-scale case-control data, the "combination explosion" course prohibits their applications to genome-wide analysis. It is therefore indispensable to develop new methods that are able to reduce the search space for epistatic interactions from an astronomic number of all possible combinations of genetic variants to a manageable set of candidates. We studied case-control data from the viewpoint of binary classification. More precisely, we treated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers as categorical features and adopted the random forest to discriminate cases against controls. On the basis of the gini importance given by the random forest, we designed a sliding window sequential forward feature selection (SWSFS) algorithm to select a small set of candidate SNPs that could minimize the classification error and then statistically tested up to three-way interactions of the candidates. We compared this approach with three existing methods on three simulated disease models and showed that our approach is comparable to, sometimes more powerful than, the other methods. We applied our approach to a genome-wide case-control dataset for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and successfully identified two SNPs that were reported to be associated with this disease. Besides existing pure statistical approaches, we demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating machine learning methods into genome-wide case-control studies. The gini importance offers yet another measure for the associations between SNPs and complex diseases, thereby complementing existing statistical measures to facilitate the identification of epistatic interactions and the understanding of epistasis in

  6. Multiple sclerosis and dental amalgam: case-control study in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetta, I; Invernizzi, M; Granieri, E

    2001-05-01

    Dental amalgam fillings containing mercury have been suggested as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). In the context of a wider program of investigation into environmental risk factors and MS, we conducted a case-control comparison to investigate the alleged association between MS, dental caries, and amalgam fillings. We included 132 MS patients with onset during the last 16 years and 423 controls, matched to cases for sex, age and residence. Data were collected by a personal interview conducted by trained doctors. Cases and controls gave informed consent. Although we report a trend toward a higher number of dental fillings in cases than controls, odds ratios for subjects with exposures of different duration and with different numbers of amalgam fillings were not statistically significant. This case-control study failed to demonstrate an association between either the number of dental amalgam fillings or the duration of exposure to mercury amalgam and MS. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Laryngospasm during emergency department ketamine sedation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven M; Roback, Mark G; Krauss, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess predictors of emergency department (ED) ketamine-associated laryngospasm using case-control techniques. We performed a matched case-control analysis of a sample of 8282 ED ketamine sedations (including 22 occurrences of laryngospasm) assembled from 32 prior published series. We sequentially studied the association of each of 7 clinical variables with laryngospasm by assigning 4 controls to each case while matching for the remaining 6 variables. We then used univariate statistics and conditional logistic regression to analyze the matched sets. We found no statistical association of age, dose, oropharyngeal procedure, underlying physical illness, route, or coadministered anticholinergics with laryngospasm. Coadministered benzodiazepines showed a borderline association in the multivariate but not univariate analysis that was considered anomalous. This case-control analysis of the largest available sample of ED ketamine-associated laryngospasm did not demonstrate evidence of association with age, dose, or other clinical factors. Such laryngospasm seems to be idiosyncratic, and accordingly, clinicians administering ketamine must be prepared for its rapid identification and management. Given no evidence that they decrease the risk of laryngospasm, coadministered anticholinergics seem unnecessary.

  8. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  9. Evaluating psychiatric case-control studies using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Domingues Goi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Case-control studies are important in developing clinical and public health knowledge. The STROBE statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology was developed to establish a checklist of items that should be included in articles reporting observational studies. Our aim was to analyze whether the psychiatric case-control articles published in Brazilian journals with CAPES Qualis rating B1/B2 in 2009 conformed with the STROBE statement.DESIGN AND SETTING:Descriptive study on psychiatric papers published in Brazilian journals, within the Postgraduate Medical Program on Psychiatry, at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.METHODS:All psychiatric case-control studies from Brazilian Qualis B1/B2 journals of psychiatry, neurology and public health in 2009 were analyzed. The four most specific items of the STROBE statement were used to evaluate whether these studies fitted within the case-control parameters: 1 selection of cases and controls; 2 controlling for bias; 3 statistical analysis; and 4 presentation of results.RESULTS:Sixteen case-control studies were identified, of which eleven (68.75% were in psychiatry-focused journals. From analysis using the STROBE statement, all of the articles conformed with item 1; two (12.5% completely conformed with item 2; none completely conformed with item 3; and only three (18.8% conformed with item 4.CONCLUSION:The case-control studies analyzed here did not completely conform with the four STROBE statement items for case-control design. In view of the inadequate methodology of the published studies, these findings justify focusing on research and methodology and expanding the investigations on adherence of studies to their designs.

  10. Evaluating psychiatric case-control studies using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, Pedro Domingues; Goi, Julia Domingues; Cordini, Kariny Larissa; Ceresér, Keila Mendes; Rocha, Neusa Sica da

    2014-01-01

    Case-control studies are important in developing clinical and public health knowledge. The STROBE statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology) was developed to establish a checklist of items that should be included in articles reporting observational studies. Our aim was to analyze whether the psychiatric case-control articles published in Brazilian journals with CAPES Qualis rating B1/B2 in 2009 conformed with the STROBE statement. Descriptive study on psychiatric papers published in Brazilian journals, within the Postgraduate Medical Program on Psychiatry, at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. All psychiatric case-control studies from Brazilian Qualis B1/B2 journals of psychiatry, neurology and public health in 2009 were analyzed. The four most specific items of the STROBE statement were used to evaluate whether these studies fitted within the case-control parameters: 1) selection of cases and controls; 2) controlling for bias; 3) statistical analysis; and 4) presentation of results. Sixteen case-control studies were identified, of which eleven (68.75%) were in psychiatry-focused journals. From analysis using the STROBE statement, all of the articles conformed with item 1; two (12.5%) completely conformed with item 2; none completely conformed with item 3; and only three (18.8%) conformed with item 4. The case-control studies analyzed here did not completely conform with the four STROBE statement items for case-control design. In view of the inadequate methodology of the published studies, these findings justify focusing on research and methodology and expanding the investigations on adherence of studies to their designs.

  11. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes

    2015-01-01

    genome scans in parallel case-control studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) nested in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses' Health Study. We examined ∼ 700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 435 men with incident CHD and 878 matched controls and 435 women with incident CHD...... to risk of CHD in either men or women (adjusted odds ratios per 2000 heterozygous SNPs 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.13] in women and 0.94 [0.84-1.06] in men). We also found no consistent associations of genome-wide heterozygosity with levels of lipids, inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules...

  12. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  14. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  15. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator.

  16. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  17. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  18. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine

    2008-01-01

    with a hip fracture during the period 1996-2004. Controls (n = 27,575) were frequency matched by age and gender. Information on use of AEDs, other drugs, and hospital contacts was available from local registers. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hip fracture were estimated......PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals...

  19. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai

    2017-01-01

    Background Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Methods Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios an...

  20. Cor pulmonale and silicosis: a necropsy based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J; Reid, G; Kielkowski, D; de Beer, M

    1993-01-01

    The presence of cor pulmonale at death in relation to other factors such as emphysema, silicosis, and thromboembolism was analysed in a case-control study of 732 South African gold miners. Marked emphysema was the highest risk factor with an odds ratio of 21.32 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.02-90.7), then extensive silicosis (OR 4.95, 95% CI 2.92-8.38) and thromboembolic disease (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.37-2.69). Age and smoking were not significant predictors of cor pulmonale. PMID:8329320

  1. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nina J; Amin, Shailja B; Buras, Matthew R; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Verona, Patricia M; Cook, Curtiss B

    2018-01-01

    This case-control study examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on survival in lung cancer patients and lung cancer on glycemic control in DM. Patients with a new lung cancer diagnosis and DM (n = 124) were matched to 124 lung cancer patients without DM. Laboratory results and DM and cancer therapies were obtained from electronic records. Five-year overall survival for lung cancer patients with and without DM was 20 versus 29% (p = .12). Glycemic control among DM patients did not change significantly with time. DM does not cause adverse impact on lung cancer survival. Lung cancer does not affect glycemic control.

  2. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: An increasing research literature has identified a statistical association between trauma exposure and psychosis. Methodological limitations, primarily relating to failures to establish the temporal ordering of events and relying on retrospective self-reports, have made the argument...... for a causal association difficult to establish. Method: A case-control study was conducted based on data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. All female visitors to a rape center during the index year (2003) were matched with controls based on age and area...

  3. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  4. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  5. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  6. Association between bullous pemphigoid and neurologic diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-de-la-Asunción, E; Ruano-Ruiz, J; Rodríguez-Martín, A M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-11-01

    In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population. This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study with 1:2 matching. Fifty-four patients with bullous pemphigoid were selected. We compared the percentage of patients in each group with concurrent neurologic conditions, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and solid tumors using univariate logistic regression. An association model was constructed with conditional multiple logistic regression. The case group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with cerebrovascular accident and/or transient ischemic attack (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.19-7.87], dementia (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.19-13.93), and Parkinson disease (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.57-15.94). A significantly higher percentage of cases had neurologic conditions (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.89-13.91). Dementia and Parkinson disease were independently associated with bullous pemphigoid in the multivariate analysis. Patients with bullous pemphigoid have a higher frequency of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in dentofacial morphology and occlusion in juvenile idiopathic arthritis subjects: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqian; Billiau, An D; Verdonck, An; Wouters, Carine; Carels, Carine

    2009-02-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can severely disturb facial growth and affect occlusal development. In this case-control study, facial, functional, and occlusal characteristics of 100 JIA patients (35 males and 65 females; age range: 1.7-19.4 years) comprising all subtypes classified according to the revised classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) were studied. They were compared with a mixed orthodontic control group (n=32; 12 males and 20 females) and with a Class II division 1 malocclusion group (n=19; eight males and 11 females). The JIA patients and controls were evaluated using clinical assessment, dental pantomograms, lateral cephalograms (LCGs), and dental casts. Compared with the age- and gender-matched mixed orthodontic controls, JIA patients showed a significantly greater prevalence of anterior open bites (AOBs; Pplane (Pplane, the gonial and the interincisal angles, or total face height. From this case-control study, it can be concluded that although JIA patients share occlusal characteristics with non-JIA patients with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, they are different with regard to the prevalence of condylar lesions and AOBs, as well as SNA and SNB angles and LAFH.

  8. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa: differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bárbara C; Gonçalves, Sónia F; Martins, Carla; Brandão, Isabel; Roma-Torres, António; Hoek, Hans W; Machado, Paulo P

    2016-06-01

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN METHOD: A case-control design was used to compare a group of women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for AN (N = 98) and BN (N = 79) with healthy controls (N = 86) and with other psychiatric disorders (N = 68). Each control group was matched with AN patients regarding age and parental social categories. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing each person with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview. Compared to AN, women with BN reported significantly higher rates of paternal high expectations, excessive family importance placed on fitness/keeping in shape, and negative consequences due to adolescent overweight and adolescent objective overweight. Overweight during adolescence emerged as the most relevant retrospective correlate in the distinction between BN and AN participants. Family expectations and the importance placed on keeping in shape were also significant retrospective correlates in the BN group.

  9. Human papillomaviruses in colorectal cancers: A case-control study in western patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Lucine; Jaillet, Carine; Jacquin, Elise; Monnien, Franck; Heberle, Marine; Mihai, Maria I; Lassabe, Catherine; Raffoul, Johnny; Puyraveau, Marc; Lakkis, Zaher; Lamfichekh, Najib; Picard, Alain; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Mougin, Christiane; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers. As in other cancer locations, the involvement of human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been suggested but remains highly debated with wide differences among reported prevalence of HPV infection in CRCs. To determine the actual prevalence of high risk HPV16 and 18 in a large case-control study. CRC specimens were used for analysis of both tumor and distant healthy tissue. As a non-malignant control group, samples from sigmoid diverticulosis resections were studied. Detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA was performed using a real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Ten percent of tumor samples were also randomly subjected to a complete HPV genotyping using the INNO-LiPA technique. 467 samples were analyzed: 217 tumor samples from 210 CRCs, 210 distant healthy tissue samples, and 40 sigmoid samples. HPV18 DNA was never amplified and HPV16 was amplified only three times in tumor tissues with viral loads under or at the limit of quantification. New extraction from the same tumor blocks for these samples revealed no HPV with qPCR and INNO-Lipa assays. With adequate procedures and reliable techniques, no HPV was detected in the largest case-control study so far, bringing more evidence on the absence of involvement of HPV in CRCs. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential Psychosocial Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that pre-existing psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, ...

  11. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors....... METHODS: The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428) aged 35-69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583) were selected. Altogether 254 (59%) of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55%) of the population controls were interviewed...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  12. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  13. Factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a case-control study of Belgrade women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Anita; Gledovic, Zorana; Vujasinovic-Stupar, Nada

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors related to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Belgrade. A case-control study was conducted during 2006-2007. The study group consisted of 100 newly diagnosed osteoporosis patients and 100 age-matched controls (± 2 years). The inclusion criteria for the case group were newly diagnosed osteoporosis confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and being menopausal (at least 2 years of amenorrhea). The inclusion criteria for the control group were postmenopausal women with confirmed normal bone mineral density of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The following factors were significantly independently related to osteoporosis: low body weight (P menopause at age osteoporosis.

  14. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428) aged 35-69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583) were selected. Altogether 254 (59%) of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55%) of the population controls were interviewed...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure......BACKGROUND: Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients...

  15. Qat use and esophageal cancer in Ethiopia: A pilot case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Leon

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis chewing is reported to induce lesions in the buccal mucosa, irritation of the esophagus, and esophageal reflux. Case series suggest a possible etiological role in oral and esophageal cancers. This pilot study aimed to generate preliminary estimates of the magnitude and direction of the association between qat use and esophageal cancer (EC risk and to inform the logistics required to conduct a multi-center case-control study.Between May 2012 and May 2013, 73 EC cases (including 12 gastro-esophageal junction cases and 133 controls matched individually on sex, age, and residence were enrolled at two endoscopy clinics and a cancer treatment hospital in Addis Ababa. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered. Qat use was defined as ever having chewed qat once a week or more frequently for at least one year. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression.Only 8% of cases resided in Addis Ababa. Qat use was more frequent in cases (36% than in controls (26%. A 2-fold elevation in EC risk was observed in ever qat chewers compared with never users in unadjusted conditional logistic regression (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.94, 4.74, an association that disappeared after adjusting for differences in tobacco use, consumption of alcohol and green vegetables, education level, and religion (OR = 0.95; 0.22, 4.22. Among never tobacco users, however, a non-significant increase in EC risk was suggested in ever qat users also after adjustment. Increases in EC risk were observed with ever tobacco use, alcohol consumption, low consumption of green vegetables, a salty diet, illiteracy, and among Muslims; the four latter associations were significant.This pilot study generated EC risk estimates in association with a habit practiced by millions of people and never before studied in a case-control design. Results must be interpreted cautiously in light of possible selection bias, with some demographics such as education level

  16. Bioactive prolactin levels and risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworoger, Shelley S.; Rice, Megan S.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolactin is a lactogenic hormone associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies, which used immunoassays. The immunoassay captures multiple isoforms and may not fully reflect the biological activity of prolactin relevant to breast carcinogenesis. Methods We considered plasma bioactive prolactin levels measured by the Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay, which is sensitive to the somatolactogenic activity of prolactin and growth hormone, within a nested case-control study of invasive breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). We also considered associations with breast cancer risk factors. Results We had bioassay measures on 1329 cases and 1329 controls. Bioassay levels were inversely associated with parity (4+ vs. 0 children=−18%, p=0.01), body mass index (30+ vs. prolactin levels measured by bioassay and by immunoassay with both breast cancer risk factors and risk. Impact Future work examining risk prediction model of breast cancer can use the immunoassay to accurately characterize risk. PMID:25315962

  17. Nutritional variables and work-related accidents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, M A T; Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos; da Costa, Proença Rossana Pacheco; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A case-control study was carried out in an industrial city in south-east Brazil. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted using work-related accidents as the response variable and nutritional variables as predictors. The associations were assessed by Odds Ratio (OR), with a p-value work-related accidents were (a) attending formal education for an above average number of years (OR=0.91, pwork-related accidents. This indicates the need, during the formulation of policies for these kinds of government benefits, to include nutrition aspects in order to minimize work-related accidents risks.

  18. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Pnutrition status.

  19. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  20. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Liu, Na; Li, Li-Li; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1) was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5%) and 13 (2.8%) of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571) or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400) were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774). The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB) shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  1. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  2. Reduced Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in Statin Users: Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Ian L P; Dearman, Leanne; Vardi, Inna; Loke, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Use of statins has been associated with a reduced incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in population-based studies. However there are few studies examining statin use and the development of Barrett's esophagus. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between statin use and the presence of Barrett's esophagus in patients having their first gastroscopy. We have performed a case-control study comparing statin use between patients with, and without, an incident diagnosis of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Male Barrett's cases (134) were compared to 268 male age-matched controls in each of two control groups (erosive gastro-esophageal reflux and dyspepsia without significant upper gastrointestinal disease). Risk factor and drug exposure were established using standardised interviews. Logistic regression was used to compare statin exposure and correct for confounding factors. We performed a meta-analysis pooling our results with three other case-control studies. Regular statin use was associated with a significantly lower incidence of Barrett's esophagus compared to the combined control groups [adjusted OR 0.62 (95 % confidence intervals 0.37-0.93)]. This effect was more marked in combined statin plus aspirin users [adjusted OR 0.43 (95 % CI 0.21-0.89)]. The inverse association between statin or statin plus aspirin use and risk of Barrett's was significantly greater with longer duration of use. Meta-analysis of pooled data (1098 Barrett's, 2085 controls) showed that statin use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of Barrett's esophagus [pooled adjusted OR 0.63 (95 % CI 0.51-0.77)]. Statin use is associated with a reduced incidence of a new diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus.

  3. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  4. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, H. B.; Al-Zoughool, M.; Garner, M. J.; Jiang, H.; Klotz, J. B.; Krewski, D.; Nicholson, W. J.; Schoenberg, J. B.; Villeneuve, P. J.; Zielinski, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m -3 , these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m -3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  5. Poison prevention practices and medically attended poisoning in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  7. Predictors of Nursing Staff Voluntary Termination in Nursing Homes: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Workforce instability in the long-term care sector has raised wide attention about nursing staff turnover. Most attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between facility's characteristics and organizational turnover. This case-control study examined the contribution of work characteristics to individual staff turnover. Surveys were collected with nursing staff in 18 for-profit nursing homes on up to five occasions between 2006 and 2012. A list of nursing staff voluntarily terminating jobs was provided by the company. Cases and controls (628 of each) were selected from survey respondents by matching on age, job category, and survey occasion. Multiple predictor conditional logistic regression models showed that evening shift work (hazards ratio [HR] = 2.00, p 8 hr (HR = 1.42, p voluntary termination. This study provides different perspectives of nursing staff voluntary termination in nursing homes. Future qualitative research would be valuable to explore and understand nursing staff turnover in the health care industry.

  8. Risk Factors for Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilia: A Prevalent Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Ojeifo, Oluseyi; Feng, Jinong; Yan, Jin; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sommer, Steve S.; Trucco, Massimo N.; Brambilla, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhibitor formation is a major complication of hemophilia treatment. Aim In a prevalent case-control study, we evaluated blood product exposure, genotype, and HLA type on hemophilia A inhibitor formation. Methods Product exposure was extracted from medical records. Genotype was determined on stored DNA samples by detection of virtually all mutations-SSCP (DOVAM-S) and subcycling PCR. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification and exonuclease-released fluorescence. Results Cases experienced higher intensity factor, 455 vs. 200 U per exposure, p0.100. Genotype was not associated with race. Time to immune tolerance was shorter for titers 0.50. Conclusions Inhibitor formation is associated with high intensity product exposure, CNS bleeding, African-American race, and low frequency of missense mutations. The ideal time to initiate prophylaxis to reduce CNS bleeding and inhibitor formation will require prospective studies. PMID:19563499

  9. Tobacco chewing and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadasi, F A; Shah, S A; Ghazi, H F

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to assess the risk factors for gastric cancer in Yemen. A hospital-based case-control study of 70 cases and 140 controls was carried out in Sana'a city between May and October 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information through direct interview. Living in rural areas, tobacco chewing and drinking untreated water were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Frequent consumption of chicken, cheese, milk, starchy vegetables, cucumber, carrots, leeks, sweet pepper, fruit drinks, legumes and olive oil were associated significantly with decreased risk of gastric cancer. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that chewing tobacco and frequent consumption of white bread were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer, whereas frequent consumption of chicken, cooked potatoes and fruit drinks had an inverse association. Risk of gastric cancer can be prevented by health education and increasing community awareness.

  10. A case-controlled study of altered visual art production in Alzheimer's and FTLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Katherine P; Liu, Anli A; Howard, Sara; Slama, Hilary; Hou, Craig E; Shuster, Karen; Miller, Bruce L

    2007-03-01

    To characterize dementia-induced changes in visual art production. Although case studies show altered visual artistic production in some patients with neurodegenerative disease, no case-controlled studies have quantified this phenomenon across groups of patients. Forty-nine subjects [18 Alzheimer disease, 9 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 9 semantic dementia (SD), 15 healthy older controls (NC)] underwent formal neuropsychologic testing of visuospatial, perceptual, and creative functioning, and produced 4 drawings. Subjective elements of drawings were rated by an expert panel that was blind to diagnosis. Despite equal performance on standard visuospatial tests, dementia groups produced distinct patterns of artistic features that were significantly different from NCs. FTDs used more disordered composition and less active mark-making (Pvisual art.

  11. Prolonged outbreak of Serratia marcescens in Tartu University Hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Vivika; Mitt, Piret; Pisarev, Heti; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Telling, Kaidi; Naaber, Paul; Maimets, Matti

    2012-10-31

    The aim of our study was to investigate and control an outbreak and identify risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens in two departments in Tartu University Hospital. The retrospective case-control study was conducted from July 2005 to December 2006. Molecular typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to confirm the relatedness of Serratia marcescens strains. Samples from the environment and from the hands of personnel were cultured. The outbreak involved 210 patients, 61 (29%) developed an infection, among them 16 were invasive infections. Multivariate analysis identified gestational age, arterial catheter use and antibiotic treatment as independent risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens. Molecular typing was performed on 83 Serratia marcescens strains, 81 of them were identical and 2 strains were different. Given the occasionally severe consequences of Serratia marcescens in infants, early implementation of aggressive infection control measures involving patients and mothers as well as the personnel is of utmost importance.

  12. Cardiovascular drugs and the risk of suicide: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callréus, Torbjörn; Agerskov Andersen, Ulla; Hallas, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During the past 30 years, various cardiovascular drugs have been implicated as causes of depression or suicide. Although the evidence for causal relationships has generally been conflicting, both beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) have been...... related to depression. Lipid-lowering therapies and calcium-channel blockers have also been linked to an increased risk of suicide. In this study, we investigated the possible association between the use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide using population-based register data. METHODS: We performed...... a nested case-control study in the county of Funen, Denmark, that consisted of 743 cases of completed suicide identified in a Death Registry for the period 1991-1998 and 14,860 age- and sex-matched controls. Information on previous drug use was retrieved from prescription data and the association between...

  13. Systemic inflammation in acute intermittent porphyria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storjord, E; Dahl, J A; Landsem, A; Fure, H; Ludviksen, J K; Goldbeck-Wood, S; Karlsen, B O; Berg, K S; Mollnes, T E; W Nielsen, E; Brekke, O-L

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is associated with systemic inflammation and whether the inflammation correlates with disease activity. A case-control study with 50 AIP cases and age-, sex- and place of residence-matched controls was performed. Plasma cytokines, insulin and C-peptide were analysed after an overnight fast using multiplex assay. Long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and complement activation products (C3bc and TCC) were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine porphobilinogen ratio (U-PBG, µmol/mmol creatinine), haematological and biochemical tests were performed using routine methods. Questionnaires were used to register AIP symptoms, medication and other diseases. All 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors investigated were increased significantly in symptomatic AIP cases compared with controls (P inflammation. Decreased C-peptide levels in symptomatic AIP cases indicate that reduced insulin release is associated with enhanced disease activity and reduced kidney function. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  14. Characterization of the polysensitized patient: a matched case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2009-01-01

    for polysensitization, including atopic eczema. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study of 562 polysensitized and 1124 single/double-sensitized individuals was performed. RESULTS: The results show that 45% of polysensitized and 31% of single/double-sensitized patients had or had had atopic eczema, and atopic eczema...... was identified as a risk factor for polysensitization. Patients with leg ulcer constituted only a minor part of the polysensitized group and leg ulcers were not identified as a risk factor for polysensitization in this study. The influence of contact allergies on duration and course of disease diverged between...... predispose to contact allergy. Therefore, it is of interest to consider atopic eczema and contact allergies, especially in patients with multiple allergies. OBJECTIVE: To characterize polysensitized patients regarding occurrence, duration and course of dermatitis, and examine potential risk factors...

  15. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  16. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Ortega, Sara; Del Olmo, Lourdes; Vidal, Xavier; Aguirre, Carmelo; Ruiz, Borja; Conforti, Anita; Leone, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Paula; Figueiras, Adolfo; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. Methods We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months) and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day). Results 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57–1.96) or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. Conclusions The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2. PMID:21625637

  17. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

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    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  18. Risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Leonilda Giani; de Menezes, Fernando Gatti; Gonçalves, Priscila; Toniolo, Alexandra do Rosário; Silva, Claudia Vallone; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; dos Santos, Camila Marques; Castagna, Helena Maria Fernandes; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Corrêa, Luci

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the microbiological characteristics and to assess the risk factors for mortality of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a case-control study of intensive care patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted over a 6-year period in a 40-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care, private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients were identified using the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee database. For the analysis of risk factors, matched control subjects were selected from the same institution at a 1:8.8 ratio, between January 2006 and December 2011. Results A total of 40 episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis were evaluated in 40 patients in the intensive care unit, and 354 intensive care patients who did not experience tracheobronchitis were included as the Control Group. During the 6-year study period, a total of 42 organisms were identified (polymicrobial infections were 5%) and 88.2% of all the microorganisms identified were Gram-negative. Using a logistic regression model, we found the following independent risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis patients: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation I score (odds ratio 1.18 per unit of score; 95%CI: 1.05-1.38; p=0.01), and duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.09 per day of mechanical ventilation; 95%CI: 1.03-1.17; p=0.004). Conclusion Our study provided insight into the risk factors for mortality and microbiological characteristics of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. PMID:28444091

  19. Medical illness, medication use and suicide in seniors: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voaklander, D C; Rowe, B H; Dryden, D M; Pahal, J; Saar, P; Kelly, K D

    2008-02-01

    Suicide among seniors is a significant health problem in north America, particularly for men in whom the rates rise steadily after 50 years of age. The goal of this study was to examine elder suicides identified from a large population-based database using case-control methods to determine disease and medication factors related to suicide. A population-based 1 : 5 case-control study was conducted comparing seniors aged 66 years and older who had died by suicide with age and sex-matched controls. Case data were obtained through British Columbia (BC) Vital Statistics, whereas controls were randomly selected from the BC Health Insurance Registry. Cases and controls were linked to the provincial PharmaCare database to determine medication use and the provincial Physician Claims and Inpatient Hospitalization databases to determine co-morbidity. Between 1993 and 2002 a total of 602 seniors died by suicide in BC giving an annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Firearms were the most common mechanism (28%), followed by hanging/suffocation (25%), self-poisoning (21%), and jumping from height (7%). In the adjusted logistic model, variables related to suicide included: lower socioeconomic status, depression/psychosis, neurosis, stroke, cancer, liver disease, parasuicide, benzodiazepine use, narcotic pain killer use and diuretic use. There was an elevated risk for those prescribed inappropriate benzodiazepines and for those using strong narcotic pain killers. This study is consistent with previous studies that have identified a relationship between medical or psychiatric co-morbidity and suicide in seniors. In addition, new and potentially useful information confirms that certain types and dosages of benzodiazepines are harmful to seniors and their use should be avoided.

  20. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

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    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  1. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

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    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  2. Vitamin D Status and Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidinaeini, Yasaman; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abdollahi, Morteza; Ajami, Marjan; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Considering the rising incidence of breast cancer and high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran, this case-control study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum concentration and intake of vitamin D and risk of breast cancer. A total of 135 incident breast cancer cases at the Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were matched with 135 controls by age and menopausal status. A validated and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by participant interviews. To determine the vitamin D content of foods we used the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient database. To analyze the food frequency questionnaires we used the data collected in the Iranian Household Food Pattern Study, conducted by the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute and the Iranian Ministry of Agriculture. Five-milliliter blood samples were collected to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Women in the fourth quartile of serum 25(OH)D level had 3 times lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to those in the first quartile. In the adjusted model the inverse relationship remained significant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.269; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.122-0.593). In the stratified model by menopausal status the inverse association was only seen in premenopausal women (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.094-0.687). Dietary intake of vitamin D was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer (OR fourth quartile [Q4] vs first quartile [Q1] = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.196-0.784; p = 0.008). After adjusting for the confounding factors, this inverse association remained significant. Results from this case-control study support the protective effect of higher serum concentration of 25(OH)D against breast cancer. Moreover, dietary but not total intake of vitamin D was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer.

  3. Association between protozoa in sputum and asthma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerden, Hugo C; Ratier-Cruz, Adriana; Aleshinloye, Olabode B; Martinez-Giron, Rafael; Gregory, Clive; Matthews, Ian P

    2011-06-01

    Atypical infectious agents have been proposed as potential contributors to asthma. A novel set of morphological and staining criteria permit the identification of flagellated protozoa in sputum. This case-control study was designed to use this novel method and to assess: (1) are protozoa more common in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics; (2) is the presence of protozoa associated with the use of steroid inhalers; and (3) is the presence of protozoa associated with living in damp housing? Induced sputum samples were collected from asthma patients and local non-atopic, non-smoking controls. Questionnaires assessed asthma severity and housing conditions. Sputum was examined for flagellated protozoa using a previously described staining technique. 96 participants were recruited for this study; 54 asthma patients and 42 controls, age range 21-62 years, 70% female participants. Limiting results to those who were clearly positive or negative for flagellated protozoa, 66.7% (20/30) of asthmatics and 30.8% (4/13) of controls had protozoa (p = 0.046). Among the asthma patients, prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who had (10/18), and those who had not (10/12), used steroid inhaler in the preceding two weeks (p = 0.11). Similarly, the prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who did (6/11) and those who did not (18/32), live in damp homes (p = 0.92). This case-control study demonstrates an association between flagellated protozoa in sputum and asthma. It is now necessary to confirm and characterise the protozoa using genetic techniques based on 18S ribosomal RNA. Once tis is established it would be worthwhile to determine if asthma symptoms improve when treated by anti-protozoal agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nasal Airway Microbiota Profile and Severe Bronchiolitis in Infants: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Linnemann, Rachel W; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Ajami, Nadim J; Espinola, Janice A; Petrosino, Joseph F; Piedra, Pedro A; Stevenson, Michelle D; Sullivan, Ashley F; Thompson, Amy D; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship of airway microbiota with bronchiolitis in infants. We aimed to identify nasal airway microbiota profiles and to determine their association with the likelihood of bronchiolitis in infants. A case-control study was conducted. As a part of a multicenter prospective study, we collected nasal airway samples from 40 infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We concurrently enrolled 110 age-matched healthy controls. By applying 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and an unbiased clustering approach to these 150 nasal samples, we identified microbiota profiles and determined the association of microbiota profiles with likelihood of bronchiolitis. Overall, the median age was 3 months and 56% were male. Unbiased clustering of airway microbiota identified 4 distinct profiles: Moraxella-dominant profile (37%), Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile (27%), Staphylococcus-dominant profile (15%) and mixed profile (20%). Proportion of bronchiolitis was lowest in infants with Moraxella-dominant profile (14%) and highest in those with Staphylococcus-dominant profile (57%), corresponding to an odds ratio of 7.80 (95% confidence interval, 2.64-24.9; P profile and greater likelihood of bronchiolitis persisted (odds ratio for comparison with Moraxella-dominant profile, 5.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-22.9; P = 0.03). By contrast, Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile group had low proportion of infants with bronchiolitis (17%); the likelihood of bronchiolitis in this group did not significantly differ from those with Moraxella-dominant profile in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In this case-control study, we identified 4 distinct nasal airway microbiota profiles in infants. Moraxella-dominant and Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profiles were associated with low likelihood of bronchiolitis, while Staphylococcus-dominant profile was associated with high likelihood of bronchiolitis.

  5. Correlation of Tourette syndrome and allergic disease: nationwide population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Tzu; Li, Yu-Fen; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chin, Zheng-Nan; Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Lin, Hung-Chih; Sung, Fung-Chang; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Chou, I-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Linkage between allergy and increased immune response activation in Tourette syndrome (TS) has been reported. We performed a matched case-control study to evaluate correlation between allergic diseases and TS. Data in this case-control study were from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The sample comprised 845 2- to 18-year-old patients with newly diagnosed TS in 2003–2007 and 3378 controls frequency matched with cases on age, sex, and urbanization level. Unconditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between allergic disease (e.g., allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic conjunctivitis), the number of allergic comorbidities, and TS. The majority (76.0%) of incident TS cases were boys; the 4 allergic diseases strongly correlated with higher risk of TS. In a model simultaneously considering all 4 allergic diseases, subjects with allergic rhinitis showed double the risk of TS (adjusted OR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.83–2.59; p < 0.0001); adjusted ORs were 1.82, 1.61, and 1.33, respectively, for asthma (95% CI 1.47–2.24; p < 0.0001), dermatitis (95%CI 1.32–1.95; p < 0.0001), and allergic conjunctivitis (95% CI 1.13–1.57; p < 0.001). Risk increased with number of comorbidities (p < 0.0001); this association was positively modified by age (p < 0.0001). Our data showed significant correlation between allergic diseases and TS. Risk also increased with number of allergic comorbidities and with age. Further studies on the mechanism of neuroimmunology of TS are required.

  6. Exposure to statins and risk of common cancers: a series of nested case-control studies

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    Coupland Carol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 1 Abstract Background Many studies and meta-analyses have investigated the effects of statins on cancer incidence but without showing consistent effects. Methods A series of nested case-control studies was conducted covering 574 UK general practices within the QResearch database. Cases were patients with primary cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. The associations between statin use and risk of ten site-specific cancers were estimated with conditional logistic regression adjusted for co-morbidities, smoking status, socio-economic status, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and aspirin. Results 88125 cases and 362254 matched controls were analysed. The adjusted odds ratio for any statin use and cancer at any site were 1.01 (95%CI 0.99 to 1.04. For haematological malignancies there was a significant reduced risk associated with any statin use (odds ratio 0.78, 95%CI 0.71 to 0.86. Prolonged (more than 4 years use of statins was associated with a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio 1.23, 95%CI 1.10 to 1.38, bladder cancer (odds ratio 1.29, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.54 and lung cancer (odds ratio 1.18, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.34. There were no significant associations with any other cancers. Conclusion In this large population-based case-control study, prolonged use of statins was not associated with an increased risk of cancer at any of the most common sites except for colorectal cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer, while there was a reduced risk of haematological malignancies.

  7. Foods and risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, J C; Larrinaga, M T; De Stefani, E; Mendilaharsu, M; Ronco, A L; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P

    2001-10-01

    A case-control study on 144 cases of transitional cell bladder carcinoma and 576 hospitalized controls was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Barbecued meat, salted meat and fried eggs were associated with significant increased risks of bladder cancer (odds ratio (OR) for high intake of salted meat 4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24-7.27). On the other hand, all fruits, cooked vegetables, potatoes and cheese were associated with inverse associations (OR for high consumption of potatoes 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64). The associations with salted and barbecued meat suggest that the way of preserving or cooking meat play a role in bladder carcinogenesis. More precisely, N-nitroso compounds and heterocyclic amines could be involved in this process.

  8. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......% of population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  9. [Multicenter case-control study of the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi-Shan; He, Hui-Chan; Cai, Chao; Chen, Jia-Hong; Han, Zhao-Dong; Qin, Guo-Qiang; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Zhong, Wei-de

    2011-09-13

    To explore the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China. A multicenter case-control study was conducted from September 2005 to June 2008. A total of 432 bladder cancer patients, matched with 392 control cases, received a questionnaire including the type of exposure (active vs. passive smoking), the age of beginning and/or quitting smoking, smoking amount and time and depth of smoke inhalation. Both active smoking and passive smoking increased the incidence of bladder cancer (P Smoke amount and time were significantly correlated with bladder cancer risk (P smoking did not affect the bladder cancer risk (P > 0.05). Inhaling smoke into mouth or throat was also a risk factor for bladder cancer (P smoking and bladder cancer. Active and passive smoking, smoke amount and time, and the depth of smoke inhalation are risk factors for bladder cancer. The best way of preventing bladder cancer is never smoking.

  10. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. Objectives: We sought to investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol. Methods: We identified all long-term users of allopurinol......Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid...... in Funen County, Denmark. Among these, we identified all cases of cardiovascular events (Antiplatelet trialist's Collaboration composite endpoint) and sampled 4 controls to each case from the same population. The cases and controls were compared with respect to whether they reached a urate target below 0...

  11. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

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    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  12. Gut microbiota diversity and T1DM onset: Preliminary data of a case-control study

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    Deborah Traversi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes incidence is increasing during the last decades. Recently, a role of microbiota alteration is proposed as pre-diabetic and diabetic risk factor. A bicentric case-control study is in progress in Northern Italy. Here preliminary results are shown. The microbiome clusterization showed a division between cases and controls even if fingerprint profiles are heterogenic. Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly present only in few patients. The diversity index and the microorganism sequenced in cases and controls, seems to be quite dissimilar. The conclusive results could show a significant predictive value for the bio-indicators evaluated. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Microbiota, Children, Methanobrevibacter smithii, qRT-PCR

  13. Autoimmune disease and risk for Parkinson disease A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, K.; Friis, S.; Ritz, B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Inflammatory mediators are increased in autoimmune diseases and may activate microglia and might cause an inflammatory state and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Thus, we evaluated whether having an autoimmune disease increases the risk for developing Parkinson disease...... (PD). Methods: A population based case-control study was conducted in Denmark of 13,695 patients with a primary diagnosis of PD recorded in the Danish National Hospital Register during the period 1986-2006. Each case was matched on year of birth and sex to 5 population controls selected at random from...... do not support the hypothesis that autoimmune diseases increase the risk for Parkinson disease. The decreased risk observed among patients with rheumatoid arthritis might be explained by underdiagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease in this patient group or by a protective effect...

  14. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals...... than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  15. Mallory Weiss syndrome is not associated with hiatal hernia: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Juan E; Keihanian, Tara; Kröner, Paul T; Dauer, Ryan; Lukens, Frank J; Sussman, Daniel A

    2017-04-01

    Hiatal hernia is considered to be a predisposing factor to develop Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (MWS). No large case-control studies verifying this hypothesis have been conducted. We reviewed all esophagogastroduodenoscopies with findings of MWS (n = 2342) in a national database and compared with age and gender-matched controls (n = 9368). Demographics, endoscopic characteristics and presence of a hiatal hernia were compared between both groups. Average age was 56.7 ± 18.6 years, and 72.4% were male. Hiatal hernia was more common in controls, and no significant difference was seen in a multivariate analysis. Dynamic changes inducing mucosal tension are more relevant determinants to develop MWS than gastro-esophageal junction location alone.

  16. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  17. A case control study: White-collar defendants compared with defendants charged with other nonviolent theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Ernest; Lemmen, Craig; Jibson, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the clinical, criminal, and sociodemographic characteristics of all white-collar crime defendants referred to the evaluation unit of a state center for forensic psychiatry. With 29,310 evaluations in a 12-year period, we found 70 defendants charged with embezzlement, 3 with health care fraud, and no other white-collar defendants (based on the eight crimes widely accepted as white-collar offenses). In a case-control study design, the 70 embezzlement cases were compared with 73 defendants charged with other forms of nonviolent theft. White-collar defendants were found to have a higher likelihood of white race (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) = 4.51), more years of education (adj. OR = 3471), and a lower likelihood of substance abuse (adj. OR = .28) than control defendants. Logistic regression modeling showed that the variance in the relationship between unipolar depression and white-collar crime was more economically accounted for by education, race, and substance abuse.

  18. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    -dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator...... blood pressures, and plasma levels of triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated glucose, compared with controls. This indicates that even mild-to-moderate psoriasis may be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disease, and that an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity may...

  19. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it.

  20. Maternal Abortion History and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects. A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na-Na; Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Ying; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between maternal abortion history and congenital heart defect (CHD) risk in subsequent pregnancies. A multihospital-based case-control study was conducted. The cases included 370 women whose fetuses were diagnosed with CHDs. The controls were 413 women with fetuses without an apparent malformation in the same hospital. All of the participants were investigated by trained interviewers. Univariate analysis was performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to evaluate the risk of maternal abortion history on CHD risk. There were no statistically significant positive associations between maternal abortion (induced abortion and spontaneous abortion) occurrence and the risk of CHDs. There were no statistically significant positive associations between the number of maternal abortions (induced and spontaneous) and the risk of congenital heart defects. Maternal abortion history may not be associated with fetal CHDs.

  1. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston-Martin, S.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.; Pike, M.C.; Wood, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  2. Breast cancer and smoking, vodka drinking and dietary habits. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlega, J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking, vodka drinking and consumption of 44 food items typical of the Polish diet were analysed in a case-control study in Cracow, Poland, among 127 cases of breast cancer and 250 controls randomly selected from the general population. Cigarette smoking was not significantly influencing the breast cancer risk. Compared with never-drinkers, the habit of vodka drinking 20 years earlier significantly increased breast cancer risk in women below 50 years of age (multivariate OR was 4.4 with 95% CI 1.6-12.4). Frequent consumption of boiled vegetables 20 years earlier (greater than 3 times per week) was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in women aged 50 years and more (multivariate OR was 0.4 with 95% CI 0.2-0.8).

  3. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  4. Case-control study of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    .02). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing cumulative gadodiamide exposure, high-dose epoietin-beta treatment, and higher serum concentrations of ionized calcium and phosphate increase the risk of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in renal failure patients. Severe cases seem to develop primarily among patients......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis may be caused by gadolinium (Gd)-containing magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Most reported cases were associated with one particular agent, gadodiamide. Yet, unidentified cofactors might explain why only a minority of renal failure patients...... exposed to gadodiamide develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 19 histologically verified cases and 19 sex- and age-matched controls. All subjects had chronic renal failure when exposed to gadodiamide. Clinical, biochemical and pharmacological data were...

  5. A retrospective likelihood approach for efficient integration of multiple omics factors in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, Brunilda; Tsonaka, Roula; Boehringer, Stefan; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine

    2015-03-01

    Integrative omics, the joint analysis of outcome and multiple types of omics data, such as genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics data, constitute a promising approach for powerful and biologically relevant association studies. These studies often employ a case-control design, and often include nonomics covariates, such as age and gender, that may modify the underlying omics risk factors. An open question is how to best integrate multiple omics and nonomics information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals based on the phenotype. Recent work on integrative omics have used prospective approaches, modeling case-control status conditional on omics, and nonomics risk factors. Compared to univariate approaches, jointly analyzing multiple risk factors with a prospective approach increases power in nonascertained cohorts. However, these prospective approaches often lose power in case-control studies. In this article, we propose a novel statistical method for integrating multiple omics and nonomics factors in case-control association studies. Our method is based on a retrospective likelihood function that models the joint distribution of omics and nonomics factors conditional on case-control status. The new method provides accurate control of Type I error rate and has increased efficiency over prospective approaches in both simulated and real data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association between colonic diverticulosis and bowel symptoms: A case-control study of 1629 Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Aoki, Tomonori; Shimbo, Takuro; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether diverticulosis, absent inflammation, is responsible for chronic bowel symptoms. We examined the association between bowel symptoms and asymptomatic diverticulosis. This case-control study included 543 patients with diverticulosis and 1086 age and sex-matched controls (1:2) without diverticulosis on screening colonoscopy. Eleven symptoms (abdominal discomfort, hunger discomfort, borborygmus, abdominal distension, flatus, constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) were evaluated using a gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS) at baseline and second questionnaire. Associations between diverticulosis and symptoms were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence interval (CI). In multivariate analysis, constipation (OR, 0.85 [0.78-0.93]) and hard stools (OR, 0.86 [0.78-0.94]) were negatively associated with diverticulosis. The other nine symptoms showed no association with diverticulosis. Diverticulosis was negatively associated with constipation (OR, 0.93 [0.74-0.93]), hard stools (OR, 0.85 [0.76-0.96]), and incomplete evacuation (OR, 0.88 [0.79-0.99]) in males, and positively associated with diarrhea (OR, 1.39 [1.14-1.69]) and loose stools (OR, 1.28 [1.05-1.55]) in females. No bowel symptoms were positively associated with any of right-sided, left-sided, or bilateral diverticulosis. Test-retest reliability of GSRS (mean interval, 4.4 months) was moderate (Mean Kappa, 0.568) in males and good (Mean Kappa, 0.652) in females. This large, colonoscopy-based, case-control study demonstrated that neither constipation nor hard stools were associated with an increased risk of diverticulosis, regardless of diverticulum location. In females, but not males, diarrhea and loose stools were positively associated with diverticulosis. Long-term test-retest reliability suggested that these symptoms remain consistent over a given period. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

  7. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Intrauterine device use and the risk of pre-eclampsia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S E; Jick, S S; Werler, M M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the association between intrauterine device (IUD) use, timing of removal prior to pregnancy, and the risk of pre-eclampsia. A case-control study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, UK. Medical record database in the UK. Cases of pre-eclampsia (n = 2744) were identified among pregnancies resulting in singleton deliveries from 1993 to 2010. Four controls, or pregnancies unaffected by pre-eclampsia, were matched to each case on maternal age, general practice, and year of delivery. Data on IUD use were obtained from patient records. The odds ratios (ORs) for the association between IUD and pre-eclampsia were adjusted for covariates identified a priori, and analyses were stratified by BMI and number of prior deliveries. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, 95% CIs) of pre-eclampsia in pregnancies among women with a history of IUD use, compared with women without a history of IUD use. Prior IUD use was associated with a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58-0.98). The timing of removal in relation to the start of pregnancy showed an inverse association, with shorter intervals associated with a larger decrease in risk of pre-eclampsia. IUD removal within a year prior to pregnancy had an OR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-1.00). Among women with a prior delivery, the association between IUD use and pre-eclampsia was null. Intrauterine device use is associated with a small decreased risk of pre-eclampsia, specifically if removed within the year prior to conception. A case-control study of pregnancies in the UK suggests a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia for former IUD users. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after Wenchuan earthquake: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Wang, Fang; Wen, Jin; Shi, Yingkang

    2014-01-01

    Few clues were found in the literature about the independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors in Sichuan province three years after the 2008 earthquake. Ours was the first case-control study with matching factors of age and distance from the epicenter among survivors age 16 years or older, three years after the catastrophe. To identify independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors. We performed a population-based matched case-control study. The cases were drawn from earthquake areas three years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including 113 cases who met positive criteria for PTSD symptoms according to the PCL-C (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version) score and 452 controls who did not meet the criteria. Cases and controls were matched individually by birth year (+ three years) and the town they lived in when the earthquake occurred. Independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms included two-week disease prevalence (odds ratio [OR],1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.18-3.13), witnessing someone being killed in the earthquake (OR, 2.04;95%CI, 1.17-3.58), having no regular income after the earthquake (OR, 0.52; 95%CI, 0.28-0.98), receiving mental health support only one time after the earthquake (OR, 2.43; 95%CI, 1.09-5.42) and lower social support (lower PSSS score) (OR, 0.95; 95%CI, 0.93-0.97). Earthquake experience, suffering from physical illnesses, lack of stable income, and lower social support were associated with PTSD symptoms.

  11. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Anjum; Godward, Sara; Williams, Dillwyn; Siddique, Iqbal; Al-Saleh, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth ± three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  12. The quality of reporting of cohort, case-control studies in the korean journal of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung

    2012-03-01

    The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during the period January 1992 through December 2009. The main outcome measures were the number and proportion of cohort studies and case-control studies that reported each of 22 checklist items of STROBE. We identified a total of 84 articles, of which 46 articles were cohort studies and 38 were case-control studies. Concerning methods, study designs (10%), bias (13%), study size (0%), statistical methods (12-c and 12-e items, 0%; 12-d item, cohort study, 6%) have been poorly reported. Of results, participants (5-6%), descriptive data (14-b item, 5%), and funding (1%) among other information have been poorly reported. The degree of adherence the STROBE recommendations was relatively low in cohort studies and case-control studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. An effort to improve the reporting of observational studies by application and recommendation of the STROBE statement is required.

  13. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  14. Anticholinergic Medication Use and Risk of Pneumonia in Elderly Adults: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Carnahan, Ryan M; Chen, Hua; Holmes, Holly M; Johnson, Michael L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-02-01

    To examine the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) associated with the use of anticholinergic medications in elderly adults. Nested case-control study. A regional Medicare Advantage healthcare plan (2009-2010). Participants were Medicare Advantage Plan enrollees aged 65 and older with at least one inpatient and one outpatient claim with no history of CAP between January 1 and June 30, 2009. Cases were identified as enrollees with an incident diagnosis of CAP, between July 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010 (n = 291). Four age- and sex-matched controls (n = 1,164) were identified per case using incidence density sampling. Anticholinergic prescription 30 days preceding the event date was the primary exposure. Anticholinergic exposure was defined based on the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). A conditional logistic regression model stratified on matched case-control sets was used, with exposure to a Level 1, 2, or 3 anticholinergic on the ADS as the main independent variable; CAP as the main outcome variable; and risk factors for CAP as additional explanatory variables. After controlling for risk factors, overall use of anticholinergic medications was significantly associated with risk of pneumonia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-2.28). The risk of pneumonia remained significant across the different exposure periods, although use of higher-level (ADS Level 2 or 3) anticholinergics was not associated with pneumonia risk (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.70-1.96). Overall use of anticholinergic medications, but not higher-level drugs, was associated with greater risk of CAP compared to no use after controlling for other factors. More research is needed to better understand the role of potent anticholinergic medications on pneumonia risk in elderly adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Richardson, Lesley; Campbell, Sally; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. We also estimated response rates according to characteristics of study context. Median response rates among cases and population controls were between 75% and 80% in the 1970s. Between 1971 and 2010, study response rates declined by 0.31% per year for cases and 0.78% for population controls. Only a minority of studies reported reasons for nonparticipation; subject refusal was the most common reported reason. Studies conducted in North America had lower median response rates than studies conducted in Europe. In-person and telephone interviews elicited higher response rates than mail questionnaires. Response rates from case-control studies of cancer have declined, and this could threaten the validity of results derived from these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the risk of osteoporotic fractures: nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, I; Nicolau, B; Eimar, H; Arekunnath Madathil, S; Kezouh, A; Karp, I; Tamimi, F

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) on the risk of osteoporotic fractures in Alzheimer patients. A nested case-control study was conducted on 1190 cases and 4760 controls. The use of AChEIs was found to decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures in these patients. The objective of this study is to estimate the extent to which the use of AChEIs is associated with a reduction in the risk of osteoporotic fractures. A nested case-control study was conducted using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database (1998-2013). The study cohort consisted of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients aged ≥ 65 years with no previous history of osteoporotic fractures at cohort baseline. Cases were individuals who suffered an osteoporotic fracture during the study period, whereas controls were subject who did not experience any osteoporotic fractures during the same period. Controls were drawn from the population time at risk while being matched to the cases in respect to age, sex, up-to-standard follow-up in the CPRD, calendar time, and duration of AD (control-to-case ratio: 4-to-1). Information on the use of AChEIs and the relevant potential confounders was ascertained from the CPRD database for all the cases and controls. We identified 1190 cases and 4760 controls. Compared to non-users, any use of AChEIs prior to the fracture was associated with a reduction in the fracture risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.80 (confidence interval (CI) 95%, 0.70-0.91)]. The use of AChEIs corresponding to a proportion of days covered of 0.8-1.0 was associated with a lower osteoporotic fracture risk compared to non-use [adjusted OR 0.76 (CI 95%, 0.66-0.87)]. In this study using large primary care databases, the use and treatment adherence to AChEIs were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporotic fractures in elderly AD patients.

  18. Sleep disturbances in fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Lin; Chang, Ling-Yin; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Fang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in fibromyalgia, but the features of sleep disturbances are not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies to compare the sleep outcomes of individuals with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. We systematically searched eight databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Airiti Library and Wanfang Data) for articles published before April 2016. Twenty-five case-controlled studies and a total of 2086 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Sleep was assessed using polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. When sleep was assessed using polysomnography (19 studies), significant differences were observed in wake time after sleep onset (g=0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-1.41), total sleep time (g=-0.78, 95% CI=-1.34 to -0.15), sleep efficiency (g=-0.78, 95% CI=-1.23 to -0.32), percentage of stage 1 sleep (g=0.55, 95% CI=0.15-0.95), and percentage of slow-wave sleep (g=-0.66, 95% CI=-1.21 to -0.12) between participants with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. When sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (7 studies), significant differences were observed in global scores (g=2.19, 95% CI 1.58-2.79), sleep onset latency (g=1.75, 95% CI 0.80-2.70), and sleep efficiency (g=-1.08, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.51) between participants with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia experience lower sleep quality and sleep efficiency; longer wake time after sleep onset, short sleep duration, and light sleep when objectively assessed and more difficulty in initiating sleep when subjectively assessed. Sleep difficulties in fibromyalgia appear to be more when reported subjectively than when assessed objectively. This study received no funding from any source. All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors

  19. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  20. The prediction of discharge from in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation: a case-control study

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    Mountain Debbie A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At any time, about 1% of people with severe and enduring mental illness such as schizophrenia require in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation. In-patient rehabilitation enables individuals with the most challenging difficulties to be discharged to successful and stable community living. However, the length of rehabilitation admission that is required is highly variable and the reasons for this are poorly understood. There are very few case-control studies of predictors of outcome following hospitalisation. None have been carried out for in-patient rehabilitation. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with achieving discharge from in-patient rehabilitation by carrying out a case-control study. Methods We compared two groups: 34 people who were admitted to the Rehabilitation Service at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and discharged within a six year study period, and 31 people who were admitted in the same period, but not discharged. We compared the groups on demographic, illness, treatment and risk variables that were present at the point of their admission to rehabilitation. We used independent t tests and Pearson Chi-Square tests to compare the two groups. Results We found that serious self harm and suicide attempts, treatment with high dose antipsychotics, antipsychotic polypharmacy and previous care in forensic psychiatric services were all significantly associated with non-discharge. The non-discharged group were admitted significantly later in the six year study period and had already spent significantly longer in hospital. People who were admitted to rehabilitation within the first ten years of developing psychosis were more likely to have achieved discharge. Conclusions People admitted later in the study period required longer rehabilitation admissions and had higher rates of serious self harm and treatment resistant illness. They were also more likely to have had previous contact with forensic services. This

  1. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score Concussions resulting from playing a nonhelmet sport were also associated with a higher risk for prolonged symptoms in

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  3. Dermatoglyphic patterns in dementia of the Alzheimer type: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, C; Okra-Podrabinek, N; Feteanu, D; Taurand, S; Hervy, M P; Forette, F; Piette, F; Sebag-Lanoe, R; Alperovitch, A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to compare digital and palmar dermatoglyphics in subjects with dementia of Alzheimer type and in mentally healthy elderly controls. DESIGN--This design was a case-control study. SETTING--The study was carried out in geriatric units and retirement communities in the Paris area. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were women with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer type dementia according to DSM III-R criteria (n = 82), mainly with late onset of the disease. Controls were women aged 85 years or older without cognitive deterioration (n = 76). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Finger and palm prints obtained from both hands by the classical ink method were examined. Fingerprints were classified into four types of figures. On palms, palmar flexion creases, palmar axial triradii, true patterns of the hypothenar area, and main line terminations were described. Examinations were performed by two examiners blind to the subjects's diagnostic category. For the different patterns studied, no major differences between dementia patients and elderly controls were found. Nor was there evidence of high frequencies of features commonly observed in Down's syndrome (trisomy 21), which have previously, though sporadically, been reported. CONCLUSIONS--On one of the largest samples of Alzheimer dementia patients studied, and with evaluation blind to diagnosis, no evidence has been found that particular dermatoglyphic patterns occur like those observed in Down's syndrome, a disease which is related to dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:1479321

  4. Periostin - A Novel Systemic Biomarker for Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emprm, Viswanathan; Rajanandh, M G; Nageswari, A D

    2016-02-01

    Chronic airway inflammation and remodelling are fundamental features of asthma. The molecular phenotypes in asthma are Th2 high and Th2 low. Serum periostin is a biomarker which aid in understanding Th2 high eosinophilic asthma. The present study aimed to identify whether or not serum periostin is a systemic biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics. The study was designed as a prospective, case control study. Patients who presented with consistent symptoms of asthma and confirmed by spirometry with reversibility were the cases. The controls were healthy subjects who had no history of lung disease with normal lung function. The sputum and blood samples were collected from both the groups. Sputum eosinophils, Absolute Eosinophil Counts (AEC) and serum periostin levels were compared between the groups. The study comprised of 101 participants in which 30 were controls and 71 were cases. In the study group, mean post FEV1 was 64.45. There was a positive correlation of sputum eosinophils with severity of obstruction. The ROC curve analysis showed the cut-off value of 24.556 for serum periostin with the p-value of limitation in asthmatic patients with a Th2 high eosinophilic phenotype when compared to AEC and sputum eosinophils.

  5. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  6. Poor oral health and coronary artery disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Javed; Hussain Bokhari, Syed Akhtar; Manzoor, Sobia; Khan, Ayyaz Ali

    2012-11-01

    There is insufficient research on the relationship of oral health and coronary artery disease (CAD) from developing countries, such as Pakistan. This study observes the status of oral health in the CAD population. A case-control study was conducted on 145 cases and 145 controls. Otherwise healthy patients with CAD (cases) and individuals free from previous/current history of CAD (controls), having ≥14 remaining teeth, were examined for oral health status through missing teeth, plaque index (PI), and community periodontal index (CPI). Student t test, χ2 test, and multivariate regression analysis were applied at significance level of 95% (P ≤ 0.05) to compare study parameters between cases and controls. A significant difference between cases and controls was observed in this study sample with respect to missing teeth (P = 0.027) and periodontal parameters of PI and CPI (P poor periodontal status: OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.81 to 11.61) scores was noted; cases were at odds of 1.20 (95% CI = 0.93 to 15.68, P = 0.017) for having poor oral health after adjusting age, sex, and education. Poor oral health was significantly associated with CAD in this study sample matched for sociodemographic characteristics.

  7. [Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis: A multicenter case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becmeur, P H; Abry, F; Bourcier, T; Meyer, N; Sauer, A

    2017-03-01

    Currently, the most feared complication by ophthalmologists of contact lens (CL) wear is microbial keratitis (MK), even though its incidence remains low. It is also a significant financial burden for society. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for CL-related MK especially with regard to hygiene and pattern of use, in a large, prospective, multicenter, case-control study. A multicenter retrospective case-control study was designed. The CL-related MK subpopulation (case) was compared with healthy CL wearers (control) using a 52-item anonymous questionnaire designed to determine subject demographics, lens wear history, lens type and disinfection solution, fitting, patient education, hygiene and maintenance of contact lenses, and patient history. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare both groups. The study included 497 cases and 364 controls. The risk factors associated with the greatest increased odds of CL-related MK were as follows: extended wear (OR=2.96 [1.65-5.33], P<0.001), occasional overnight lens use (OR=6.37 [4,55-8.90], P<0.001), fitting by an optician (OR=1.97 [1.38-2.83], P<0.001), absence of ophthalmologic exam (OR=6.56 [2-22], P<0.01) or no training in handling the contact lens (OR=4.47 [2.27-8.77], P<0.01), use of optician's disinfection solution (OR=5.55 [3.12-9.85], P<0.001), mixing solutions ("topping off") (OR=4.68 [2.73-8.04], P<0.001), no case replacement (OR=3.95 [2.28-6.82] P<0.01), no compliance with hygiene rules and smoking (OR=2.29 [1.67-3.14], P<0.01). The protective factors associated with the greatest reduction in OR were female gender (OR=0.49 [0.36-0.66], P<0.01), hypermetropia (OR=0.28 [0.16-0.48], P=0.01), rigid contact lens wear, fitting by an ophthalmologist, written and verbal instruction, and daily case maintenance. The knowledge of these risks factors incentivizes action at all levels to reduce the incidence of MK, from the prescriber to the patient, including the type of CL, case and

  8. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  9. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E; Li, Christopher I

    2014-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra-wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases and 590 invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with 469 control women between 55 to 74 years of age. Information on bra-wearing habits and other breast cancer risk factors was collected from study participants through in-person interviews. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. No aspect of bra wearing, including bra cup size, recency, average number of hours/day worn, wearing a bra with an underwire, or age first began regularly wearing a bra, was associated with risks of either IDC or ILC. Our results did not support an association between bra wearing and increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases and 590 invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 to 469 control women between 55 to 74 years of age. Information on bra wearing habits and other breast cancer risk factors were collected from study participants through in-person interviews. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. No aspect of bra wearing including bra cup size, recency, average number of hours/day worn, wearing a bra with an underwire, or age first began regularly wearing a bra, was associated with risks of either IDC or ILC. Our results did not support an association between bra wearing and increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:25192706

  11. Case-control study of pneumonia patients with Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria in their sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Jun; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Haranaga, Shusaku; Kinjo, Takeshi; Hagihara, Mao; Kato, Hideo; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Fujita, Jiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) bacteria are becoming increasingly recognized as important pneumonia-causing pathogens. Although several small studies have been reported, the features of SAG pneumonia remain unclear, because the identification of SAG from sputum cultures is not routinely performed in most microbiology laboratories. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of SAG pneumonia. This was a retrospective case-control study utilizing data obtained in our hospital between September 2009 and June 2016. We investigated 31 patients with SAG pneumonia (PWP), and also assessed the difference between the 31 PWP and 37 patients without pneumonia (PWOP) in whose sputum SAG was detected. Seventy-one percent of the patients were men and the median age was 78 years in the PWP. Univariate analysis indicated that the PWP were significantly more often a bed-ridden (p pneumonia (NHCAP) was the more common type of pneumonia (54.8%). S. anginosus was detected significantly more frequently in sputum cultures of PWP than PWOP (p bacteria. SAG should be recognized as important causative pathogens of pneumonia, particularly among elderly patients with underlying disease associated with aspiration. NHCAP was the more common type of SAG pneumonia in this study. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

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    Gungor Tayfun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role.

  13. Evaluation of the association between chronic periodontitis and acute coronary syndrome: A case control study

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    Amitha Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products and the systemic challenge with these agents also induce a major vascular response. Although many studies have found a correlation between chronic periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases, the role of infection in acute coronary syndrome is disputed. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between chronic periodontitis and acute coronary syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients, ages ranging from 30 -80. 15 patients from A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences and 15 patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit of Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital Deralakatte Mangalore were included in the study. Variables age more than 40 and gender were also analyzed. Results: Of the 30 patients analyzed in this study, periodontitis was recognized in 11 patients of the acute coronary syndrome group and 10 patients in the healthy group. Fisher′s exact test yielded a p value of 0.4539 with an odds ratio of 0.727(95% confidence interval 0.151 to 3.493. Conclusion: No significant association was found between periodontal disease and acute coronary syndrome. Periodontitis may contribute to cardiovascular disease and stroke in susceptible subjects. Properly powered longitudinal case control and intervention trials are needed to identify how periodontitis and periodontal interventions may have an impact on cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Association of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Osteoporosis and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Case Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Abdullah; Acar Yüceant, Gülşah; Yüce, Turgut; Hacı, Cemal; Cebi, Işıl Taylan; Salviz, Mehti

    2017-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common type of vertigo caused by the peripheral vestibular system. The majority of cases are accepted as idiopathic. Calcium metabolism also plays a primary role in the synthesis/absorption of otoconia made of calcium carbonate and thus might be an etiological factor in the onset of BPPV. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of osteoporosis and vitamin D in the etiology of BPPV by comparing BPPV patients with hospital-based controls. This is a case-control study comparing the prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in 78 BPPV patients and 78 hospital-based controls. The mean T-scores and serum vitamin D levels were compared. The risk factors of osteoporosis, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and blood pressure were all compared between the groups. To avoid selection bias, the groups were stratified as subgroups according to age, sex, and menopausal status. In this study, the rates of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency detected in BPPV patients were reasonably high. But there was no significant difference in mean T-scores and vitamin D levels, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency prevalence between the BPPV group and controls. The prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency is reasonably high in the general population. Unlike the general tendencies in the literature, our study suggests that osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency are not risk factors for BPPV; we conclude that the coexistence of BPPV with osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency is coincidental.

  15. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim.

  16. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  17. IS HYPERLIPIDAEMIA A CAUSE OF PRIMARY FROZEN SHOULDER? A CASE-CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prasanna Nayak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum lipid profiles and primary frozen shoulder. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a case-controlled study. The case group comprised 200 patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder from June 2011 to June 2016. This study was approved by MKCG Medical College, Berhampur Ethical Committee. The diagnosis was done on basis of 50% restriction of all motion of shoulder joint and x-rays of the shoulder in true anteroposterior, outlet and axillary lateral views. RESULTS The mean values in the patients with frozen shoulder were 6.7 months (95% CI, less than one to sixty months for the duration of symptoms, 5.9 days (95% CI, 0 to seventy seven days for the interval between the initial examination and blood sampling and 7.5 days (95% CI, 0 to 118 days for the interval between the initial examination and ultrasound or MRI. Among the 300 studied patients with primary frozen shoulder, 127 had a shoulder in the freezing stage, 168 had a shoulder in the frozen stage and five had a shoulder in the thawing stage. CONCLUSION We conclude that elevated bad lipid levels have a significant association with primary frozen shoulder.

  18. A case-control study evaluating relative risk factors for decompression sickness: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Yagishita, Kazuyosi; Togawa, Seiichiro; Okazaki, Fumihiro; Shibayama, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS) in divers have been described in many studies. However, relative importance of these factors has not been reported. In this case-control study, we compared the diving profiles of divers experiencing DCS with those of a control group. The DCS group comprised 35 recreational scuba divers who were diagnosed by physicians as having DCS. The control group consisted of 324 apparently healthy recreational divers. All divers conducted their dives from 2009 to 2011. The questionnaire consisted of 33 items about an individual's diving profile, physical condition and activities before, during and just after the dive. To simplify dive parameters, the dive site was limited to Izu Osezaki. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression were used for the analysis. Odds ratios revealed several items as dive and health factors associated with DCS. The major items were as follows: shortness of breath after heavy exercise during the dive (OR = 12.12), dehydration (OR = 10.63), and maximum dive depth > 30 msw (OR = 7.18). Results of logistic regression were similar to those by odds ratio analysis. We assessed the relative weights of the surveyed dive and health factors associated with DCS. Because results of several factors conflict with previous studies, future studies are needed.

  19. Third-molar extraction with ultrasound bone surgery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Gallesio, Giorgia; Russo, Andrea; Staiti, Giorgio; Mortellaro, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the postoperative period and healing between 2 surgical methods (traditional and ultrasound bone surgery) that are used for mandibular third-molar extraction. Fifteen patients with impaction of both of the lower third molars and indications for their extractions were used in this study. Bilateral-mandibular third-molar extractions were performed at the same surgical time: traditional surgery with burrs was used on 1 side (control site), and ultrasound surgery was used on the other side (test [T] site). After surgery, the patients were examined at 7 and 14 days and at 1 and 3 months to evaluate tissue healing. The following was assessed at every follow-up: pain, trismus, swelling, and alveolar bone level. The study included 15 patients, and 30 mandibular third-molar extractions were performed. We found only 1 postoperative complication: 1 patient had alveolitis in the control site. Complete recoveries without any complications were reported in all of the patients at the T sites. Complete recoveries without any complication were reported in all patients at the T sites. The only disadvantage of the piezoelectric technique was the length of operation time, which was increased by approximately 8 minutes; however, this effect was offset by reducing the morbidity. Our preliminary study showed that Piezosurgery is an excellent tool for reducing the risk of complications and improving the postoperative period.

  20. Type of wine and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, A; Figueiras, A; Barros-Dios, J M

    2004-11-01

    Few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of wine on the risk of lung cancer. A study was therefore undertaken to estimate the effect of wine consumption, both overall and by type of wine, on the risk of developing lung cancer. A hospital based case-control study was conducted on 319 subjects (132 cases, 187 controls) in 1999-2000. All subjects were interviewed about their lifestyles with particular reference to alcohol consumption and tobacco use. The results were analysed using non-parametric logistic regression. The main outcome measure was the risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of wine and its individual types. A very slight but significant association was observed between the risk of lung cancer and white wine consumption (odds ratio (OR) 1.20 for each daily glass). Red wine consumption, on the other hand, had an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.96), with each daily glass of red wine having an inverse association with the development of lung cancer (OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.99)). There was no apparent association between lung cancer and consumption of beer or spirits. These results suggest that the consumption of red wine is negatively associated with the development of lung cancer. Further studies are needed to test this finding in cancer induced laboratory animals.

  1. Fibromyalgia: epidemiology and risk factors, a population-based case-control study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddem, Afaf; Chaaya, Monique; Slim, Zeinab F N; Jaffa, Miran; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Uthman, Imad

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) and assess its risk factors. Using data from the 2009 Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) study conducted in Lebanon, a population-based case control study was performed. The sample included 34 FM patients, frequency matched with 136 controls free from any musculoskeletal complaints and randomly sampled from the population. The controls were frequency matched with cases by age and gender. The 34 female FM cases were prevalent cases which existed for a long period of time and all those who consulted a doctor were previously misdiagnosed. Family history of joint problems (OR = 4.93, 95% CI: 1.56-15.58) and working status (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.04-6.93) were significant risk factors for FM, after adjusting for body mass index, distress level, smoking status and residence location. This was the first study to address the epidemiology of FM in Lebanon and the region. The chronic nature of FM that is characterized by frequent bouts of intense disabling pain and symptoms constitutes a significant health and economic burden. Clustering of cases in coastal areas was partially explained by other factors such as body mass index, distress level, smoking and work status. The high burden of FM found in our study calls for further investigation of potential risk factors of this condition. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  3. Effect of diet and maternal education on allergies among preschool children: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Petraviciene, Inga

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased among children. This increase in prevalence might be related to dietary patterns. The present epidemiological study investigated the relationship between the consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts, meat and fish, and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, and eczema among preschool children. This nested case-control study included 1489 children aged 4-6 years and residing in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The subjects were recruited to the KANC newborn cohort study during 2007-2009. Parents' responses to questionnaires were used to collect information on allergic diseases, diet, and other variables. The association between dietary patterns and children's allergic diseases were tested by using logistic regressions, after adjustment for maternal education level, smoking during pregnancy, parental asthma, children's sex, parity, and antibiotic usage during the first year of life. In this study, 83.3% of all children consumed fresh fruit and/or vegetables at least three times per week. A significantly lower adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of wheeze was found among children who ate fruit than among those who did not (aOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96). The consumption of nuts was also associated with a lower 61% risk of eczema among 4-6 years old children. The results indicated a beneficial effect of a frequent consumption of fresh fruit and nuts on the prevalence of allergies among children. These results might have important implications for children's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

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    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Airton; Minelli, Lorivaldo

    2011-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer to occur in Caucasian populations, and its incidence is increasing. Despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on risk factors for BCC in some regions. This study investigated the association between pigmentary characteristics, distinctive patterns of solar exposure, habits and lifestyle, and risk for BCC among patients attending a dermatology center in a region in southern Brazil. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study that included 127 case patients with histologically confirmed BCC and 280 cancer-free control subjects with other dermatologic conditions, observed between January 2006 and December 2007. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and physical examination by a dermatologist. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios generated by cross-tabulation and logistic regression models. Risk for BCC was associated with family history of skin cancer, Fitzpatrick skin type I, and the presence of actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, leukoderma, and elastosis romboidalis nuchae. No effect was found for different patterns of solar exposure, eye, hair or skin color, exposure to non-solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), or lifestyle-related habits such as sunscreen use and cigarette smoking. The results of this study suggest that skin type and family history of skin cancer may be important in establishing risk for developing BCC. Additionally, the detection by clinical examination of skin markers related to UVR action is important in establishing which patients are more likely to develop BCC. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer's type: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, H B; Snaedal, J

    2006-12-01

    Music therapy is a potential non-pharmacological treatment for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, but although some studies have found it to be helpful, most are small and uncontrolled. This case-control study was carried out by qualified music therapists in two nursing homes and two psychogeriatric wards. The participants were 38 patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) assigned randomly to a music therapy group and a control group. The study showed a significant reduction in activity disturbances in the music therapy group during a 6-week period measured with the Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD). There was also a significant reduction in the sum of scores of activity disturbances, aggressiveness and anxiety. Other symptoms rated by subscales of the BEHAVE-AD did not decrease significantly. Four weeks later the effects had mostly disappeared. Music therapy is a safe and effective method for treating agitation and anxiety in moderately severe and severe AD. This is in line with the results of some non-controlled studies on music therapy in dementia.

  7. Factors Influencing Non-albicans Candidemia: A Case-Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Valachis, Antonis; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Christidou, Athanasia; Maraki, Sofia; Spernovasilis, Nikolaos A; Samonis, George

    2017-08-01

    The study identified factors predisposing to non-albicans candidemia with special interest to prior antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective, case-case-control study was performed at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from November 2007 through September 2011 including adult patients. The study had three groups. The first included 58 patients with non-albicans candidemia, the second 48 with C. albicans candidemia, while the third (control) 104 without candidemia. Each of the two candidemia groups was compared with the control using multivariate logistic regression model. The mean (SD) age of the non-albicans, the albicans and the control patients was 67 (12), 67 (18) and 59 (19) years, respectively. The most common non-albicans Candida spp. isolated were C. parapsilosis in 19 patients (33%), C. glabrata in 17 (29%) and C. tropicalis in 15 (26%). Independent risk factors for non-albicans candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia groups. The study reveals the role of antimicrobial exposure as a risk factor for candidemia caused by different species. Prior treatment with b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors was associated with non-albicans, while with carbapenems with C. albicans candidemia. Prior use of quinolones was associated with candidemia in general.

  8. ASSOCIATION OF INTESTINAL AMOEBIASIS WITH NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE (NAFLD- A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

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    Amarendra Narayan Choudhary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been done to show the association of intestinal amoebiasis with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There are so many factors, which are related with the causation of NAFLD as for example obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesteraemia and sedentary living. Besides these, there are many unknown or little known factors, which should be studied. Amoebiasis is very common infection in North India including Gangetic plain of Bihar. These two conditions are very frequently observed together in a same person; therefore, a case-control study was done to confirm the association between these two conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study, 120 cases of diagnosed NAFLD were taken of the age group between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female. 130 persons who were not suffering from NAFLD were taken as a control group in the same age and sex composition in the same community. Stool examination of all these 250 persons were done and cases of amoebiasis were diagnosed after getting at least two positive findings out of three examinations. RESULTS Prevalence of amoebiasis was clearly in excess in the NAFLD group in comparison to control group. This difference was tested statistically by calculating standard error of difference between two proportions and Chi-square test. The result showed a positive, strong and statistically significant association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis. CONCLUSION There is a strong association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis and further study is needed to show the biological plausibility to establish the causation.

  9. Fruit and vegetable intake and pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safabakhsh, Maryam; Koohdani, Fariba; Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2017-12-04

    Few studies have evaluated the association of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and pre-diabetes. However, these studies are very limited and incomplete. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare FV consumption and their subgroups between pre-diabetic and control subjects. This case-control study included 300 individuals, 150 subjects with normal fasting blood glucose (FBG), and 150 pre-diabetic subjects who were matched for sex and age. We collected the participants' anthropometric and physical activity data and measured their blood glucose level. A 168 items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for estimating the FV intake. After adjustment for confounding variables, participants in the lower quartiles of FV and total fruit intake were more likely to experience pre-diabetes compared with those in the higher quartiles (p trend < 0.007). In addition, cruciferous vegetables, other vegetables, and berries were inversely associated with pre-diabetes (p < 0.05), although a distinct dose-response relationship was not found. Unexpectedly, higher intake of dark yellow vegetables was significantly associated with a higher chance of pre-diabetes (p trend = 0.006). Other vegetable and fruit subgroups did not show any significant relationship with this disorder. Our findings suggest that higher intake of total FV and total fruits might be associated with lower odds ratio of pre-diabetes.

  10. Pituitary tumor risk in relation to mobile phone use: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mithila; Raitanen, Jani; Salminen, Tiina; Lahkola, Anna; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    The number of mobile phone users has grown rapidly, which has generated mounting public concern regarding possible health hazards. This study aims to assess pituitary tumor risk, as it has rarely been investigated. A case-control study was conducted with 80 eligible cases identified from all five university hospitals in Finland and frequency-matched 240 controls from the national population register. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, region of residence and date of interview. A detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained using a structured interview. Several indicators of mobile phone use were assessed using conditional logistic regression. A reduced odds ratio was seen among regular mobile phone users [OR 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.72] relative to never/non-regular users, possibly reflecting methodological limitations. Pituitary tumor risk was not increased after 10 or more years since first use (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.25, 1.89). The risk was not increased in relation to duration, cumulative hours of use, or cumulative number of calls. The results were similar for analog and digital phones. We found no excess risk associated with self-reported short- or medium-term use of mobile phones. This is consistent with most of the published studies. However, uncertainties remained for longer duration of use, as a very small proportion of study participants reported use beyond 10 years.

  11. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, N.; Waheed, A.; Farhat, K.; Ismail, M.

    2015-01-01

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  12. A Study of Alcohol Consumption and Obesity as Main Risk Factor for Symptomatic Gallbladder Stone: a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Byung Hyo; Lee, Ban Seok; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kang, Seung Joo; Park, Min Jung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gallbladder stone (GBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can progress to severe cholecystitis and is a strong risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC). The present study was conducted to evaluate region-specific causes of GBS which was proved as major risk factor for GBC in Jeju Island, Korea. Methods: Age and sex match case-control study was performed among 171 pairs of case and controls. The cases were patients who were diagnosed with GBS, had definite clinical symptoms...

  13. Symptoms and sources of Yersinia enterocolitica-infection: a case-control study

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    Siitonen Anja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica (YE is the causative agent of yersiniosis. YE encompass strains of diverse pathogenicity: YE biotypes 1B and 2-5 are considered pathogenic, whereas biotype 1A is in general considered nonvirulent. Also YE-like species, which can sometimes be misidentified as YE, are considered nonvirulent. Methods In order to study differences in clinical picture caused by different YE types and their possible sources a case-control study was conducted in 2006. In this case-control study, 295 case-patients with YE or YE-like finding and their 758 controls responded to the questionnaire about symptoms and possible sources of infection. Results Strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes 3-4/O:3 or 2/O:9 were found in 18%, YE biotype 1A in 65% and YE -like strains of 17% of the patients. Patients infected with the strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes were younger and had fever more often than those with BT 1A who suffered more from vomiting. Symptoms of reactive arthritis were reported by 10% of pathogenic YE infections, 3% of YE BT 1A, and 0.3% of the controls. Eating or tasting raw or medium done pork was a significant risk factor for pathogenic YE bio/serotype infection (OR 6.6; 95% CI 1.7-24.9 as well as eating in a canteen (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6-7.9. Imported fruits and berries were associated with increased risk of YE BT 1A finding. Conclusions The symptoms of the patients with YE BT 1A differed from yersiniosis caused by the classic pathogenic YE bio/serotypes. In addition, the patients with YE BT 1A had more protracted gastrointestinal disorders and unspecific complaints. Small children were overrepresented in classic pathogenic bio/serotypes while in BT 1A or YE-like species were not found among children younger than two years. This suggests the lacking virulence of the BT 1A strains. We can not, however, rule out the possibility that some strains of genetically heterogeneous group of BT 1A may cause an illness.

  14. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

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    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  15. Risk factors for human brucellosis in Iran: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Masomeh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Banifazl, Mohammad; Eslamifar, Ali; Ramezani, Amitis

    2008-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Despite its control in many countries, it remains endemic in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for brucellosis acquisition in the central province of Iran. A matched case-control study was conducted in the central part of Iran. A total of 300 subjects (150 cases and 150 controls) were enrolled in the investigation. Brucellosis cases were defined on the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory criteria. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain risk factor information. We used odds ratios and conditional logistic regression models to explore the association between the disease and the variables studied. Significant risk factors for infection were related to the existence of another case of brucellosis in the home (OR=7.55, p=0.0001) and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (OR=3.7, p=0.014). Keeping cattle and cattle vaccination were also important risk factors. Pasteurization of dairy products and education regarding fresh cheese must be pursued for eradication of brucellosis. A major risk factor for acquiring brucellosis is the existence of another infected family member. Therefore screening family members of an index case of brucellosis may lead to the detection of additional cases.

  16. Evaluation of Risk factors for Ectopic Pregnancy in Yazd city: Case-control study

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    R Jafarizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a public health problem and their risk factors are unknown. This study was performed to identify risk factors for better diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods: A case-control study on 195 cases of ectopic pregnancy (Case group and 197 normal pregnancies (control group were performed in Shahid Sadoughi and mother hospitals in Yazd city as representatives of public and private sectors. Cases of control group were pregnant women who entered immediately before and after the cases for delivery (normal or cesarean. Results: The mean age was 28.2±5.6, ranged from 14 to 45, and marriage age varied from 12 to 33 years. There was no significant difference between cases and controls according to body mass index (P=0.72. Inunivariate analysis, history of infertility (OR: 3.18, 95% CI= 1.9-5.2,  P= 0.001, history of infections (OR: 1.67,  95%  CI= 1.10-2.53,  P= 0.01, use of intrauterine device (IUD (OR:2.78,  95% CI= 1.08-7.16,  P= 0.03 and tobacco smoking (OR: 2.96,  95%  CI= 1.21-7.21,  P= 0.01 were determined as risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that history of infertility; use of IUD and oral contraceptive use are associated with ectopic pregnancy.

  17. Population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, X O; Brinton, L A; Gao, Y T; Yuan, J M

    1989-07-01

    A case-control study of 229 ovarian cancer cases (including 172 epithelial tumors) and an equal number of population-based controls was conducted during 1984 to 1986 in Shanghai, China, a low-risk area for ovarian cancer. Similar to studies in high-risk areas, the risk of epithelial tumors was high for nulliparous women (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 3.2) and decreased with increasing number of livebirths (P less than 0.01). Early menarche and late menopause were associated with increased risk, with the trend in risk for age at menarche being statistically significant. In contrast to other studies, oral contraceptive use was not associated with reduced risk, although there was some reduction in risk for those with a prior tubosterilization or intrauterine device use. Risk was also elevated among those reporting a prior ovarian cyst, medroxyprogesterone use, a first degree family history of cancer, and occupational exposure to paint. Risk factors for the nonepithelial tumors were similar to the other cancers, although the power to detect differences was limited.

  18. The relationship between thrombophilic mutations and preeclampsia: a prospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalinkaya, A.; Erdemoglu, M.; Akdeniz, N.; Kale, A.; Kale, E.

    2006-01-01

    Preeclampsia and its association with thrombophillia remain controversial, due to inconsistent results in different studies, which different ethnic groups, selection criteria, and patient numbers. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between thrombophillia and preeclamptic patients in our region. In a prospective case-control study, we compared 100 consecutive women with preeclampsia and eclampsia (group 1) with 100 normal pregnant women (group 2). All women were tested two months after delivery for mutations of factor V Leiden, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and prothrombin gene mutation mutataion as well as for deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrmbin III. A thrombophilic mutation was found in 42 (42%) and 28(28%) women in group I and group II, respectively (P+0.27, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2). The incidence of Factor V Leiden mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (homozygous), MTHFR mutation (homozygous) was not statistically significant in group 1 compared with group 2 (P>0.05). Also, deficiencies of protein S, protein c and antithrombin III were not statistically significant in group I com pared with group II (P>0.05). There was no difference in thrombophilic mutations between preeclamptic patients and normal pregnant women in our region. Therefore, we suggest that preeclamptic patients should not be tested for thrombophilia. (author)

  19. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

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    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  20. Single-port Access Subtotal Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Stefano; Pontis, Alessandro; Pisanu, Adolfo; Mereu, Liliana; Roman, Horace

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the perioperative outcomes, safety, and patient acceptance of single-port access laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy (SPAL-SH) in comparison with conventional multiport access laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy (MPAL-SH). Case-control study. Canadian Task Force Classification II-2. The study was conducted at university hospitals in Cagliari, Italy, and Rouen, France. Sixty-one women with metrorrhagia, abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine myomas, or symptomatic adenomyosis were included in the study. Thirty-one patients underwent SPAL-SH, and 30 patients underwent conventional MPAL-SH. We analyzed the data to compare the outcomes of SPAL-SH versus MPAL-SH. Patients in the SPAL-SH group had longer operative times than those in the MPAL-SH group (p < .001) but shorter hospital stays (p < .001). Postoperative pain immediately after surgery, after 6 hours, and after 24 hours were lower in the SPAL-SH group (p < .001). The SPAL-SH group reported significantly higher cosmetic satisfaction at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery (p < .01). We conclude that SPAL-SH is a feasible and safe alternative to standard MPAL-SH in selected patients. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. In addition, SPAL-SH has a definite benefit in relation to body image and cosmesis. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). We also found statistically significant differences among groups in all of the subscales parameters of PHCSCS (p<0.001). Our results indicate that obese children may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  2. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  3. Case-control study of leukemia at a naval nuclear shipyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, F.B.; Waxweiler, R.A.; Beaumont, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted of 53 leukemia deaths and of 212 controls within a previously studied cohort of 24,545 on-shore workers employed between January 1, 1952 and August 15, 1977 at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Naval Shipyard. The study sought to ascertain a priori whether there was an association between leukemia deaths and occupational exposure to either ionizing radiation or organic solvents. To obtain information on individual exposures, radiation dose histories and detailed work histories by job and shop were evaluated for each subject. No statistically significant associations were found either between ionizing radiation or presumed solvent exposure and myelogenous or lymphatic leukemia. However, when specific job categories and shops were examined without benefit of a priori hypotheses, two occupations, electrician and welder, were found to be associated with leukemia. For electricians, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (ORMH) was significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-6.98), particularly for lymphatic leukemia (ORMH = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.47-24.45). For welders, the odds ratio was not significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 2.25, 95% CI = 0.92-5.53), but was significantly elevated for myeloid leukemia (ORMH = 3.83, 95% CI = 1.28-11.46). These findings persisted when potential confounders were adjusted by means of a conditional logistic regression model

  4. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  5. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in coastal region of india: A case-control study

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    Vinay Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies have shown that people of Indian origin have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD compared with most other ethnic groups. This increased risk has been attributed to multiple risk factors related to lifestyle. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 cases and 100 age and sex-matched controls were taken into this prospective case-control study from Intensive Coronary Care Unit. Prevalence of the following risk factors for myocardial infarction: Age, sex, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, and lipid profile were studied. Patient data were extracted from the medical records department and by interview. Results: The most important predictor of acute myocardial infarction (AMI was high low-density lipoprotein (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.124, confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-11.73, P = 0.008 history of hypertension and of overt diabetes mellitus were also independent risk factors (OR: 2, CI: 1.4-3 and OR: 2.29, CI: 1.5-3.5, respectively. Low high-density lipoprotein was found to have no significant association with AMI. Heavy drinkers were found to have a high-risk (OR: 68, while moderate drinkers were found to have protection (OR: 1. Conclusion: Smoking and heavy drinking cessation, treatment of hypertension and reduction in blood glucose, correction of abnormal lipid profile either through use of statins or by dietary modification may be important in preventing IHD in Asian Indians.

  6. Habitual Sleep Deprivation is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Abri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is suggested that a minimum of eight hours of sleep per night is needed for metabolism to work normally. The aim of the study was to determine the association of habitual sleep deprivation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: We conducted a case-control study comparing patients with T2DM with age and sex matched healthy controls. Standard sleep questionnaires (the Berlin and Epworth Sleepiness Scale and a weekly diary were used by patients to self-report habitual sleep. Results: A total of 172 diabetics and 188 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. There was a significant difference between T2DM and healthy controls in nocturnal sleep duration (p = 0.033. There was a significant association between nocturnal sleep duration of fewer than six hours and T2DM (χ2 = 14.0; p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference in daytime sleepiness and daytime naps between the T2DM and control groups (p = 0.452; p =0.581, respectively. Conclusions: A nocturnal sleep duration < 6 hours is associated with T2DM.

  7. The Association between Some Nutrients and Adult Gliomas: A Case-Control Study of Adult Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayanfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abestract Background & aim: It has been estimated that about 30–40 percent of all cancers could be prevented by diet and lifestyle. In the present study, associations between food groups and some nutrients were studied in adult glioma. Methods: In the present hospital-based case-control study which took place in Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2012, socio-economic information, demographics, lifestyle factors, health and dietary intakes of 128 patients with glioma as cases, and 256 healthy controls, were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. SPSS version 19 was used for all statistical analyses. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations between calcium intake and adult glioma and vitamin C were observed. (Highest tertile versus lowest: OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.87-0.46, P for trend = 0.001 and vitamin C (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.76, P for trend = 0.002. In addition, we observed elevated ORs for highest vs. lowest tertile of cholesterol intake (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.99, P for trend = 0.061. We observed no significant associations with adult glioma for intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A, vitamin E and beta carotene. Conclusion: the results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin C may possibly prevent glioma in adults. Key words: Gliomas, Adult, Ca, Vitamin C

  8. Assisted reproductive technology and severe postpartum haemorrhage: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyfløt, L T; Sandven, I; Oldereid, N B; Stray-Pedersen, B; Vangen, S

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association between assisted reproductive technology and severe postpartum haemorrhage. Case-control study. The study was conducted in Norway; Division of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Oslo University Hospital and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Drammen Hospital. A source population including all women admitted for delivery at Oslo University Hospital and Drammen Hospital during the time period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011. The study population consisted of all cases of severe postpartum haemorrhage (n = 1064) and a random sample of controls (n = 2059). We used an explanatory strategy in the analysis, with multivariable logistic regression. Severe postpartum haemorrhage; defined as blood loss ≥1500 ml or need for blood transfusion. Assisted reproductive technology was associated with an increased risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (crude OR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.18-3.92, P single gestation (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.12-2.24, P = 0.010). Our findings warrant an increased awareness of the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage in women conceiving with assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, the high risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage in the presence of a twin or triplet pregnancy is an additional argument for single embryo transfer. Assisted reproductive technology is associated with an increased risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Risk Factors for Invasive Cryptococcus neoformans Diseases: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Shiau, Stephanie; Fang, Chi-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental fungus that can cause life-threatening meningitis and fungemia, often in the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, or other medical conditions. To distinguish risk factors from comorbidities, we performed a hospital-based, density-sampled, matched case-control study. Methods All new-onset cryptococcal meningitis cases and cryptococcemia cases at a university hospital in Taiwan from 2002–2010 were retrospectively identified from the computerized inpatient registry and were included in this study. Controls were selected from those hospitalized patients not experiencing cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Controls and cases were matched by admission date, age, and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors. Results A total of 101 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (266 controls) and 47 patients with cryptococcemia (188 controls), of whom 32 patients had both cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcemia, were included in this study. Multivariate regression analysis showed that AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 181.4; p cryptococcal meningitis. Moreover, AIDS (aOR = 216.3, p cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Conclusions The findings confirm AIDS, decompensated liver cirrhosis, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for invasive C. neoformans diseases. PMID:25747471

  10. Fall Hazards Within Senior Independent Living: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Portillo, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to identify significant relationships between environmental hazards and older adults' falling. Falls can present a major health risk to older persons. Identifying potential environmental hazards that increase fall risks can be effective for developing fall prevention strategies that can create safer residential environments for older adults. The research included a retrospective analysis of 449 fall incident reports in two case-control buildings. In the homes of 88 older adults residing in independent living, an observational study was conducted to identify environmental hazards using two assessment tools including Westmead Home Safety Assessment (WeHSA) and resident interviews. A fall history analysis indicated that falls occurred in the bathroom were significantly associated with hospitalization. The observational study revealed that the bathroom was the most common place for environmental hazards. The research showed, with increasing age and use of mobility assistive aids, there was a corresponding increase in the total number of environmental hazards. Home hazards were significantly and independently associated with the incidence rate of falls. In other words, the high fall rate building included more environmental hazards compared to the low fall rate building while controlling for residents' age and mobility. The current study provides empirical evidence of the link between environmental hazards and older adults' falling, which is useful for developing effective fall intervention design strategies.

  11. Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Waly, Mostafa I; Jriesat, Sahar; Al Khafajei, Ahmed; Sallam, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated dietary pattern and lifestyle characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan. The case-control study included 220 recently diagnosed CRC cases and 220 age and gender matched healthy subjects as a control group. The participating CRC cases had lower dietary intake of fibre, folate, vitamin B12, β-carotene, vitamin C and selenium as compared to controls (P<0.05). The frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was also lower among CRC cases, while the frequency of consumption of red meat and saturated fat was higher and positively associated with CRC risk. Furthermore, family history for CRC played a positive role and the majority of CRC cases and controls had a low physical activity level. A sedentary lifestyle and a diet low in fruits and vegetables, and high in animal red meat and saturated fat, appeared associated with CRC among the studied Jordanian subjects. This is consistent with the reported CRC studies in developed nations indicating global causal effects for this tumour type.

  12. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake. These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  13. Voluptuary habits and clinical subtypes of Parkinson's disease: the FRAGAMP case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Alessandra; Pugliese, Pierfrancesco; Nicoletti, Giuseppe; Arabia, Gennarina; Annesi, Grazia; Mari, Michele De; Lamberti, Paolo; Grasso, Lucia; Marconi, Roberto; Epifanio, Antonio; Morgante, Letterio; Cozzolino, Autilia; Barone, Paolo; Torchia, Giusi; Quattrone, Aldo; Zappia, Mario

    2010-10-30

    We evaluated the possible association between smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD). The FRAGAMP study is a large Italian multicenter case-control study carried out to evaluate the possible role of environmental and genetic factors in PD. Adjusted ORs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Smoking, coffee, and alcohol consumption were also considered as surrogate markers of lifestyle and analysis was carried out considering the presence of at least one, two, or three factors. This latter analysis was separately performed considering Tremor-Dominant (TD) and Akinetic-Rigid (AR) patients. Four hundred ninety-two PD patients (292 men and 200 women) and 459 controls (160 men and 299 women) were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative association between PD and cigarette smoking (OR 0.51; 95%CI 0.36-0.72), coffee drinking (OR 0.61; 95%CI 0.43-0.87) and wine consumption (OR 0.62; 95%CI 0.44-0.86); a significant trend dose-effect (P coffee, and alcohol consumption. When analysis was carried out considering the association of these factors as possible surrogate markers of a peculiar lifestyle the association was stronger for the AR phenotype.

  14. Determinants of the incidence of childhood asthma: a two-stage case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Josée; Rey, Evelyne; Malo, Jean-Luc; Perreault, Sylvie; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Forget, Amélie; Blais, Lucie

    2009-01-15

    Extensive literature exists on potential risk factors for childhood asthma. To the authors' knowledge, no investigators have yet attempted to disentangle the effects of those determinants within a single study setting. The authors aimed to evaluate the independent effects of 47 potential determinants (from the prenatal, perinatal, and childhood periods) of asthma development in children within the first 10 years of life. From a Canadian birth cohort of 26,265 children (1990-2002), a 2-stage case-control study was conducted. In the first stage, 20 controls per case were selected from 3 administrative databases. In the second stage, selected mothers were mailed questionnaires for assessment of additional determinants. Increased risks of childhood asthma were found for > or =1 previous diagnosis of bronchopulmonary disease and atopic dermatitis in the child, oxygen administration after birth, prescription of antibiotics within the first 6 months of life, male gender, asthma during pregnancy, use of antibiotics during pregnancy, maternal receipt of social aid, paternal asthma, and asthma in siblings. Protective effects included use of intranasal corticosteroids during pregnancy, having a wood-burning fireplace, having pets in the home prior to the index date, breastfeeding, and day-care attendance. This study allowed the authors to identify, within a single setting, the most influential determinants of childhood asthma among 47 predictors assessed for the prenatal, perinatal, and childhood periods.

  15. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  16. Protective and risk factors for inpatient suicides: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-Kwang; Hung, Tsui-Mei; Liao, Ya-Tang; Lee, Wen-Chung; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2014-06-30

    This study aimed at estimating the protective effect of suicide precautions and clinical risk factors for inpatient suicides. A standardized precaution system was implemented in a large psychiatric center on January 1, 1996. A consecutive series of 33,121 admissions from 1998 to 2008 constituted the post-implementation cohort and 13,515 admissions from 1985 to 1995 constituted the pre-implementation cohort as comparison group. Inpatient suicides were identified via record linkage with national mortality database. For each of 41 inpatient suicides, four controls were randomly selected based on a nested case-control study. A standardized chart review process was employed to collate clinical information for each study subject. Risk and protective factors for inpatient suicides was estimated by conditional logistic regression. The findings showed that, among subjects with shorter lengths of stay, those admitted in post-implementation era had a significantly lower adjusted risk ratio (0.157, p=0.048) for inpatient suicides. Three depression-related symptoms elevated the risk for inpatient suicides: depressed mood (adjusted risk ratio=2.11, P=0.002), loss of energy (adjusted risk ratio=1.99, P=0.018), and psychomotor retardation (adjusted risk ratio=1.67, P=0.066; with marginal statistical significance). Suicide precautions have protective effect against inpatient suicides. A better assessment and prevention efforts is needed, particularly for those with depression-related symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum uric acid level as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichar, Satyendra; Choudhary, Shyama; Singh, Veer Bahadur; Tater, Priyanka; Arvinda, R V; Ujjawal, Vivek

    To determine whether elevations of uric acid levels are associated with the cluster of disorders described in metabolic syndrome and to evaluate whether hyperuricemia may be considered a component of this syndrome. One year case-control study was conducted in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India from January to December 2013. The study population consisted of 200 subjects, 100 with metabolic syndrome (case) and 100 without metabolic syndrome (control) aged between 18 and 80 years, attending OPD at PBM Hospital were studied. Controls were age and sex matched to the cases. Blood tests and all physical variables were examined using standard methods. Subjects were divided into 6 groups according to their possession of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, linear regression analysis and multivariate linear regression model. Mean serum UA level was significantly associated with all components of metabolic syndrome (pmetabolic factors increased showing a highly significant trend (pmetabolic syndrome. The current multivariate regression analysis clearly infers that uric acid can be considered as a marker and potential modifier of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-Prevalence of Tremor with Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura; Klein, Adam; Hapner, Edie; Delgaudio, John; Hanfelt, John; Jinnah, H. A.; Johns, Michael

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS The aim of this study was to define the co-prevalence of tremor with spasmodic dysphonia (SD). STUDY DESIGN A single institution prospective, case-control study was performed from May 2010 to July 2010. METHODS Consecutive patients with SD (cases) and other voice disorders (controls) were enrolled prospectively. Each participant underwent a voice evaluation and an evaluation for tremor. RESULTS 146 voice disorder controls and 128 patients with SD were enrolled. 26% of patients with SD had vocal tremor, 21% had non-vocal tremor. Patients with SD were 2.8 times more likely to have co-prevalent tremor than the control group (OR = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.55 to 5.08) and only 35% of patients with SD had been seen by a neurologist for the evaluation of dystonia and tremor. CONCLUSIONS Tremor is highly prevalent in patients with SD. It is important for each patient diagnosed with SD to undergo an evaluation for tremor, this is especially important in patients diagnosed with vocal tremor. Level of evidence 3b. PMID:21792965

  19. Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. Methods This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Results Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Conclusions Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence. PMID:23322260

  20. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The expression of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in testicular cancer: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapouri, Farnaz; Saeidi, Shaghayegh; Ashrafi Kakhki, Sara; Pouyan, Omid; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2013-11-01

    It has been suggested that malfunction of immune system may causes testicular cancer. Recently, our understanding of innate immune system has been expanded, by discovery of "Toll-Like Receptors" (TLRs). Some studies have shown that polymorphisms of TLR2 and 4 may affect on the risk of cancer. Also, the role of TLRs 3 and 9 have been shown in apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells in animal models. Little information is available about the influence of innate immunity on testicular malignancy. Therefore, expression of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 as main components of innate immunity has been investigated in this study. In this case control study, TLRs gene expression was examined by RT-PCR in normal testis and testicular cancer tissues. Real time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis was used to compare the relative expression of TLRs between the samples. mRNAs of TLR 2, 3, 4 and 9 were expressed in all normal and cancer samples. Q-PCR reveals that cancer samples had stronger expression of these genes compared with normal ones. It seems that the different TLRs expression in testicular cancer cells may contribute to extensive signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis.

  3. Fatal pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients: a large autopsy-based matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Aparecida Petilo Carvalho Bricola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is an underdiagnosed major cause of death for hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to identify the conditions associated with fatal pulmonary embolism in this population. METHODS: A total of 13,074 autopsy records were evaluated in a case-control study. Patients were matched by age, sex, and year of death, and factors potentially associated with fatal pulmonary embolism were analyzed using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was considered fatal in 328 (2.5% patients. In the multivariate analysis, conditions that were more common in patients who died of pulmonary embolism were atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery. Some conditions were negatively associated with fatal pulmonary embolism, including hemorrhagic stroke, aortic aneurism, cirrhosis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and pneumonia. In the control group, patients with hemorrhagic stroke and aortic aneurism had short hospital stays (8.5 and 8.8 days, respectively, and the hemorrhage itself was the main cause of death in most of them (90.6% and 68.4%, respectively, which may have prevented the development of pulmonary embolism. Cirrhotic patients in the control group also had short hospital stays (7 days, and 50% died from bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this large autopsy study, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and neurological surgery were diagnoses associated with fatal pulmonary embolism.

  4. Decreased placental thickness and impaired Doppler indices in idiopathic polyhydramnios: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgündüz, Engin; Erkılınç, Selçuk; Tokmak, Aytekin; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Özer, İrfan; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate placental thickness, Doppler velocimetry, biophysical profile and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 139 pregnant women, of these 70 patients with idiopathic polyhydramnios comprised the study group and 60 pregnant women comprised the control group. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, body mass index (BMI), gestational weeks, amniotic fluid index (AFI), biophysical profiles (BPP), placental thickness, middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry (Umb A S/D) values and perinatal outcomes. Sixty-nine of the cases had mild-moderate (AFI: 250-450 mm) polyhydramnios (%98.5) and one of the cases had severe polyhydramnios (>450 mm) in study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, parity, BMI, gestational weeks, fetal birth weights and BPP (p > 0.05). Placental thickness, MCA PI and UA S/D values showed statistically significant difference between the groups (p polyhydramnios is associated with decreased placental thickness, impaired uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral artery flow.

  5. Do nurses really care? Confirming the stereotype with a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; Dean, Phil; Williams, Elisabeth

    In their definition of modern nursing, the Royal College of Nursing emphasizes the importance of caring. However, there is little other than anecdotal evidence that female qualified staff nurses are more caring and compassionate than average individuals. A study was carried out to test, under scientific conditions with a case control study, the hypothesis that staff nurses are no more caring than average female individuals. Using the ten-item personality inventory (TIPI) questionnaire, a statistical comparison was made between 174 volunteer female staff nurses and data for 760 adult female controls extracted from the TIPI instrument's original validation study. The questionnaire measures each of the five major facets of personality: openness, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism. Agreeableness, which is a tendency to be compassionate, considerate and cooperative, was used as a proxy measure for 'caring'. Data were analysed using unpaired Student's t-tests. Female staff nurses recorded significantly higher scores than female controls concerning the personality traits extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability (Pnurses are significantly more caring, conscientious and resilient individuals. The personality traits found in female staff nurses complement their profession and to some extent justify the caring, compassionate nurse stereotype. Whether career nursing self-selects these qualities or to what extent nursing staff develop aspects of their personality as a product of experience is a subject for debate.

  6. Reproductive factors in relation to breast cancer: A hospital based case control study in Jammu, India

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    Langer Bhavna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To Study the risk factors of Breast cancer , Setting:All the newly registered cases of Breast cancer in one year from Ist May 2004. Study Design:A Hospital based case control study. Methodology:Data was collected by a face to face interview using the prestructured Questionnaire after taking informed consent. Results: 100 cases of Breast Cancer and 100 controls were analyzed. Mean age of breast cancer cases was 50.20 ± 12.49 years. Income (p >0.39, Educational Status (p>0.35 Age at Marriage (p>0.36 Age at First pregnancy (p>0.32 Total No of live Birth (p>0.09 Duration of Breast Feeding (P>0.07 Showed no statistically significant relationship to the risk of Breast Cancer. Dietary History (p<0.001 Smoking History (p<0.04 Physical Activity (p<0.001 Age at Menarche (p<0.002 History of Breast Feeding (p<0.04 History of Abortion (p<0.003 were shown to be Statistically Significant to the risk of Breast Cancer . Conclusion : The risk factor which are often implicated in the risk of Breast Cancer may not hold true in our settings.

  7. Leukemia risk among U.S. white male coal miners. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P A; Ames, R G; McCawley, M A

    1985-09-01

    The relevance of occupational exposure to electrical and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of leukemia has been raised in several studies. Underground coal miners represent an occupational group with situationally determined EMF exposure, as high-voltage power distribution lines are strung overhead in the mines and converters and step-down transformers provide power to mining equipment. Risk in occupational exposure to EMF was examined in a case-control study of 40 leukemia decedents and 160 control subjects who died of causes other than cancer or accident and who were matched on age at death. The control subjects were selected from a group of 6,066 persons whose deaths were reported in four National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health cohort mortality follow-up studies. Based on these data, 25 or more years of underground mining, a surrogate of EMF exposure, was found to pose a statistically significant risk for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes 204 through 207, eighth revision), myelogenous leukemia (ICD 205), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ICD 204.1). Accumulative exposure to chemical agents probably poses a risk for acute myelogenous leukemia, although this relationship fell short of being statistically significant. Although CLL has not previously been attributed to environmental agents, these data suggest a possible CLL risk from prolonged exposure to EMF.

  8. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

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    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  9. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaduri, Maha M.; Abudraz, Rania Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51%) was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%). Conclusion Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further p rospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results. PMID:25337307

  10. A case-control study of risk of leukaemia in relation to mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R; Laing, S; Swerdlow, A J

    2010-11-23

    Mobile phone use is now ubiquitous, and scientific reviews have recommended research into its relation to leukaemia risk, but no large studies have been conducted. In a case-control study in South East England to investigate the relation of acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemia risk to mobile phone use, 806 cases with leukaemia incident 2003-2009 at ages 18-59 years (50% of those identified as eligible) and 585 non-blood relatives as controls (provided by 392 cases) were interviewed about mobile phone use and other potentially aetiological variables. No association was found between regular mobile phone use and risk of leukaemia (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76, 1.46). Analyses of risk in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative number of calls and cumulative hours of use produced no significantly raised risks, and there was no evidence of any trends. A non-significantly raised risk was found in people who first used a phone 15 or more years ago (OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.96, 3.63). Separate analyses of analogue and digital phone use and leukaemia subtype produced similar results to those overall. This study suggests that use of mobile phones does not increase leukaemia risk, although the possibility of an effect after long-term use, while biologically unlikely, remains open.

  11. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20–84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998–2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39–6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Conclusions Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism. PMID:27087607

  12. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

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    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  13. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study

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    Doherty K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1,2 James L Rudolph1,3,4 1Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Nursing, Science & Health Professions, Regis College, Boston, MA, USA; 3Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. Methods: This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]. Results: After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201 was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit. Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7. Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3–5.8. Conclusion: In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction. Keywords: geriatrics, patient centered outcomes research, patient safety

  14. Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Scotti, L; Negri, E; Talamini, R; Franceschi, S; Montella, M; Giacosa, A; Dal Maso, L; La Vecchia, C

    2007-01-01

    The role of sweeteners on cancer risk has been widely debated over the last few decades. To provide additional information on saccharin and other sweeteners (mainly aspartame), we considered data from a large network of case-control studies. An integrated network of case-control studies has been conducted between 1991 and 2004 in Italy. Cases were 598 patients with incident, histologically confirmed cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 304 of the oesophagus, 1225 of the colon, 728 of the rectum, 460 of the larynx, 2569 of the breast, 1031 of the ovary, 1294 of the prostate and 767 of the kidney (renal cell carcinoma). Controls were 7028 patients (3301 men and 3727 women) admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute, non-neoplastic disorders. Odds ratios (ORs), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were derived by unconditional logistic regression models. The ORs for consumption of saccharin were 0.83 (95% CI 0.30-2.29) for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 1.58 (95% CI 0.59-4.25) for oesophageal, 0.95 (95% CI 0.67-1.35) for colon, 0.93 (95% CI 0.60-1.45) for rectal, 1.55 (95% CI 0.76-3.16) for laryngeal, 1.01 (95% CI 0.77-1.33) for breast, 0.46 (95% CI 0.29-0.74) for ovarian, 0.91 (95% CI 0.59-1.40) for prostate and 0.79 (95% CI 0.49-1.28) for kidney cancer. The ORs for consumption of other sweeteners, mainly aspartame, were 0.77 (95% CI 0.39-1.53) for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 0.77 (95% CI 0.34-1.75) for oesophageal, 0.90 (95% CI 0.70-1.16) for colon, 0.71 (95% CI 0.50-1.02) for rectal, 1.62 (95% CI 0.84-3.14) for laryngeal, 0.80 (95% CI 0.65-0.97) for breast, 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-1.00) for ovarian, 1.23 (95% CI 0.86-1.76) for prostate and 1.03 (95% CI 0.73-1.46) for kidney cancer. A significant inverse trend in risk for increasing categories of total sweeteners was found for breast and ovarian cancer, and a direct one for laryngeal cancer. The present work indicates a lack of association between saccharin, aspartame and

  15. High failure rate of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bimeniscal repair: A case-control study.

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    Gonçalves, H; Steltzlen, C; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-10-01

    Bimeniscal lesions are common in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. However, bimeniscal repair is rarely performed during ACL reconstruction. To assess outcomes after ACL reconstruction with bimeniscal repair. Bimeniscal lesions, even when repaired, are associated with poorer outcomes of ACL reconstruction. A retrospective case-control design was used. The cases were 15 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, without procedures on any other ligaments, combined with bimeniscal repair, between May 2009 and May 2013 (3.2% of all ACL reconstructions during the study period). This group (2-Mc group) was matched on age, gender, body mass index, and time to surgery to 30 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction and had no meniscal lesions (0-Mc group) and to 30 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction and repair of the medial meniscus (1-Mc group). After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years, clinical outcomes were assessed based on the KOOS, Lysholm, and IKDC scores and knee laxity based on TELOS and GNRB measurements. The primary outcome measure was the rate of ACL re-rupture. Secondary outcome measures were functional outcomes and rate of delayed meniscectomy. The ACL re-rupture rate was significantly higher in the 2-Mc group than in the 0-Mc and 1-Mc groups pooled (20%, vs. 1.7%; P=0.02). The functional scores showed no significant differences across groups. Post-operative differential laxity was significantly greater in the 2-Mc group (3.3mm by TELOS, P=0.02; and 2.5mm by GNRB, P=0.03) than in the 0-Mc and 1-Mc groups pooled. Delayed meniscectomy was performed in none of the 2-Mc group patients and in 2 of the 1-Mc group patients. ACL reconstruction combined with bimeniscal repair is a rarely performed procedure. It is associated with a high ACL re-rupture rate and greater differential laxity. Meniscal outcomes of bimeniscal repair, in contrast, are good. III, matched case-control study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

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    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  17. Methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Crochet, P; Courbiere, B; Gnisci, A; Agostini, A

    2016-06-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs in 2% to 5.6% of pregnancies achieved by assisted reproductive technology (ART). EP treatment options include medical treatment by uses of methotrexate (MTX) systemic injection. The objective of this study was to compare MTX treatment effectiveness for EP occurring spontaneously or following ART. A case-control study performed in the department of obstetrics and gynecology at a tertiary health care center in France. Twenty EP achieved by ART (ART group) and 60 spontaneous EP (SEP group) received MTX treatment between January 2002 and May 2012. The main outcome measures were MTX treatment failure rates, number of MTX injections administered and recovery time. MTX treatment failure rates observed in ART and SEP groups were similar (3/20 [15%] versus 10/60 [17%]: OR=0.88 [0.22-3.58]). Mean duration of recovery time in patients with successful MTX treatment did not differ between ART and SEP groups (33±14 days versus 28±13 days, P=0.39). A second MTX injection was required more frequently in ART group than in SEP group (10/20 [50%] versus 10/60 [17%]: OR=5 [1.65-15.15]). It is concluded that MTX treatment is equally effective for spontaneous EP and EP achieved by ART, two injections of MTX being more frequently required in case of ART. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL. PMID:26829393

  19. Memory performance in HIV/AIDS--a prospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiase, Francis E; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Ogunniyi, Adesola A

    2007-05-01

    Memory impairment, usually impaired retrieval of information, has been described in HIV/AIDS, especially among those with severe illness. Neuro-cognitive disturbances in HIV/AIDS have been linked to poor quality of life and medication adherence. This prospective, case-control study was designed to assess the verbal and non-verbal memory as well as the attention abilities of Nigerian Africans with HIV/AIDS and correlate their performances with their CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD4+) counts. A total of 288 randomly selected subjects, comprising 96 HIV-positive symptomatic patients, 96 HIV-positive asymptomatic patients and 96 HIV-negative controls, participated in the study. The subjects were age-, sex-, and level of education matched. The Recognition Memory Test and Choice Reaction Time tasks, components of the computer-assisted neuropsychological tests battery- the Iron Psychology 'FePsy' were used for cognitive assessments. The mean memory scores of the HIV-positive asymptomatic subjects did not differ significantly from the controls (p > 0.05) but the HIV-positive symptomatic subjects' scores were significantly lower than the controls (p memory impairment (p or = 500/microl. Impaired ability for sustained attention was however present irrespective of the CD4+ level relative to controls (p memory disturbance among HIV-positive asymptomatic subjects despite the presence of impaired attention and psychomotor slowing, and that the severity of immune suppression (as indicated by the CD4+ T lymphocytes count) is a strong determinant of cognitive decline in HIV/AIDS.

  20. Reproductive life disorders in Italian celiac women. A case-control study

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    Martinelli Domenico

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to explore the association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders. Methods The association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders in a sample of 62 childbearing age women (15-49 age was assessed within an age and town of residence matched case-control study conducted in 2008. Main outcome measures were the presence of one or more disorders in menstrual cycle and the presence of one or more complication during pregnancy. Results 62 celiac women (median age: 31.5, range: 17-49 and 186 healthy control (median age: 32.5, range: 15-49 were interviewed. A higher percentage of menstrual cycle disorders has been observed in celiac women. 19.4% frequency of amenorrhea was reported among celiac women versus 2.2% among healthy controls (OR = 33, 95% CI = 7.17-151.8;, p = 0.000. An association has been observed between celiac disease and oligomenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and metrorrhagia (p Conclusions The occurrence of a significant correlation between celiac disease and reproductive disorders could suggest to consider celiac disease diagnostic procedures (serological screening in women affected by these disorders.

  1. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  2. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

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    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  4. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mireille C; Claudino, Denise A; Grigolon, Ruth B; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Claudino, Angélica M

    2018-02-01

    To study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes, the factors associated with its presence, and to test the reliability of a screening tool for use in clinical settings. Eighty-one adolescents were enrolled in this case-control study, including 36 diabetic participants and 45 controls. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were obtained from adolescents and their parents using a screening tool (Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire) and a semi-structured interview (Development and Well-Being Assessment). Psychiatric disorders were identified in 22.2% of the sample (30.56% among diabetic adolescents vs. 15.56% of controls: OR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.82-6.99; p = 0.11). Overweight (body mass index percentile ≥ 85) was the only factor associated with psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.07; 95%CI 1.03-9.14; p = 0.04). Compared to the semi-structured interview, the screening instrument showed 80% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value and 92.3% negative predictive value for the presence of psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents. Psychiatric morbidity was high in this sample of adolescents, especially among those with diabetes. Routine use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire can help with early detection of psychiatric disorders in this at-risk group.

  5. Factors associated with voice disorders among teachers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Susana Pimentel Pinto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at verifying an association between voice disorders/stress and loss of work ability among female teachers who work in São Paulo's public school system. This is a paired case- control study. The case group was composed offiteachers with alterations in speech and larynges assessments, and the control group was formed by teachers without alterations in these evaluations who work in the same schools. Both groups answered the following questionnaires: Conditions of Vocal Production-Teachers, Job Stress Scale, and Work Ability Index. The analysis was performed using the chi-square association test and logistic regression models with the purpose of estimating the association between independent variables and voice disorders. We found differences between the groups in relation to stress in the workplace under high demand, a situation that poses greater risks of adverse reactions to the workers' physical and mental health. Regarding the ability to work, the categories poor and moderate ability for work are associated with voice disorders, regardless of job stress factors, age, and the unsatisfactory acoustic properties of the classrooms. This study confirmed the association between voice disorders and job stress, as well as between voice disorders and loss of work ability.

  6. Rh factor, family history and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stoll, Mario; De Stéfani, Eduardo; Maisonneuve, Juan E; Mendoza, Beatriz A; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    To explore possible relationships among blood factors, family history of breast cancer (BC) and the risk of the disease, a case-control study was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight hundred and one patients were interviewed, including 252 certified cases of BC and 549 frequency-matched controls. Blood groups (ABO, Rh) were obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age, selected menstrual and reproductive factors, and family history of BC as well as of other cancers. We found that the absence of Rh factor (Rh-) was positively associated with the risk of BC (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.49, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.05-2.11). Stratified analyses by family history of BC showed a strong association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=3.17, 95% CI 1.06-9.47). Also stratified analyses by family history of other cancers showed a positive association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11). Regarding the implications of an inherited factor like Rh and its associations with the family history of BC, it might increase the probability to generate high-risk individuals if further studies confirm the present preliminary findings.

  7. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

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    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  8. Treatment compliance in patients with aggressive periodontitis - a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Carolina; Abadji, Denise; Adler, Lottie; Jansson, Leif

    2017-03-01

    To investigate if differences according to discontinuation of treatment could be identified between patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis at two specialist clinics of periodontology irrespective of the effects of background factors. This is a retrospective case-control study. The variables were registered from dental records. The population consisted of patients referred to two specialist clinics of periodontology during three years. A study group was included consisting of 234 patients with a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. A control group with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis was randomly selected. In total, 234 patients (4% of the referrals) with a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis were referred to the two periodontal clinics during a period of three years. Forty-two per cent of the non-compliant patients were smokers compared to 31% for the compliers and this difference was statistically significant. Patients with aggressive periodontitis interrupted their periodontal treatment significantly more frequently (46%) compared to those patients with chronic periodontitis (34%). The non-compliant patients had significantly deeper periodontal pockets at baseline as well as significantly more sites with bleeding at probing. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, aggressive periodontitis, smoking and the relative frequency of sites with periodontal pockets >4 mm at baseline were the remaining variables with a significant influence on the incidence of interrupting ongoing periodontal treatment. The patient group with aggressive periodontitis interrupted the periodontal treatment significantly more often irrespective of background factors and risk factors, which may be regarded as a major health problem.

  9. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  10. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  11. Oral and endotracheal tubes colonization by periodontal bacteria: a case-control ICU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, A N; Cortelli, S C; Borges, A H; Matos, F Z; Aquino, D R; Miranda, T B; Oliveira Costa, F; Aranha, A F; Cortelli, J R

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal infection is a possible risk factor for respiratory disorders; however, no studies have assessed the colonization of periodontal pathogens in endotracheal tubes (ET). This case-control study analyzed whether periodontal pathogens are able to colonize ET of dentate and edentulous patients in intensive care units (ICU) and whether oral and ET periodontal pathogen profiles have any correlation between these patients. We selected 18 dentate and 18 edentulous patients from 78 eligible ICU patients. Oral clinical examination including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index , and plaque index was performed by a single examiner, followed by oral and ET sampling and processing by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (total bacterial load, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia). Data were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, two-way analysis of variance (p oral and ET bacterial levels, while edentulous patients showed positive correlations between oral and ET levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia. Periodontal pathogens can colonize ET and the oral cavity of ICU patients. Periodontal pathogen profiles tend to be similar between dentate and edentulous ICU patients. In ICU patients, oral cavity represents a source of ET contamination. Although accompanied by higher oral bacterial levels, teeth do not seem to influence ET bacterial profiles.

  12. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Erika P. S.; Cunha, Aline T. O.; Aquino, Sephora L. S.; Pedrosa, Lucia F. C.; Lima, Severina C. V. C.; Lima, Josivan G.; Almeida, Maria G.; Sena-Evangelista, Karine C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p 0.05) between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001) independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008), and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001). There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479), waist circumference (r = 0.253), triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360), glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250), homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427) (all p < 0.05) in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria. PMID:28241426

  13. Analysis of the Risk Factors for Aerobic Vaginitis: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Nv; Wu, Wenjuan; Fan, Aiping; Han, Cha; Wang, Chen; Wang, Yingmei; Xue, Fengxia

    2015-06-09

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a newly defined clinical entity which may interfere with women's reproductive health and have negative effects on pregnancy. This study was to identify the risk factors for AV. Participants in this case-control study included healthy women and women with AV. All participants completed a standardized questionnaire covering sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, personal hygiene habits and health behaviors. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for statistical evaluation. A total of 290 women of reproductive age were enrolled. In the multivariate analysis, unmarried status (odds ratio [OR] 2.606, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.257-5.402), use of an intrauterine device (OR 4.989, 95% CI 1.922-12.952), long-term use of antibiotics (OR 11.176, 95% CI 1.363-91.666) and frequent vaginal douching (OR 4.689, 95% CI 1.363-16.135) were independent risk factors for AV. On the contrary, consistent condom use (OR 0.546, 95% CI 0.301-0.991) and college-level education or above (OR 0.255, 95% CI 0.131-0.497) were independent protective factors. Measures that may be considered to prevent AV include enhancing education to improve women's knowledge related to reproductive health, especially unmarried women, encouraging them to consistently use condoms as a contraceptive method, to avoid long-term use of antibiotics and to stop frequent vaginal douching. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The association between Anoplocephala perfoliata and colic in Swedish horses--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, H; Nyman, A; Osterman Lind, E

    2013-11-08

    A case-control study was performed to investigate the association between colic of all types in Swedish horses and infection with the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata. Colic cases were defined by clinical signs consistent with the presence of abdominal pain, and the control horses had no signs of colic within the last year but attended a clinic for other reasons. Blood and fecal samples were collected by veterinarian from 67 horses with signs of colic and 67 control horses. The sera were analyzed using serodiagnostic assay anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) ELISA. The fecal samples, 30 g from each horse, were analyzed with a modified sugar salt flotation method with a density of 1.280. A significant association was found between the presence of A. perfoliata eggs in feces and colic with a 16 times higher risk of colic if eggs had been observed in fecal samples. However, there was no significant association between colic and the median OD-values in the serological diagnosis, nor when recommended cut-offs were used. The study concludes that A. perfoliata is a risk factor for colic in Swedish horses and it suggests that the modified flotation method can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying horses at risk. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The cost of infection in hip arthroplasty: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vélez, A E; Romero-Martín, M; Villanueva-Orbaiz, R; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, C; Robustillo-Rodela, A; Monge-Jodra, V

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) represents 30% of all causes of health care-associated infection (HAI) and is one of the most dreaded complications in surgical patients. We estimated the excess direct costs of SSI using a matched nested case-control study in acute-term care at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. Cases were patients who developed a first episode of SSI according to the criteria established by the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network. Controls were matched to cases in 1:1 ratio taking into account the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, age, sex, surgery date, and principal diagnosis. This study found that infection in hip replacement increased direct costs by 134%. Likewise, the excess cost due to the infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 69% higher than the excess cost attributable to infections caused by other microorganisms. SSI after hip replacement continues to be a costly complication from the hospital perspective. Costs due to SSI can be used to prioritise preventive interventions to monitor and control HAI. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  17. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  18. Livelihood opportunities amongst adults with and without disabilities in Cameroon and India: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Banks, Lena Morgon; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Sagar, Jayanthi; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Proven links between disability and poverty suggest that development programmes and policies that are not disability-inclusive will leave persons with disabilities behind. Despite this, there is limited quantitative evidence on livelihood opportunities amongst adults with disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries. This study adds to the limited evidence base, contributing data from one African and one Asian Setting. We undertook a population-based case-control study of adults (18+) with and without disabilities in North-West Cameroon and in Telangana State, India. We found that adults with disabilities were five times less likely to be working compared to age-sex matched controls in both settings. Amongst adults with disabilities, current age, marital status and disability type were key predictors of working. Inclusive programmes are therefore needed to provide adequate opportunities to participate in livelihood prospects for adults with disabilities in Cameroon and India, on an equal basis as others. These findings are of crucial importance at this stage of the Sustainable Development Agenda, to ensure that the mandate of inclusive development is achieved.

  19. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with asthma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Huang, Chung-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting

    2018-02-14

    Although asthma and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) are considered to share similar pathophysiological pathways, the relationship between asthma and BPS/IC is uncertain. This case-control study aimed to investigate the relationship between prior asthma and BPS/IC using a large database in Taiwan. This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 500 female patients with BPS/IC as cases and 500 propensity score-matched females without BPS/IC as controls. We conducted logistic regressions to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for prior asthma between cases and controls. Results indicated that 143 (14.30%) of the total sampled patients had received a prior diagnosis of asthma. Moreover, prior asthma was found in 86 (17.20%) cases and 57 (11.40%) controls. The OR of prior asthma for cases was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.13-2.32) compared to propensity score-matched controls. Additionally, the ORs of prior asthma for females with BPS/IC aged 18-59 and ≥60 years were 1.72 (95%CI: 1.11-2.69) and 1.40 (95%CI: 0.74-2.62), respectively, compared to controls. We concluded that prior asthma was significantly associated with BPS/IC in a female Taiwanese population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Factors Associated with Atopy in Toddlers: A Case-Control Study

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    Jolene Yung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case-control study the association between the approaches used to feed infants, together with known family and environmental factors, and the occurrence of atopic illness in toddlers between the ages of 4 months to 3 years in Hong Kong was examined. A total of 206 subjects were recruited from April to June of 2014. The results obtained by binary logistic regression indicated that atopy is associated with boys (OR 2.072, CI 1.089–3.941, the maternal use of antibiotics in utero or while breast feeding (OR 2.276, CI 1.151–4.504, the later commencement of mixed feeding (OR 2.497, CI 1.025–6.082, breast feeding exclusively for 3 months (OR 1.972, CI 1.009–3.857, and having a mother who was diagnosed with eczema (OR 4.510, CI 1.764–11.530. Although an exclusive reliance on breast feeding has been shown to be predictive of atopy among toddlers, the positive qualities of breast milk cannot be ignored. A further study of the contents and nutritional values of breast milk is warranted.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  2. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Parenting style and oral health practices in early childhood caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adolescent suicide and household access to firearms in Colorado: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S; Hoffman, R E; Wake, L; Marine, W M

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether, compared with age- and sex-matched controls who did not commit suicide, adolescents who committed suicide by firearms were more likely to have had household access to firearms (after adjusting for significant risk factors for adolescent suicide). A case-control study design was used; case subjects were Colorado adolescents who committed suicide between 1991 and 1993; controls were sex- and age-matched adolescents who were randomly selected from the same school the subjects had attended. Interviews were conducted with the parent or guardian of cases and controls. Of the 36 case subjects in this study, 67% committed suicide using a gun obtained from their home. Adolescent suicide victims who committed suicide by firearms were significantly more likely to have a firearm in their home (72%) than age- and sex-matched community controls (50%), after adjusting for significant risk factors. Conduct disorder and previous mental health treatment were also found to be independent risk factors for adolescent firearm suicide. Two types of public health interventions to prevent adolescent firearm suicides are likely to be successful: (a) limiting household access to firearms, and (b) identifying adolescents at high risk of firearm suicide.

  5. Impact of Sjogren's syndrome on Parkinson's disease: A nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chi Wu

    Full Text Available To investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome would have an influence on the development of Parkinson's disease.A population-based case-control study was conducted. Participants consisted of 7716 subjects with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease and a population of 75129 matched control subjects between 2000 and 2010. We measured the risk of Parkinson's disease in association with Sjogren's syndrome by using adjusted odds ratios.A total of 143 Parkinson's disease subjects (1.9% and 893 control subjects (1.2% suffered from Sjogren's syndrome (p < 0.001. The crude odds ratio for Parkinson's disease among subjects with Sjogren's syndrome was 1.56 (95% CI 1.30-1.86; p < 0.01. After adjustment for potential confounders which have been proposed that would increase the risk of development of Parkinson's disease, Sjogren's syndrome was found to be significantly associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease with an odds ratio of 1.37 (95% CI 1.15-1.65; p < 0.01.This study preliminarily proposed that Sjogren's syndrome was significant associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  7. Effect of anterior cervical osteophyte in poststroke dysphagia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkook; Park, Geun-Young; Seo, Yu Jung; Im, Sun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether the concomitant presence of anterior cervical osteophytes can influence the severity and outcome of patients with poststroke dysphagia. Retrospective case-control study. Hospital. A total of 40 participants were identified (N=40). Patients with poststroke dysphagia with anterior cervical osteophytes (n=20) were identified and matched by age, sex, location, and laterality of the stroke lesion to a poststroke dysphagia control group with no anterior cervical osteophytes (n=20). Not applicable. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), and Penetration-Aspiration Scale results assessed within the first month of stroke were analyzed. The FOIS at 6 months was recorded, and severity of dysphagia was compared between the 2 groups. The case group had larger degrees of postswallow residues in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses (P=.020 and Pdysphagia (OR=15.375; 95% CI, 3.195-infinity). The presence of anterior cervical osteophytes, which may cause mechanical obstruction and interfere with residue clearance at the valleculae and pyriform sinuses and result in more postswallow aspiration, may influence initial severity and outcome of poststroke dysphagia. The presence of anterior cervical osteophytes may be considered an important clinical condition that may affect poststroke dysphagia rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  9. Occupational risk factors for renal cell cancer. An Italian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, L; Tondel, M; De Palma, G; Buzio, C; Franchini, I; Mutti, A; Axelson, O

    2002-01-01

    To examine possible associations between occupational and environmental risk factors and renal cell cancer (RCC), a tumour with unclear aetiology and increasing incidence. A questionnaire-based case-control study of 100 histologically verified cases of RCC and 200 controls was conducted at Parma University Hospital. The control group was enrolled from patients attending different outpatient departments and represented the same residential area as the cases. For all exposure variables under study, two levels of duration were defined: "short" and "prolonged" for less than 10 years or more, respectively. The highest risk estimates for RCC were found for "prolonged" exposure to organic solvents with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.0-4.8). "Prolonged" exposures to pesticides and copper sulphate were also associated with increased risk, OR 2.0 (95% CI: 0.8-4.7) and OR 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-5.5), respectively. Our data suggests an association between RCC and exposure to organic solvents, pesticides and copper sulphate. A risk gradient as a function of exposure duration was found for organic solvents (p = 0.044) and copper sulphate (p = 0.036), but not for pesticides.

  10. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  11. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Motghare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight of the newborn is below 10th percentile for gestational age on the intrauterine growth curve. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17 package. Percentages, odds ratios with 95% CI and multiple logistic regression analysis were used wherever appropriate. Results: Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status and number of antenatal visits were found to be the significant socio-demographic factors associated with Intrauterine growth restriction while, maternal height, parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and anemia were the maternal biological factors found to be significantly associated on bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified parity, previous spontaneous abortion, direct obstetric morbidity, indirect obstetric morbidity and antenatal visits as significant maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Conclusions: A focus on good antenatal care, especially on high risk pregnancies would go a long way in reducing the problem of intrauterine growth restriction in the community thereby ensuring a safe and healthy future for our youngest generation.

  12. Risk factors for severe hand foot mouth disease in Singapore: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, So-Phia; Chong, Shu-Ling; Barbier, Sylvaine; Matthew, Aji; Lee, Jan Hau; Chan, Yoke Hwee

    2015-10-31

    Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that can potentially lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors of acquiring severe HFMD in our population. We performed a case control study using patients admitted to our hospital from August 2004 to July 2014. Cases were patients with severe HFMD disease while controls were age-matched patients obtained from the same year, in a 2:1 ratio. Data comprising demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and signs, and lab findings were collected. Conditional univariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for severe disease. A total of 24 cases of severe HFMD were identified and matched with 48 controls. Seventeen (70.8%) cases had central nervous system complications. Seven (29.2%) had cardiovascular complications without evidence of myocarditis. One patient died of encephalitis. The overall mortality of severe disease is 4%. Evidence of hypoperfusion, seizure, altered mentation, meningeal irritation, tachycardia, tachypnea, raised absolute neutrophil count and EV-A71 (Enterovirus A71) positivity were significantly associated with a severe course of HFMD. In managing children with HFMD, physicians should consider these factors to help identify patients at risk for severe disease.

  13. Risk factors for breast cancer among women in Bhopal urban agglomerate: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Rama S; Nandeshwar, Sunil; Pal, D K; Shrivastav, Atul; Lodha, K M; Bhagat, Vimal K; Bankwar, Vishal V; Nandeshwar, Sunil; Saxena, D M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. The incidence is on the rise in India, and breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in Indian women. To assess the risk factors for breast cancer patients living in Bhopal. This case-control study was conducted in Bhopal urban agglomerate for a period of a year from October 2008 to August 2009. Demographic data and reproductive risk factor related information was collected using a structured questionnaire with analyses by Epi-info and SPSS 16. A history of oral contraceptive pill use (OR=2.77, 95% CI: 1.15-6.65), history of not having breastfeeding (OR=3.49, 95% CI:1.22-9.97), over weight (OR=0.11, 95%CI:0.02-0.49), obese women (OR=0.24, 95%CI: 0.06-0.88) and family history of breast cancer (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.01-14.92) were associated significantly with the occurrence of breast cancer on multivariate analysis. The findings of the present study suggests that positive family history of breast cancer and history of using OCP may be the epigenetic factors promoting the occurrence of breast cancer while breastfeeding reduces the possibility of acquiring breast cancer.

  14. A Case-control Study of Diphtheria in the High Incidence City of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Uthappa, Chengappa Kechamada; Duerst, Rebecca; Sorley, Evan; Udaragudi, Prasada Rao; Kampa, Shankar; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    India accounts for approximately 72% of reported diphtheria cases globally, the majority of which occur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study is to better understand lack of knowledge on diphtheria vaccination and to determine factors associated with diphtheria and low knowledge and negative attitudes. We performed a 1:1 case-control study of hospitalized diphtheria cases in Hyderabad. Eligible case patients were 10 years of age or older, resided within the city of Hyderabad and were diagnosed with diphtheria per the case definition. Patients admitted to the hospital for nonrespiratory communicable diseases and residing in the same geographic region as that of cases were eligible for enrolment as controls : There were no statistical differences in disease outcome by gender, education, economic status and mean room per person sleeping in the house in case and control subjects. Not having heard of diphtheria (adjusted odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-8.04] and not believing that vaccines can prevent people from getting diseases (adjusted odds ratio: 3.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-13.45) remained significantly associated with diphtheria on multivariate analysis. To reduce the burden of diphtheria in India, further efforts to educate the public about diphtheria should be considered.

  15. Meconium aspiration syndrome in infants of HIV-positive women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sachin K; Haerr, Pam; David, Richard; Rastogi, Alok; Pyati, Suma

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to determine whether maternal HIV infection in the current era is associated with an increased incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in their infants. Infants born to 149 HIV-positive women at our hospital over a 5-year period were compared with infants born to HIV-negative women in a retrospective case-control study. Charts of all 298 patients included in the study were reviewed for maternal and infant demographics, HIV treatment, vertical transmission and untoward events at delivery or during the hospital course. When compared with HIV-negative women, a greater proportion of HIV-positive women had meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF), 33% vs. 13%, Pmeconium staining of the amniotic fluid and such drug exposure was more common among our HIV-positive sample, controlling for this and other possible covariates did not greatly reduce the association of HIV status with meconium-related complications of delivery. Infants born to HIV-positive women had significantly more MSAF and MAS than infants born to non-infected women. It is unclear whether this association results from maternal HIV infection itself or from anti-retroviral therapy. Maternal and infant care providers should be prepared for this complication when attending to the deliveries of HIV-positive women.

  16. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Siew Hwa; Knight, A; Krishna, Mbv; Muda, Wmw; Rufai, Aa

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality and is associated with increased breast cancer diagnosis and recurrence. To examine the association between adult lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in a case-control analysis. This study involved 122 cases of breast cancer and 121 controls in the state of Kelantan in Malaysia. A comprehensive measure of lifetime physical activity was used to assess occupational, household, and recreational/sports activity. For every type of activity, a metabolic equivalent (MET) score was assigned using the compendium of physical activities. MET-hours/week per year for all types of activities at different levels of intensities for different age groups were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios between various measures of physical activity and breast cancer risk. The mean MET-hours/week per year for all activities were 120.0 and 132.9 of MET-hours/week per year for cases and controls respectively. Household activities accounted for about 70% of the total lifetime physical activities. Only about 2.5% of the total lifetime physical activities were in the form of recreational/sports. This study found no association between lifetime occupational and recreational/sports physical activities with breast cancer risk among Kelantanese women. However, higher intensity lifetime household activities seemed to significantly reduce risk of breast cancer.

  17. Examining Maternal Psychopathology, Family Functioning and Coping Skills in Childhood Obesity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Miriam; Sepulveda, Ana R; Lacruz, Tatiana; Parks, Melissa; Real, Beatriz; Martin-Peinador, Yolanda; Román, Francisco J

    2017-09-01

    The shared family environment is an important risk factor in the development of childhood obesity. This study aims to examine differences in maternal psychopathology, family functioning, expressed emotion and coping skills between families of a child with obesity and those with a normal-weight child. This case-control study consisted of 50 mothers with a child (age 8-12 years) with obesity (p ≥ 97) and a control group of 50 mothers of a child with normal weight (p families with normal-weight children, those with children with obesity showed significant differences in levels of trait anxiety, criticism and over-protectiveness, and maladaptive coping skills. Structural equation modelling revealed that the mothers' psychopathology predicted children's body mass index (BMI) z-scores through expressed emotion and maladaptive coping scores. There were significant direct and indirect relations among maternal BMI, psychopathology, expressed emotion and coping, which all together explained 26.5% of variance of children's BMI z-scores. Considering this relation between maternal variables and child weight status, childhood obesity intervention programs may benefit from targeting maternal BMI, psychopathology, expressed emotion and coping skills. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Case-control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2014-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. We conducted a case-control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.

  19. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Multiple Sclerosis: a Case-Control Study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Guoyi; Duan, Yuanli; Han, Xinwen; Dong, Huihua; Geng, Jia

    2016-12-15

    It's hypothesized that gastrointestinal microbiota might play an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in MS patients compared with sex and age matched controls without MS. The present study was a case-control type, it included 118 patients with definitive MS and 118 age-sex matched controls. Progression of disability was assessed using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). All patients and controls underwent the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Forty-five of the 118 MS patients were SIBO positive (38.14%; 95%CI: 29.37%-46.90%) compared with 10 of 118 in the control group (8.47%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.45%-13.50%); the difference was statistically significant (Ppresented at least one GI symptom. Constipation (78.0%), Bloating (46.6%), and fecal incontinence (44.1%) were common. Multivariate analysis showed that expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score and MSSS were the only factors associated with the SIBO-positive status in MS patients (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.56-6.99; and OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.42-4.94, respectively). SIBO is highly prevalent in Chinese patients with MS. Further analytical work is required to establish a causal association between SIBO and MS risk and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  1. Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandes Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially and economically relevant disease caused by compression or entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. This population-based case-control study aims to investigate occupational/non-occupational risk factors for surgically treated CTS. Methods Cases (n = 220 aged 18-65 years were randomly drawn from 13 administrative databases of citizens who were surgically treated with carpal tunnel release during 2001. Controls (n = 356 were randomly sampled from National Health Service registry records and were frequency matched by age-gender-specific CTS hospitalization rates. Results At multivariate analysis, risk factors were blue-collar/housewife status, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, sibling history of CTS and coexistence of trigger finger. Being relatively tall (cut-offs based on tertiles: women ≥165 cm; men ≥175 cm was associated with lower risk. Blue-collar work was a moderate/strong risk factor in both sexes. Raised risks were apparent for combinations of biomechanical risk factors that included frequent repetitivity and sustained force. Conclusion This study strongly underlines the relevance of biomechanical exposures in both non-industrial and industrial work as risk factors for surgically treated CTS.

  2. Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Bovenzi, Massimo; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin M T; Campo, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Pietro G; Ghersi, Rinaldo; Broccoli, Marco; Cancellieri, Maria Pia; Colao, Anna Maria; Dell'omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Franceschini, Flavia; Fucksia, Serenella; Galli, Paolo; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Lucchini, Roberto; Mandes, Anna; Marras, Teresa; Sgarrella, Carla; Borghesi, Stefano; Fierro, Mauro; Zanardi, Francesca; Mancini, Gianpiero; Violante, Francesco S

    2009-09-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially and economically relevant disease caused by compression or entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. This population-based case-control study aims to investigate occupational/non-occupational risk factors for surgically treated CTS. Cases (n = 220) aged 18-65 years were randomly drawn from 13 administrative databases of citizens who were surgically treated with carpal tunnel release during 2001. Controls (n = 356) were randomly sampled from National Health Service registry records and were frequency matched by age-gender-specific CTS hospitalization rates. At multivariate analysis, risk factors were blue-collar/housewife status, BMI > or = 30 kg/m2, sibling history of CTS and coexistence of trigger finger. Being relatively tall (cut-offs based on tertiles: women > or =165 cm; men > or =175 cm) was associated with lower risk. Blue-collar work was a moderate/strong risk factor in both sexes. Raised risks were apparent for combinations of biomechanical risk factors that included frequent repetitivity and sustained force. This study strongly underlines the relevance of biomechanical exposures in both non-industrial and industrial work as risk factors for surgically treated CTS.

  3. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Adolescent depression: social network and family climate--a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, G I; Nordström, M L; Arinell, H; von Knorring, A L

    1999-02-01

    In a study of a total high-school population, 2300 students aged 16-17 years were screened for depression (BDI, CES-DC). Those with a self-evaluation indicating depression, together with controls matched for sex, age, and class were interviewed (DICA-R-A). The 177 pairs, where both individuals were interviewed and the control had no lifetime diagnosis of depression, were analysed in the form of paired differences for psychosocial factors and compared within diagnostic groups. The psychosocial factors were measured with the ISSI subscales and six attitude questions about family climate (KSP). Adolescents with an episode of major depression during part of the last year did not differ from their controls. Those with long-lasting depressive symptoms, i.e. dysthymia with or without episodes of major depression, had a more limited social interaction and were not satisfied with it. They also evaluated their family climate and attachment network as being more inadequate than did their controls. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder had a more negative evaluation of availability and adequacy of both social interaction and attachment network than their controls. This group had a very negative view of their family climate. Since this is a case-control study conclusions cannot be drawn about cause and effect.

  5. Case-control study of lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to radiation resulting from the inhalation of uranium dust and the dust of uranium-bearing compounds and death due to lung cancer. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of white male workers employed at one uranium processing plant during World War II. The 330 cases consisted of all lung cancer deaths occurring in the cohort between 1943 and 1973. Level of exposure to radiation and other potential workplace carcinogens was determined for each worker using process manuals, industrial hygiene reports, air monitoring data and individual work histories. Smoking status and information regarding medical variables was determined from employee medical records. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Data were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis and logistic regression. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of lung dose exposure even after controlling for age, smoking status and other workplace exposures, but only for those who were over the age of 44 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this hire age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads or more. The risk associated with the overall work environment was also investigated using a summary measure of total workplace exposure called chemical rank. A similar relationship existed between chemical rank and lung cancer to that found for cumulative lung dose and lung cancer

  6. Risk factors for non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashaba, E; El-Helaly, M; El-Gilany, A H; Motawei, S M; Foda, S

    2018-02-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem, because it affects both workers and young people. Prevalence and consequences of cannabis abuse among construction workers in particular are not well studied in Egypt. To determine the association between non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers and their demographic and occupational factors and to assess the frequency of cannabis abuse and its relationship to injury severity and workdays lost. A case-control study was conducted at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Cases were 100 acutely injured male workers. A control group of 90 healthy age-matched workers was selected from 8 construction sites. Workers were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed that included socio-demographic data, full occupational history, and causes and type of injury. Injury outcome measures included lost workdays and the injury severity score (ISS). Cannabis abuse in injured workers was monitored by preliminary testing of urine and confirmatory testing of blood. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of occupational injuries were rural residence, being a carpenter or painter and past history of injuries. The most common accidents were slipping falls (62%). Confirmed cannabis test was positive in 51.1% of the injured workers. Median days away from work were greater among cannabis users than non-users. The ISS was significantly higher among users compared to non-users ( p abuse can increase injury severity and prolong workdays lost. Drug testing is recommended for at-risk construction workers with inadequate safety measures.

  7. Therapeutic radiation and hyperparathyroidism. A case-control study in Rochester, Minn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.M.; Heath, H. III; O'Fallon, W.M.; Anderson, J.A.; Earle, J.D.; Melton, L.J. III

    1989-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted among residents of Rochester, Minn, to assess the influence of prior therapeutic radiation on the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism. Fifty-one cases of surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed from 1975 through 1983 were each matched by age and gender to two control subjects, with radiation exposure documented through preexisting medical records. The overall odds ratio for any prior therapeutic radiation therapy was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 4.4) and it was 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.7) when limited to those with prior head and neck radiation. Among women, the figures were 2.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 7.5) for any prior therapeutic radiation and 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.2) for head and neck exposure. This study confirms the association between primary hyperparathyroidism and prior therapeutic radiation exposure, at least for women in this population

  8. [Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Massa, Ana E; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Menacho-Miguel, José Antonio; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2014-08-04

    The smoke fume, principal factor in the development of lung cancer, causes the expression of certain cytokines, including interleukin 4, 6, 8 and 10, which may act by inhibiting apoptosis and interfere cellular repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. To determine the possible relationship between gene polymorphisms of these cytokines and lung cancer. To achieve this objective we designed a case-control study, which included 400 patients who had come to the consultation for rapid diagnosis of lung cancer at the Pneumology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, and whose main criterion exclusion was the lack of active contact with smoke fume. Patients were divided into 2 groups, each consisting of 200 patients: cases (patients diagnosed with lung cancer) and controls (patients without lung cancer). A percentage of 62.8 of men were former smokers at diagnosis compared with 55.5% of women, although the former still had a greater cumulative consumption. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated in diagnosis (48.9% of patients) and more than half were in advanced stages (28.5% in stage iiiB and 25.5% in stage iv). No statistical significance was observed by linking the existence of tumor to the prevalence of any of the analyzed polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the study did not modify the risk of developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes for Women with Gestational Diabetes Treated with Metformin: A Retrospective, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel T. McGrath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is increasingly being used a therapeutic option for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The aim of this study was to compare the maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of women with GDM treated with metformin (with or without supplemental insulin with those receiving other management approaches. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out and 83 women taking metformin were matched 1:1 with women receiving insulin or diet and lifestyle modification alone. Women managed with diet and lifestyle modification had a significantly lower fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.001 and HbA1c (p < 0.01 at diagnosis of GDM. Furthermore, women managed with metformin had a higher early pregnancy body mass index (BMI compared to those receiving insulin or diet and lifestyle modification (p < 0.001. There was no difference in mode of delivery, birth weight or incidence of large- or small-for-gestational-age neonates between groups. Women receiving glucose lowering therapies had a higher rate of neonatal hypoglycaemia (p < 0.05. The incidence of other adverse perinatal outcomes was similar between groups. Despite their greater BMI, women with metformin-treated GDM did not have an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Metformin is a useful alternative to insulin in the management of GDM.

  10. Risk factors of malnutrition among preschool children in Terengganu, Malaysia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hui Jie; Moy, Foong Ming; Nair, Sulochana

    2014-08-03

    Childhood malnutrition is a multi-dimensional problem. An increase in household income is not sufficient to reduce childhood malnutrition if children are deprived of food security, education, access to water, sanitation and health services. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of malnourished children below five years of age and to ascertain the risk factors of childhood malnutrition in a state in Malaysia. A case control study was conducted in the maternal and child health clinics in five districts of Terengganu, Malaysia from April to August 2012. Case was a child with moderate to severe malnutrition with z-scores history of worm infection (aOR: 3.48, 95% CI: 1.25, 9.70). Lower socio-economic status, household food insecurity, and poor child caring practices were associated with childhood malnutrition. Besides implementation of programmes focusing on poverty reduction, community based nutrition and hygiene education with extensive family planning and de-worming programmes should be intensified to improve both mother and children's nutritional status.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

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    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  12. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

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    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  13. Identifying risk factors for blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma by race: a case-control study.

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    Williams, Andrew M; Huang, Wei; Muir, Kelly W; Stinnett, Sandra S; Stone, Jordan S; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2018-01-01

    To examine the factors associated with blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) among black and white patients at our institution. For this retrospective, case-control study, patients legally blind from POAG ("cases") were matched on age, race, and gender with non-blind POAG patients ("controls"). Thirty-seven black case-control pairs and 19 white case-control pairs were included in this study. Clinical variables were compared at initial presentation and over the course of follow-up. Black case-control pairs and white case-control pairs had similar characteristics at presentation, including cup-to-disc ratio and number of glaucoma medications. However, over the course of follow-up, black cases underwent significantly more glaucoma surgeries than matched controls (2.4 versus 1.2, p =0.001), whereas white cases and controls had no significant difference in glaucoma operations (0.9 versus 0.6, p =0.139). Our analysis found that glaucoma surgery is associated with blindness in black patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) but not in white patients (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.2). Black and white case-control pairs with POAG shared similar risk factors for blindness at presentation. However, over the follow-up period, black cases required significantly more glaucoma surgeries compared to black controls, whereas there was no significant difference in surgery between white cases and controls. There was no difference in medication changes in either case-control set.

  14. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  15. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

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    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

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    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  17. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  18. Environmental Factors Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Development: A Case Control Study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Nabil J; Hegazy, Amal A; Abd El-Salam, Manal; Elhady, Marwa

    2017-06-07

    Uncertainty still exists regarding the role of some environmental risk in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) both globally and in Egypt. The objective here was to explore the potential environmental risk factors associated with the development of T1DM among children in Egypt. A case-controlled study of 204 T1DM children and an equal number of age and sex-matched controls was conducted in Assiut, Egypt. Data regarding the parental, gestational, neonatal, and childhood possible risk factors for T1DM were evaluated. The final sex adjusted multivariable logistic regression model revealed that the risk for T1DM was significantly higher among rural residents (aOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.30-4.25), those with parental history of T1DM (aOR = 9.03, 95% CI: 1.02-83.32), birth through cesarean section (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.09-5.03), and having history of early introduction of cow milk in the first year of life (aOR = 19.49, 95% CI: 8.73-45.53). On the other hand, a protective effect was observed between at least six months' breastfeeding, vitamin D supplementation in the first year of life, high physical activity, and the development of T1DM. Educational programs should be adopted to improve awareness and knowledge of the parents to avoid the increased risk factors and encourage protective practices.

  19. Parasites in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study

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    Gonzalez-Angulo Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS according to Rome III criteria and 209 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms different from IBS (control were identified through medical records from the Gastroenterology Clinic of the "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez General Hospital" from January 2008 to March 2010. No statistical differences in IBS data as compared with control groups were observed except in bloating, that was more frequent in the IBS group (P = 0.043. Although the pathogenicity of specific intestinal protozoa could not be demonstrated due to lack of association with the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, Blastocystis spp, in the IBS group, exhibited a trend of association to diarrhoea (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-8.80, P = 0.053, while having any parasite and diarrhoea was significant (odds ratio = 3.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-8.57, P = 0.008. The association between Blastocystis and diarrhoea in IBS patients although not conclusive is an interesting finding; nonetheless more extensive case-controlled studies are required to clearly define the role of some "non-pathogenic" parasites in intestinal disease and IBS.

  20. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

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    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  1. Individual socioeconomic status and breast cancer diagnostic stages: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza

    2016-06-01

    Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

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    Tessaro Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and breast cancer in Southern Brazil, a case-control design was employed, with two age-matched control groups. A total of 250 cases of breast cancer were identified in women from 20 to 60 years of age, with 1,020 hospital and community controls. The main study variables were occurrence of breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed. According to the results, breastfeeding did not have a protective effect against breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR for women who breastfed was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.2 compared to women who did not breastfeed. For women who breastfed for six months or less, the OR was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.8. In pre-menopausal women who breastfed for more than 25 months, the OR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5, and in post-menopausal women OR was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.5-3.1, compared to women who had not breastfeed.

  3. Symptoms of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, K M; McDonald, C M; Ingman, E; Haas, J

    1990-09-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to see if symptoms of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) (oropharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric) dysfunction occurred more frequently in males afflicted with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) than healthy controls. Subjects included 55 children with confirmed DMD and 55 age-matched controls without neuromuscular disease. All subjects and/or their parents responded to a standard set of questions concerning the frequency of symptoms of UGI dysfunction. Responses of the DMD and control groups were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A significantly higher percentage of DMD patients experienced nasal quality to the voice, dysphagia, choking while eating, the need to clear the throat during or after eating, heartburn, and vomiting during or after meals, than did controls. Only one symptom--heartburn--was found significantly more frequently in the 33 nonambulatory than the 22 ambulatory DMD subjects. These findings document that feeding difficulty and symptoms consistent with oropharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric dysfunction are more frequent in the DMD population than healthy, age-matched controls.

  4. STATISTICAL INTERACTIONS AND BAYES ESTIMATION OF LOG ODDS IN CASE-CONTROL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M.; Olson, Sara H.; Elston, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of the logarithm of disease odds (log odds) when evaluating two risk factors, whether or not interactions are present. Statisticians define interaction as a departure from an additive model on a certain scale of measurement of the outcome. Certain interactions, known as removable interactions, may be eliminated by fitting an additive model under an invertible transformation of the outcome. This can potentially provide more precise estimates of log odds than fitting a model with interaction terms. In practice, we may also encounter non-removable interactions. The model must then include interaction terms, regardless of the choice of the scale of the outcome. However, in practical settings, we do not know at the outset whether an interaction exists, and if so whether it is removable or non-removable. Rather than trying to decide on significance levels to test for the existence of removable and non-removable interactions, we develop a Bayes estimator based on a squared error loss function. We demonstrate the favorable bias-variance trade-offs of our approach using simulations, and provide empirical illustrations using data from three published endometrial cancer case-control studies. The methods are implemented in an R program, available freely at http://www.mskcc.org/biostatistics/~satagopj. PMID:25586327

  5. Diet and brain cancer in adults: a case-control study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Chatenoud, L; Bosetti, C; Jia, X; Liu, R; Huang, G; Bi, D; Wang, C

    1999-03-31

    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Heilongjiang Province of northeast China between May 1993 and May 1995. A total of 129 histologically confirmed brain cancer cases (73 gliomas and 56 meningiomas) and 258 matched controls were interviewed in 6 major hospitals to examine the influence of dietary factors in developing brain cancer. Information was obtained about frequency of consumption of 57 food items. Odds ratios (ORs) were obtained from conditional logistic regression, including allowance for socio-demographic factors, alcohol, tobacco and total energy intake. Consumption of fresh vegetables (OR = 0.29 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest one), and specifically of Chinese cabbage and onion, fruit (OR = 0.15), fresh fish (OR = 0.38) and poultry (OR = 0.16) was inversely related to the risk of developing brain cancer. A protective effect was also seen for vitamin E intake, calcium and, although non-significantly, beta-carotene and vitamin C. Risk of brain cancer increased with consumption of salted vegetables (OR = 2.54) and salted fish.

  6. Lower urinary tract symptoms and falls in older women: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhodri; Hunter, Kathleen; Wagg, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    To examine the distribution of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women >65y old presenting to the emergency department following a fall or fall related injury. A prospective, case controlled postal questionnaire study. University Teaching Hospital, London, UK. The distribution of LUTS were assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for female lower urinary tract symptoms. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics to determine whether there was a difference in the distribution of LUTS between women presenting with a fall or non-fall related health problem. The proportion of women who attributed their fall to lower urinary tract symptoms was also assessed. No difference in the distribution of LUTS was found between older women presenting with a fall and those without. Only 6.5% of women presenting with falls attributed their fall to antecedent LUTS. No relationship between falls and urgency or urgency incontinence was found in a cohort of older women presenting to the emergency department having fallen. A temporal association between falls and LUTS was observed in only a minority of falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Nejjari, Chakib

    2017-06-20

    Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios and corresponding confidence-intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression models. Current HPV infection was detected in 92.5% of cases and 13.9% of controls. HPV16 was the most common type for both cases and controls. Very strong associations between HPV-sub-types and cervical cancer were observed: total-HPV (OR = 39), HPV16 (OR = 49), HPV18 (OR = 31), and multiple infections (OR = 13). Education, high parity, sexual intercourse during menstruation, history of sexually transmitted infections, and husband's multiple sexual partners were also significantly associated with cervical cancer in the multivariate analysis. Our results could be used to establish a primary prevention program and to prioritize limited screening to women who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of cervical cancer.

  8. Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Edefonti, Valeria; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Franceschi, Silvia; Negri, Eva; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns. Data were derived from an Italian case-control study, including 1,225 subjects with cancer of the colon, 728 subjects with rectal cancer, and 4,154 hospital controls. We identified dietary patterns on a selected set of nutrients through principal component factor analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for both cancers were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression. We identified 5 major dietary patterns. Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively). No other significant association was found. The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer.

  9. Etiology of Diarrhea in Young Children in Denmark: a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Bente; Neimann, Jacob; Böttiger, Blenda; Ethelberg, Steen; Schiellerup, Peter; Jensen, Charlotte; Helms, Morten; Scheutz, Flemming; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Krogfelt, Karen; Petersen, Eskild; Mølbak, Kåre; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in Danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. Stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age-matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus were detected by PCR. Salmonella, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Vibrio spp. were detected by standard methods. Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), attaching-and-effacing (A/EEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were detected by using colony hybridization with virulence gene probes and serotyping. Parasites were detected by microscopy. Overall, a potential pathogen was found in 54% of cases. More cases than controls were infected with rotavirus, Salmonella, norovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter, sapovirus, STEC, classical EPEC, Yersinia, and Cryptosporidium strains, whereas A/EEC, although common, was not associated with illness. The single most important cause of diarrhea was rotavirus, which points toward the need for a childhood vaccine for this pathogen, but norovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus were also major etiologies. Salmonella sp. was the most common bacterial pathogen, followed by Campylobacter, STEC, Yersinia, and classical EPEC strains. A/EEC not belonging to the classical EPEC serotypes was not associated with diarrhea, underscoring the importance of serotyping for the definition of EPEC. PMID:16081890

  10. Evaluating correlation between serum liver enzymes and toxocariasis: a case control study

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    Hosein Miladi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis in individuals with the normal and abnormal level of liver enzymes. Methods: In this case-control study, the serum samples were collected in the individuals referred to diagnostic laboratories of Arak in Iran. A total of 144 sera with abnormal level of liver enzymes were selected as cases and the same numbers of sera with the normal level of liver enzymes also were selected as controls. The sera were examined for anti-Toxocara IgG. Results: Twelve (4.2% sera contained anti-Toxocara antibody and all of them were in the case group. Although the mean of all liver enzymes was significantly different in the two groups (P < 0.05, statistical test showed no relationship between the level of liver enzymes and toxocariasis. Conclusions: It was concluded that the liver enzyme alteration is not the valid indicator for predicting toxocariasis. Because the kind of liver dysfunction, that is caused by the larvae of Toxocara, is unspecified, and it seems factors such as the number of larvae can play a basic role for the emergence of alterations.

  11. Anemia or low hemoglobin levels preceding Parkinson disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, R; Grossardt, B R; Carlin, J M; Icen, M; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Maraganore, D M; Steensma, D P; Rocca, W A

    2009-10-27

    It has been suggested that anemia may be a risk factor for dementia, for restless legs syndrome, and for Parkinson disease (PD). Thus, we investigated the association of anemia with the subsequent risk of PD using a case-control study design. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the system to detect anemia defined using the World Health Organization criteria. Anemia was more common in the history of cases than of controls (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.31-3.06, p = 0.001). The association remained significant after adjustment for cigarette smoking, exposure to pesticides, or hysterectomy (in women). The association was not significantly different between men and women, or between PD patients with or without rest tremor. Analyses stratified by time of onset of anemia showed a greater association for anemia that started 20 to 29 years before the onset of PD. Hemoglobin levels were slightly but consistently lower in cases than in controls across all ages. Our results support an association between anemia experienced early in life and the later development of Parkinson disease. The interpretation of this association remains uncertain.

  12. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M D; Bower, J H; Maraganore, D M; McDonnell, S K; Peterson, B J; Ahlskog, J E; Schaid, D J; Rocca, W A

    2000-11-14

    To study the association of PD with preceding smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption using a case-control design. The authors used the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, during the years 1976 to 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control subject. The authors reviewed the complete medical records of cases and control subjects to abstract exposure information. For coffee consumption, the authors found an OR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.78, p = 0.01), a dose-effect trend (p = 0.003), and a later age at PD onset in cases who drank coffee compared with those who never did (median 72 versus 64 years; p = 0.0002). The inverse association with coffee remained significant after adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol drinking and was restricted to PD cases with onset at age coffee drinking and PD; however, this association does not imply that coffee has a direct protective effect against PD. Alternative explanations for the association should be considered.

  13. Inverse association between yerba mate consumption and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Melcon, Carlos; Parisi, Virginia L; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Gonzalez, Claudio D

    2015-09-15

    Yerba mate tea is a very common beverage in some countries of South America. We conducted a case-control study on an individual basis using hospital records to investigate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and yerba mate intake. A case was defined as an age of ≥ 40 years with ≥ 1 year of PD. Each case was individually matched by two controls. Exposure was measured by yerba mate consumption, coffee, tea, and alcohol intake and smoking status. The sample consisted of 223 PD patients (mean age 68 years and mean disease duration 7.3 years) and 406 controls. There was an inverse association between yerba mate "bombilla" consumption and PD (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.76, p=0.00001). A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression adjusted by sex, alcohol intake and smoking provided the following results: yerba mate (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76), tea (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.86), coffee (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73). We found an inverse association between yerba mate consumption and PD. These results led us to hypothesize that yerba mate may have a potential protective role in the development of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fragrance allergy and quality of life - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-02-01

    Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. A case-control survey was sent to subjects with a positive patch test reaction to a fragrance ingredient/marker (n = 550) and to a control group (n = 1100). It contained questions on eczema and the newly developed fragrance QoL index. Participants had been consecutively patch tested at Gentofte University Hospital (2000-2010). The response rate was 65.7%. Information on patch test data was retrieved from the National Contact Dermatitis Database. An increase in impairment of QoL was observed in women with fragrance allergy as compared with the control group (p = 0.042), which was not found among men. Several factors played a significant role in impairment of QoL in women: (i) number of fragrance allergies, (ii) severity of the patch test reaction, (iii) age combined with recent diagnosis; and (iv) allergy to specific fragrance ingredients/markers. Fragrance-allergic subjects are just as affected in their QoL as other eczema patients. However, women, and in particular recently diagnosed young women, seem to be more impaired in their QoL than other eczema patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the gastrointestinal mucosa of children with autism: A blinded case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Rose

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Imbalances in the enteric microbiome have been associated with ASD and can cause GI dysfunction potentially through disruption of mitochondrial function as microbiome metabolites modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is highly associated with GI symptoms. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in rectal and cecum biopsies under the assumption that certain microbiome metabolites, such as butyrate and propionic acid, are more abundant in the cecum as compared to the rectum. Rectal and cecum mucosal biopsies were collected during elective diagnostic colonoscopy. Using a single-blind case-control design, complex I and IV and citrate synthase activities and complex I-V protein quantity from 10 children with ASD, 10 children with Crohn's disease and 10 neurotypical children with nonspecific GI complaints were measured. The protein for all complexes, except complex II, in the cecum as compared to the rectum was significantly higher in ASD samples as compared to other groups. For both rectal and cecum biopsies, ASD samples demonstrated higher complex I activity, but not complex IV or citrate synthase activity, compared to other groups. Mitochondrial function in the gut mucosa from children with ASD was found to be significantly different than other groups who manifested similar GI symptomatology suggesting a unique pathophysiology for GI symptoms in children with ASD. Abnormalities localized to the cecum suggest a role for imbalances in the microbiome, potentially in the production of butyrate, in children with ASD.

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors for ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Kutbettin; Hosoglu, Salih

    2010-11-24

    Increased production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has become an important issue for treatment of severe Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) infections. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of infection from ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP). Risk factors were evaluated using a retrospective case control design. Fifty-two patients admitted to Firat University Hospital (FUH) with invasive infections from ESBL-KP were employed as cases. Patients admitted to FUH with non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae invasive infection were chosen as controls. Potential risk factors of the cases and controls were evaluated using hospital charts. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the relatedness of ESBL-KP strains. In univariate analysis, the following factors were found significant for ESBL-KP: pre-infection hospital stay, nosocomial origin, central venous catheterization, surgical intervention, antibiotic use longer than one week, and previous hospitalization. In contrast, stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that two variables, previous antibiotic use (p = 0.000) and surgical intervention (p = 0.006), remained significantly associated with risk for infection with an ESBL-KP. Molecular epidemiology identified several clusters among the ESBL-producing isolates. Antibiotic use and surgical intervention were significant associated factors for infections with ESBL-KP.

  18. Dietary risk factors for urolithiasis in Korea: A case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Young Ryu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dietary factors are one of the main causes of urolithiasis. However, little research has evaluated dietary factors related to urolithiasis in Korea. We investigated the various dietary risk factors for urinary stone formation in Korean people. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective case-control pilot study. A total of 27 patients newly diagnosed with urolithiasis and 20 applicants without urolithiasis were designated as the patients and the control group, respectively. A face-to-face survey was carried out using a food-frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for physical activity level and total energy intake, multivariate logistic regression models were applied to search for risk factors for urolithiasis. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, body mass index, family history, or total energy intake. The physical activity level of the control group was significantly higher than that of the patients (p=0.012. The results of the multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated that intake of carbohydrate (odds ratio [OR], 1.055; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012–1.099, protein (OR, 1.101; 95% CI, 1.001–1.211, and cereals (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.002–1.023 could increase the risk for urolithiasis. Conclusions: A higher intake of carbohydrate, protein, and cereal may increase the risk of urinary stone formation among Korean people.

  19. Corrective eyeglasses and medial canthal basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, M; Hercos, A C; Miot, H A

    2012-07-01

    Corrective eyeglasses are frequently worn by adults, particularly at older ages. Their lenses and frames provide ultraviolet protection. Medial canthal basal cell carcinomas are infrequent (3-8%), and their relation with the use of corrective glasses was not yet investigated. To assess the prevalence of corrective eyeglasses use in individuals with medial canthal basal cell carcinoma. Case-control study using two controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity for each case. Cases were patients with medial canthal basal cell carcinoma, and controls were patients with basal cell carcinoma elsewhere on the face. The prevalence of major risk variables was estimated and adjusted by conditional multiple logistic regression. Fifty cases and 100 controls were assessed. The mean patient age was 69.7 years, and 54% of the subjects were females. No difference regarding the eyeglasses use or use duration was found between groups. However, when visual defects were separately evaluated, eyeglasses for myopia correction were independently associated with lower risk of medial canthal basal cell carcinoma development (OR=0.26; P=0.03), what can be related to long term local photoprotection. The use of eyeglasses for myopia correction is associated with lower prevalence of medial cantal basal cell carcinoma. Risk-reducing mechanisms should be elucidated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Education and occupations preceding Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, R; Elbaz, A; Sanft, K R; Peterson, B J; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Grossardt, B R; de Andrade, M; Maraganore, D M; Rocca, W A

    2005-11-22

    To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independent sources of data: a review of the complete medical records in the system and a telephone interview. Occupations were coded using the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification. Subjects with 9 or more years of education were at increased risk of PD (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1 to 3.6; p = 0.02), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing education (test for linear trend, p = 0.02; medical records data). Physicians were at significantly increased risk of PD using both sources of occupational data. By contrast, four occupational groups showed a significantly decreased risk of PD using one source of data: construction and extractive workers (e.g., miners, oil well drillers), production workers (e.g., machine operators, fabricators), metal workers, and engineers. These associations with increased or decreased risk did not change noticeably after adjustment for education. Subjects with higher education and physicians have an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD), while subjects with some occupations presumed to involve high physical activity have a decreased risk of PD.

  1. Risk factors for post-polio syndrome among an Italian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasi, Laura; Acler, Michele; dall'Ora, Elisa; Gajofatto, Alberto; Frasson, Emma; Tocco, Pierluigi; Turri, Mara; Ferlisi, Monica; Fiorini, Michele; Pimazzoni, Fabiana; Squintani, Giovanna; Martini, Millo; Danzi, Bruno; Monaco, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain occurring in a variable proportion of polio survivors decades after acute disease. To date, several risk factors for PPS development have been reported, although the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Using a case-control design, we aimed to assess risk indicators for PPS in a group of Italian polio survivors. Subjects with prior poliomyelitis attending the rehabilitation hospital of Malcesine, Italy, were the target population. Patients with PPS, diagnosed according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies criteria, served as cases, while patients not meeting diagnostic criteria for PPS were used as controls. All subjects were assessed through a structured questionnaire made of 82 questions and neurological examination. The association with investigated risk factors (sex, age at polio onset, age at onset of symptoms, extension and severity of polio, employment) was analyzed by the calculation of the odds ratio. A total of 161 out of 391 eligible patients met the adopted diagnostic criteria for PPS, giving a frequency of 41.2%. Symptoms most frequently complained by PPS patients were loss of muscle strength, loss of resistance, loss of muscle volume and generalized fatigue. Female gender, the presence of respiratory disturbance during the acute phase of polio and the use of orthoses and aids during the recovery and stabilization represented independent risk factors for PPS in the studied population.

  2. MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeth, Liam; Cook, Claire; Fombonne, Eric; Heavey, Lisa; Rodrigues, Laura C; Smith, Peter G; Hall, Andrew J

    Concern that measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination might cause autism has led to a fall in vaccine coverage. We investigated whether MMR vaccination is associated with an increased risk of autism or other pervasive developmental disorders. We did a matched case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database. Cases were people born in 1973 or later who had first recorded diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder while registered with a contributing general practice between 1987 and 2001. Controls were matched on age, sex, and general practice. 1294 cases and 4469 controls were included. 1010 cases (78.1%) had MMR vaccination recorded before diagnosis, compared with 3671 controls (82.1%) before the age at which their matched case was diagnosed. After adjustment for age at joining the database, the odds ratio for association between MMR and pervasive developmental disorder was 0.86 (95% CI 0.68-1.09). Findings were similar when restricted to children with a diagnosis of autism, to those vaccinated with MMR before the third birthday, or to the period before media coverage of the hypothesis linking MMR with autism. Our findings suggest that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of pervasive developmental disorders.

  3. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard; McKee, Martin; Atun, Rifat; Dimitrova, Boika; Dodonova, Ekaterina; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Drobniewski, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia. Design Case-control study of exposure to a variety of risk factors before and during the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. Setting Large city in Russia. Participants Cases were 334 consecutive adults diagnosed as having culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003. Controls were 334 individuals sampled from a validated population registry, matched for age and sex to the patients with tuberculosis. A questionnaire collected information on potential risk factors. Main outcome measures Risk factors associated with the development of tuberculosis. Results The main risk factors for tuberculosis were low accumulated wealth (univariate odds ratio 16.70), financial insecurity (5.67), consumption of unpasteurised milk (3.58), diabetes (2.66), living with a relative with tuberculosis (2.94), being unemployed (6.10), living in overcrowded conditions (2.99), illicit drug use (8.74), and a history of incarceration in both pretrial detention centres (5.70) and prison (12.50). Conclusions When prevalence of exposure is taken into account the most important factors in the development of pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia are exposure to raw milk and unemployment. PMID:16339219

  4. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study...... in Europe to assess the relation of plasma selenium to asthma. The network compared 569 cases in 14 European centres with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 576 controls from the same centres with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12......-analysis of the results from the centres showed no overall association between asthma and plasma selenium [odds ratio (OR)/10 microg/l increase in plasma selenium: 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.21] though there was a significantly protective effect in Lodz (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.78) and a marginally...

  5. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  6. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  7. Classifying dermoscopic patterns of naevi in a case-control study of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seamus R McWhirter

    Full Text Available Changes in dermoscopic patterns of naevi may be associated with melanoma; however, there is no consensus on which dermoscopic classification system is optimal. To determine whether different classification systems give comparable results and can be combined for analysis, we applied two systems to a case-control study of melanoma with 1037 participants: 573 classified using a "1/3 major feature" system, 464 classified based on rules of appearance, and 263 classified with both criteria. There was strong correlation for non-specific (Spearman R = 0.96 and reticular (Spearman R = 0.82 naevi, with a slight bias for globular naevi with the rules of appearance system. Inter-observer reliability was high for the rules of appearance system, particularly for reticular naevi (Pearson >0.97. We show that different classification systems for naevi can be combined for data analysis, and describe a method for determining what adjustments may need to be applied to combine data sets.

  8. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; Ripping, Theodora M; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening programme (1975-2008), which invites women (aged 50-74 years) biennially. Performance measures were determined. Furthermore, a case-control study was performed for women having dense and women having fatty breasts. Breast density was assessed visually with a dichotomized Wolfe scale. Breast density data were available for cases. The prevalence of dense breasts among controls was estimated with age-specific rates from the general population. Sensitivity analyses were performed on these estimates. Screening performance was better in the fatty than in the dense group (sensitivity 75.7% vs 57.8%). The mortality reduction appeared to be smaller for women with dense breasts, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 (95% CI 0.52-1.45) in the dense and 0.59 (95% CI 0.44-0.79) in the fatty group. We can conclude that high density results in lower screening performance and appears to be associated with a smaller mortality reduction. Breast density is thus a likely candidate for risk-stratified screening. More research is needed on the association between density and screening harms. © 2016 UICC.

  9. [Accidents with biological materials among nurses in a training hospital: case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalarosa, Micheline Gisele; Lautert, Liana

    2009-03-01

    This case-control study aimed at analyzing the association between occupational stress and disagreement between chronotype and the work shift of nurses who suffered accidents with biological materials in a hospital of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A number of 99 workers who suffered accidents (cases) and 232 that had not suffered accidents (controls) were interviewed. Data were collected through the Job Stress Scale according to Karasek's model and the Horne-Ostberg scale The occurrence of accident was not statistically associated with high work requirement scores (p = 0.317), with a chronobiological profile discordant with work shift (p = 0.563), or with other labor variables associated to accidents--overtime, having two jobs (p = 1.000). In addition, there was no significant difference (chi2 Pearson; p = 1.00) among the scores of professionals with high work requirements who work in shifts discordant with their chronotype, both in the case group and in the control group as well.

  10. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Analysis of Case-Control Association Studies: SNPs, Imputation and Haplotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-11-01

    Although prospective logistic regression is the standard method of analysis for case-control data, it has been recently noted that in genetic epidemiologic studies one can use the "retrospective" likelihood to gain major power by incorporating various population genetics model assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium (HWE), gene-gene and gene-environment independence. In this article we review these modern methods and contrast them with the more classical approaches through two types of applications (i) association tests for typed and untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (ii) estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in the presence of haplotype-phase ambiguity. We provide novel insights to existing methods by construction of various score-tests and pseudo-likelihoods. In addition, we describe a novel two-stage method for analysis of untyped SNPs that can use any flexible external algorithm for genotype imputation followed by a powerful association test based on the retrospective likelihood. We illustrate applications of the methods using simulated and real data. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2009.

  12. Preeclampsia prevention: a case-control study nested in a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Alberto; Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-12-30

    Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia.

  13. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.

  14. Antidepressants and Gastric Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsieh

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, no epidemiological study has reported on whether an association between antidepressant exposure and gastric cancer exists. Herein, we aim to investigate the possible association between antidepressant exposure and gastric cancer incidence.Using a nested case-control design, we identified 26289 cases with gastric cancer and 127984 controls from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD. The data were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression model adjusting for possible confounding variables.We found antidepressant use did not increase the risk of gastric cancer. The lack of an association between antidepressant prescription and elevated gastric cancer incidence was apparent for across selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, tricyclic agents (TCAs, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA, trazodone, mirtazapine and bupropion. There were slightly decreased gastric cancer risks of SSRIs use (≧28 DDD group, adjusted OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.78-0.96. Sensitive analysis showed SSRIs, TCAs, and SNRIs did not increase gastric cancer risks significantly even in the group with peptic ulcer history.An association between antidepressant exposure and gastric cancer was not apparent in this analysis.

  15. Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: a population-based case-control study in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T; Cantor, K P; Zhang, Y; Keim, S; Lynch, C F

    2001-04-01

    A number of occupations and industries have been inconsistently associated with the risk of brain cancer. To further explore possible relationships, we conducted a population-based case-control study of brain glioma in the state of Iowa, involving 375 histologically confirmed incident cases and 2434 population-based controls. Among men, the industries and/or occupations that had a significantly increased risk for employment of more than 10 years included roofing, siding, and sheet metalworking; newspaper work; rubber and plastics products, particularly tires and inner tubes; miscellaneous manufacturing industries; wholesale trade of durable goods, grain, and field beans; cleaning and building service occupations; miscellaneous mechanics and repairers; and janitors and cleaners. Subjects who worked in plumbing, heating, and air conditioning; electrical services; gasoline service stations; and military occupations also experienced a significantly increased risk. Among women, significant excess risk was observed for occupations in agricultural services and farming, apparel and textile products, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing, various retail sales, record-keeping, and restaurant service. Workers in industries with a potential for gasoline or motor exhaust exposures experienced a non-significant excess risk of brain glioma.

  16. Nabumetone use and risk of acute pancreatitis in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shih-Chang; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Hung, Hung-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hsueh

    2016-01-01

    It remains unknown whether nabumetone increases or decreases acute pancreatitis risk. To investigate this, we conducted a population-based case-control study using the database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We analysed 5384 cases aged 20-84 years who had their first attack of acute pancreatitis during 1998-2011 and 21,536 controls without acute pancreatitis, and matched them according to sex, age and year in which acute pancreatitis was diagnosed. Never use of nabumetone was defined as subjects who had never received a nabumetone prescription; active use as subjects receiving a minimum of one prescription for nabumetone within 7 days before acute pancreatitis diagnosis and non-active use of nabumetone as subjects who did not receive a prescription for nabumetone within 7 days before but received at least one prescription for nabumetone ≥8 days before. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to investigate the risk of acute pancreatitis associated with nabumetone use, using the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. The adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 3.69 (95%CI 1.69, 8.05) for subjects with active use of nabumetone compared with those with never use. The odds ratios decreased to 1.0 (95%CI 0.88, 1.12) for subjects with non-active use. Active use of nabumetone may increase the risk of acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory assessment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Tommaso; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Tribi, Lorenzo; Lasagni, Daniela; Pilia, Annalisa; Vecchia, Luigi; Baricchi, Roberto; Bianchin, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is an otologic emergency that affects five to 30 subjects per 100,000/year. The cause of SSHL remains unknown or uncertain in 70% to 90% of cases, and treatment decisions are usually made without knowing the etiology. Prospective case-control study. One hundred thirty-one idiopathic SSHL patients were recruited from January 2014 to June 2015 in concordance with the Statements of Clinical Practice Guideline and divided into groups according to the disease severity. A clinical laboratory assessment was completed on blood samples collected from SSHL patients and control subjects. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between laboratory data and SSHL basis. Only a few SSHL patients were positive for autoimmunity or viral infection. Statistically significant (P < .05) higher levels of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipoprotein (a), and factor VIII were found in SSHL patients compared to controls. Furthermore, blood glucose, HbA1C, uric acid, factor VIII, and homocysteine were significantly associated to disease severity. Gluco-metabolic, lipidic, and coagulative laboratory data support the vascular hypothesis for SSHL and its severity. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:2375-2381, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. [A case-control study on the association of RFC-1 polymorphism and cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Juan-juan; Wang, Jin-tao; Ding, Ling; Wang, Zhi-min; Gao, Er-sheng

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the possible association between RFC-1 polymorphism and cervix carcinoma, as well as the interaction between polymorphism and human papilloma virus16 (HPV16). Based on a hospital-based case-control study, 107 cases which were diagnosed as cervical cancer pathematologically and 107 controls with hysteromyoma, were selected by frequency, matched with age and habitation. HPV16 and RFC-1 A80G polymorphism were detected by special PCR and RFLP. (1) HPV16 infection rate in cases (56.07%) was higher than that in controls (31.78%) with the adjusted OR of 3.25 (95% CI: 1.74-6.08). (2) All the genotypes were tested by Hardy-Weinberg balance. (3) Compared with RFC-1 AA,RFC-1 GG had higher risk for cervical cancer with OR of 2.42 (95% CI: 1.01-5.81). (4) No statistical significance was noticed regarding the interaction between RFC-1 polymorphism and HPV16 in logistic regression method. The introduction of RFC-1 80GG gene type could increase the risk of cervical cancer.

  19. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, John J; Land, Walker H; Egan, Kathleen M

    2011-01-27

    When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL) techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR) modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection is not associated with failure to thrive: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chi, Hsin; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Li, Sung-Tse; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The long-term impact of Helicobacter pylori infection is complex, and concerns about the need for eradication exist. We conducted this case control study to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and failure to thrive (FTT). From January 2009 to December 2011, 53 children with FTT group and matched children with the same sex and age and similar socioeconomic status without FTT (control group) were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered to the parents/guardian, and a 13 C-urea breath test was performed to detect H. pylori infection. We found that the total prevalence of H. pylori infection was 29.2% and that there was no association between FTT and H. pylori infection (FTT group: 32%; control group: 26.4%; P =0.67). Short stature was more common in the FTT group and abdominal pain in the control group (FTT group: 37.7%; control group: 11.3%; P =0.003). In a comparison between the H. pylori -positive and -negative groups, abdominal pain (87.1% vs 64%; P =0.032) and the frequency of endoscopy (74.2% vs 32%; P <0.001) were significantly more common in the H. pylori -positive group. We found that children with H. pylori infection are at an increased risk for abdominal pain and that FTT is not associated with H. pylori infection. The decision for eradication should be evaluated carefully and individualized.

  1. Mode of Delivery in Drug-Dependent Pregnant Women: A Case Control Study.

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    Neves, Ana Raquel; Neves, Fabiane; Santos Silva, Isabel; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Monteiro, Pitorra

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To determine the contribution of drug use during pregnancy to the route of delivery. Methods . A case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal, between 2001 and 2014. Drug-dependent pregnant women ( n = 236) were compared with a control group of low risk women ( n = 228) in terms of maternal characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy complications, and labor details. Factors that influenced the mode of delivery were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v. 23.0 (IBM Corp.). p values Drug-dependent women presented a lower rate of cesarean delivery (18.2 versus 28.9%, p = 0.006). After adjusting for the factors that were significantly related to the mode of delivery, drug dependency influenced the rate of cesarean section ( β = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.328-0.980). Within the drug-dependent group, the mode of delivery was significantly related to previous cesarean or vaginal delivery ( p = 0.008 and p drug, route of administration, or substitution maintenance therapy. Conclusions . The drug-dependent group presented a significantly higher rate of vaginal delivery. However, this was not associated with the behavioral factors analyzed. We hypothesize that other social and psychological factors might explain this difference.

  2. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  3. Carbonated soft drinks and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Jesper; Viklund, Pernilla; Jansson, Catarina

    2006-08-16

    The increased intake of carbonated soft drinks parallels the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. To determine whether an association exists between carbonated drink intake and esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma, we analyzed data from a Swedish nationwide, population-based, case-control study. During data collection in 1995-1997, 189 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (88% of all eligible), 262 patients with cardia adenocarcinoma (84%), and 820 control subjects (73%) were interviewed in person. All cancers were histologically classified. We calculated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression and multivariable analyses. Frequency of intake of carbonated soft drinks was not associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma; high consumers (intake more than six times weekly) were at a statistically nonsignificantly decreased risk compared with never users (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.49 to 1.64). Consumption of carbonated low-alcohol beer and combined intake of carbonated drinks were not associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. No association between intake of carbonated soft drinks or low-alcohol beer and risk of cardia adenocarcinoma was observed.

  4. Chronic autoimmune disorders are increased in coeliac disease: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbò, Stefano; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Usai-Satta, Paolo; Salis, Roberta; Soro, Sara; Quarta Colosso, Bianca Maria; Dore, Maria Pina

    2017-11-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel associated with increased risk of additional autoimmune diseases (ADs).To investigate the prevalence of ADs in a population of adult coeliac patients.This was a retrospective case-control study. Data from coeliac patients and controls referred to a tertiary center between 2013 and 2016 were collected. The frequency of ADs and the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age, gender, disease duration, and body mass index with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated.Two hundred fifty-five patients with CD (median age 37.1 years; 206 women) were matched with 250 controls. ADs were more frequent (35.3%) in coeliac patients than in controls (15.2%). Adjusted ORs for the presence of only 1, at least 1, and more than 1 AD were 3.13 (95% CI 1.81-5.42, P disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical and Laboratory Factors Associated with Severe Dengue: A Case-Control Study of Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Mayumi Duarte; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Gonin, Michelle Luiza; Brasil, Patrícia

    2017-10-20

    More than half of the hospitalizations because of dengue in Brazil occurred in children <15 years of age in 2007 and 2008, an unexpected change in the epidemiological pattern. We sought to determine clinical and laboratory parameters associated with severity. A case-control study was conducted in three pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 233 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients were included: 69 cases and 164 controls. Specific clinical and laboratory factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Lethargy [adjusted odds ratio (ORa): 9.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.08-27.12], dyspnea (ORa: 8.24, 95% CI: 3.27-20.72) and abdominal pain (ORa: 6.78, 95% CI: 1.44-31.84) were independently associated with severe dengue in children. Lethargy and dyspnea presented as early as 72 and 48 h, respectively, before shock. Abdominal pain and lethargy confirmed their role as warning signs, which along with dyspnea might be helpful in identifying cases progressing to severe dengue. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Correlation between periodontal disease indices and lung cancer in Greek adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthakopoulos, N A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present case-control study was to examine the possible associations between periodontal disease indices and the risk of lung cancer development in a sample of Greek out-patients referred to a medical and a dental private practice. A total of 200 individuals were interviewed and underwent an oral clinical examination, and 64 of them were suffered from several histological types of lung cancer. The estimation of the possible associations between lung cancer as a dependent variable and periodontal disease indices as independent ones was carried out by using a multiple regression analysis model. Probing pocket depth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-7.06), clinical attachment loss (OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.30-9.47) bleeding on probing (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 0.98-3.81) were significantly associated with the risk of developing lung cancer. Smoking (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.20-5.17) was significantly associated with the mentioned risk, whereas it was consisted as a confounder regarding the estimated associations between moderate/severe clinical attachment loss and presence of bleeding on probing with the risk of developing lung cancer. Probing pocket depth as an index for periodontal disease severity was statistically significantly associated with the risk of developing lung cancer.

  7. Association between tuberculosis, diabetes and 25 hydroxyvitamin D in Tanzania: a longitudinal case control study

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    Noémie Boillat-Blanco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D level is inversely associated with tuberculosis (TB and diabetes (DM. Vitamin D could be a mediator in the association between TB and DM. We examined the associations between vitamin D, TB and DM. Methods Consecutive adults with TB and sex- and age-matched volunteers were included in a case-control study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Glycemia and total vitamin D (25(OHD were measured at enrolment and after TB treatment in cases. The association between low 25(OHD (<75 nmol/l and TB was evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic status, sunshine hours, HIV and an interaction between low 25(OHD and hyperglycemia. Results The prevalence of low 25(OHD was similar in TB patients and controls (25.8 % versus 31.0 %; p = 0.22. In the subgroup of patients with persistent hyperglycemia (i.e. likely true diabetic patients, the proportion of patients with low 25(OHD tended to be greater in TB patients (50 % versus 29.7 %; p = 0.20. The effect modification by persistent hyperglycemia persisted in the multivariate analysis (pinteraction = 0.01. Conclusions Low 25(OHD may increase TB risk in patients with underlying DM. Trials should examine if this association is causal and whether adjunct vitamin D therapy is beneficial in this population.

  8. Tuberculosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control study in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Pedro; Romero-Díaz, Juanita; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Ocampo-Torres, Mario; Chaires-Garza, Luis Gerardo; Lastiri-González, Ernesto Alejandro; Atisha-Fregoso, Yemil; Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Miriam; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2018-04-20

    To determine, among systemic lupus erythematosus patients, factors associated with active tuberculosis. We performed a case-control study, in a tertiary-care center in Mexico City. We defined cases as systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active tuberculosis and matched them 1:1 with systemic lupus erythematosus patients without tuberculosis (controls) by age, date of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis, and disease duration. We analyzed clinical variables, lupus disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), and accumulated damage (SLICC/ARC-DI). We performed a nonconditional logistic regression to determine factors associated with tuberculosis. We identified 72 tuberculosis cases among systemic lupus erythematosus patients, 58% were culture confirmed. Thirty-three percent (24/72) were pulmonary only, 47.2% (34/72) extrapulmonary only, and 19.4% both. After adjustment for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, SLEDAI-2K and SLICC/ARC-DI, a 1-year cumulative dose of prednisone ≥ 3 g (odds ratios (OR), 18.85; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 6.91-51.45) was associated with tuberculosis, and the antimalarial treatment was protective (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.36). Among systemic lupus erythematosus patients, cumulative dose of prednisone is associated with tuberculosis. Further research is required to elucidate the protective effect of antimalarial drugs for tuberculosis. Preventive strategies must be implemented in patients at risk.

  9. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  10. Mode of Delivery in Drug-Dependent Pregnant Women: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Neves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the contribution of drug use during pregnancy to the route of delivery. Methods. A case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal, between 2001 and 2014. Drug-dependent pregnant women (n=236 were compared with a control group of low risk women (n=228 in terms of maternal characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy complications, and labor details. Factors that influenced the mode of delivery were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v. 23.0 (IBM Corp.. p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Drug-dependent women presented a lower rate of cesarean delivery (18.2 versus 28.9%, p=0.006. After adjusting for the factors that were significantly related to the mode of delivery, drug dependency influenced the rate of cesarean section (β=0.567; 95% CI = 0.328–0.980. Within the drug-dependent group, the mode of delivery was significantly related to previous cesarean or vaginal delivery (p=0.008 and p<0.001, resp. and fetal presentation (p<0.001, but not with the type of drug, route of administration, or substitution maintenance therapy. Conclusions. The drug-dependent group presented a significantly higher rate of vaginal delivery. However, this was not associated with the behavioral factors analyzed. We hypothesize that other social and psychological factors might explain this difference.

  11. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan

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    Tanikawa Yoshimasa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. Methods A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women, aged 50–75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory function. Information on demographics, lifestyle characteristics and habitual food consumption was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results Total soy consumption was positively correlated with observed lung function measures. The mean soy intake was significantly higher among controls (59.98, SD 50.23 g/day than cases (44.84, SD 28.5 g/day. A significant reduction in COPD risk was evident for highest versus lowest quartile of daily intake of total soybean products, with adjusted odds ratio (OR 0.392, 95% CI 0.194–0.793, p for trend 0.001. Similar decreases in COPD risk were associated with frequent and higher intake of soy foods such as tofu and bean sprouts, whereas respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with high consumption of soy foods, especially for breathlessness (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.982–0.996. Conclusion Increasing soy consumption was associated with a decreased risk of COPD and breathlessness.

  12. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Zhao, Yun; Hiramatsu, Tetsuo; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-26

    To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women), aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory function. Information on demographics, lifestyle characteristics and habitual food consumption was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Total soy consumption was positively correlated with observed lung function measures. The mean soy intake was significantly higher among controls (59.98, SD 50.23 g/day) than cases (44.84, SD 28.5 g/day). A significant reduction in COPD risk was evident for highest versus lowest quartile of daily intake of total soybean products, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.392, 95% CI 0.194-0.793, p for trend 0.001. Similar decreases in COPD risk were associated with frequent and higher intake of soy foods such as tofu and bean sprouts, whereas respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with high consumption of soy foods, especially for breathlessness (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.982-0.996). Increasing soy consumption was associated with a decreased risk of COPD and breathlessness.

  13. Antipsychotic treatment is associated with risk of atrial fibrillation: A nationwide nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ruey-Hsing; Lo, Li-Wei; Liou, Ying-Jay; Shu, Jiah-Hwang; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liang, Ying; Huang, Chin-Chou; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chan, Wan-Leong; Leu, Hsin-Bang

    2017-01-15

    Antipsychotic agents are well known for their arrhythmigenic effect on ventricular arrhythmia. Though a few case reports observed the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after antipsychotic exposure, information about their implication in AF is limited. Based on the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nested case-control study to investigate the relationship between antipsychotics and AF. From 2001 to 2010, a total of 34,053 cases of AF and 34,919 matched controls were enrolled. Antipsychotic exposure was measured and binding affinity to neurotransmitter receptors was calculated. Both medical and psychiatric comorbidities were identified and adjusted in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Current antipsychotic use was associated with a 17% increased risk of AF relative to nonusers (adjusted OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.26). A dose-dependent relationship of antipsychotic exposure and AF risk was observed (P for trend Antipsychotics with higher binding affinity to muscarinic M2 receptors were associated with a higher incidence of AF. In subgroup analysis, subjects with preexisting hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery diseases were at greater risk of developing AF following antipsychotic exposure. Antipsychotic exposure was associated with increased risk of AF, especially for agents with higher cardiac muscarinic receptor binding affinity. Physicians should monitor the occurrence of new-onset AF, and strictly control underlying medical risk factors while prescribing antipsychotic agents to high-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship of Vitamin D and Calcium level with Preeclampsia Severity: A Case- control Study

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    Sima Hashemipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with physiologic changes that are similar to pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although association of vitamin D and preeclampsia has been studied previously, their results are not consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D and calcium with preeclampsia severity. Materials and Methods: This case- control study was conducted in 75 healthy pregnant women and 74 pregnant women with preeclampsia (46 mild preeclampsia and 28 severe preeclampsia in Qazvin, Iran in 2015. Serum vitamin D, calcium, and albumin were measured; corrected calcium was also calculated. Hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the independent association of hypocalcemia and hypovitaminosis D with preeclampsia. Results Mean serum vitamin D level was 27.7±15.3, 22.9±15.9, and 27.6±16.6 in normal, mild preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia groups (P> 0.05; also vitamin D deficiency was not different between the groups. Hypocalcemia in severe preeclampsia group was more frequent than normal group (25.9% vs. 6.6%, P: 0.017. Hypocalcemia was associated with severe preeclampsia after adjustment for age, parity, and calcium supplement consumption (OR: 6.7, 95% CI: 1.45-30.79; P: 0.015. Conclusion There was not any association between vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia in the present study, however low corrected serum calcium was associated with about six times increased risk of sever preeclampsia. More studies are needed to determine the role of hypocalcemia and vitamin D in preeclampsia.

  15. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

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    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  16. Hematological Indices in Children with Non-organic Failure to Thrive: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Nodoshan, A H; Hashemi, A; Golzar, A; Karami, F; Akhondzaraini, R

    2016-01-01

    Non-organic failure to thrive (NFTT) is the most common cause of failure to thrive (FTT) which is attributed to inadequate nutrition due to economic factors or parental neglect . NFTT can lead to a vicious cycle of poor and inadequate eating and severity of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological indices in children with NFTT. In a cross sectional case control study, iron status and blood indices of forty five aged 6-60 months children with NFTT were evaluated and compared with 45 healthy control children (with matching of age and sex). In this study, the prevalence of anemia was 48.9% in NFTT compared to 11.4% in the control group (p<0.001). Microcytic anemia was significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (77.8% versus 27.3%; p<0. 001). The serum iron level was 73.2 and 62.8 mcg/dl for the case and control groups (P=0.29). The ferritin level in the study group was 29.8 versus 35.47 ng/ml in the control group (p=0.227). The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among children with mild, moderate, and severe underweight was 44.4%, 45.5%, and 48%, respectively. The highest prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia was seen between age group of 12 and 24 months (p<0.05). Based on the results of this study, a correlation between malnutrition and anemia was found. However, further studies are needed to assess and confirm the current outcomes.

  17. No association between periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Cardoso, Elaine de O C; Barbirato, Davi da S; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Sansone, Carmelo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were then applied: diabetes mellitus, genitourinary tract infections, or HIV infection; previous multiple gestations; previous preterm birth/low birth weight infants; in vitro fertilization procedures; placental, cervical/uterine abnormalities; history of infertility; history of drug abuse; and any medical conditions that required antibiotics prophylaxis. Patients' anthropometric, demographic, and behavioral characteristics were collected. The periodontal clinical parameters were obtained from six sites per tooth: clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, dental plaque index, and gingival bleeding index. Women were then allocated into two groups: mothers of preterm and/or low birth weight newborns (cases) and mothers of full-term and normal birth weight newborns (controls). Periodontal clinical parameters were analyzed and reported separately for each group, and no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that periodontal clinical parameters were not associated with the adverse pregnancy outcomes. After controlling for confounding factors, our results suggest that maternal periodontal disease is not a risk factor associated with preterm low birth weight infants.

  18. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: a nested case-control study using food diaries.

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    Dahm, Christina C; Keogh, Ruth H; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Greenwood, Darren C; Key, Tim J; Fentiman, Ian S; Shipley, Martin J; Brunner, Eric J; Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria J; Mishra, Gita; Stephen, Alison M; Kuh, Diana; White, Ian R; Luben, Robert; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Khaw, Kay Tee; Rodwell Bingham, Sheila A

    2010-05-05

    Results of epidemiological studies of dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk have not been consistent, possibly because of attenuation of associations due to measurement error in dietary exposure ascertainment. To examine the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a prospective case-control study nested within seven UK cohort studies, which included 579 case patients who developed incident colorectal cancer and 1996 matched control subjects. We used standardized dietary data obtained from 4- to 7-day food diaries that were completed by all participants to calculate the odds ratios for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers with the use of conditional logistic regression models that adjusted for relevant covariates. We also calculated odds ratios for colorectal cancer by using dietary data obtained from food-frequency questionnaires that were completed by most participants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Intakes of absolute fiber and of fiber intake density, ascertained by food diaries, were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risks of colorectal and colon cancers in both age-adjusted models and multivariable models that adjusted for age; anthropomorphic and socioeconomic factors; and dietary intakes of folate, alcohol, and energy. For example, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of colorectal cancer for highest vs the lowest quintile of fiber intake density was 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 0.96). However, no statistically significant association was observed when the same analysis was conducted using dietary data obtained by food-frequency questionnaire (multivariable odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.57 to 1.36). Intake of dietary fiber is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methodological differences (ie, study design, dietary assessment instruments, definition of fiber) may account for the lack of convincing evidence for the inverse association

  19. Facility Delivery, Postnatal Care and Neonatal Deaths in India: Nationally-Representative Case-Control Studies.

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    Shaza A Fadel

    Full Text Available Clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of interventions to reduce neonatal deaths, but there are fewer studies of their real-life effectiveness. In India, women often seek facility delivery after complications arise, rather than to avoid complications. Our objective was to quantify the association of facility delivery and postnatal checkups with neonatal mortality while examining the "reverse causality" in which the mothers deliver at a health facility due to adverse perinatal events.We conducted nationally representative case-control studies of about 300,000 live births and 4,000 neonatal deaths to examine the effect of, place of delivery and postnatal checkup on neonatal mortality. We compared neonatal deaths to all live births and to a subset of live births reporting excessive bleeding or obstructed labour that were more comparable to cases in seeking care.In the larger study of 2004-8 births, facility delivery without postnatal checkup was associated with an increased odds of neonatal death (Odds ratio = 2.5; 99% CI 2.2-2.9, especially for early versus late neonatal deaths. However, use of more comparable controls showed marked attenuation (Odds ratio = 0.5; 0.4-0.5. Facility delivery with postnatal checkup was associated with reduced odds of neonatal death. Excess risks were attenuated in the earlier study of 2001-4 births.The combined effect of facility deliveries with postnatal checks ups is substantially higher than just facility delivery alone. Evaluation of the real-life effectiveness of interventions to reduce child and maternal deaths need to consider reverse causality. If these associations are causal, facility delivery with postnatal check up could avoid about 1/3 of all neonatal deaths in India (~100,000/year.

  20. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

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    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  1. Severe obesity, emotions and eating habits: a case-control study.

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    Koski, M; Naukkarinen, H

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has a multifaceted etiology that involves genetic, biological and behavioral factors, body growth, eating habits, energy expenditure and the function of adipose tissue. The present study aimed to expand upon knowledge about the relationships among obesity, emotions and eating habits in severely obese individuals using a case-control method. The subject group consisted of 112 individuals (81 females and 31 males) receiving a permanent disability pension primarily for obesity. The control subjects were randomly selected from the same area and were receiving a disability pension for a different primary illness. The controls were matched with the subjects by the place of residence, sex, age, the time since the pension was granted and occupation. Psychiatric interviews were conducted on all participants. The results were analyzed using the chi-squared test (χ 2 -test) and the percent distribution. The subject and control groups were compared using the t-test for paired variables. Conditional logistic regression analysis was also conducted. The emotional state of eating was significantly associated with quarrels and feelings of loneliness. The subjects suffered from night eating syndrome, which was associated with an increased risk of early retirement. Binge eating syndrome was observed more frequently in the study group. The subjects reported feeling increased hunger compared with the controls. A significant percentage of the subjects had a body mass index of ≥ 40. No differences in eating habits were observed between the groups. This study provides information on the relationship between emotions and eating habits in obesity, which is a rarely studied topic. We believe that our study provides a novel and necessary overview of the associations among severe obesity, emotions and eating habits.

  2. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

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    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  3. Multicenter case-control study of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma in Valencia, Spain.

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    Ballester, I; Oliver, V; Bañuls, J; Moragón, M; Valcuende, F; Botella-Estrada, R; Nagore, E

    2012-11-01

    It is important to identify subgroups within the general population that have an elevated risk of developing cutaneous melanoma because preventive and early-detection measures are useful in this setting. The findings of most studies that have evaluated risk factors for cutaneous melanoma are of limited application in Spain because the populations studied have different pigmentary traits and are subject to different environmental factors. To identify the phenotypic characteristics and amount of exposure to sunlight that constitute risk factors for cutaneous melanoma in the population of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. We performed a multicenter observational case-control study. In total, the study included 242 patients with melanoma undergoing treatment in 5 hospitals and 173 controls enrolled from among the companions of the patients between January 2007 and June 2008. The information was collected by means of a standardized, validated questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated for each variable and adjusted using a multiple logistic regression model. The risk factors found to be statistically significant were skin phototypes I and II, blond or red hair, light eye color, abundant melanocytic nevi, and a personal history of actinic keratosis or nonmelanoma skin cancer. After the multivariate analysis, only blond or red hair (OR=1.9), multiple melanocytic nevi (OR=3.1), skin phototypes i and ii (OR=2.1), and a personal history of actinic keratosis (OR=3.5) or nonmelanoma skin cancer (OR=8.1) maintained significance in the model as independent predictive variables for melanoma. Our study supports the importance of certain factors that indicate genetic predisposition (hair color and skin phototype) and environmental factors associated with exposure to sunlight. Patients with multiple acquired melanocytic nevi and patients with markers of chronic skin sun damage (actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma cancer) presented a significant increase in risk

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis Was Negatively Associated with Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

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    Li-Ting Kao

    Full Text Available Some of the prior literature investigated the potential association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA and Alzheimer's disease (AD because these two diseases may share similar inflammatory mechanisms. Nevertheless, to date, findings of the previous literature are still controversial, and some methodological limitations were observed in those studies. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between prior RA and AD using a large population-based dataset. This study used the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We included 2271 patients with AD who had received prescriptions for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs as cases and 6813 patients without AD as controls in this study. In addition, we performed a conditional logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for prior RA between cases and controls. The study found that 330 (3.63% of the total sampled patients had an RA diagnosis before the index date. Additionally, prior RA was found in 60 (2.64% cases and in 270 (3.96% controls. The conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the crude OR of prior RA for cases was 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.49~0.87 compared to controls. After adjusting for patients' geographic location, urbanization level, and comorbidities, the adjusted OR of prior RA for patients with AD was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55~0.98 compared to those without AD. We concluded that there was an inverse association between prior RA and AD even after adjusting for potential confounders.

  5. Allergies and diabetes as risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever: results of a case control study.

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    Maria Aparecida A Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The physiopathology of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, a severe form of Dengue Fever, is poorly understood. We are unable to identify patients likely to progress to DHF for closer monitoring and early intervention during epidemics, so most cases are sent home. This study explored whether patients with selected co-morbidities are at higher risk of developing DHF. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted in a dengue sero-positive population in two Brazilian cities. For each case of DHF, 7 sero-positive controls were selected. Cases and controls were interviewed and information collected on demographic and socio-economic status, reported co-morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, allergy and use of medication. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the strength of the association between the co-morbidities and occurrence of DHF. RESULTS: 170 cases of DHF and 1,175 controls were included. Significant associations were found between DHF and white ethnicity (OR = 4.70; 2.17-10.20, high income (OR = 6.84; 4.09-11.43, high education (OR = 4.67; 2.35-9.27, reported diabetes (OR = 2.75; 1.12-6.73 and reported allergy treated with steroids (OR = 2.94; 1.01-8.54. Black individuals who reported being treated for hypertension had 13 times higher risk of DHF then black individuals reporting no hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to find an association between DHF and diabetes, allergy and hypertension. Given the high case fatality rate of DHF (1-5%, we believe that the evidence produced in this study, when confirmed in other studies, suggests that screening criteria might be used to identify adult patients at a greater risk of developing DHF with a recommendation that they remain under observation and monitoring in hospital.

  6. Comparison of sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer: case control study

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    Soudabeh Shahid Sales

    2017-08-01

    Methods: According to the women’s case-control study with simple un-randomized sampling method a total of 245 patients with breast cancer in Ghaem and Emam Reza and Omid hospital from july 2011 to july 2013 entered the study. All patients were on follow-up after therapy, and had a therapy portfolio. In order to achieve better results, questionnaires were distributed among 126 healthy subjects that matched our patient group in terms of age and other factors and were used as the control group. Female sexual function index (FSFI questionnaire was filled out by an independent interviewer and all medical, personal and social ethics were applied. The data was then gathered and the score were analyzed with statistical tests. Results: The study was performed on patients 20 to 50 years, mainly in patients aged 35 to 45 years (51.8%. The average age was 41.44±5.87 years. In our study, the most dysfunction was in sexual desire (57.6%, vaginal moisture (53.1%, sexual excitement (48.2%, orgasm (44.1%, and dyspareunia (52.2% in breast cancer patients. There was significant difference between two group (P<0.001.There is no difference about sexual satisfaction between two groups (P=0.262. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is common in breast cancer patients compared to healthy women. Dysfunction in orgasm, dyspareunia, reducing vaginal moisture and sexual desire were common in the breast cancer patient. The results of this study should be used to inform patients and physician about sexual problems.

  7. Prospective associations between persistent organic pollutants and metabolic syndrome: a nested case-control study.

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    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Ki-Su; Kim, Se-A; Hong, Nam-Soo; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has recently been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and some MetS components. However, prospective evidence in humans is scarce, and the nature of the dose-response relationship is unclear. We evaluated the association between POPs and MetS using a nested-case control study within a community-based Korean cohort. The study subjects were 64 patients newly diagnosed with MetS during a 4-year follow-up, and the controls were 182 subjects without MetS. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in stored serum collected at baseline. The concentrations of most PCBs and some OCPs such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide predicted the risk for MetS. The POP exposure and MetS showed an inverted U-shaped or a linear association with plateau rather than a linear dose-response association. When the summary measure of the PCBs and OCPs was used, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) across the quartiles of the summary measure were 1.0, 1.3, 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.7), and 2.1 (Pquadratic=0.013) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the analyses of each of the five MetS components, POP exposure was mainly associated with an increased risk for glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances. This study demonstrated that chronic exposure to a mixture of PCBs and OCPs can increase the risk for MetS within the low-dose background exposure range of POPs. As the findings of this study suggest a nonmonotonic dose-response relationship, in vitro and in vivo experimental studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between phytosterol intake and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study.

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    Huang, Jing; Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wu-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-03-01

    A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, P trendphytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

  9. Prenatal exposure to glycol ethers and cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a nested case-control study.

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    Warembourg, Charline; Botton, Jérémie; Lelong, Nathalie; Rouget, Florence; Khoshnood, Babak; Le Gléau, Florent; Monfort, Christine; Labat, Laurence; Pierre, Fabrice; Heude, Barbara; Slama, Rémy; Multigner, Luc; Charles, Marie-Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Garlantézec, Ronan

    2018-01-01

    Glycol ethers (GE) are oxygenated solvents frequently found in occupational and consumer products. Some of them are well-known testicular and developmental animal toxicants. This study aims to evaluate the risk of male genital anomalies in association with prenatal exposure to GE using urinary biomarkers of exposure. We conducted a case-control study nested in two joint mother-child cohorts (5303 pregnant women). Cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias were identified at birth and confirmed during a 2-year follow-up period (n=14 cryptorchidism and n=15 hypospadias). Each case was matched to three randomly selected controls within the cohorts for region of inclusion and gestational age at urine sampling. Concentrations of five GE acidic metabolites were measured in spot maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy. ORs were estimated with multivariate conditional logistic regressions including a Firth's penalisation. Detection rates of urinary GE metabolites ranged from 8% to 93% and only two were sufficiently detected (>33%) in each cohort to be studied: methoxyacetic acid (MAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA). A significantly higher risk of hypospadias was associated with the highest tertile of exposure to MAA: OR (95% CI) 4.5(1.4 to 23.4). No association were observed with urinary concentration of PhAA, nor with the risk of cryptorchidism. In view of the toxicological plausibility of our results, this study, despite its small sample size, raises concern about the potential developmental toxicity of MAA on the male genital system and calls for thorough identification of current sources of exposure to MAA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Perceived stress in patients with migraine: a case-control study.

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    Moon, Hye-Jin; Seo, Jong-Geun; Park, Sung-Pa

    2017-12-01

    Perceived stress is the most common trigger for migraine. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical significance of perceived stress in migraine patients. This is a case-control study. Consecutive migraine patients who visited a tertiary care hospital were enrolled for this study. They completed self-reported questionnaires including Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 12-item Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12), Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ). Degree of perceived stress in migraine patients was measured and compared to that in healthy controls. Predictors for perceived stress and their impact on quality of life (QOL) of migraine patients were also determined. A total of 227 migraine patients were eligible for this study, including 103 (45.4%) who had chronic migraine (CM). Mean PSS score was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in CM patients than that in controls after adjusting for education, depression, and anxiety. Although several factors were associated with PSS score, major predictors for PSS were GAD-7 score (β = 0.358, p < 0.001), PHQ-9 score (β = 0.304, p < 0.001), ISI score (β = 0.154, p = 0.005), and CM (β = -0.104, p = 0.027). There was an inverse relationship between PSS scores and three-dimensional scores of MSQ (p < 0.001). Chronic migraine is a critical factor for perceived stress. Perceived stress affects QOL of migraine patients.

  11. Periodontal disease is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

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    Xiong, Xu; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen E; Vastardis, Sotirios; Delarosa, Robert L; Pridjian, Gabriella; Buekens, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    Few studies have specifically examined the relationship between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal periodontal disease is associated with GDM. A case-control study was conducted of 53 pregnant women with GDM and 106 pregnant women without GDM at Woman's Hospital, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The periodontal examinations were performed by a calibrated dentist who was masked to the diabetic status of the pregnant women. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of any site with a probing depth (PD) >or=4 mm or a clinical attachment loss (AL) >or=4 mm. The severity of periodontal disease was measured in quartiles of PD and clinical AL. Univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the relationships between periodontal disease and GDM. The percentage of periodontitis was 77.4% in women with GDM and 57.5% in women without GDM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.5 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.2 to 5.3. After adjusting for confounding variables of maternal age, parity, race, marital status, education, family income, smoking, alcohol consumption, systemic antibiotics during pregnancy, family history of diabetes, income, dental insurance coverage, and body mass index, the adjusted OR (95% CI) was 2.6 (1.1 to 6.1). The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of GDM comparing the highest-to-lowest quartiles of PD and clinical AL were 3.8 (1.0 to 14.0) and 4.5 (1.2 to 16.9). This study supports the hypothesis of an association between periodontal disease and GDM.

  12. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

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    Wagner Brant Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia and Centro de Quimioterapia Antiblástica e Imunoterapia in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 87 PABC and 252 control patients. The influence of covariables (interval between first symptoms and diagnosis, tumor histology, size of primary tumor, distant metastasis, grade of malignancy, hormone receptor status and axillary lymph node involvement and the pregnancy variable on overall survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival for PABC patients of 30.1 months (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.4-40.9 months was significantly different (P = 0.005 from that of the control group (53.1 months; 95% CI: 35.1-71.0 months. The cumulative overall survivals after five and ten years were, respectively, 29.7 and 19.2% for PABC patients, and 47.3 and 34.8% for control patients (P = 0.005. Tumor size, grade of malignancy, distant metastasis and pregnancy were independent factors that significantly modified disease prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy was an independent prognostic factor. The overall survival of PABC patients was shorter than that of non-pregnant patients.

  13. Self-Efficacy After Life Skills Training: A Case-Control Study

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    Rezayat, Fatemeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing students’ self-efficacy is a predictor for their educational progress. Students, who believe that they can be successful in their studies, are more confident. Therefore, many universities have focused on life skills training programs to improve the mental health of their students. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare self-efficacy in two groups of nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). One group of students was trained on life skill programs, and the second group was not trained on the issue. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on two groups of nursing students in TUMS in the late 2012. The case group (n = 112) had passed life skills training course, and the control group (n = 139) was not trained on the issue. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing 12 questions about demographic features, and the Sherer’s general self-efficacy questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using independent sample t-test, Chi-square, odds ratio, and Fisher’s exact test. Results: In the untrained and trained groups, 23% and 8% of the students had very high self-efficacy, respectively. The overall mean scores of self-efficacy were 41.99 ± 9.31 and 38.99 ± 10.48 in the trained and untrained groups, respectively (P = 0.015), and the higher mean score indicates lower level of self-efficacy. A significant difference was also found between the self-efficacy and family income (P = 0.029). Conclusions: The present study showed that life skills training program did not affect self-efficacy of nursing students. Perhaps, the methods used in education were influencing and then, more effective techniques such as role-play and group discussion should be substituted in life skills training. PMID:25414884

  14. Cancer risk among female agricultural workers: a multi-center case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, L; Comba, P; Carrieri, P; Boffetta, P; Magnani, C; Terracini, B; Andrion, A; Bosia, S; Ciapini, C; De Santis, M; Desideri, E; Fedi, A; Luccoli, L; Maiozzi, P; Masina, A; Perazzo, P L; Axelson, O

    1999-07-01

    Cancer risk among women engaged in farming has been poorly investigated. This group of female workers is of particular interest, however, since they may experience exposure to several potential agricultural hazards. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in five Italian rural areas to examine the association between cancer and farming among women. The areas selected were located in three different regions (i.e., Piedmont, Tuscany, and Emilia-Romagna). The following cancer sites were selected for the study: stomach, colon, rectum, lung, skin melanoma, skin non-melanoma, breast, cervix and corpus uteri, ovary, bladder, kidney. Cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were also included. Altogether, 1,044 newly diagnosed cases aged 20-75 years were ascertained from hospital records from March 1990 to September 1992, and for 945 of them detailed information was collected by a standard questionnaire. The analyses of data were performed comparing each case series to a reference group drawn from among the other sites. Unconditional logistic regression models were used in the statistical analyses. Statistically significant increased risks in association with farming were estimated for skin melanoma (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) and bladder cancer (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Lung cancer was also found increased but not at a statistically significant level (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.7-4.4). An OR lower than unity was observed for postmenopausal breast cancer (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.7). The present study suggests that women in farming might experience increased risk of cancers, not usually found in excess among male farmers, as well as a protective effect for postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of different patterns of exposure or gender specific responses should be considered in further studies.

  15. Association between periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves Lima, Rafael Paschoal; Miranda Cota, Luís Otávio; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Some studies have reported an association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and periodontitis. The aim of the present study is to analyze this potential association and the influence of risk variables associated with GDM. This case-control study includes 360 women, 90 with GDM and 270 controls. Participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination with a record of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontitis is defined as the presence in ≥4 teeth of ≥1 sites with PD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥3 mm associated with BOP. The influence of risk variables in the occurrence of GDM is tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression. Odds ratio (ORs) and respective confidence intervals (CIs) are calculated and reported. The prevalence of periodontitis was 40% in the case group (GDM) and 46.3% in the control group. There was a lack of association between periodontitis and GDM (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.38). The multivariate final logistic regression model retained the following as significant variables associated with GDM: maternal age (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.97 to 3.56), chronic hypertension (OR = 3.16; 95% CI = 1.35 to 7.42), and body mass index (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.41 to 2.81). A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among cases and controls, with no association between periodontitis and GDM. The present study suggests the need for implementation of health policies directed to the periodontal care of pregnant women.

  16. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

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    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased.A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study.Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives.The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  17. The relationship between nut intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

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    Lee, Jeeyoo; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-03-07

    Nut consumption is known to reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. However, in previous studies, portion sizes and categories of nut consumption have varied, and few studies have assessed the association between colorectal cancer risk and nut consumption. In this study, we investigated the relationship between nut consumption and colorectal cancer risk. A case-control study was conducted among 923 colorectal cancer patients and 1846 controls recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea. Information on dietary intake was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items, including peanuts, pine nuts, and almonds (as 1 food item). Nut consumption was categorized as none, consumption and colorectal cancer risk, and a polytomous logistic regression model was used for sub-site analyses. High nut consumption was strongly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer among women (adjusted ORs: 0.30, 95%CI: 0.15-0.60 for the ≥3 servings per week group vs. none). A similar inverse association was observed for men (adjusted ORs: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47). In sub-site analyses, adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing the ≥3 servings per week group vs none were 0.25 (0.09-0.70) for proximal colon cancer, 0.39 (0.19-0.80) for distal colon cancer, and 0.23 (0.12-0.46) for rectal cancer among men. An inverse association was also found among women for distal colon cancer (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.48) and rectal cancer (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95). We found a statistically significant association between high frequency of nut consumption and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. This association was observed for all sub-sites of the colon and rectum among both men and women, with the exception of proximal colon cancer for women.

  18. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: a case-control study.

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    Fortuyn, H A Droogleever; Lappenschaar, Martijn A; Furer, Joop W; Hodiamont, Paul P; Rijnders, Cees A Th; Renier, Willy O; Buitelaar, Jan K; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been performed and conflicting results have been reported. Anxiety disorders in narcolepsy have only received little attention. We performed a case-control study in 60 narcolepsy patients and 120 age- and sex-matched controls from a previous population study. The Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry were used to assess symptoms and diagnostic classifications of mood and anxiety disorders. Symptoms of mood disorders were reported by about one third of patients. However, the prevalence of formal mood disorder diagnoses - including major depression - was not increased. In contrast, more than half of the narcolepsy patients had anxiety or panic attacks. Thirty-five percent of the patients could be diagnosed with anxiety disorder (odds ratio=15.6), with social phobia being the most important diagnosis. There was no influence of age, sex, duration of illness or medication use on the prevalence of mood or anxiety symptoms and disorders. Anxiety disorders, especially panic attacks and social phobias, often affect patients with narcolepsy. Although symptoms of mood disorders are present in many patients, the prevalence of major depression is not increased. Anxiety and mood symptoms could be secondary complications of the chronic symptoms of narcolepsy. Recent studies have shown that narcolepsy is caused by defective hypocretin signaling. As hypocretin neurotransmission is also involved in stress regulation and addiction, this raises the possibility that mood and anxiety symptoms are primary disease phenomena in narcolepsy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shigellosis Outbreak in Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman; Case-control study

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    Idris Abaidani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Shigella flexneri occurred in August 2012 in the catchment area of the Wadi Sahtan Health Center in Rustaq, Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman. The aim of this study was to discover possible causes of this outbreak in the villages of Fassa, Rogh and Amk and to measure the risk of exposure among cases and controls. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in September 2012 in Fassa, Rogh and Amk. All households in the three villages were interviewed. Case and control households were compared to determine possible exposure avenues, including place of residence, source of drinking water, hand hygiene levels and practices related to drinking water, food preparation and environmental sanitation. Results: Residing in Fassa (P <0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22–10.63 and average hand hygiene practices (P = 0.008; OR = 13.97, 95% CI = 1.58–123.36 were associated with an increased risk of contracting shigellosis. No significant differences were found with regards to the other exposure avenues. Conclusion: This was the first study conducted in Oman regarding an outbreak of shigellosis in a community setting. The only variables that significantly impacted the risk of acute gastroenteritis were residing in Fassa and average hand hygiene practices. The source of the outbreak could not be identified. However, septic tank sanitation and water and food consumption practices were not satisfactory in the studied villages. These need to be addressed to prevent similar outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in this region in the future.

  20. Determinant factors of home delivery among women in Northern Ethiopia: a case control study

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    Resom Tsegay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Although most pregnancies and births are uneventful, approximately 15% of all pregnant women develop potentially life-threatening complications. Home delivery in this context can be acutely threatening, particularly in developing countries where emergency care and transportation are less available. This study identifies factors associated with home delivery in Tanqua-Abergele District, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods Unmatched case-control study was conducted in April 2014 in Tanqua-Abergele, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Simple random sampling was employed to select study participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Multi variable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of home delivery. Results A total of 275 women (92 cases and 183 controls participated in the study, giving a response rate of 96.5%. Not owning a radio or television (AOR: 7.2, 95% CI: 2.7–19.3, not pursuing ANC visits at all (AOR: 10.4, 95% CI: 2.9–37.1 orhaving1–3 ANC visits only (AOR: 4.75, 95% CI: 1.69–13.31,poor knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.3–32.9 and walking time greater than two hours to the nearest health center (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.2–20.7 were strong predictors of home delivery. Conclusion Unable to meet the minimum requirement WHO of ANC service had a potential to give birth at home. Investing in infrastructure will contribute to improving maternal health. Having a different source of media (radio or television could have a role in increasing the institutional delivery. Policy makers and other concerned bodies should give due attention to the fulfillment of infrastructure and educate women on the importance of institutional delivery.

  1. Beer and wine consumption and risk of knee or hip osteoarthritis: a case control study.

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    Muthuri, Stella G; Zhang, Weiya; Maciewicz, Rose A; Muir, Kenneth; Doherty, Michael

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted a case-control study of Caucasian men and women aged 45 to 86 years of age from Nottingham, UK. Cases had clinically severe symptoms and radiographic knee or hip OA; controls had no symptoms and no radiographic knee or hip OA. Exposure information was sought using interview-based questionnaires and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess beverage consumption at ages 21 to 50 years. Odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs (aORs), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and P values were estimated using logistic regression models. A total of 1,001 knee OA, 993 hip OA and 933 control participants were included in the study. Increasing beer consumption was associated with an increasing risk of OA (P for trend≤0.001). Compared to those who did not consume beer, aORs for people who consumed 20 or more servings of beer were 1.93 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.94) and 2.15 (95% CI 1.45 to 3.19) for knee OA and hip OA, respectively. In contrast, increasing levels of wine consumption were associated with decreased likelihood of knee OA (P for trendwine, aOR for knee OA among those who consumed 4 to 6 glasses of wine per week and ≥7 glasses of wine per week was 0.55 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.87) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.80), respectively. No association was identified between non-alcoholic beverages and knee or hip OA. Beer consumption appears to be a risk factor for knee and hip OA whereas consumption of wine has a negative association with knee OA. The mechanism behind these findings is speculative but warrants further study.

  2. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

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    Ghobad Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41, consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89, and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  3. Pet ownership and risk of asthma: a case-controlled study

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    Sharifi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the treatment of bronchial asthma, the identification, isolation, and elimination of causative allergens is the most effective part of treatment. With the recent diversification within the pet industry, pet owner exposure to many unknown antigens is on the rise. The results of population studies have been contradictory and some epidemiological studies have failed to confirm this, some indicating that keeping pets might actually reduce the risk of sensitization and asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between pet ownership and asthma. Methods: This case-control study included 300 asthmatic participants referred to the Children's Medical Center over a two-year period. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding pet ownership, pet gender and puberty, the place it was kept, how long the pet was kept and the reason for keeping the pet. The same questions were asked from 300 age- and gender-matched nonasthmatic individuals as the control group. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR of asthma morbidity in individuals who kept pets. Results: The OR for asthma morbidity in patients who kept pets was 2.59 (CI=1.60-4.21 and p>0.001. Financial aim was the most common reason for keeping a pet and most pets were mature and kept outdoors. No significant correlations for pet genders were observed. Conclusion: This survey provides evidence that pet ownership is an important risk factor for asthma, therefore we suggest that individuals at risk for asthma (atopic individuals must avoid contact with pets. However, more research in this field in Iran is necessary.

  4. A microsurgical anterior cervical approach and the immediate impact of mechanical retractors: A case control study

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    Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A microsurgical anterior cervical approach with discectomy and fusion (MACDF is one of the most widely used procedures for treating radicular disorders. This approach is highly successful; however, it is not free from complications. These can be associated with soft tissue injuries. Aim of the Study: The recognition of the risks for these complications should be identified for timely prevention and safe treatment. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Retrospective case control study. This study includes a retrospective case series of 37 patients, paying special attention to immediate complications related to the use of mechanical retraction of soft tissue (dysphagia, dysphonia, esophageal lesions and local hematoma; and a comparative analysis of the outcomes after changes in the retraction method. Results: All selected cases had a positive neurological symptom response in relation to neuropathic pain. Dysphagia and dysphonia were found during the first 72 h in 94.1% of the cases in which automatic mechanical retraction was used for more than one hour during the surgical procedure. A radical change was noted in the reduction of the symptoms after the use of only manual protective blades without automatic mechanical retraction: 5.1% dysphagia and 0% dysphonia in the immediate post-operative period, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles.

  5. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities: a case-control study.

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    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic groups was higher when these groups perceived more discrimination. We conducted a case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, and investigated whether perceived discrimination at the individual level is a risk factor for schizophrenia. Cases included all non-western immigrants who made first contact with a physician for a psychotic disorder in The Hague, the Netherlands, between October 2000 and July 2005, and received a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM IV: schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder) (N = 100). Two matched control groups were recruited, one among immigrants who made contact with non-psychiatric secondary health care services (N = 100), and one among siblings of the cases (N = 63). Perceived discrimination in the year before illness onset was measured with structured interviews, assessing experiences of prejudice, racist insults or attacks, and perception of discrimination against one's ethnic group. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to predict schizophrenia as a function of perceived discrimination. Cases reported somewhat higher rates of perceived discrimination in the year prior to illness onset than their siblings and the general-hospital controls, but these differences were not statistically significant; 52% of the cases and 42% of both control groups had perceived any discrimination. Perceived discrimination at the individual level was not a risk factor for schizophrenia in these data. Perceived discrimination was positively correlated with cultural distance and cannabis use, and negatively with ethnic identity, self-esteem, and mastery. The relationship between racial

  6. Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study

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    Jalal Poorolajal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death. METHODS: This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls. All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained for each risk factor. RESULTS: The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99 for advanced maternal age (≥35 years; 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43 for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22 for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25 for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88 for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42 for women with systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results.

  7. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study.

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    Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin; Elahi, Elham; Barati, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  8. A case - control study of risk factors for coronary artery disease in Pakistani females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazeer, M.; Naveed, T.; Ullah, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the strength of association of conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease in native Pakistani females. Methods: We conducted a case - control hospital based study on 198 females (age 30 - 80 years) scheduled for their first coronary angiography at Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore. Patients were divided into pre-menopausal group (age: 45.1 +- 6.3) and post-menopausal group (62.1 +- 9.1). For each risk factor, patients with significant CAD (= 50% luminal diameter stenosis) were regarded as cases an those without significant CAD were taken as controls. Odds Ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by univariate analysis. Results: In total study cohort, Diabetes mellitus (OR 3.65 95% CI 2.0 - 6.5), Family history of premature coronary artery disease (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4), and increased waist circumference (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.2 - 3.8) were strongly associated with significant CAD. In post menopausal age group, diabetes mellitus (OR 2.66 CI 1.3 - 5.1), hyperlipidaemia (OR 2.25 CI 1.2 - 2.3) and increased waist circumference (OR 2.16 CI 1.1 - 4.2) reached statistical significance. In pre-menopausal females only diabetes was strongly associated with significant coronary artery disease (OR 10 CI 2.6 - 37.4). Association of hypertension was not significant in any of subgroups studied. Very few cases of smoking (6 / 198) were found in our study to merit any further statistical analysis. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus was the only risk factor in pre-menopausal females associated with coronary artery disease While diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and increased waist circumference were significantly associated with CAD in post menopausal females. (author)

  9. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

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    Kuypers, Kim Paula Colette; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Ramaekers, Johannes Gerardus; Verstraete, Alain Gaston

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases)/sampling (controls). The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR) for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161) and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301) were included in the study. Main findings were that 1) alcohol in general (all the concentrations together) caused an elevated crash risk; 2) cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3) when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  10. Tuberculosis and indoor biomass and kerosene use in Nepal: a case-control study.

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    Pokhrel, Amod K; Bates, Michael N; Verma, Sharat C; Joshi, Hari S; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Smith, Kirk R

    2010-04-01

    In Nepal, tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem. Worldwide, six previous epidemiologic studies have investigated whether indoor cooking with biomass fuel such as wood or agricultural wastes is associated with TB with inconsistent results. Using detailed information on potential confounders, we investigated the associations between TB and the use of biomass and kerosene fuels. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pokhara, Nepal. Cases (n = 125) were women, 20-65 years old, with a confirmed diagnosis of TB. Age-matched controls (n = 250) were female patients without TB. Detailed exposure histories were collected with a standardized questionnaire. Compared with using a clean-burning fuel stove (liquefied petroleum gas, biogas), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for using a biomass-fuel stove was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.48-3.05], whereas use of a kerosene-fuel stove had an OR of 3.36 (95% CI, 1.01-11.22). The OR for use of biomass fuel for heating was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.44-8.27) and for use of kerosene lamps for lighting was 9.43 (95% CI, 1.45-61.32). This study provides evidence that the use of indoor biomass fuel, particularly as a source of heating, is associated with TB in women. It also provides the first evidence that using kerosene stoves and wick lamps is associated with TB. These associations require confirmation in other studies. If using kerosene lamps is a risk factor for TB, it would provide strong justification for promoting clean lighting sources, such as solar lamps.

  11. Hair Coloring, Stress, and Smoking Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatinasab, Mostafa; Fararouei, Mohammad; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Zare-Bandamiri, Mohammad; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of breast cancer in Iran are significantly different from those in the West and even other regional countries, but little is known about the related factors. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 1052 women (526 new cases and 526 controls). Logistic regression was performed to investigate associations of study factors with breast cancer risk. This study introduced occupation (odds ratio [OR] employed/household , 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.69), marital age (OR 24-30 y/y , 2.13; 95% CI, 1.03-4.40), age at first delivery (OR ≥ 30 y/y , 3.53; 95% CI, 1.73-7.18), parity (OR 1-2/Nulliparous or never married , 2.61; 95% CI, 1.13-6.02), birth interval (OR 30-50 mos/cancer. In addition, body mass index (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) and some health-related behaviors including hair coloring on a regular basis (OR yes/no , 1.93; 95% CI, 1.41-2.62), smoking (OR yes/no , 2.02; 95% CI, 1.22-3.34), oral contraceptive usage (OR ever/never . 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05-2.04), physical inactivity (OR inactive/regular activity , 1.54; 95% CI, 1.39-1.75), past life stress (OR often stressful/often calm , 2.40; 95% CI, 1.62-3.56), and regular bedtime (OR often regular/no , 0.32; 95% CI, 0.19-0.54) were related to a higher risk of breast cancer. This study revealed a significant number of factors that seem to contribute to the risk of breast cancer even more than the other previously introduced factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  13. Prolonged toilet training in children with Down syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Flávia Cristina de Carvalho; Figueiredo, André Avarese de; Bessa, José de; Bastos Netto, José Murillo

    2017-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome have delayed psychomotor development, which is a factor that influences the level of difficulty in toilet training. The current study aims to estimate the age toilet training starts and completes in children with DS compared to children with normal psychomotor development and to evaluate the method and type of toilet training most frequently used, as well as its association with lower urinary tract symptoms and functional constipation. A case-control study was carried out from 2010 to 2015. All parents completed a questionnaire designed to assess the toilet training process. Lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed through the application of the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score. The presence of functional constipation was assessed according to the Rome III criteria. The study included 93 children with Down syndrome and 204 children with normal psychomotor development (control group [CG]). The mean age of toilet training onset was 22.8 months in those with DS and 17.5 months in the CG (p=0.001). In children with DS, the mean age when completing toilet training was 56.2 months and 27.1 months in the CG (p=0.001). Among children with DS, females completed toilet training earlier (p=0.02). The toilet training method used most often was child-oriented approach in both groups. No association was observed with the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms or functional constipation and the age of beginning and completing toilet training in both groups. Children with Down syndrome experienced prolonged toilet training time. Prospective longitudinal studies are essential to gain insight into the toilet training of these children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Asthma Status and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duk Won; Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Eun Na; Hagan, John; Roger, Veronique; Manemann, Sheila; Lahr, Brian; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-01-01

    The role of asthma status and characteristics of asthma in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. We determined whether asthma and its characteristics are associated with risk of MI. The study was designed as a population-based retrospective case-control study, which included all eligible incident MI cases between November 1, 2002, and May 31, 2006, and their matched controls. Asthma was ascertained using predetermined criteria. Active (current) asthma was defined as the occurrence of asthma-related episodes (asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, unscheduled medical or emergency department visit, or hospitalization for asthma) within 1 year before MI index date. There were 543 eligible incident MI cases during the study period. Of the 543 MI cases, 81 (15%) had a history of asthma before index date of MI, whereas 52 of 543 controls (10%) had such a history (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.66) adjusting for risk factors for MI and comorbid conditions (excluding chronic obstructive lung disease). Although inactive asthma did not increase the risk of MI, individuals with active asthma had a higher odds of MI, compared with those without asthma (adjusted OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57-6.44) without controlling for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After adjusting for COPD, although asthma overall was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.84-2.15), active asthma still was associated (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.12-4.82). Active asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for MI. Further studies are needed to assess the role of asthma control and medications in the risk of MI. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking during Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Denardin, Daniel; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Pianca, Thiago; Hutz, Mara Helena; Faraone, Stephen; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Few previous studies assessed specifically attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in nonreferred samples. This study investigated the association between ADHD-I and prenatal exposure to nicotine. Method: In a case-control study performed between September 2002 and April 2005, we assessed a…

  16. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth

  17. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL),

  18. Leptospira Exposure and Waste Pickers: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Infection with Leptospira may occur by contact with Leptospira-infected animals. Waste pickers are in contact with rodents and dogs while picking in the garbage. Whether waste pickers are at risk for Leptospira infection is largely unknown. This study was aimed to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of waste picking, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of the waste pickers with Leptospira exposure. Through a case-control study, we determined the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico using an enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies was similar in waste pickers (4/90: 4.4%) to that in control subjects (5/90: 5.6%) (P = 1.00). Bivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure in waste pickers was associated with increasing age (P = 0.009), no education (P = 0.008), and consumption of rat meat (P = 0.04). However, these associations were no longer found by multivariate analysis. Leptospira exposure in waste pickers was not associated with health status, duration in the activity, wearing hand gloves and facemasks, history of injuries with sharp material of the garbage, or contact with animals or soil. This is the first study about Leptospira exposure in waste pickers. Results suggest that waste pickers are not at increasing risk for Leptospira exposure in Durango City, Mexico. Further research with a larger sample size to elucidate the association of Leptospira exposure with waste picking activity is needed.

  19. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

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