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Sample records for case-control observational study

  1. Structural abnormalities and persistent complaints after an ankle sprain are not associated: An observational case control study in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Ochten (John); M.C.E. Mos (Marinka C E); N. Van Putte-Katier (Nienke); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Persistent complaints are very common after a lateral ankle sprain. Aim To investigate possible associations between structural abnormalities on radiography and MRI, and persistent complaints after a lateral ankle sprain. Design and setting Observational case control study on

  2. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  3. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    impact reproducibility has on relative risk estimates of breast cancer. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study included 122 cases and 262 age- and time matched controls (765 breasts) based on a 2007 screening cohort of 14,736 women with negative screening mammograms from Bispebjerg Hospital...

  4. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  5. Secondhand Smoking and the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High Incidence Region, Kashmir, India: A Case-control-observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Rumaisa; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Studies have associated secondhand smoking (SHS) with cancers of the lung, larynx, and pharynx. Only a few studies have examined the association between SHS and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the findings are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between SHS and risk of ESCC in a case-control study in Kashmir, where the incidence of ESCC is high. We recruited 703 histopathologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 hospital-based controls individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Among never-tobacco users, the ORs for the association between SHS and ESCC risk were above unity with ever exposure to SHS (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.43-4.02) and exposure to SHS for > 14 h/wk (median value) (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 0.75-20.65). In the analysis of data from all participants, the OR (95% CI) for the association between SHS and ESCC was (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53-1.93) for SHS ≤ 14 h/wk and (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 0.75-4.89) for SHS >14 h/wk in the models adjusted for tobacco use and several other potential confounding factors. We found an indication of increased risk of ESCC associated with exposure to SHS. Studies with larger numbers of SHS-exposed never tobacco users are required to further examine this association.

  6. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  7. Temporomandibular disorders. A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, Jose V.; Sanchis, Jose M.; Carbonell, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the risk factors and clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) (axis I) versus an age and gender matched control group. Study Design: A total of 162 patients explored according to the RDC/TMD (mean age 40.6±18.8 years, range 7-90; 11.1% males and 88.9% females) were compared with 119 controls, measuring differences in TMD risk factors (sleep...

  8. Validation of a home safety questionnaire used in a series of case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Michael; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Clacy, Rose; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Deave, Toity; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the validity of safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards reported on a questionnaire by parents/carers with children aged under 5 years participating in a series of home safety case-control studies. Methods The questionnaire measured safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards being used as exposures in five case-control studies. Responses to questions were compared with observations made during a home visit. The researchers making observations were bli...

  9. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  10. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  11. On combining family and case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Landi, Maria T

    2008-11-01

    Studies to detect genetic association with disease can be family-based, often using families with multiple affected members, or population based, as in population-based case-control studies. If data on both study types are available from the same population, it is useful to combine them to improve power to detect genetic associations. Two aspects of the data need to be accommodated, the sampling scheme and potential residual correlations among family members. We propose two approaches for combining data from a case-control study and a family study that collected families with multiple cases. In the first approach, we view a family as the sampling unit and specify the joint likelihood for the family members using a two-level mixed effects model to account for random familial effects and for residual genetic correlations among family members. The ascertainment of the families is accommodated by conditioning on the ascertainment event. The individuals in the case-control study are treated as families of size one, and their unconditional likelihood is combined with the conditional likelihood for the families. This approach yields subject specific maximum likelihood estimates of covariate effects. In the second approach, we view an individual as the sampling unit. The sampling scheme is accommodated using two-phase sampling techniques, marginal covariate effects are estimated, and correlations among family members are accounted for in the variance calculations. The models are compared in simulations. Data from a case-control and a family study from north-eastern Italy on melanoma and a low-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, MC1R, are used to illustrate the approaches. PMID:18454494

  12. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  13. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  14. Toxocariasis in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Aims Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Methods Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demog...

  15. Mind wandering and driving: a responsibility case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    GALERA, Cédric; Orriols, Ludivine; M'BAILARA, Katia; LABOREY, Magali; Contrand, Benjamin; RIBEREAU-GAYON, Régis; Masson, Françoise; Bakiri, Sarah; GABAUDE, Catherine; Fort, Alexandra; MAURY, Bertrand; Lemercier, Céline; Cours, Maurice; BOUVARD, Manuel-Pierre; LAGARDE, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between mind wandering (i.e. thinking unrelated to the task at hand) and the risk of being responsible for the crash. Design Responsibility case-control study. Setting Adult emergency department of the Bordeaux University hospital (France) from April 2010 to August 2011. Participants 955 injured drivers presenting as a result of motor vehicle crash. Main outcome measures The main outcome variable was responsibility for the crash. Exposures were mind wanderi...

  16. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ruiz; Maria Teresa Martínez-Ros; Alberto Cárceles-Alvarez; Perales, Joseph E.; Diana Carolina Jaimes-Vega; Alicia Cánovas-Conesa; Virtudes Gomaríz-Peñalver; Soldin, Offie P.; Miguel Felipe Sánchez-Sauco; Juan Antonio Ortega-García

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  17. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; XIAO, SHENG-XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  18. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  19. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    health professionals, and as the gold standard for educational supervision.2,4-6 Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine: if strugglers in specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to controls (non-strugglers), and which performance indicators during...... not identified as cases in the case extraction period. We aimed at a case-control ratio of 1:4 and intend to match on graduation year. Ten different performance measures relating to medical school admission, first year performance and overall program performances will be examined, such as: pre-university exam...

  20. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  1. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  2. The Quality of Reporting of Cohort, Case-Control Studies in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. Methods We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during th...

  3. Case-control association studies with matching and genomic controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2004-07-01

    Family-based association studies have gained in popularity for mapping disease-susceptibility gene(s) of complex diseases. However, recruiting family controls is often more difficult than recruiting unrelated controls. The author proposes a case-control study, where the possible biases due to population stratification are controlled by matching in the design stage and by genomic controlling in the data-analytic stage. The matching is based on a set of "stratum-delineating variables," such as, race, ethnicity, nationality, ancestry, and birthplace; and the genomic controlling is based on typing a number of null markers across the genome and applying the principle of multiplicative scaling of chi-square distribution. It pays to match carefully to have a higher proportion of correctly matched sets, as computer simulation showed that this would increase the power of the study. If matching is crude, one loses power but still has the correct type I error rate after genomic controlling. Power studies showed that the numbers of affected subjects required for the pair-matched study are comparable to those required by the case-parents design, if the study was conducted in a homogeneous population. As the (control-to-case) matching ratio increases, the number of affected subjects required decreases. With matching ratio tending toward infinity, the number required shrinks roughly by half. The case-control study with matching and genomic controlling frees us from family bondage, and the genetic problem as complicated as mapping genes can now be studied using simple epidemiologic methods. PMID:15185398

  4. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  5. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  6. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Gulnar Azevedo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  7. Case-control study of mesothelioma in the shipyard industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to asbestos and low-level gamma radiation and mesothelioma. One hundred nineteen cases and four hundred fifty-two latency-matched controls were selected. Analyses were conducted using the conditional maximum likelihood estimate of the odds ratio and conditional logistic regression for matched sets. The results from the analyses revealed a relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma; the strength of this relationship increased with the intensity and duration of the asbestos exposure. Exposure to low-level gamma radiation was also associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. There was no interaction between asbestos and radiation. Shipyard employment in non-asbestos jobs and male gender were also found to be associated with mesothelioma

  8. Case-control study of dementia of the Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, L.R.; Schuman, L.M.; Mortimer, J.A.; Hutton, J.T.; Boatman, R.A.; Christians, B.

    1985-03-01

    A case-control study to assess factors of possible etiologic significance to dementia of the Alzheimer type was conducted with 78 male cases diagnosed in 1979-1982 at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota and age-race-sex-matched hospital and neighborhood controls (14 of 16 autopsied cases were histopathologically confirmed). Information was obtained on variables relevant to vital, genetic, and immunologic hypotheses, and on possible occupational and environmental exposures, drug use, psychologic stress, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The only major difference between patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and controls was a significantly greater occurrence of antecedent head trauma in the patients (odds ratio = 4.50). This finding is consistent with the literature on posttraumatic dementia but its importance is presently unclear.

  9. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  10. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  11. Sialolithiasis is associated with nephrolithiasis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions This study demonstrates an association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. The results call for more awareness of this association among physicians and patients with nephrolithiasis. Objective Very few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the potential association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. As such, the association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis still remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the possible association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis using a population-based dataset. Methods Using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, this case-control study identified 966 patients with sialolithiasis as cases and 2898 sex- and age-matched subjects without sialolithiasis as controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association of sialolithiasis with previously diagnosed nephrolithiasis. Results Out of 3864 sampled patients, 165 (4.27%) had prior nephrolithiasis. Using Chi-square test, it was found that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior nephrolithiasis between the cases and controls (10.25% vs 2.28%, p nephrolithiasis for cases was 4.74 (95% CI = 3.41-6.58, p < 0.001) when compared to controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level of residence, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, chronic renal disease, and tobacco use. PMID:26808906

  12. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  13. A case-control study of asthma and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, Wafic M; Tran, Therese H; Mulla, Zuber D

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found inverse associations between allergy and the development of certain tumors. The authors sought to determine if there was an association between asthma and ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted using Florida hospital data (year 2001). Discharge diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Cases were 1,582 women whose principal discharge diagnosis was a malignant neoplasm of the ovary. Two control series were used: 4,744 women whose principal diagnosis was an upper limb bone fracture, and 21,830 women whose principal diagnosis was an acute myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, Medicaid status, obesity, and smoking were calculated. Cases were 30% less likely than fracture control to be asthmatics (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99, p = .04). Similarly, cases when compared to acute myocardial infarction controls were significantly less likely to have asthma (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87, p = .005). The results of this statewide exploratory study suggest that individuals with asthma may have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than nonasthmatics. PMID:20439229

  14. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

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    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  15. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

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    Guidetti Daniela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112 were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142. Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  16. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  17. Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study

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    Zodpey Sanjay P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

  18. Lupus Myocarditis: A Case-Control Study from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Yan-Lin Zhu; Meng-Tao Li; Na Gao; Xin You; Qing-Jun Wu; Jin-Mei Su

    2015-01-01

    Background:Myocarditis is an uncommon but serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of lupus myocarditis (LM) and to determine risk factors of LM in hospitalized Chinese patients with SLE.Methods:We conducted a retrospective case-control study.A total of 25 patients with LM from 2001 to 2012 were enrolled as the study group,and 1 O0 patients with SLE but without LM were randomly pooled as the control group.Univariable analysis was performed using Chi-square tests for categorical variables,and the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test was performed for continuous variables according to the normality.Results:LM presented as the initial manifestation of SLE in 7 patients (28%) and occurred mostly at earlier stages compared to the controls (20.88 ± 35.73 vs.44.08 ± 61.56 months,P =0.008).Twenty-one patients (84%) experienced episodes of symptomatic heart failure.Echocardiography showed that 23 patients (92%) had decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (<50%) and all patients had wall motion abnormalities.A high SLE Disease Activity Index was the independent risk factor in the development of LM (odds ratio =1.322,P < 0.001).With aggressive immunosuppressive therapies,most patients achieved satisfactory outcome.The in-hospital mortality was not significantly higher in the LM group than in the controls (4% vs.2%,P =0.491).Conclusions:LM could result in cardiac dysfunction and even sudden death.High SLE disease activity might potentially predict the occurrence of LM at the early stage of SLE.Characteristic echocardiographic findings could confirm the diagnosis of LM.Early aggressive immunosuppressive therapy could improve the cardiac outcome of LM.

  19. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

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    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  20. Risk factors for psoriasis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slavenka; Raznatovic, Milena; Marinkovic, Jelena; Jankovic, Janko; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study of 110 consecutive psoriatic outpatients and 200 unmatched controls was carried out in order to analyze the association of psoriasis with smoking habits, alcohol consumption, family history of psoriasis and stressful life events. Stressful life events were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events, a semi-structured interview covering 63 life events. According to our results, the risk of psoriasis is higher in urban dwellers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-13.18), patients who were divorced (OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.26-14.34) and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.12-4.67). Alcohol consumption (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.26-5.17), family history of psoriasis (OR = 33.96; 95% CI = 14.14-81.57) and change in work conditions (OR = 8.34; 95% CI = 1.86-37.43) are also risk factors for psoriasis. Separate analyses for men and women showed that the risk of developing psoriasis was stronger in men with a family history of psoriasis (OR = 30.39; 95% CI = 6.72-137.42) than in women (OR = 16.99; 95% CI = 7.21-40.07). The effect of environmental tobacco smoke at home was found only in women (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.26-4.73). Future well-designed epidemiological studies need to be performed in order to determine whether lifestyle factors and stress could be risk factors triggering or aggravating psoriasis.

  1. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  2. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  3. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

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    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  4. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

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    MohammadReza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Salehiomran MR, Mahzari M. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:20-23.ObjectiveFebrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc and febrile seizure. Zinc, asa major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serumzinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years.This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case and 50 febrile children without seizures (control, that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the northof Iran. Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method.ResultsThe mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001. The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to thecontrol groups.  ConclusionOur findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children. ReferencesVarma RR. Febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr 2002; 69(8; 697-700.Talebian A, Vakili Z, Talar SA, Kazemi M, Mousavi GA. Assessment of the relation between serum zinc and magnesium levels in children with febrile

  5. Drug induced immune haemolytic anaemia in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Hildebrandt, Martin; Späth-Schwalbe, Ernst; Grüneisen, Andreas; Mayer, Beate; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kurtal, Hanife

    2011-09-01

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia is a rare but serious condition. This study investigated the possibility of drug aetiology of immune haemolytic anaemia (IHA) in 134 patients with new onset of IHA who were identified in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study between 2000 and 2009. Single drugs related to IHA in three or more patients and assessed more than once as a certain or probable cause of IHA in a standardized causality assessment included diclofenac, fludarabine, oxaliplatin, ceftriaxone and piperacillin. In a case-control study including all 124 IHA cases developed in outpatient care and 731 controls, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) were observed for beta-lactam antibiotics (OR=8·8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3·2-25·2), cotrimoxazole (OR=6·5; CI 1·1-37·9), ciprofloxacin (OR=6·9, CI 1·3-38·5), fludarabine (OR=22·2; CI: 2·8-454·5) and lorazepam (OR=5·3; CI: 1·2-21·2). Excluding new onset cases with a chronic IHA disease course, an increased risk became also apparent for diclofenac with an OR of 3·1 (CI 1·3-7·0). This is the first case-control study investigating drugs as risk factors for IHA. It corroborates an increased risk for several drugs that have been implicated as a cause of IHA in the standardized causality assessment of individual cases. PMID:21749359

  6. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...

  7. Life events influence the development of ankylosing spondylitis: A case-control study

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    Apurva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a small pilot case-control study exploring the role of stressors of day-to-day life in triggering ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the effect of various coping strategies adopted by the patients. We consider AS as a good model to study the hypothesis due to its close association with the well-described genetic marker, HLA B27. The onset of rheumatic diseases has been commonly observed. However, the role of stress and stressful life events in the development of rheumatic disease is a matter of debate. Though there are explainable hypothesis, clinical evidence on this association is limited

  8. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  9. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

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    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  10. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  11. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

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    A. Bhakta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC was found to be increased in both sexes of alopecia areata(statistically significant increase in alopecia areata Female while atd angles were reduced in females. In male subjects of alopecia areata, true palmar pattern (TPP was increased in both hypothenar and left interdigital-2 (ID2 areas while in females, TPP were increased in both inter digital area-2 and 3 and left ID4 areas. TPP were reduced in left thenar (Lt. Th.,Lt. ID1, ID3, ID4, Rt. ID2, ID3 and ID4 areas of alopecia areata males and both right and left thenar and hypothenar and right ID4 areas of females. This study reveals deviation in the form of reduction of number of loops and increase in number of whorls and arches in alopecia subjects. Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. These can be considered as quite useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for alopecia areata.

  12. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  13. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  14. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  15. First Trimester Bleeding and Pregnancy Outcomes: Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Betül Yakıştıran; Tuncay Yüce; Feride Söylemez

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the perinatal outcome and pregnancy complication (preterm delivery, preterm prelabour rupture of membrane [PPROM], preeclampsia, placental abruption and intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR]) of threatened miscarriage. Materials and Methods: A total of 963 patients attended the study. Of these, 493 women had threatened miscarriage. The control group included 470 pregnants without first trimester vaginal bleeding. We compared the two g...

  16. Thrombosis in ovarian cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, R L; Fry, D J; Swindell, R.; McGurk, A; Clamp, A R; Jayson, G C; Hasan, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic events are common in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis in large registry-based studies. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 417 patients with ovarian cancer treated at a tertiary cancer centre between 2006 and 2009 was studied to identify the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic events and the prognostic impact of thrombosis. Patient outcomes were evaluated against a matched control group without thrombosis. Results: Ninety-nine thro...

  17. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Alayed

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: When considered together, the traditional ‘red flags’ for NF may be sufficient to rule in or rule out the diagnosis. If future prospective studies validate these findings, there will be a potential opportunity to expedite NF diagnosis and improve patient outcomes.

  18. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected...... randomly for each patient from the Danish Central Population Register. Information on malignancies was obtained through the Danish Cancer Registry. Occurrence of malignancies before WG diagnosis among patients and before WG diagnosis of their matched case among controls (reference date) was compared...... by calculation of prevalence odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with cancer before WG, while 194 controls were diagnosed with cancer before the reference date (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9, 2.2). Among specific malignancies, a significantly increased prevalence was found for testis cancer (OR 6...

  19. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al Alayed; Charlie Tan; Nick Daneman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to examine the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ‘red flags’ for necrotizing fasciitis (NF) on history and physical examination. Methods: retrospective study of all cases of NF admitted to a large tertiary care hospital between January 1 2004 and December 31 2013, each matched to two control patients with cellulitis. We determined the diagnostic test characteristics of clinical features for distinguishing NF from cellulitis, with emphasis on positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) li...

  20. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  1. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  2. Inference of the Haplotype Effect in a Matched Case-Control Study Using Unphased Genotype Data*

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Samiran; Gruber, Stephen B.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rennert, Gad

    2008-01-01

    Typically locus specific genotype data do not contain information regarding the gametic phase of haplotypes, especially when an individual is heterozygous at more than one locus among a large number of linked polymorphic loci. Thus, studying disease-haplotype association using unphased genotype data is essentially a problem of handling a missing covariate in a case-control design. There are several methods for estimating a disease-haplotype association parameter in a matched case-control stud...

  3. First Trimester Bleeding and Pregnancy Outcomes: Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Yakıştıran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the perinatal outcome and pregnancy complication (preterm delivery, preterm prelabour rupture of membrane [PPROM], preeclampsia, placental abruption and intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR] of threatened miscarriage. Materials and Methods: A total of 963 patients attended the study. Of these, 493 women had threatened miscarriage. The control group included 470 pregnants without first trimester vaginal bleeding. We compared the two groups according to maternal age, gravida, parity, spontaneous or induced abortion history, pregnancy period, livebirth or pregnancy loss, newborn weight and Apgar values after 1 and 5 minutes, newborns’ gender for livebirth and preterm deliveries. Results: Incidence of preterm delivery, abortion, lower gestational fetal weight and preterm rupture of membrane was increased in threatened miscarriage group. Mean pregnancy period in threatened miscarriage group was 243 days; in control group was 263 days. There was adverse influence of maternal age and abortion history on outcomes in pregnancies with threatened miscarriage. However sex of the fetuses and Apgar values after 1 and 5 minutes were similar between two groups. Conclusion: Threatened miscarriage is an important situation to predict both the maternal and fetal outcomes in late pregnancy. Maternal obstetric history on previous pregnancies should be questioned. It is therefore essential to consider these pregnancies as high risk group and provide careful antenatal care

  4. Preoperative embolization of primary bone tumors: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Roushan; Sharma, Raju; Rastogi, Shishir; Khan, Shah Alam; Jayaswal, Arvind; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety and effectiveness of preoperative embolization of primary bone tumors in relation to intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume and surgical time. METHODS: Thirty-three patients underwent preoperative embolization of primary tumors of extremities, hip or vertebrae before resection and stabilization. The primary osseous tumors included giant cell tumors, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and chondrosarcoma. Twenty-six patients were included for the statistical analysis (embolization group) as they were operated within 0-48 h within preoperative embolization. A control group (non-embolization group, n = 28) with bone tumor having similar histological diagnosis and operated without embolization was retrieved from hospital record for statistical comparison. RESULTS: The mean intraoperative blood loss was 1300 mL (250-2900 mL), the mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 700 mL (0-1400 mL) and the mean surgical time was 221 ± 76.7 min for embolization group (group I, n = 26). Non-embolization group (group II, n = 28), the mean intraoperative blood loss was 1800 mL (800-6000 mL), the mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 1400 mL (700-8400 mL) and the mean surgical time was 250 ± 69.7 min. On comparison, statistically significant (P < 0.001) difference was found between embolisation group and non-embolisation group for the amount of blood loss and requirement of blood transfusion. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the surgical time. No patients developed any angiography or embolization related complications. CONCLUSION: Preoperative embolization of bone tumors is a safe and effective adjunct to the surgical management of primary bone tumors that leads to reduction in intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion volume. PMID:27158424

  5. Residents in difficulty—just slower learners? A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    practicing doctors. The aim of this study was to examine if a sample of Danish residents in difficulty tended to struggle already in medical school, and to determine whether administratively observable performance indicators in medical school could predict difficulties in residency. METHODS The study design...... was a cumulative incidence matched case-control study. The source population was all active specialist trainees, who were medical school graduates from Aarhus University, in 2010 to June 2013 in two Danish regions. Cases were doctors who decelerated, transferred, or dropped out of residency. Cases and...... controls were matched for graduation year. Medical school exam failures, grades, completion time, and academic dispensations as predictors of case status were examined with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total 89 cases and 343 controls were identified. The total number of medical school re...

  6. Outcome of liver transplantation in patients with diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P R; Thuluvath, P J

    2001-11-01

    The influence of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has not been well defined. The objective of our study was to compare the morbidity and mortality after OLT in 57 patients with preexisting DM (3 type I, 54 type II) with 114 age-, sex-, and race-matched patients without DM (case controls). The demographics were similar in both groups. Pretransplantation serum creatinine was significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with case controls. The incidence of the following complications was significantly higher in the diabetic group after OLT: cardiovascular (61.4% vs. 21.9%, P infections (29.8% vs. 7.9%, P respiratory (24.6% vs. 7.0%, P =.001), neurologic (31.6% vs. 7.0%, P diabetics compared with 25.4% in controls (P =.0009). One-year (87% vs. 77%) and 2-year (81.6% vs. 70.1%) patient survival was similar, but 5-year survival was lower in the DM group (34.4% vs. 67.7%, P =.002). In conclusion, preexisting diabetes is associated with a significant post-OLT morbidity and mortality, and our observations suggest that patients with DM warrant more rigorous pre- and post-OLT evaluation. PMID:11679959

  7. Recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Jordan, Susan J; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adèle C; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-11-01

    It remains unclear whether physical activity is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk. We therefore examined the association between recreational physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer in a national population-based case-control study in Australia. We also systematically reviewed all the available evidence linking physical activity with ovarian cancer to provide the best summary estimate of the association. The case-control study included women ages 18 to 79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive (n=1,269) or borderline (n=311) epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a network of clinics, physicians, and state cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1,509) were randomly selected from the national electoral roll and were frequency matched to cases by age and state. For the systematic review, we identified eligible studies using Medline, the ISI Science Citation Index, and manual review of retrieved references, and included all case-control or cohort studies that permitted assessment of an association between physical activity (recreational/occupational/sedentary behavior) and histologically confirmed ovarian cancer. Meta-analysis was restricted to the subset of these studies that reported on recreational physical activity. In our case-control study, we observed weakly inverse or null associations between recreational physical activity and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer overall. There was no evidence that the effects varied by tumor behavior or histologic subtype. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, which gave summary estimates of 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.85) for case-control studies and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.17) for cohort studies for the risk of ovarian cancer associated with highest versus lowest levels of recreational physical activity. Thus, pooled results from observational studies suggest that a modest inverse association exists between level of recreational physical activity and

  8. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Mei Yu

    Full Text Available Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1 was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5% and 13 (2.8% of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571 or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400 were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774. The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  9. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  10. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  11. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  12. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrild Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361 were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083 were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05. A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99. Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  13. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  14. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  15. Estimating the effectiveness of screening for scoliosis : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; Juttmann, Rikard E.; van Biezen, Frans C.; Creemers, Huub; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A. J. M.; Luttmer, Bert C. F.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that screening for scoliosis is effective in reducing the need for surgical treatment. METHODS. The study was a case-control study. A total of 125 consecutive patients who were treated surgically for idiopathic scoliosis between January 200

  16. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the stat

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  18. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  19. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  20. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  1. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  2. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  3. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  4. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  5. Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardell, L; Eriksson, M.; Lenner, P; Lundgren, E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of men with malignant lymphoma of the histiocytic type and previous exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols were observed and reported in 1979. A matched case-control study has therefore been performed with cases of malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). This study included 169 cases and 338 controls. The results indicate that exposure to phenoxy acids, chlorophenols, and organic solvents may be a causative factor in malignant lymphoma. Combined exposure ...

  6. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin and HDL-C levels in a case control observational study in association with obesity in a Pakistani cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, -; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-06-01

    Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of such a promoter variant of the leptin gene, G-2548A polymorphism, with obesity and its effect on various anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Pakistani cohort consisting of 250 obese and 225 non-obese control subjects. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed significant association with obesity in Pakistan. In addition, the polymorphism showed association with weight, height, BMI, WC, HDLC and serum leptin levels. The findings suggest that the leptin promoter G-2548A variant may play its part in the progression to obesity by not only affecting the body's fat distribution but also by changing the serum leptin and HDLC levels. PMID:27240985

  7. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin and HDL-C levels in a case control observational study in association with obesity in a Pakistani cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shabana; Shahida Hasnain

    2016-06-01

    Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of such a promoter variant of the leptin gene, G-2548A polymorphism, with obesity and its effect on various anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Pakistani cohort consisting of 250 obese and 225 non-obese control subjects. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed significant association with obesity in Pakistan. In addition, the polymorphism showed association with weight, height, BMI, WC, HDLC and serum leptin levels. The findings suggest that the leptin promoter G-2548A variant may play its part in the progression to obesity by not only affecting the body’s fat distribution but also by changing the serum leptin and HDLC levels.

  8. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  9. CLINICAL AND ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF EXERCISE-INDUCED ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION - A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, MP; VENEMA, AW; CRIJNS, HJGM; HEESEN, WF; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI

    1994-01-01

    Clinical and electrocardiographic correlates of atrial fibrillation (AF) induced during routine exercise testing were examined in a case-control study. With the use of a prospective data base 11,730 consecutive exercise tests in 7,273 patients were reviewed. AF developed in 14 patients during exerci

  10. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in...

  11. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  12. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  13. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong-Lenters; D. Duijster; M.A. Bruist; J. Thijssen; C. de Ruiter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  14. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals ...

  15. Microbial Characteristics of Peri-Implantitis : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y C M; Eijsbouts, H V L C; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aim of this case-control study was to compare oral microbiological characteristics of subjects with healthy peri-implant conditions and subjects with peri-implantitis and to explore the influence of various patient-related and implant-related factors on the microbiological characteristic

  16. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Olsson, Ann; Pesch, Beate; Kromhout, Hans; Straif, Kurt; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies reported an excess of lung cancer among these workers. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control

  17. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  18. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  19. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  20. Risk factors for Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verregghen, M.; Heijerman, H.G.; Reijers, M.; Ingen, J. van; Ent, C.K. van der

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Factors that predispose CF patients to infection by this environmental bacterium remain unknown. In a case-control study of 22 CF patients with M.

  1. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  2. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  3. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  4. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio) to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk). The excess relative risk (ERR) used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices) is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense) between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices) in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided) using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  5. The relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman Kenneth J; Bonvicini Francesca; Vinceti Marco; Vescovi Luciano; Wang Feiyue

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-match...

  6. Selecting controls for assessing interaction in nested case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for selecting controls in nested case-control studies, matching on X and counter matching on X, are compared when interest is in interaction between a risk factor X measured in the full cohort and another risk factor Z measured only in the case-control sample. This is important because matching provides efficiency gains relative to random sampling when X is uncommon and the interaction is positive (greater than multiplicative), whereas counter matching is generally efficient compared to random sampling. Matching and counter matching were compared to each other and to random sampling of controls for dichotomous X and Z. Comparison was by simulation, using as an example a published study of radiation and other risk factors for breast cancer in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and by asymptotic relative efficiency calculations for a wide range of parameters specifying the prevalence of X and Z as well as the levels of correlation and interaction between them. Focus was on analyses utilizing general models for the joint risk of X and Z. Counter-matching performed better than matching or random sampling in terms of efficiency for inference about interaction in the case of a rare risk factor X and uncorrelated risk factor Z. Further, more general, efficiency calculations demonstrated that counter-matching is generally efficient relative to matched case-control designs for studying interaction. Because counter-matched designs may be analyzed using standard statistical methods and allow investigation of confounding of the effect of X, whereas matched designs require a non-standard approach when fitting general risk models and do not allow investigating the adjusted risk of X, it is concluded that counter-matching on X can be a superior alternative to matching on X in nested case-control studies of interaction when X is known at the time of case-control sampling. (author)

  7. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  8. Lung cancer risk and welding--preliminary results from an ongoing case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, K H; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U

    1994-06-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study, 391 male cases or primary lung cancer and the same number of controls--matched by sex, age, and region--were personally interviewed for their job and smoking histories. The data reported reflect the midpoint of a study aiming at a total of 1,000 cases. One objective of the study was to assess confounding by asbestos exposure in what was thought to be a welding-associated risk. While the odds ratios (OR) increased steeply with cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke and were raised also for lifelong asbestos exposure of over 4,100 working hours (OR = 1.91), the effect of welding exposure was reduced after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos. Furthermore, no consistent dose-response relationship could be shown in relation to welding hours. Therefore the present study supports the hypothesis that some, if not all, of the excess risk of welders observed in the literature may be due to the exposure to asbestos. The finding that the subgroup of employees in the aircraft industry showed an increased odds ratio of 2.14 after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos deserves further attention. This suggests the need for further research on the role of berryllium-containing alloys, which has been suggested by other authors.

  9. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  10. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  12. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fen Wu; Koenig, Karen L; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Saran Jonas; Yelena Afanasyeva; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Max Costa; Yu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was mea...

  13. Medical risk factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: 5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor. RESULTS: The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori. Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.

  14. Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Guan, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Yu-Peng; Yang, Yong; Niu, Ying-Ying; Yao, Li-Yan; Yang, Yin-Dong; Yue, Hong-Yu; Meng, Li-Li; Cui, Xin-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Jin-Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P hazard ratio: 2.43(1.03-5.75)]; a similar trend was also found in men carrying the TC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 1.81(1.06-3.08)]. SNP rs4965814 of SELS may affect the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of ischemic stroke may give new therapeutic targets to pharmacologists. PMID:25390504

  15. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Giselle Hentzy; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case-control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000-2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue and 1,062 deaths. Factors independently associated with death included age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-3.29), history of previous dengue (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.99), positive tourniquet test result (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), laboratory diagnosis of dengue (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92), and a platelet count of 50,000-100,000 cells/mm(3) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.87). The risk profile identified in this study should serve to direct public health interventions to minimize deaths. PMID:23400577

  16. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional i...

  17. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  18. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among Spanish children and mothers' occupation: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Infante-Rivard, C; Mur, P.; Armstrong, B; ALVAREZ-DARDET, C.; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between mothers' occupational exposure during pregnancy and the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. DESIGN: The study was a case-control investigation. A face to face interview was used to assess exposures at work and relevant confounding variables. SETTING: The study was community based and was carried out in five provinces of Spain. SUBJECTS: 128 cases less than 15 years of age were interviewed (91% of those eli...

  19. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  20. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases)...

  1. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m3 for cases and 51 Bq/m3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m3, the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m3, were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  2. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  3. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  4. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D.; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  5. Genetics of Myasthenia Gravis: A Case-Control Association Study in the Hellenic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Zagoriti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against proteins of the postsynaptic membrane, in the neuromuscular junction. The contribution of genetic factors to MG susceptibility has been evaluated through family and twin studies however, the precise genetic background of the disease remains elusive. We conducted a case-control association study in 101 unrelated MG patients of Hellenic origin and 101 healthy volunteers in order to assess the involvement of common genetic variants in susceptibility to MG. We focused on three candidate genes which have been clearly associated with several autoimmune diseases, aiming to investigate their potential implication in MG pathogenesis. These are interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5, TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20, and interleukin-10 (IL-10, key molecules in the regulation of immune function. A statistical trend of association (P=0.068 between IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the subgroups of early and late-onset MG patients was revealed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rest of the variants examined. As far as we are aware, this is the first worldwide attempt to address the possible association between IRF-5 and TNFAIP3 common genetic variants and the genetic basis of MG.

  6. A case-control study of dietary and nondietary factors in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, T; Marshall, J; Graham, S; Mettlin, C; Swanson, M

    1983-10-01

    A case-control study is presented that estimates ovarian cancer risk for various factors, including diet. Data collected by interview between 1957 and 1965 for 274 white women aged 30-79 years with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary are compared to data similarly collected for 1,034 hospital controls. Relative risk estimates are presented for the total group as well as for premonopausal (ages 30-49) and postmenopausal (ages 50-79) are groups. In the total group, cancer risk increased with increasing age at first marriage (P less than .01) and previous history of benign breast disease (P less than 0.1), and risk decreased with increasing number of previous pregnancies (P less than .01). In the 50- to 79-year age group, a marginally significant trend for decreasing risk with increasing obesity was observed (P less than .10). There was no significant risk (i.e., P less than .10) associated with the consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea, total dietary protein, vitamin C, or fat at any age. In the 30- to 49-year age group only, increased risk (P less than .01) was seen in women reporting diets low in fiber and vitamin A from fruit and vegetable sources. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the apparent protective effect of vitamin A in the 30- to 49-year age group (but not dietary fiber) was independent of the nondietary factors analyzed in this study (P less than .05). PMID:6578362

  7. Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, F; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Modan, B

    1985-03-01

    A dietary case-control study based on 818 newly diagnosed breast cancer (BC) patients was conducted in Israel between 1975 and 1978. The role of coffee and total methylxanthine intake from coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, and cocoa drinks was evaluated in the BC patients as compared to that in two matched control populations [surgical controls (SC) and neighborhood controls (NC)]. Because it has been suggested that caffeine enhances mammary carcinogenesis in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diets, analysis was done also in relation to fat consumption. When comparison was done to both matched control groups, a nonsignificant negative association was found between consumption of cups of coffee and BC (odds ratios of greater than or equal to 4 cups of coffee/day vs. less than or equal to 1 per week = 0.6 for BC/NC and 0.7 for BC/SC). This association was observed in all 3 ethnic subgroups studied. The pattern was stronger among the high-fat consumers after controlling for several hormonal confounding factors (two-tailed P-value for linear trend = 0.06 for SC and P = 0.05 for NC). In addition, when the consumption of methylxanthine of BC patients was compared to that of benign breast patients, adjusted by age and ethnic group, a diminished risk was found (odds ratio for BC of the highest level of methylxanthine vs. lowest level = 0.59). PMID:3856060

  8. ASSOCIATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS WITH STROKE: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of death above the age of 60 years and the fifth leading cause of death in people aged 15-59 years old. In addition to specific complications of diabetes mellitus like nephropathy, retinopathy, etc., some other non-specific complications, notably coronary artery disease and stroke are also increasing in frequency in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a case-control study conducted from Feb-2016 to Apr-2016 (3 months. Study was done among stroke patients aged 20 years and above hospitalized in TMMC and RC, Moradabad, UP, Age and gender matched control subjects were selected among neurologically healthy people who were admitted for other ailments in this hospital. Sample size was 312 people containing 156 cases and 156 controls. Statistical analysis was done using Med Calc Version 12.7.5.0 software. Chi-square test was used as test of significance and p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. OBSERVATION Male:Female ratio among the cases and control was 1.51:1. Mean age of cases and controls were 51.30±11.13 and 51.93±14.60. Out of 156 cases, 77 (49.36% were suffering from Diabetes mellitus, while only 46 (29.48% controls were having diabetes mellitus. P value was 0.0003, which is highly significant. CONCLUSION In the present hospital-based case-control study, diabetes mellitus was found to be a significant risk factor in patients with stroke. Risk factor assessment is an important step towards better understanding of pathogenesis, prevention and control of stroke. RECOMMENDATIONS Physicians caring for patients at risk for stroke should be vigilant for diabetes as well as other concurrent stroke risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidaemia, heart diseases, etc., that tend to cluster with diabetes. Lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions for the modifiable risk

  9. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  10. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...

  11. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  12. Meta-Analysis of a Multi-Ethnic, Breast Cancer Case-Control Targeted Sequencing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ablorh, Akweley

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...

  13. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigati...

  14. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Laila Sh. Dorgham; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were colle...

  16. Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Hirota, Saya; Tomotaki, Ai; Sato, Nobuaki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Anan, Keisei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Tokuda, Yutaka; Masuda, Norikazu; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ohno, Shinji; Takahashi, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how beverages containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (BLS) and soy isoflavone consumption since adolescence affected the incidence of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, three hundred and six cases with breast cancer and 662 controls aged 40 to 55 were matched for age and residential area and included in the analyses. Diet, lifestyle and other breast cancer risk factors were investigated using the self-administered questionnaire an...

  17. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard JL; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotvped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affy...

  18. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli John J; Dosman James A; McDuffie Helen H; Karunanayake Chandima P; Pahwa Punam

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regre...

  19. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda : a population - based case- control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. Methods: A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with sub...

  20. Case-control study of risk factors for disease in the neck and shoulder area.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, K; Björkqvist, B; Malm, P; Bjerre-Kiely, B; Karlsson, M.; Axelson, O

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was performed to elucidate the strength of the relation between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and physical, organisational, and psychosocial aspects of the work environment. Cases were identified as those persons who consulted a physician in a community in southern Sweden for new musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders during a study period from August 1988 to the end of October 1989. One hundred and nine cases were collected and clinical...

  1. A Case control study to evaluate oxidative stress in plasma samples of oral malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Chandan Srivastava; Ravi David Austin; Deepti Shrivastava; S Sethupathy; S Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant -antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the venous blood samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different Clinicopathologic stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Setting and Design: A Case control study was designed in a hospital (Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, A...

  2. Cardiovascular safety of celecoxib in acute myocardial infarction patients: a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Courteau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to measure the impact of exposure to coxibs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID on morbidity and mortality in older patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A nested case-control study was carried out using an exhaustive population-based cohort of patients aged 66 years and older living in Quebec (Canada who survived a hospitalization for AMI (ICD-9 410 between 1999 and 2002. The main variables were all-cause and cardiovascular (CV death, subsequent hospital admission for AMI, and a composite end-point including recurrent AMI or CV death. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate the risk of mortality and morbidity. A total of 19,823 patients aged 66 years and older survived hospitalization for AMI in the province of Quebec between 1999 and 2002. After controlling for covariables, the risk of subsequent AMI and the risk of composite end-point were increased by the use of rofecoxib. The risk of subsequent AMI was particularly high for new rofecoxib users (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.57-3.89. No increased risk was observed for celecoxib users. No increased risk of CV death was observed for patients exposed to coxibs or NSAIDs. Patients newly exposed to NSAIDs were at an increased risk of death (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.30-3.77 and of composite end-point (HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.84. Users of rofecoxib and NSAIDs, but not celecoxib, were at an increased risk of recurrent AMI and of composite end-point. Surprisingly, no increased risk of CV death was observed. Further studies are needed to better understand these apparently contradictory results.

  3. Parasites in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Angulo Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS according to Rome III criteria and 209 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms different from IBS (control were identified through medical records from the Gastroenterology Clinic of the "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez General Hospital" from January 2008 to March 2010. No statistical differences in IBS data as compared with control groups were observed except in bloating, that was more frequent in the IBS group (P = 0.043. Although the pathogenicity of specific intestinal protozoa could not be demonstrated due to lack of association with the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, Blastocystis spp, in the IBS group, exhibited a trend of association to diarrhoea (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-8.80, P = 0.053, while having any parasite and diarrhoea was significant (odds ratio = 3.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-8.57, P = 0.008. The association between Blastocystis and diarrhoea in IBS patients although not conclusive is an interesting finding; nonetheless more extensive case-controlled studies are required to clearly define the role of some "non-pathogenic" parasites in intestinal disease and IBS.

  4. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  5. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-05-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p risk compared to those who had different number of births (OR=12.5, 95%, CI: 2.4-63.8). Evaluation of early age at menarche and late age at menopause, showed statistically significant increased risk. Furthermore, increased risk was observed between pre-menopausal women and never-married nulliparity women, respectively (OR=1.44 95%, CI: 0.88-2.36; OR=8.98, 95%, CI: 1.44 - 56.14), but ovarian cancer risk was reduced for hysterectomized women. These findings suggest that Albanian women have risk factors similar to women in western countries. PMID:23725504

  6. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  7. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.

  8. Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid. PMID:26671079

  9. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic campylobacter infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, J.; Engberg, J.; Molbak, K.;

    2003-01-01

    A case control study comprising 282 cases and 319 matched controls was conducted in Denmark during 1996-7. Two estimates of the odds ratio (OR) were determined for each risk factor with and without 'protective factors' fitted into the final model. Consumption of undercooked poultry (OR 4(.)5; 8......(.)2), consumption of red meat at a barbecue (OR 2(.)3; 4(.)1), consumption of grapes (OR 1(.)6; 2(.)8) and drinking unpasteurized milk (OR 2(.)3; 11(.)8) were identified as risk factors in both models. Frequent consumption of pork chops (OR 4(.)4) and daily contact with domestic animals and pets were identified...... as risk factors in one of the two models only. Finally, foreign travel was found to be a significant risk factor (OR 2(.)5). Seasonal and regional interaction was observed for several risk factors and the time elapsed from interviewing of cases to interviewing of controls seemed to influence the effect...

  10. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT. A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01. The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01. A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056. The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT, and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO.

  11. A probability model for evaluating the bias and precision of influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates from case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, M; An, Q; Foppa, I M; Shay, D K; Ferdinands, J M; Orenstein, W A

    2015-05-01

    As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended, randomized clinical trials are no longer ethical in many populations. Therefore, observational studies on patients seeking medical care for acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are a popular option for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a probability model for evaluating and comparing bias and precision of estimates of VE against symptomatic influenza from two commonly used case-control study designs: the test-negative design and the traditional case-control design. We show that when vaccination does not affect the probability of developing non-influenza ARI then VE estimates from test-negative design studies are unbiased even if vaccinees and non-vaccinees have different probabilities of seeking medical care against ARI, as long as the ratio of these probabilities is the same for illnesses resulting from influenza and non-influenza infections. Our numerical results suggest that in general, estimates from the test-negative design have smaller bias compared to estimates from the traditional case-control design as long as the probability of non-influenza ARI is similar among vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. We did not find consistent differences between the standard errors of the estimates from the two study designs.

  12. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27493405

  13. Phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols: a case control study on soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J G; Christophers, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A case control study on patients with soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma was undertaken to test whether there was any association between these diseases and past exposure to chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides or chlorophenols. It was carried out over the period 1982-1988 in Victoria, Australia. Thirty males with soft tissue sarcoma and 52 males with malignant lymphoma were matched by age, place of residence and sex with one population control and one cancer control each. Exposure was...

  14. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Tony; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X.; Matthew A Weir; Juurlink, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for e...

  15. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco AL; De Stefani E; Deneo-Pellegrini H

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC) in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s) coefficients were taken as estimates of rel...

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Salazar-Pousada; Dalton Arroyo; Luis Hidalgo; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Peter Chedraui

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adult...

  17. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  18. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  19. Risk factors for giardiasis: a case-control study in Avon and Somerset.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, S F; Gunnell, D J; Peters, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common and increasing cause of gastrointestinal illness in the UK. We report a case-control study that examined risk factors for giardiasis. Patients with giardiasis were identified from reports to the Consultants in Communicable Disease in Avon and Somerset, and age-sex matched controls were obtained from their general practitioners' lists. Details of travel history, water consumption and recreational water use were collected by postal questionnaire. Over the period July...

  20. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, B; Briscoe, J.

    1988-01-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in ...

  1. ESTIMATING HAZARD RATIOS IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES BY MANTEL-HAENSZEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠占

    2001-01-01

    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  2. Columnar cell lesions and subsequent breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroner, Sarah A.; Collins, Laura Christine; Schnitt, Stuart Jay; Connolly, James Leo; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla May

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breast cancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood.Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast c...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mohitey; Rahul Redasani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, i...

  4. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Kuper; Velma Nyapera; Jennifer Evans; David Munyendo; Maria Zuurmond; Severine Frison; Victoria Mwenda; David Otieno; James Kisia

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNI...

  5. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Moshkelgosha; Negar Khosravifard; Ali Golkari

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all ...

  6. Ethnic Identity and the Risk of Schizophrenia in Ethnic Minorities: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in non-Western immigrants. Methods: Matched case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, including 100 non-Western immigrant cases, gene...

  7. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S; Kales Stefanos N; Christoudias Stavros G; Christiani David C

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefig...

  8. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Garland Suzanne M; Amir Lisa H; Lumley Judith

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design...

  9. A case-control study of gastric cancer and nutritional factors in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornée, J; Pobel, D; Riboli, E; Guyader, M; Hémon, B

    1995-02-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Marseille (France) to investigate the relationship between usual diet and risk of gastric cancer. Patients with histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma were identified in 8 major centres for gastric surgery. Controls were selected in specialized medical centres from patients undergoing functional reeducation for injuries or trauma, according to the age and sex distributions of the cases. The study involved 92 cases and 128 controls who were interviewed with a dietary history questionnaire on their usual diet during the year preceding first symptoms for cases, or preceding interview for controls. Odds ratios for specific foods were calculated after adjustment for age, sex, occupation and energy intake. A reduced risk was observed for consumption of raw vegetables (OR2: 0.55; OR3: 0.41 for the second and third tertiles, respectively), fresh fruit (OR2: 0.63; OR3: 0.50), vegetable oil (OR2: 0.60; OR3: 0.52), pasta and rice (OR2: 1.06; OR3: 0.50) whereas consumption of cakes and pastries (OR2: 1.02; OR3: 2.96), sugar and confectionery (OR2: 0.96; OR3: 1.68) was associated with an increased risk. An increased risk was found for intake of saturated fat (OR2: 1.49; OR3: 1.67), simple sugars (OR2: 1.18; OR3: 1.78) and calcium (OR2: 1.84; OR3: 2.57). A decreased risk was observed with intake of fiber (OR2: 0.49; OR3: 0.59), fibre from vegetables and fruit (OR2: 0.83; OR3: 0.53) and iron (OR2: 0.70; OR3: 0.41). PMID:7489774

  10. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  11. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; Xu, T; Lin, Q; Wang, C; Zhao, F; Wang, G; Chen, Y; Yang, Y

    1997-06-11

    A case-control study involving interviews with 227 lung-cancer cases and 227 matched hospital controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China to examine the influence of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer. Lung-cancer cases were all incident cases judged to be suitable candidates for tumor removal by surgery. Controls were selected among hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic and non-lung disease. The overall male lung-cancer risks associated with cigarette smoking were similar to those reported in other Chinese studies but quite low compared to risks in Western countries. However, the subjects in this study were relatively young (average age 53.2), had started to smoke on average at a relatively old age (21.3 years), and only smoked an average of 18.7 cigarettes per day. Lung-cancer risk was not strongly associated with any of the nutrients examined, when all cases were compared to all controls. However, the data were suggestive of differences in the relationship of diet to risk among smokers and non-smokers. Cautious interpretation is required because of the wide confidence intervals due to limited sample size. Among the smokers, only higher beta-carotene was associated with estimates suggesting a lowered risk. Among non-smokers, the evidence suggested that increased vegetable consumption might reduce risk, consumption of any fruit might reduce risk but beta-carotene was unrelated to risk. The differences observed in the relationship of diet to lung-cancer risk between Chinese smokers and non-smokers warrant further study.

  12. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  13. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  14. Antidepressant-warfarin interaction and associated gastrointestinal bleeding risk in a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Schelleman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most common and worrisome adverse effect of warfarin therapy. One of the factors that might increase bleeding risk is initiation of interacting drugs that potentiate warfarin. We sought to evaluate whether initiation of an antidepressant increases the risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding in warfarin users. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data (1999-2005 were used to perform an observational case-control study nested within person-time exposed to warfarin in those ≥18 years. In total, 430,455 warfarin users contributed 407,370 person-years of warfarin use. The incidence rate of hospitalization for GI bleeding among warfarin users was 4.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 4.42-4.55. Each gastrointestinal bleeding cases was matched to 50 controls based on index date and state. Warfarin users had an increased odds ratio of gastrointestinal bleeding upon initiation of citalopram (OR = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.25-2.38], fluoxetine (OR = 1.63 [95% CI, 1.11-2.38], paroxetine (OR = 1.64 [95% CI, 1.27-2.12], amitriptyline (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.02-2.11]. Also mirtazapine, which is not believed to interact with warfarin, increased the risk of GI bleeding (OR = 1.75 [95% CI, 1.30-2.35]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warfarin users who initiated citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, amitriptyline, or mirtazapine had an increased risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the elevated risk with mirtazapine suggests that a drug-drug interaction may not have been responsible for all of the observed increased risk.

  15. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K;

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  16. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

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    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  17. Reproductive factors and oesophageal cancer in Chinese women: a case-control study

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    Zhang Xia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies showed that sex hormone might play a role in the development of oesophageal cancer in Western countries. However, evidence from Chinese populations is still lacking. Methods We performed a hospital-based case-control study in Guangzhou, China. From June 2006 to May 2009, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 73 cases and 157 controls. Cases were Chinese females with newly diagnosed primary oesophageal cancer. Controls were hospitalized individuals without cancer and frequency matched by age groups. The interviews included questions about childbearing and menarche history, together with potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of factors. Results Women who had given birth before were not at increased risk compared to childless women (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.48 ~ 2.85. The risk of oesophageal cancer increased with age at first birth: the adjusted OR for women first giving birth at age 25 or later was 2.02 (95% CI: 1.01 ~ 4.04 compared with those reporting their first birth before age 22. History of spontaneous abortion was not significantly associated with increased risk (adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.49 ~ 3.83. No significant association was observed between menstrual variables (age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation and risk of oesophageal cancer. Conclusions Giving birth at later age may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer in women. Further studies in Chinese populations with larger sample sizes are still needed.

  18. Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

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    Kawamura Nobutoshi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some epidemiologic studies found inverse associations between alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease (PD, the majority of studies found no such significant associations. Additionally, there is only limited research into the possible interactions of alcohol intake with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 activity with respect to PD risk. We examined the relationship between alcohol intake and PD among Japanese subjects using data from a case-control study. Methods From 214 cases within 6 years of PD onset and 327 controls without neurodegenerative disease, we collected information on "peak", as opposed to average, alcohol drinking frequency and peak drinking amounts during a subject's lifetime. Alcohol flushing status was evaluated via questions, as a means of detecting inactive ALHD2. The multivariate model included adjustments for sex, age, region of residence, smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of selected medication histories, and several dietary factors. Results Alcohol intake during peak drinking periods, regardless of frequency or amount, was not associated with PD. However, when we assessed daily ethanol intake separately for each type of alcohol, only Japanese sake (rice wine was significantly associated with PD (adjusted odds ratio of ≥66.0 g ethanol per day: 3.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-11.0, P for trend = 0.001. There was no significant interaction of alcohol intake with flushing status in relation to PD risk. Conclusions We did not find significant associations between alcohol intake and PD, except for the daily amount of Japanese sake. Effect modifications by alcohol flushing status were not observed.

  19. Evaluation of cariogenic potential of dry powder inhalers: A case-control study

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    Navneet Godara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs are commonly employed in the management of asthma and other diseases with airway obstruction. A causal relationship of DPI use and occurrence of dental caries has been speculated. The present case-control study was therefore designed to examine the potential link between dental caries and specific use of dry powder inhalers in patients with bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 asthmatic patients aged between 10 and 45 years who were using DPIs for at least one year. The control group (n = 100 was selected from non-asthmatic individuals and were matched with the study group with respect to age, gender, and socio-economic status. Results: The results revealed that asthmatic subjects exhibited higher occurrence of dental caries in comparison to control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT indices scores in asthmatic and control group were found to be 1.71 ± 2.34 SD and 1.46 ± 1.89 SD (P = 0.408, respectively. Likewise, the mean decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS indices scores in both the groups were 2.41 ± 3.84 SD and 2.34 ± 4.48 SD (P = 0.90. However, increased frequency of DPI use was associated with significant risk of caries (P = 0.01. It has been observed that oral rinsing after an inhaler use limited the occurrence of dental caries to a certain extent although was non significant. Conclusions: Dry powder inhaler use in patients with bronchial asthma was not associated with significant risk of dental caries.

  20. Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study

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    Elham Mobasheri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is one of the major congenital anomalies observed in newborns. This study explored the risk factors for oral clefts in Gorgan, Northern Iran.  Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Gorgan, Northern Iran between April 2006 and December 2009. The case group contained 33 newborns with oral clefts and the control group contained 63 healthy newborns. Clinical and demographic factors, including date of birth, gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, parental ethnicity, and the mother's parity, age, education and intake of folic acid were recorded for analysis.  Results: A significant association was found between parity higher than 2 and the risk of an oral cleft (OR= 3.33, CI 95% [1.20, 9.19], P> 0.02. According to ethnicity, the odds ratio for oral clefts was 0.87 in Turkmens compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.25, 2.96] and 1.11 in native Fars people compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.38, 3.20]. A lack of folic acid consumption was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts but this was not statistically significant (OR = 1.42, CI 95% [0.58, 3.49]. There were no significant associations between sex (OR boy/girl = 0.96, CI 95% [0.41, 2.23], parent familial relations (OR = 1.07, CI 95% [0.43, 2.63], mother's age and oral clefts.  Conclusions:  The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly.

  1. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

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    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  2. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

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    M Waked

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country.Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered.Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source.Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  3. Urinary hepcidin level as an early predictor of iron deficiency in children: A case control study

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    Gharib Amal F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal screening test would be capable of identifying iron deficiency in the absence of anemia. We tried to detect role of urinary hepcidin-25 level in early prediction of iron deficiency in children. Methods This is a case control study performed on 100 children in Hematology Unit of Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Our study included 25 cases of iron deficiency (ID stage-1 (iron depletion, 25 cases ID stage-2 (iron-deficient erythropoiesis, 25 cases ID stage-3 (iron deficiency anemia and 25 healthy children as a control group. Estimation of iron status parameters was done. Urinary hepcidin-25 level was detected. Results Urinary hepcidin-25 level was significantly lower in all stages of iron deficiency than in control group, more significant reduction in its level was observed with the progress in severity of iron deficiency. Urinary hepcidin showed significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit value, serum iron and ferritin and transferrin saturation. In contrary, it showed significant negative correlation with serum transferrin and total iron binding capacity. Urinary hepcidin at cutoff point ≤0.94 nmol/mmol Cr could Predict ID stage-1 with sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. Cutoff point ≤0.42 nmol/mmol Cr could predict ID stage-2 with sensitivity 96% and specificity 92%. Cutoff point ≤0.08 nmol/mmol Cr could Predict ID stage-3 with Sensitivity 96% and specificity 100%. Conclusions We can conclude that detection of urinary hepcidin-25 level was a simple and non invasive test and could predict iron deficiency very early, before appearance of hematological affections.

  4. The generalized bone phenotype in children with neurofibromatosis 1: a sibling matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jett, Kimberly; Birch, Patricia; Kendler, David L; McKay, Heather; Tsang, Erica; Stevenson, David A; Hanley, David A; Egeli, Deetria; Burrows, Melonie; Friedman, J M

    2013-07-01

    People with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) have low bone mineralization, but the natural history and pathogenesis are poorly understood. We performed a sibling-matched case-control study of bone mineral status, morphology, and metabolism. Eighteen children with NF1 without focal bony lesions were compared to unaffected siblings and local population controls. Bone mineral content at the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was lower in children with NF1; this difference persisted after adjusting for height and weight. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal tibia showed that trabecular density was more severely compromised than cortical. Peripheral QCT-derived estimates of bone strength and resistance to bending and stress were poorer among children with NF1 although there was no difference in fracture frequencies. There were no differences in the size or shape of bones after adjusting for height. Differences in markers of bone turnover between cases and controls were in the directions predicted by animal studies, but did not reach statistical significance. Average serum calcium concentration was higher (although within the normal range) in children with NF1; serum 25-OH vitamin D, and PTH levels did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Children with NF1 were less mature (assessed by pubertal stage) than unaffected siblings or population controls. Children with NF1 have a generalized difference of bone metabolism that predominantly affects trabecular bone. Effects of decreased neurofibromin on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and pubertal development may contribute to the differences in bone mineral content observed among people with NF1. PMID:23713011

  5. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

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    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  6. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

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    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  7. The Relationship between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Kheirkhah, Davood; Madani, Mahla; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Febrile seizure is among the most common convulsion disorders in children, which strikes 2% to 5% of children between 3 to 60 months of age. Some studies have reported that iron deficiency could be a risk factor for febrile seizure. The present study was conducted to compare the rate of iron deficiency anemia in febrile children with and without seizure. Materials and Methods: This case-control study evaluated 200 children aged 6-60 month in two 100 person groups (febrile seizur...

  8. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. PMID:26020580

  9. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal car...

  10. Primary postpartum haemorrhage in an Australian tertiary hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda; Birch, Mary-Rose; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Katz, Sue; Wang, Yueping Alex

    2005-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth at an Australian tertiary hospital, and to investigate risk factors for primary PPH at this hospital. A case-control study of women delivering vaginally at a tertiary hospital from February to June 2003 was performed. Demographic, antenatal, intrapartum, treatment and outcome data were abstracted from patient records. The study population comprised 125 cases and 125 controls, with a primary PPH rate of 12.1 per 100 vaginal births. Risk factors on multivariate analysis were past history of PPH, second stage labour > 60 min, forceps delivery, and incomplete placenta/ragged membranes. PMID:15904450

  11. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

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    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  12. Risk factors for the gastric cardia cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Zong-Li Zheng; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The incidence of gastric cardia cancer has greatlyincreased in the past 2-3 decades, however, the risk factorsfor the disease are still not clearly understood. Theinvestigations among Chinese population on the risk factorsof gastric cardia cancer were also scarcely reported. Wetherefore conducted a case-control study in Fujian province,China, to investigate the potential risk and protective factorsof this disease.METHODS: 191 cardia and 190 non-cardia gastric cancercases, and a total of 222 control cases were included in thisstudy. Standard questionnaires were used in collectingepidemiological factors and the data were then analyzed bythe unconditional logistic regression model.RESULTS: As the factors such as age, gender, smoking,alcohol consumption, and family history of gastric cancerwere controlled, a multivariable analysis was conducted,which revealed that there was a significant correlationbetween the dietary habits such as irregular meal, over andfast eating, and the gastric cardia cancer with the odds ratios(ORs) of 4.2 (95 % confidence interval: 2.3-7.7), 4.7 (2.1-10.8), and 2.7 (1.3-5.3) respectively. Other correlations werealso observed between the gastric cardia cancer and theconsumption of salty fish or pickled vegetable, smoking,and the family cancer history with the ORs of 5.5 (1.4-19.5),1.8 (1.0-3.0), 2.1 (1.3-3.5), and 3.8 (2.3-6.2) respectively.In contrast, the negative correlations were found existingbetween the intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, the useof refrigerator, and the gastric cardia cancer, with the ORsof 0.4 (0.2-0.9), 0.2 (0.1-0.5), and 0.2 (0.1-0.4),respectively. However, dietary habits were associated lesswith non-cardia gastric cancer compared with its cardiacounterpart.CONCLUSION: Dietary habits might be one of the riskfactors for the cardia carcinogenesis among Chinesepopulation.

  13. Gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal disease in Ghanaian infants and children: an outpatient case-control study.

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    Ralf Krumkamp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in resource-poor areas. This case-control study assessed the associations between gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea in children from rural Ghana. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 548 children with diarrhea and from 686 without gastrointestinal symptoms visiting a hospital from 2007-2008. Samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular methods. RESULTS: The organisms most frequently detected in symptomatic cases were Giardia lamblia, Shigella spp./ enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC, and Campylobacter jejuni. Infections with rotavirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-16.6, C. parvum/hominis (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.2 and norovirus (aOR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.3-3.0 showed the strongest association with diarrhea. The highest attributable fractions (AF for diarrhea were estimated for rotavirus (AF = 14.3%; 95% CI: 10.9-17.5%, Shigella spp./EIEC (AF = 10.5%; 95% CI: 3.5-17.1%, and norovirus (AF = 8.2%; 95% CI 3.2-12.9%. Co-infections occurred frequently and most infections presented themselves independently of other infections. However, infections with E. dispar, C. jejuni, and norovirus were observed more often in the presence of G. lamblia. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases.

  14. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  15. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator. PMID:16494130

  16. A case-control study and analyze the epidemiological importance risk of family history of psoriasis

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    Anca Chiriac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a case-control study to analyze the epidemiological importance risk of family history of psoriasis. The retrospective study was done on 1236 patients diagnosed with psoriasis on clinical and histopathological grounds, between 2004-2011, in an Out-patient Clinic in North-Eastern part of Romania.The sex ratio of psoriasis was 1.18:1 (male patients 54.13%, female patients 45.87%, median age at the diagnosis was 29.34±15.24SD; family history of psoriasis (by declaration was 29.53% (Tabl. I.

  17. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, R. (PhD); K Holakouie Naieni; B. Golestan; H Nabavizadeh; M. Yunesian

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran)...

  18. A FORTRAN program for stratified analysis of data from case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, T D

    1983-04-01

    Stratification of study subjects by one or more covariates is a commonly accepted method for dealing with confounding and effect modification in epidemiologic case-control studies. A flexible FORTRAN program is described which facilitates simultaneous stratification by several covariates and which produces summary odds ratio estimates and chi-square statistics by the Mantel-Haenszel method. It also facilitates detection of effect modification by each covariate considered individually. Straightforward means are provided for the user to modify input data before analysis or to exclude certain subjects from analysis, simulating such capabilities in larger statistical packages.

  19. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  20. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  1. Results of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, M. J.; Snee, M P; Hall, A J; Powell, C A; Downes, S; Terrell, J D

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the observed excess of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma near the Sellafield nuclear plant is associated with established risk factors or with factors related to the plant. DESIGN--A case-control study. SETTING--West Cumbria health district. SUBJECTS--52 Cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 23 of Hodgkin's disease occurring in people born in the area and diagnosed there in 1950-85 under the age of 25 and 1001 controls matched for sex and date of b...

  2. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to compare the risk of different estrogens, progestins, and combinations. Results A total of 3593 cases of breast cancer were identified and compared with 9098 controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for breast cancer (BC associated with current or past use of HRT was 1.2 (1.1–1.3, and almost identical for lag times from 6 months to 6 years prior to diagnosis. No significant trend of increasing BC risk was found with increasing duration of HRT use, or time since first or last use in aggregate. Many established BC risk factors significantly modified the effect of HRT on BC risk, particularly first-degree family history of BC, higher age, lower education, higher body mass index (BMI, and never having used oral contraceptives (OCs during lifetime. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT formulation groups (estrogens, progestins, and combinations were too small for strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the BC risk seems not to vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in BC risk was observed between HRT containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion The BC risk of HRT use is rather small. Low risk estimates for BC and a high potential for

  3. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in the UK: case-control study in 806 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, J T; Tan, B B; Smith, A.G.; Bowers, W.; Jones, P W; Heagerty, A.H.; Strange, R.C.; Fryer, A A

    1997-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest malignant neoplasm in white people. We present a large UK case-control study in which conditional logistic regression analysis of age-matched and gender-matched data sets was used to compare, first, cases with controls (n = 403) and second, patients having multiple BCC with those having a single BCC (n = 278). Eye/hair colour, occupation, skin type, social class, tumour site at presentation and smoking history were assessed. Social class 1/2, skin t...

  4. Case-control study of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian;

    2007-01-01

    exposed to gadodiamide develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 19 histologically verified cases and 19 sex- and age-matched controls. All subjects had chronic renal failure when exposed to gadodiamide. Clinical, biochemical and pharmacological data were...... retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Cases had been exposed to a mean gadodiamide dose of 0.29 mmol/kg (range 0.18-0.50) shortly before first signs of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Controls had been exposed to 0.28 mmol/kg (0.13-0.49). Cumulative gadodiamide exposure while in chronic kidney disease...

  5. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-03-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  6. Endometrial cancer following treatment for breast cancer: a case-control study in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewertz, M.; S.G. Machado; Boice, J. D.; Jensen, O M

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer subsequent to breast cancer, a case-control study was carried out in Denmark. Between 1943-1977, 115 cases of histologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma developed more than 3 months after the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer in 51,638 women. A total of 235 breast cancer patients with no second primary cancer were matched to the cases on age, calendar year of diagnosis, and survival with an intact uterus. Identification of cases and controls r...

  7. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p < 0.01). In each stratum and overall, nulliparous women appeared to be at h...

  8. A case-control study of somatic and behavioural symptoms in sexually abused boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Antao, V; Maddocks, A; Street, E; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain how often sexually abused boys present with somatic and behavioural symptoms. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A primary school in South Wales where a male teacher had been convicted of sexually abusing boys since 1981. The police investigation started in 1993 and he was convicted in 1994. A similar large primary school where abuse had not taken place. SUBJECTS: All 107 boys who had been identified by a police inquiry to have been subject to sexual abuse by a si...

  9. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

  10. Drug exposure and psoriasis vulgaris: case-control and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arnon D; Bonneh, Dan Y; Reuveni, Haim; Vardy, Daniel A; Naggan, Lechaim; Halevy, Sima

    2005-01-01

    Intake of drugs is considered a risk factor for psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between drugs and psoriasis. A case-control study including 110 patients who were hospitalized for extensive psoriasis was performed. A control group (n = 515) was defined as patients who had undergone elective surgery. A case-crossover study included 98 patients with psoriasis. Exposure to drugs was assessed during a hazard period (3 months before hospitalization) and compared to a control period in the patient's past. Data on drug sales were extracted by data mining techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regression and conditional logistic regression. In the case-control study, psoriasis was associated with benzodiazepines (OR 6.9), organic nitrates (OR 5.0), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (OR 4.0) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (OR 3.7). In the case-crossover study, psoriasis was associated with ACE inhibitors (OR 9.9), beta-blockers (OR 9.9), dipyrone (OR 4.9) and NSAIDs (OR 2.1). Extensive psoriasis may be associated with intake of ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs or beta-blockers. PMID:16191849

  11. Interaction and Its Solution in Individual Matching Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To indicate the deficiency of the classical method for analyzing data on individual matching case-control study in consideration of the interaction between the study factor (exposure) and the matching factor, and to find out a proper method for handling this deficiency. Method First, experimental data with 50 pairs of cases and controls were used for strata analysis according to the values of a matching factor to illustrate the possible interaction between a risk factor (exposure) and the matching factor. Second, a detailed procedure was proposed for analyzing such data. Results Interaction between the study factor and matching factor was demonstrated by using strata analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis. Therefore the results from the classical analysis for such data might be incorrect. Conclusion Data from individual matching case-control study design should be dealt with strata analysis or multivariate analysis to explore and evaluate the possible interaction between the study factor and matching factor. The conclusion would be valid only after such analysis is conducted.

  12. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  13. A Bayesian hierarchical approach for combining case-control and prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P; Parmigiani, G; Schildkraut, J; Tardella, L

    1999-09-01

    Motivated by the absolute risk predictions required in medical decision making and patient counseling, we propose an approach for the combined analysis of case-control and prospective studies of disease risk factors. The approach is hierarchical to account for parameter heterogeneity among studies and among sampling units of the same study. It is based on modeling the retrospective distribution of the covariates given the disease outcome, a strategy that greatly simplifies both the combination of prospective and retrospective studies and the computation of Bayesian predictions in the hierarchical case-control context. Retrospective modeling differentiates our approach from most current strategies for inference on risk factors, which are based on the assumption of a specific prospective model. To ensure modeling flexibility, we propose using a mixture model for the retrospective distributions of the covariates. This leads to a general nonlinear regression family for the implied prospective likelihood. After introducing and motivating our proposal, we present simple results that highlight its relationship with existing approaches, develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for inference and prediction, and present an illustration using ovarian cancer data. PMID:11315018

  14. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mohitey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Material and Methods: 150 patients, 75 with AMI and 75 with CHD were included in the study. Data on hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol consumption were recorded. AMI patients were clinically examined 3-4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Clinical examination of CHD patients was carried out during the hospital stay. All teeth excluding third molars were studied and clinical data were recorded regarding Plaque Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Depth and Clinical Attachment Loss. Results: Percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing and the number of sites with more probing depth were significantly higher among AMI patients than those with CHD (P=0.05 and p=0.001 respectively.There was abundant plaque and debris around all tooth surfaces in AMI patients (p=0.001. Conclusion: Overall result of this case control study showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

  16. Snippets from the past: is Flint, Michigan, the birthplace of the case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-12-15

    In the summer of 1924, an outbreak of scarlet fever occurred in Flint, Michigan. Unable to trace it to the usual causes, particularly fresh milk, the Michigan Department of Health used a novel approach to disentangle the enigma: The 116 cases of scarlet fever were compared with 117 "controls" selected from neighbors of the quarantined cases and from patients at the City Health Center who had been treated for ailments unrelated to scarlet fever. The extraordinary culprit was ice cream, which had a frequent/occasional/none consumption prevalence of 60%, 34%, and 6% among the cases and 24%, 51%, and 25% among the controls, respectively. The 1925 report reads, "Detailed epidemiological investigation, by means of case histories and control histories on well persons, confirmed early suspicions and established the fact that the epidemic was spread by ice cream" (Am J Hyg. 1925;5(5):669-681). This forgotten epidemiologic study is the oldest study using the case-control design to have been resurrected thus far. The case-control study design may have been conceived simultaneously, but independently and for different purposes, in England (Janet Lane-Claypon's 1926 report on the determinants of breast cancer) and the United States. PMID:24064743

  17. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  18. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  19. A case-control study of infant, maternal and perinatal characteristics associated with deformational plagiocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy M; Cunningham, Michael L; Holt, Victoria L; Leroux, Brian; Starr, Jacqueline R

    2009-07-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly, an abnormal asymmetric flattening of infants' heads, is diagnosed in approximately 10% of infants. The prevalence of plagiocephaly has increased dramatically since 1992 when it was first recommended that infants be placed to sleep in a non-prone position to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The authors conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations between plagiocephaly and perinatal characteristics. The authors assessed whether risk factors for plagiocephaly have changed since 1992. Cases were born 1987-2002 in Washington State and diagnosed with plagiocephaly at the Craniofacial Center at Seattle Children's Hospital. Risk factor information was abstracted from birth certificate and hospital discharge data and unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Cases (n = 2764) were more likely than controls (n = 13 817) to have been injured at birth (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2, 1.7) or diagnosed with a congenital anomaly (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8, 2.3). Cases were more likely to have been male, a twin, or small-for-gestational-age. This first large-scale, case-control study of risk factors for plagiocephaly in a U.S. population provides new evidence that birth injuries and congenital anomalies are associated with plagiocephaly risk. PMID:19523080

  20. A Bayesian Semiparametric Approach for Incorporating Longitudinal Information on Exposure History for Inference in Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadra, Dhiman; Daniels, Michael J.; Kim, Sungduk; Ghosh, Malay; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2012-01-01

    In a typical case-control study, exposure information is collected at a single time-point for the cases and controls. However, case-control studies are often embedded in existing cohort studies containing a wealth of longitudinal exposure history on the participants. Recent medical studies have indicated that incorporating past exposure history, or a constructed summary measure of cumulative exposure derived from the past exposure history, when available, may lead to more precise and clinical...

  1. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    younger women (younger than 45 years) may be reduced among current smokers who began smoking at an early age (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85 for age 15 years or younger) and among long-term smokers (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.94 for those who had smoked for 21 years or more). The possible protective effect of smoking might be due to its anti-oestrogenic effect [1,2,19]. Recently there has been renewed interest in the potential effect of smoking on breast cancer risk, and whether individuals may respond differently on the basis of differences in metabolism of bioproducts of smoking [20,21]. Different relationships between smoking and breast cancer risk have been suggested that are dependent on the rapid or slow status of acetylators of aromatic amines [20,21]. More recent studies [22,23], however, do not support these findings. The present study design minimized the opportunity for bias to influence the findings. Because subjects were unaware of their own case-control status, the possibility of recall bias in reporting smoking status was minimized. Systematic error in the assessment of mammograms was avoided because reading was done without knowledge of the risk factor data. Furthermore, the associations observed are unlikely to be explained by the confounding effect of other known breast cancer risk factors, because we adjusted for these in the analysis. We did not have information on passive smoking status, however, which has recently been reported to be a possible confounder [5,6,21,24]. The present data indicate that adjustment for current smoking status is important when evaluating the relationship between mammographic parenchymal pattern and breast cancer risk. They also indicate smoking as a prominent potential confounder when analyzing effects of other risk factors such as obesity-related variables. It seems that parenchymal patterns may act as an informative biomarker of the effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cerebral arterial and venous haemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Marchione

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although recent studies excluded an association between Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis (MS, controversial results account for some cerebrovascular haemodynamic impairment suggesting a dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation mechanisms. The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is to evaluate cerebral arterial inflow and venous outflow by means of a non-invasive ultrasound procedure in Relapsing Remitting (RR, Primary Progressive (PP Multiple Sclerosis and age and sex-matched controls subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All subjects underwent a complete extra-intracranial arterial and venous ultrasound assessment with a color-coded duplex sonography scanner and a transcranial doppler equipment, in both supine and sitting position by means of a tilting chair. Basal arterial and venous morphology and flow velocities, postural changes in mean flow velocities (MFV of middle cerebral arteries (MCA, differences between cerebral venous outflow (CVF in clinostatism and in the seated position (ΔCVF and non-invasive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were evaluated. RESULTS: 85 RR-MS, 83 PP-MS and 82 healthy controls were included. ΔCVF was negative in 45/85 (52.9% RR-MS, 63/83 (75.9% PP-MS (p = 0.01 and 11/82 (13.4% controls (p<0.001, while MFVs on both MCAs in sitting position were significantly reduced in RR-MS and PP-MS patients than in control, particularly in EDSS ≥ 5 subgroup (respectively, 42/50, 84% vs. 66/131, 50.3%, p<0.01 and 48.3 ± 2 cm/s vs. 54.6 ± 3 cm/s, p = 0.01. No significant differences in CPP were observed within and between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF and CVF and their postural dependency may be related to a dysfunction of autonomic nervous system that seems to characterize more disabled MS patients. It's not clear whether the altered postural control of arterial inflow and venous outflow is a specific MS condition or simply an

  3. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  4. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  5. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-

  6. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-

  7. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis. PMID:7927941

  8. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  9. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  10. Analysis of Case-Control Studies of Genetic and Environmental Factors With Missing Genetic Information and Haplotype-phase Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Spinka, Christine; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2005-01-01

    Case-control studies of unrelated subjects are now widely used to study the role of genetic susceptibility and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Exploiting an assumption of gene-environment independence, and treating the distribution of the environmental exposures to be completely nonparametric, Chatterjee and Carroll (2005) recently developed an efficient retrospective maximum-likelihood method for analysis of case-control studies. In this article, we develop...

  11. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  12. Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, B; Sinclair, M I; Forbes, A B; Veitch, M; Kirk, M; Cunliffe, D; Willis, J; Fairley, C K

    2002-06-01

    Few studies have assessed risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in industrialized countries, even though it may be numerically more common than outbreaks of disease. We carried out case-control studies assessing risk factors for sporadic disease in Melbourne and Adelaide, which have water supplies from different ends of the raw water spectrum. In addition to examining drinking water, we assessed several other exposures. 201 cases and 795 controls were recruited for Melbourne and 134 cases and 536 controls were recruited for Adelaide. Risk factors were similar for the two cities, with swimming in public pools and contact with a person with diarrhoea being most important. The consumption of plain tap water was not found to be associated with disease. This study emphasizes the need for regular public health messages to the public and swimming pool managers in an attempt to prevent sporadic cryptosporidiosis, as well as outbreaks of disease.

  13. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    to the original CA studies at the time of CA testing, but not for the whole work life. An independent occupational hygienist coordinated harmonization of the assessment criteria and the quality control procedure. The reliability of the exposure assessments was calculated as deviation from the majority......The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...

  14. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Cold Symptoms and other Historical Triggering Factors in Asthma Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Tarlo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations can be provoked by many triggers such as allergens, respiratory irritants and viral infections. The relative importance of these has not been prospectively documented in a case-control study.

  15. Assessing adherence in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel HIV prevention trial: results of a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Weaver, Mark A; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Succop, Stacey; Majola, Nelisle; Taylor, Doug; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2014-05-01

    Adherence undeniably impacts product effectiveness in microbicide trials, but the connection has proven challenging to quantify using routinely collected behavioral data. We explored this relationship using a nested case-control study in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir (TFV) gel HIV prevention trial. Detailed 3-month recall data on sex events, condom and gel use were collected from 72 incident cases and 205 uninfected controls. We then assessed how the relationship between self-reported adherence and HIV acquisition differed between the TFV and placebo gel groups, an interaction effect that should exist if effectiveness increases with adherence. The CAPRISA 004 trial determined that randomization to TFV gel was associated with a significant reduction in risk of HIV acquisition. In our nested case-control study, however, we did not observe a meaningful decrease in the relative odds of infection-TFV versus placebo-as self-reported adherence increased. To the contrary, exploratory sub-group analysis of the case-control data identified greater evidence for a protective effect of TFV gel among participants reporting less than 80 % adherence to the protocol-defined regimen (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; 95 % CI 0.11-0.78) than among those reporting ≥ 80 % adherence (Odds Ratio 0.81; 95 % CI 0.34-1.92). The small number of cases may have inhibited our ability to detect the hypothesized interaction between adherence and effectiveness. Nonetheless, our results re-emphasize the challenges faced by investigators when adherence may be miss-measured, miss-reported, or confounded with the risk of HIV. PMID:24647763

  16. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies Visitantes hospitalares como controles em estudos caso-controle

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  17. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m-3, these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m-3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  18. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  19. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  20. Cardiovascular drugs and the risk of suicide: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callréus, Torbjörn; Agerskov Andersen, Ulla; Hallas, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During the past 30 years, various cardiovascular drugs have been implicated as causes of depression or suicide. Although the evidence for causal relationships has generally been conflicting, both beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) have been...... related to depression. Lipid-lowering therapies and calcium-channel blockers have also been linked to an increased risk of suicide. In this study, we investigated the possible association between the use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide using population-based register data. METHODS: We performed...... a nested case-control study in the county of Funen, Denmark, that consisted of 743 cases of completed suicide identified in a Death Registry for the period 1991-1998 and 14,860 age- and sex-matched controls. Information on previous drug use was retrieved from prescription data and the association between...

  1. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  2. Tap or bottled water consumption and spontaneous abortion: a 1986 case-control study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, G C; Swan, S H; Fenster, L; Neutra, R R

    1992-03-01

    To investigate whether drinking tap or bottled water during pregnancy affects the risk of spontaneous abortion, we asked questions about water consumption in a large case-control study (626 cases, 1,300 controls). The study ascertained cases from hospital pathology laboratory reports of pregnancies that began in 1986 and obtained controls from birth certificates. The crude odds ratio for consumption of any vs no cold tapwater at home during the first trimester was 1.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.5), with no dose-response effect. The crude odds ratio for any bottled water consumption was 0.79 (95% confidence interval = 0.65-0.96), with a downward trend by amount consumed. Adjusting for many potential confounders did not alter these associations appreciably, although some variables appeared to be effect modifiers. The point estimates were stronger among women who were more difficult to contact, suggesting the possibility of bias. PMID:1576215

  3. Antioxidant defense markers modulated by glutathione S-transferase genetic polymorphism: results of lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Edyta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta

    2007-12-01

    Oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are suspected to be related to carcinogenesis by different cellular mechanisms. Hence, our study aimed at identifying potential relationships between antioxidant defense parameters measured in blood and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms of four GST izoenzymes in lung cancer patients and reference individuals. The case-control study included 404 lung cancer patients and 410 non-cancer subjects as controls, matched by age, gender and place of living (central Poland). In control subjects with GSTM3*A/*A, GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null + GSTT1 null, GSTM3*A/*A + GSTT1 null genotype, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in controls possessing respective potential protective GST genotypes. Controls with GSTM3*A/*A + GSTP1*B genotype presented significantly higher ceruloplasmin activity (P < 0.05) than GSTM3*B + GSTP1*A/*A carriers. Zinc level was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in controls and cases with GSTP1*B + GSTT1 null genotype and in cases with GSTM1 null + GSTP1*B genotype, when compared with respective potential protective GST genotypes. This case-control study indicates that particular defective GST genotypes may enhance the defense against oxidative stress. The potential relationship between the investigated antioxidative enzymes and microelements, and common functional genetic polymorphism of GST was observed mostly in control subjects. PMID:18850183

  4. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  5. Risk Factors of Streptococcus suis Infection in Vietnam. A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Le, Thi Phuong Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Cao, Quang Thai; Nguyen, Van Minh Hoang; Tran, Vu Thieu Nga; Le, Thi Phuong Thao; Nguyen, Hoan Phu; Tran, Thi Hong Chau; Dinh, Xuan Sinh; To, Song Diep; Hoang, Thi Thanh Hang; Hoang, Truong; Campbell, James; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Nguyen, Tran Chinh; Nguyen, Van Dung; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Spratt, Brian G.; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. Methods and Findings A case-control study with appropriate hospital and matched community controls for each patient was conducted between May 2006 and June 2009. Potential risk factors were assessed using a standardized questionnaire and investigation of throat and rectal S. suis carriage in cases, controls and their pigs, using real-time PCR and culture of swab samples. We recruited 101 cases of S. suis meningitis, 303 hospital controls and 300 community controls. By multivariate analysis, risk factors identified for S. suis infection as compared to either control group included eating “high risk” dishes, including such dishes as undercooked pig blood and pig intestine (OR1 = 2.22; 95%CI = [1.15–4.28] and OR2 = 4.44; 95%CI = [2.15–9.15]), occupations related to pigs (OR1 = 3.84; 95%CI = [1.32–11.11] and OR2 = 5.52; 95%CI = [1.49–20.39]), and exposures to pigs or pork in the presence of skin injuries (OR1 = 7.48; 95%CI = [1.97–28.44] and OR2 = 15.96; 95%CI = [2.97–85.72]). S. suis specific DNA was detected in rectal and throat swabs of 6 patients and was cultured from 2 rectal samples, but was not detected in such samples of 1522 healthy individuals or patients without S. suis infection. Conclusions This case control study, the largest prospective epidemiological assessment of this disease, has identified the most important risk factors associated with S. suis bacterial meningitis to be eating ‘high risk’ dishes popular in parts of Asia, occupational exposure to pigs and pig products, and preparation of pork in the presence of skin lesions. These risk factors can be addressed in public health campaigns aimed at preventing S. suis infection

  6. Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Dang Trung Nghia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A case-control study with appropriate hospital and matched community controls for each patient was conducted between May 2006 and June 2009. Potential risk factors were assessed using a standardized questionnaire and investigation of throat and rectal S. suis carriage in cases, controls and their pigs, using real-time PCR and culture of swab samples. We recruited 101 cases of S. suis meningitis, 303 hospital controls and 300 community controls. By multivariate analysis, risk factors identified for S. suis infection as compared to either control group included eating "high risk" dishes, including such dishes as undercooked pig blood and pig intestine (OR(1 = 2.22; 95%CI = [1.15-4.28] and OR(2 = 4.44; 95%CI = [2.15-9.15], occupations related to pigs (OR(1 = 3.84; 95%CI = [1.32-11.11] and OR(2 = 5.52; 95%CI = [1.49-20.39], and exposures to pigs or pork in the presence of skin injuries (OR(1 = 7.48; 95%CI = [1.97-28.44] and OR(2 = 15.96; 95%CI = [2.97-85.72]. S. suis specific DNA was detected in rectal and throat swabs of 6 patients and was cultured from 2 rectal samples, but was not detected in such samples of 1522 healthy individuals or patients without S. suis infection. CONCLUSIONS: This case control study, the largest prospective epidemiological assessment of this disease, has identified the most important risk factors associated with S. suis bacterial meningitis to be eating 'high risk' dishes popular in parts of Asia, occupational exposure to pigs and pig products, and preparation of pork in the presence of skin lesions. These risk factors can be addressed in public health campaigns aimed at preventing S. suis

  7. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  8. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  9. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  10. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals...... than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...

  11. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  12. Case-controlled study of nursing home residents referred for treatment of vocally disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, B; Snowdon, J; Meares, S; Turner, J; Gonski, P; McMinn, B; McIntosh, H; Latham, L; Draper, D; Luscombe, G

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with vocally disruptive behavior (VDB) in nursing home patients referred to aged care services for treatment, using a case-control methodology. Characteristics of the VDB, reasons for referral, perceived causal factors, and psychotropic use were noted. Twenty-five subjects and controls were examined with the Screaming Behavior Mapping Instrument, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale, and measures of cognition, functional capacity, social activities, and emotional reactions of nursing staff. VDB was associated with other disturbed behaviors, depression, anxiety, severe dementia, functional impairment, communication difficulties, use of psychotropic medication, social isolation, and emotional distress in the nursing staff. Reasons for referral may relate more to the stress experienced by nursing home staff in managing VDB than to specific attributes of the VDB itself. PMID:11081953

  13. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator......-dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......-independent technique. No difference was detected between the groups with regards to endothelial function. However, despite the patients experiencing rather mild psoriasis they did exhibit higher levels of certain cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic...

  14. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Simon; Sidani, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT). A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P PERT), and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO. PMID:27446865

  15. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  16. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  17. Tap or bottled water consumption and spontaneous abortion in a case-control study of reporting consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, L; Windham, G C; Swan, S H; Epstein, D M; Neutra, R R

    1992-03-01

    A recent case-control study of 1,926 women found a slightly increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with reported consumption of tapwater and a decreased risk with reported consumption of bottled water. In a case-control study of spontaneous abortion designed to examine the consistency of prenatal exposure reporting, the association of spontaneous abortion with tap or bottled water consumption was also examined. Cases of spontaneous abortion (N = 100) were ascertained from hospital pathology reports, and pregnant controls (N = 200) were obtained from obstetrical appointment logs. Subjects were first interviewed approximately 24 weeks after their last menstrual period and again approximately 48 weeks after their last menstrual period. Neither an increased risk for spontaneous abortion associated with consumption of tapwater nor a protective effect for consumption of bottled water was observed. Changes in reporting of tapwater consumption from the first to the second interview suggest the possibility of differential reporting in cases and controls. There was no evidence suggesting biased reporting of bottled water consumption. PMID:1576216

  18. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D

    1989-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  19. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  20. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  1. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghasemi F, Valizadeh F, Taee N. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:38-44.ObjectiveConsidering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission wasmeasured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%.Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17 compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46 compared to the healthy group. ConclusionChildren with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS.References1. Østergaard J R. Febrile Seizures. Acta Pædiatr 2009;98(5:771-3.2. Jones T, Jacobsen SJ. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications. Int J Med Sci. 2007; 4(2:110-4.3. Flury T, Aebi

  2. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  3. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score history of ADHD significantly increased the odds of prolonged recovery (aOR 4.41, 95% CI 1.93-10.07 and aOR 3.87, 95% CI 1

  4. The prediction of discharge from in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation: a case-control study

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    Mountain Debbie A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At any time, about 1% of people with severe and enduring mental illness such as schizophrenia require in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation. In-patient rehabilitation enables individuals with the most challenging difficulties to be discharged to successful and stable community living. However, the length of rehabilitation admission that is required is highly variable and the reasons for this are poorly understood. There are very few case-control studies of predictors of outcome following hospitalisation. None have been carried out for in-patient rehabilitation. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with achieving discharge from in-patient rehabilitation by carrying out a case-control study. Methods We compared two groups: 34 people who were admitted to the Rehabilitation Service at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and discharged within a six year study period, and 31 people who were admitted in the same period, but not discharged. We compared the groups on demographic, illness, treatment and risk variables that were present at the point of their admission to rehabilitation. We used independent t tests and Pearson Chi-Square tests to compare the two groups. Results We found that serious self harm and suicide attempts, treatment with high dose antipsychotics, antipsychotic polypharmacy and previous care in forensic psychiatric services were all significantly associated with non-discharge. The non-discharged group were admitted significantly later in the six year study period and had already spent significantly longer in hospital. People who were admitted to rehabilitation within the first ten years of developing psychosis were more likely to have achieved discharge. Conclusions People admitted later in the study period required longer rehabilitation admissions and had higher rates of serious self harm and treatment resistant illness. They were also more likely to have had previous contact with forensic services. This

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  7. Oral and pharyngeal cancer and occupation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W W; Schoenberg, J B; Kelsey, J L; Wilcox, H B; McLaughlin, J K; Greenberg, R S; Preston-Martin, S; Austin, D F; Stemhagen, A; Blot, W J

    1992-07-01

    We studied the relation between occupation and oral and pharyngeal cancer with a population-based case-control study conducted in four areas of the United States. The study group included 1,114 incident male and female cases and 1,268 frequency-matched controls. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, alcohol, and study location, an analysis of lifetime occupational histories revealed a small number of noteworthy associations. Risk was increased among male carpet installers (23 cases, 4 controls), with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4-24.9], and tended to rise with longer duration of employment. A decreased risk was found among male and female textile mill workers (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88). Previously reported increases in oral cancer risks among printing workers, electrical and electronics workers, and workers other than carpet installers who were possibly exposed to formaldehyde were not found in this study. For several employment groups, including male machinists, primary metal industry workers, petroleum industry workers, painters, furniture and fixture industry workers, woodworking machine operators, and workers with inferred exposure to fossil fuel combustion, odds ratios were approximately 2.0 for cancers of pharyngeal sites.

  8. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  9. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  10. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

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    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  11. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: A case-control study

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    Abbas Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS and latitude gradient indicates the importance of environmental factors in MS susceptibility. Sunlight′s ultraviolet radiation, its ability to influence melatonin, and an imbalance of melatonin in the central nervous system (CNS may be involved in this process. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Isfahan MS Society (IMSS, Isfahan, Iran. Enrollment was limited to patients with MS referring to the MS clinic of Alzahra and Kashani hospital during January and February 2012. Results: Thirty-five patients with MS and 35 healthy individuals were included in our study. The melatonin levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. There was no significant difference between saliva melatonin level of two groups (patients and healthy individuals (P = 0.417; however, after controlling the effect of age, a significant difference (P = 0.022 was found. Conclusions: In the present study, it is proposed that environmental conditions in Isfahan city might have increased the susceptibility to MS, but more studies in different parts of the world are needed to evaluate this claim.

  12. XPG Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: A Two-Stage Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhuo, Zhen-Jian; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene polymorphisms may modulate colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. In this study, we performed a two-stage case-control study to comprehensively investigate the associations of five polymorphisms in the XPG gene with CRC risk in 1,901 cases and 1,976 controls from Southern China, including rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs1047768 T>C and rs873601 G>A. After combining data from two stages, we found that three of the studied polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, and rs873601 G>A) were significantly associated with CRC susceptibility. After adjustment for age and gender, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that carriers of the rs2094258 T alleles had an increased CRC risk [CT vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.36; TT vs. CC: adjusted OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.18-1.89; TT vs. CT/CC: adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.72]. Likely, rs873601 A allele also conferred increased CRC susceptibility. In contrast, a protective association was identified between rs751402 C>T polymorphism and the risk of CRC. In summary, our results indicated that these three polymorphisms were found to associate with CRC susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population.

  13. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. However, higher consumption of Unhealthy dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of BBD. In conclusion, Healthy dietary pattern might be inversely associated with the risk of BBD; however, this result should be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27198589

  14. Certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension: a case-control study

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    Sunil M. Sagare, S. S. Rajderkar B. S. Girigosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension accounts for 90% of all cases of hypertension. Though it is a one of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, it is a condition with its own risk factors. Overall prevalence of hypertension is increasing over the years in India (from 3.57% in 1977 to 20-30% after 1995. Considering the public health importance of ‘Essential Hypertension’ the present study was conducted. The objective was to study role of certain risk factors in essential hypertension. A case control study was conducted in rural township of Tasgaon; in Sangli district of Maharashtra during 2001-2002, to study role of certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension in 21-60 years age group. 165 cases of essential hypertension were selected by systematic random sampling from two private hospitals & O.P.D. of RHTC, Tasgaon and 330, age & sex matched controls were selected in the ratio of 1:2. A significant association was found between essential hypertension and various risk factors including smoking, its frequency and duration, alcoholic status, leisure time physical inactivity, restless sleep, BMI, mental stress, mixed diet and salt intake. Smoking of more than 10 cigarettes or bidi had 3.23 times risk of developing hypertension than smoking up to 10 cigarettes or bidi.

  15. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  16. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) μg/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42–3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53–33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  17. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  18. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreccio Catterina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  19. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  20. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, Pherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21–4.86). Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis. PMID:26666412

  1. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

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    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  2. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

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    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  3. Diet as risk for lung cancer: a Swedish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Gosta; Rylander, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to study lung cancer in relation to dietary habits, occupational exposure, and living in urban or country areas. Suspect lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. The study comprised 177 female and 359 male cases and 916 controls. The cases mainly comprised former and current smokers (82% female, 95% male). For the analysis, cases were divided into the histological diagnoses adenocarcinoma and squamous cell, small cell, and adenosquamous cell carcinomas, as well as into smoking categories. A high frequency of consumption of vegetables was significantly related to a lower risk for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell and adenosquamous cell carcinoma among men and adenocarcinoma among women. A low odds ratio in the highest quartile of vegetable consumption in men was seen in all smoking categories. There were no significant protective effects from fruit in the different lung cancer subgroups, although a significant trend was found for heavy-smoking females. A high consumption of milk was related to an increased risk for lung cancer, especially adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The results suggest that the protective effect or risk due to dietary factors may affect different forms of lung cancer. The results from this as well as previous studies suggest a complex interaction between diet and lung cancer risk, involving the types of lung cancer as well as consumption patterns in the population.

  4. Results of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 a television program alleged an increased incidence of leukemia in young persons living close to the largest nuclear plant in Britain: Sellafield. In response to widespread public concern, the government convened a committee of experts to examine the allegation. This group confirmed a ten fold increase in leukemia in young persons resident in the vicinity of the plant, but could not provide an explanation for the observation. A case control study mounted by the Medical Research Council's Environmental Epidemiology Unit has shown that the raised risk of developing leukemia in children born near Sellafield was explained, at least statistically, by the preconception exposure of their fathers' to ionizing radiation. This association has not been reported before in human subjects, and much research is underway to investigate this and other possible transgenerational effects of radiation

  5. Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from these devices. Methods: A case-control study of 1105 patients with newly diagnosed acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) and 2145 controls...... exposure at five years before the reference date were also done to allow for a possible longer latent period. Results: The odds ratio (OR) of acoustic neuroma with ever having been a regular mobile phone user was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.04). The OR for ≥10 years after first regular mobile...... decile of cumulative hours of use. Conclusions: There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due...

  6. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

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    Zhang Yuesheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.

  7. Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiac Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Lee, Yungling Leo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2015-11-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have assessed the role of the exposure to ambient air pollution in the development of cardiac birth defects, but they have provided somewhat inconsistent results. To assess the associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of cardiac defects, a population-based case-control study was conducted using 1087 cases of cardiac defects and a random sample of 10,870 controls from 1,533,748 Taiwanese newborns in 2001 to 2007.Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for 10 ppb increases in O3 and 10 μg/m increases in PM10. In addition, we compared the risk of cardiac defects in 4 categories-high exposure (>75th percentile); medium exposure (75th to 50th percentile); low exposure (patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were associated with 10 ppb increases in O3 exposure during the first 3 gestational months among term and preterm babies. In comparison between high PM10 exposure and reference category, there were statistically significant elevations in the effect estimates of ASD for all and terms births. In addition, there was a negative or weak association between SO2, NO2, CO, and cardiac defects.The study proved that exposure to outdoor air O3 and PM10 during the first trimester of gestation may increase the risk of VSD, ASD, and PDA. PMID:26554783

  8. High Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Korean Patients after Hip Fracture: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Il; Ha, Yong Chan; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Lee, Young Kyun; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Yoo, Moon Jib

    2016-09-01

    Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are increasing worldwide due to the aging population. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate anthropometric characteristics related to hip fracture in Korean patients, 2) investigate sarcopenia prevalence in hip fracture (HF) and non-hip fracture (NF) groups, and 3) investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined 359 HF and 1,614 NF normal populations using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We performed whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze body composition using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI: lean mass/height²) and bone mineral density (BMD). In the HF group, using the AWGS definition, the prevalence of sarcopenia in women and men was 44.3% and 68.2%, respectively; in the NF group, it was 7.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Lower appendicular SMI (P sarcopenia (P sarcopenia (OR = 6.52; 95% CI = 4.67-9.09), age (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.13-1.17), and osteoporosis (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35-2.58) were associated with the occurrence of a hip fracture. This study showed a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures compared with a normal population, and higher prevalence of sarcopenia in men. PMID:27510394

  9. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Yousry A; Dorgham, Laila Sh; Amir, El-Amir M; Sharaf, Osama F

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls), followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls). Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05). Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study's population, particularly those with CRF. PMID:26491455

  11. HLA-DR and -DQ eplet mismatches and transplant glomerulopathy: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir-Pichhadze, R; Tinckam, K; Quach, K; Logan, A G; Laupacis, A; John, R; Beyene, J; Kim, S J

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study from a cohort of adult kidney transplant recipients to assess the risk of transplant glomerulopathy (TG) as a function of donor and recipient HLA-DR and -DQ incompatibility at the eplet level. Cases (n = 52) were defined as patients diagnosed with transplant glomerulopathy based on biopsies showing glomerular basement membrane duplication without immune complex deposition. Controls (n = 104) with a similar follow-up from transplantation were randomly selected from the remaining cohort. HLAMatchmaker was used to ascertain the number of DRB1/3/4/5, DQA1 and DQB1 related eplet mismatches (eplet load). Multivariable conditional logistic regression models demonstrated an increase in the odds of TG (odds ratios [OR] of 2.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 7.84] and 4.62 [95% CI: 1.51, 14.14]) in the presence of 27-43 and >43 HLA-DR + DQ related eplet mismatches versus <27 eplet mismatches, respectively. When the eplet load was modeled as a continuous variable, the OR for TG was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50) for every 10 additional HLA-DR + DQ eplet mismatches. Our study suggests that minimization of HLA-DR + DQ eplet mismatches may decrease the incidence of transplant glomerulopathy diagnosed by indication biopsies. The role of eplet immunogenicity/antigenicity as determinants of allograft outcomes requires further study. PMID:25521856

  12. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

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    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  13. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

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    Ravi Kumar Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies. Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI, mother’s age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal.

  14. The relationship between thrombophilic mutations and preeclampsia: a prospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preeclampsia and its association with thrombophillia remain controversial, due to inconsistent results in different studies, which different ethnic groups, selection criteria, and patient numbers. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between thrombophillia and preeclamptic patients in our region. In a prospective case-control study, we compared 100 consecutive women with preeclampsia and eclampsia (group 1) with 100 normal pregnant women (group 2). All women were tested two months after delivery for mutations of factor V Leiden, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and prothrombin gene mutation mutataion as well as for deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrmbin III. A thrombophilic mutation was found in 42 (42%) and 28(28%) women in group I and group II, respectively (P+0.27, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2). The incidence of Factor V Leiden mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (homozygous), MTHFR mutation (homozygous) was not statistically significant in group 1 compared with group 2 (P>0.05). Also, deficiencies of protein S, protein c and antithrombin III were not statistically significant in group I com pared with group II (P>0.05). There was no difference in thrombophilic mutations between preeclamptic patients and normal pregnant women in our region. Therefore, we suggest that preeclamptic patients should not be tested for thrombophilia. (author)

  15. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

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    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20–84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998–2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39–6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Conclusions Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism. PMID:27087607

  16. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

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    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  17. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

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    R Chaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran. They were under follow up till the end of neonatal period and the outcome of interest was neonatal death. By using risk set sampling method, 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort."nResults: Prematurity (OR= 5.57, LBW (OR= 7.68, C-section (OR= 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR=6.95 and birth spac­ing less than 24 months (OR= 4.65 showed significant statistical association (P< 0.05 with neonatal mortality. The Popula­tion Attributable Fraction (PAF was 0.45 for LBW, 0.40 for prematurity, 0.28 for C-section, 0.30 for birth rank more than 3, and 0.16 for birth spacing less than 24 months."nConclusion: Prematurity, low birth weight, C-section, birth spacing less than 24 months and birth rank more than 3 are impor­tant risk factors for neonatal mortality.

  18. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

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    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  19. Liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome: a large-scale case-control study.

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    Zhang, Lu; Ma, Xiangyu; Jiang, Zhi; Zhang, Kejun; Zhang, Mengxuan; Li, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaolan; Xiong, Hongyan

    2015-09-29

    Previous studies suggested that elevated liver enzymes could be used as potential novel biomarkers of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical outcomes, although the results were inconsistent and the conclusions were underpowered. A case-control study with 6,268 MetS subjects and 6,330 frequency-matched healthy controls was conducted to systematically evaluated levels of four liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP), both in overall populations and in subjects with normal liver enzymes, with MetS risk using both quartiles and continuous unit of liver enzymes. We found significant associations were detected for all above analyses. Compared with quartile 1 (Q1), other quartiles have significant higher MetS risk, with ORs ranging from 1.15 to 18.15. The highest effected was detected for GGT, for which the OR value for the highest versus lowest quartile was 18.15 (95% CI: 15.7-20.9). Mutual adjustment proved the independence of the relations for all four liver enzymes. Sensitivity analyses didn't materially changed the trend. To the best of our knowledge, this study should be the largest, which aimed at evaluating the association between liver enzymes measures and MetS risk. The results can better support that liver enzyme levels could be used as clinical predictors of MetS.

  20. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis. PMID:3232687

  1. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

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    Masoud Golpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45% were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (<0.05. Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

  2. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  3. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

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    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  4. MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from 44 case-control studies.

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    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. METHODS: We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50 and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50. In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58, whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97. Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61, but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers.

  5. MGMT Leu84Phe Polymorphism Contributes to Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from 44 Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuicui; Sun, Yan; Jia, Chuanliang; Zhang, Lijing; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Li, Xiaodong; Lang, Juntian; Song, Xicheng

    2013-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. Results Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50) and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50). In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58), whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61), but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45). Conclusions These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers. PMID:24086516

  6. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study

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    Doherty K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1,2 James L Rudolph1,3,4 1Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Nursing, Science & Health Professions, Regis College, Boston, MA, USA; 3Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. Methods: This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]. Results: After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201 was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit. Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7. Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3–5.8. Conclusion: In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction. Keywords: geriatrics, patient centered outcomes research, patient safety

  7. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H; Smith, A H; McMichael, A J; Jones, F S; Monson, R R; Tyroler, H A

    1981-08-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer was conducted in five United States rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. The study included 220 male cases of bladder cancer, of whom 107 were identified from hospital record reviews and 113 from death certificates. Each case was matched individually with two industry controls by sex, race, year of birth, and company. One control was matched additionally by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparisons of cases and controls not matched by year of hire and age of hire showed no differences for those variables, which suggests that age and calendar period of first exposure to the industry were not risk determinants. When the work histories of both cases and controls were contrasted it was found that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91) and calender operation (OR = 2.21) jobs. The relative risk estimates for milling and calender operation both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Milling and calender operation jobs entail potential exposures to volatilised reaction products from heated rubber stock. A better understanding of aetiological associations with job type will require more detailed characterisation of the work environment with regard to the sources and levels of aromatic amines and other suspected bladder carcinogens. PMID:7272236

  8. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  9. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality.

  10. Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Allan H

    2003-12-15

    Numerous epidemiologic investigations have identified links between high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and cancer, although the risks at lower exposures are largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a case-control study of arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer in seven counties in the western United States. These counties contain the largest populations historically exposed to drinking water arsenic at concentrations near 100 microg/liter. All incident cases diagnosed from 1994 to 2000 were recruited. Individual data on water sources, water consumption patterns, smoking, and other factors were collected for 181 cases and 328 controls. Overall, no increased risks were identified for arsenic intakes greater than 80 microg/day (odds ratio=0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.57; linear trend, p=0.48). These risks are below predictions based on high dose studies from Taiwan. When the analysis was focused on exposures 40 or more years ago, an odds ratio of 3.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 9.42; linear trend, p<0.01) was identified for intakes greater than 80 microg/day (median intake, 177 microg/day) in smokers. These data provide some evidence that smokers who ingest arsenic at concentrations near 200 microg/day may be at increased risk of bladder cancer.

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

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    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  12. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  13. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

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    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  14. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  15. Contact with armadillos increases the risk of leprosy in Brazil: A case control study

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    Deps P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium leprae infection has recently been detected in wild armadillos in Brazil. Leprosy is still endemic in Brazil and although its transmission is mostly by person-to-person contact, many cases report no history of previously known leprosy contact. It has been suggested that other sources of M. leprae may contribute to the transmission of leprosy in some areas. Aim: Our objective was to investigate whether contact with armadillos is associated with leprosy. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Brazil. Data was collected from 506 leprosy patients and 594 controls on exposure to armadillos and age, sex, place of birth and living conditions. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression were conducted to investigate whether leprosy was associated with exposure to armadillos. Results: Direct armadillo exposure was reported by 68% of leprosy cases and by 48% of controls (P < 0.001 roughly doubling the risk of leprosy, with odds ratio (OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI [1.36-2.99]. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that direct exposure to armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy in Brazil.

  16. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuebreast cancer risk assessment and may serve as a reference in the design of future studies towards image-driven personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation.

  17. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran.

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    Abbas Mirvakili

    Full Text Available Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL.

  18. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Abbas; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechi, Saeid; Zand, Vahid; Ansari, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL.

  19. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  20. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. PMID:25563384

  1. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I-but not on the aMed-showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, 2005), 0.48 (0.33-0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30-0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men. PMID:26927167

  2. Silica exposure and lung cancer in ceramic workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Volovics, A; Slangen, J J; Van Vliet, K

    1990-03-01

    The results are presented from a case-control study, concerning the possible relation between silica exposure in the Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer. For this purpose 381 male, age-matched pairs of primary lung cancer cases and controls were selected from the pathology department of the University Hospital in the region, where two large ceramic companies are located. Information about employment in the ceramic industry was obtained from the personnel and financial administration departments of the two companies. On the basis of job titles a panel of occupational hygiene experts reached consensus about the qualitative exposures of each individual worker. Twenty one per cent of the cases were employed in the ceramic industry, compared with 19% of the controls (odds ratio 1.11; 95% Cl: 0.77-1.61). Although the average employment period of cases and their relative silica exposure surpassed those of controls, odds ratios for long duration of employment and considerable exposure to respirable silica dust did not reach statistical significance. After constructing a qualitative exposure index, based on the amount and duration of exposure, a tendency towards a positive correlation with lung cancer emerged. No relation between specific histological tumour cell types and working in the ceramic industry emerged. Although the study does not suggest a consistent cause-effect relation between silica exposure in the regional, Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer, an increased risk for the high exposure group in the past can not be totally excluded.

  3. A Shrinkage Method for Testing the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li (2008) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ2 test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23934751

  4. Risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A case- control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ming Zhou; Zheng-Feng Yin; Jia-Mei Yang; Bin Li; Wen-Yu Shao; Feng Xu; Yu-Lan Wang; Dian-Qi Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To carry out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in China.METHODS: A total of 312 ICC cases and 438 matched controls were included in the study. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis), was investigated through clinical records. Blood from all participants was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.RESULTS: Compared with controls, ICC patients had a higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity (48.4% vs 9.6%, P < 0.000), and hepatolithiasis (5.4% vs 1.1%, P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for development of ICC were HBsAg seropositivity (adjusted OR, 8.876, 95% CI, 5.973-13.192), and hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR, 5.765, 95% CI, 1.972-16.851). The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HBV infection and hepatolithiasis are strong risk factors for development of ICC in China.

  5. Mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory response of tooth supporting structures to microbial dental plaque. It is influenced by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, systemic diseases, and psychological factors such as stress. This case-control study was performed to consider mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 subjects were selected. All the subjects were assessed for the presence of depression by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria and severity of depression was measured by Hamilton depression rating scale. For assessment of periodontal disease, clinical periodontal parameters oral hygiene index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that subjects with depression had significantly higher values of debris index, calculus index, gingival index, PPD, and CAL (P 6 months of illness were higher (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that mental depression significantly affects the periodontium. It may be considered as risk factor for periodontal disease.

  6. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  7. Familial liability, obstetric complications and childhood development abnormalities in early onset schizophrenia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucarelli Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS. Methods We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test. Results The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02 and personality disorders (P = 0.003 in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008 and learning (P = 0.04; there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05 for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum. Conclusions This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.

  8. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  9. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic...... salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case......-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating...

  10. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  11. Interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: A reanalysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca (Walter); S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen (H.); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the interaction among genetic and environmental risk factors, a reanalysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted based on the original data of all studies carried out to January 1, 1990. Seven studies were included in the present analysis, comprising

  12. Interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the interaction among genetic and environmental risk factors, a reanalysis of case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted based on the original data of all studies carried out to January 1, 1990. Seven studies were included in the present analysis, comprising

  13. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  14. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  15. Radon and Lung Cancer Case-Control Study in Middle Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pilot phase of radon and lung cancer case-control study has been performed in Karpinsk and Pervouralsk towns of Middle Ural region of Russia. The case group consists of 341 persons with lung cancer and living in that towns at least five previous years. The lung cancer diagnoses were carefully verified by instrumental techniques and 70% of its were morphologically validated. The persons for the control group (448) were chosen from the population living in that towns at least five years taking into account the age and sex. The special epidemiological questionnaire was developed which includes the items by the groups of factors as follow: clinical data, social factors, chronic lung diseases, life habit, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diet preference etc. The epidemiological questionnaires were fulfilled for each member of case and control groups. Radon gas concentration and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration measurements had been performed using nuclear track detectors and grab sampling accordingly in the dwellings of case and control groups members. By preliminary estimation the odds ratios are 1, 0.91, 1.2, 1.1 in the ranges of radon and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration 0-6, 3-13, 13-36 and 36-370 Bq/m3 respectively. The deeper and more rigorous analysis as well as different independent approaches will be discussed in the paper.(author)

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  17. Analysis of Case-Control Association Studies: SNPs, Imputation and Haplotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-11-01

    Although prospective logistic regression is the standard method of analysis for case-control data, it has been recently noted that in genetic epidemiologic studies one can use the "retrospective" likelihood to gain major power by incorporating various population genetics model assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium (HWE), gene-gene and gene-environment independence. In this article we review these modern methods and contrast them with the more classical approaches through two types of applications (i) association tests for typed and untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (ii) estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in the presence of haplotype-phase ambiguity. We provide novel insights to existing methods by construction of various score-tests and pseudo-likelihoods. In addition, we describe a novel two-stage method for analysis of untyped SNPs that can use any flexible external algorithm for genotype imputation followed by a powerful association test based on the retrospective likelihood. We illustrate applications of the methods using simulated and real data. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2009.

  18. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism:A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; XI Qian Qian; WU Jun; HAN Yu; DAI Wei; SU Yuan Yuan; ZHANG Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. Results There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ2=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ2=45.248, P=0.000; χ2=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ2=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. Conclusion The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors.

  19. Varenicline and Risk of Self-Harm: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diana; Yao, Zhan; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains a serious public health concern. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including bupropion and varenicline, are proven means to increase quit rates. Post-marketing reports describing suicidal behaviours have raised concerns about the safety of varenicline. However, whether varenicline imparts a higher risk of suicide relative to bupropion remains uncertain. Methods A population-based nested case-control study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2015 was conducted. Subjects were residents of Ontario aged 18 years and older with publicly funded drug coverage receiving either bupropion or varenicline for smoking cessation. We defined cases were those with a hospitalization or emergency department visit for suicide or non-fatal self-harm within 90 days of treatment. For each case, we identified up to fifty controls from the same cohort matched on age, sex, history of self-harm, use of selected psychotropic medications, alcohol abuse and prior admission to a mental health unit. Adjusted odds ratio were used to compare the risk of suicide/self-harm of varenicline to bupropion. Results We identified 331 cases and 5,346 matched-controls. Following adjustment for potential confounders, we found that varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of suicide/self-harm relative to bupropion (adjusted odds ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.87). Interpretation Treatment with varenicline does not appear to significantly increase the risk of suicide or self-harm relative to bupropion. PMID:27662654

  20. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

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    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  1. Benfluorex and unexplained valvular heart disease: a case-control study.

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    Irène Frachon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent case reports suggest that benfluorex, a fenfluramine derivative used in the management of overweight diabetic patients and dyslipidemia, is associated with cardiac valve regurgitation. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Eligible patients were those admitted in the cardiology or the cardiac surgery units of our hospital between January, 1(st 2003 and June 30(th 2009, with mitral insufficiency diagnostic codes (ICD-10 I340 and I051. Patients with either a primary cause (degenerative, known rheumatic heart disease, infectious endocarditis, congenital, radiation-induced valvular disease, associated connective and/or vasculitis disease, trauma, tumor or a secondary (functional cause were considered as having an "explained" mitral regurgitation. Other patients were considered as having an "unexplained" mitral regurgitation and were included as cases. For each case, two controls were matched for gender and for the closest date of birth, among a list of patients with an "explained" mitral regurgitation. Drug exposures were assessed blindly regarding the case or control status, through contacts with patients, their family and/or their physicians. RESULTS: Out of the 682 eligible patients, 27 cases and 54 matched controls were identified. The use of benfluorex was reported in 22 patients: 19 of the 27 cases, versus 3 of the 54 controls, odds-ratio 17.1 (3.5 to 83, adjusted for body mass index, diabetes and dexfenfluramine use. CONCLUSION: The use of benfluorex is associated with unexplained mitral regurgitation.

  2. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  3. Childhood leukemia and parental occupation: a register-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Steensel-Moll, H.A.; Valkenburg, H.A.; Van Zanen, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    To explore possible etiologic factors of childhood leukemia, a case-control study was performed in the Netherlands. Cases were selected from a complete nationwide register of cases of childhood leukemia which were diagnosed between 1973 and 1980. Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex, and place of residence at the time of diagnosis. Information about possible exposure was collected by a postal questionnaire addressed to the parents. This report concerns the results of the analysis of parental occupations and occupational exposures for 519 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 507 controls. During pregnancy, more mothers of patients were working in ''hydrocarbon-related'' occupations; relative risk (RR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7 - 9.4). Likewise, greater occupational exposure to chemicals (paint, petroleum products, and unspecified chemicals) during pregnancy was found for mothers of patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 - 4.6). The kind of work being performed by the mothers one year before diagnosis did not differ between cases and controls. For the fathers, no relationship was found between a hydrocarbon-related occupation or occupational exposure to chemicals and leukemia in the offspring. Adjustment for birth order, social class, and degree of urbanization did not materially change the relative risks. 16 references, 5 tables.

  4. Outlining a Population "at Risk" of Parkinson's Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Martella, Giuseppina; D'Elia, Alessio; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; Imbriani, Paola; Madeo, Graziella; Monaco, Leonardo; Maltese, Marta; Pisani, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations "at risk" of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population "at risk" of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A sample of 65 patients and 65 controls also underwent serum dosing of iron, copper, mercury, and manganese by means of Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Positive family history, toxicants exposure, non-current-smoker, and alcohol nonconsumer status occurred as significant risk factors in our population. The number of concurring risk factors overlapping in the same subject impressively increased the overall risk. No significant differences were measured in the metal serum levels. Our findings indicate that combination of three to four concurrent PD-risk factors defines a condition "at risk" of PD. A simple stratification, based on these questionnaires, might be of help in identifying subjects suitable for neuroprotective strategies. PMID:27651975

  5. A case-control study on fat-to-muscle ratio and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Boeing, Heiner; De Stefani, Eduardo; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias; Pischon, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze detailed anthropometric characterization for risk of breast cancer in Uruguayan women. The design was a case-control study. The setting was Pereira Rossell Women's Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay. Subjects were 343 incident breast cancer cases and 1,042 frequency-matched healthy controls who were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story; and a series of skin folds, circumferences, and diameters were measured to calculate fat and muscle fractions and the derived fat-to-muscle ratio (FMR). Odds ratio (ORs) coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Muscle fraction was negatively associated with risk [OR for highest quartile = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.34], fat fraction was positively associated (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.62-5.80), and FMR was positively associated (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 2.99-6.62). Stratified analyses by body mass index levels also showed risk increases for the highest tertiles of FMR, always displaying significant linear trends. Since increases of risk were found in overweight and in normal weight women, results suggest that fractions and amount of muscle and fat components might be risk factors for breast cancer on the basis of currently existing metabolic and immune interrelationships between adipose and muscular tissue given by glutamine, exercise-derived myokines, and other cytokines produced by these tissues. PMID:19838918

  6. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

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    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  7. Characteristics and prognosis of pneumococcal endocarditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, M; Tattevin, P; Lelong, B; Flecher, E; Lavoué, S; Piau, C; Ingels, A; Chapron, A; Daubert, J-C; Revest, M

    2016-06-01

    Case series have suggested that pneumococcal endocarditis is a rare disease, mostly reported in patients with co-morbidities but no underlying valve disease, with a rapid progression to heart failure, and high mortality. We performed a case-control study of 28 patients with pneumococcal endocarditis (cases), and 56 patients with non-pneumococcal endocarditis (controls), not matched for sex and age, during the years 1991-2013, in one referral centre. Alcoholism (39.3% versus 10.7%; p endocarditis. Cardiac surgery was required in 64.3% of patients with pneumococcal endocarditis, much earlier than in patients with non-pneumococcal endocarditis (mean time from symptom onset, 14.1 ± 18.2 versus 69.0 ± 61.1 days). In-hospital mortality rates were similar (7.1% versus 12.5%). Streptococcus pneumoniae causes rapidly progressive endocarditis requiring life-saving early cardiac surgery in most cases. PMID:27021424

  8. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

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    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  9. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Case Control Study

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    Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder in women of reproductive age. Psychosocial factors can play a role in PCOS. Methods: To determine the psychosocial factors associated with PCOS in a case control study, 742 PCOS cases were compared to 798 women without PCOS for psychiatric disorders and social conditions. The data were collected using a validated questionnaire of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire (DSM-IV was used to diagnose major psychopathological disorders and other depressive and anxiety syndromes. The suspected psychopathology was evaluated by a clinical psychiatrist. Results: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in education level (71.8% vs. 80.4%; (P<0.001, and employment status (60% vs. 53%; P=0.01 (respectively. Chronic anxiety (35.7% vs. 26.8%; P<0.001, depression (18.9% vs. 7.9 %; P<0.001, anxiety disorders (7.7% vs. 3.3%; P<0.001, and personality disorders (2.9% vs. 1.7%; P=0.01, were higher in the PCOS patients compared controls, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that chronic anxiety and depression were the most pscycologic pattern in PCO patients. Lower educational level and unemployment were higher in the cases than controls.

  10. A case-control study of GST polymorphisms and arsenic related skin lesions

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    Mahiuddin Golam

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 impact detoxification of carcinogens by GSTs and have been reported to increase susceptibility to environmentally related health outcomes. Individual factors in arsenic biotransformation may influence disease susceptibility. GST activity is involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including catalyzing the formation of arsenic-GSH conjugates. Methods We investigated whether polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1 were associated with risk of skin lesions and whether these polymorphisms modify the relationship between drinking water arsenic exposure and skin lesions in a case control study of 1200 subjects frequency matched on age and gender in community clinics in Pabna, Bangladesh in 2001–2002. Results and discussion GSTT1 homozygous wildtype status was associated with increased odds of skin lesions compared to the null status (OR1.56 95% CI 1.10–2.19. The GSTP1 GG polymorphism was associated with greater odds of skin lesions compared to GSTP1 AA, (OR 1.86 (95%CI 1.15–3.00. No evidence of effect modification by GSTT1, GSTM1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms on the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesions was detected. Conclusion GSTT1 wildtype and GSTP1 GG are associated with increased risk of skin lesions.

  11. Estrogen and Alzheimer′s disease in Aging Population: Population based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Hong; Zhen-xin Zhang; Hui Li; Jie hao Zhao; Jue-bin Huang; ling Wei

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Wc conducted a population based case-control study to evaluate the effect of estrogen associated variables in Alzhcimer′s disease. Methods: A total of 2995 female residents aged 55 years or older was drawn-by means of stratified multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas of Beijing. Wc collected gynecological data of 2995 females. Cases were females Alzheimer′s disease ascertained by DSM-Ⅳ criteria and NINCDS-ADRDA critcria. Controls were female residents whose MMSE scores upper than 50 percentage. Odds Ratio were calculated from Logistic models. Results: By a Logistic stepwise multiple regression model, we found that the risk of dementia in women increased with increasing age (OR per year, 1.21, 95%CI, 1.16 -1.27). The risk decreased with increased duration with menstrual cycles (OR per year, 0.8L, 95%CI, 0.68 to 0.97). The risk decreased with increased age of menopause (OR per year, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.04). The risk decreased in women ever suffered from uterine, ovary, or breast tumor (OR, 0.30, 95%C1:0.04- 2.28). Conclusion: The risk of AD decreased with increased duration of menstrual cycles and increased age of menopause and in wome ever suffered fiom uterine. ovary or breast tumor. These findings offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen i AD.

  12. Risk factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in patients with hepatolithiasis:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-YuLiu; Yan-MingZhou; Le-HuaShi; Zheng-FengYin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Why 3.3% to 10% of all patients with hepatolithiasis develop intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains unknown. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study to identify risk factors for the development of ICC in patients with hepatolithiasis in China. METHODS: Eighty-sevenpatientswithpathologicallydiagnosed hepatolithiasis associated with ICC and 228 with hepatolithiasis alone matched by sex, age (±2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence were interviewed during the period of 2000-2008. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculatedforeachriskfactor. RESULTS: Among the patients with hepatolithiasis associated with ICC, the mean age was 57.7 years and 61.0% were female. Univariate analysis showed that the significant risk factors for ICC development in hepatolithiasis were smoking, family history of cancer, appendectomy during childhood (under age 20), and duration of symptoms >10 years. In multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, smoking (OR=1.931, 95%CI: 1.000-3.731), family history of cancer (OR=5.175, 95% CI:1.216-22.022), and duration of symptoms >10 years (OR=2.348, 95% CI: 1.394-3.952) were independent factors. CONCLUSION: Smoking, family history of cancer and duration of symptoms >10 years may be risk factors for ICC in patients with hepatolithiasis.

  13. Association between chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rosamma; Rajappan, Sreeraj; Nath, Sameera G; Paul, Binoy J

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities. A lot of similarities exist between RA and periodontitis at cellular and molecular levels. The relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is still unclear. This case-control study was undertaken to determine the possible association between chronic inflammatory diseases like RA and periodontitis. The case group consisted of 100 patients attending the Rheumatology clinic who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA group). Age- and gender-matched 112 patients without RA attending the Outpatient wing of Department of General Medicine formed the control group (NRA group). The number of missing teeth, gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were evaluated in both the groups. Rheumatoid disease activity was assessed by DAS-28 score system. Systemic markers of inflammation like erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in GI, OHI-S, PPD, CAL, ESR and CRP levels between cases (RA group) and controls (NRA group) (P < 0.05). Among subjects with RA, there was no association between the rheumatoid disease activity and the severity of periodontal disease. The occurrence and severity of periodontitis was found to be higher in RA subjects as compared to subjects without RA, suggesting a positive relation between these two chronic inflammatory diseases.

  14. The Serum Antioxidant Status in Chinese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome:a Case-Control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-rong LI; Kun XUE; Hong-wei GUO; Min WU; Ming LIU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and analyze the association between serum antioxidant status and MS components.MethodsA case-control study was conducted with 221 MS cases and 329 controls aged 18-70 years. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E,β-carotene and lycopene were examined.Results Mean serum SOD activity,β-carotene level were significantly lower, and MDA higher (P<0.05) in MS subjects than in controls after adjusting for age and gender. Serum SOD, GSH-Px andβ-carotene level were also decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased number of MS components.Conclusion Serum antioxidant status was negatively correlated with risks of MS and lower SOD activity andβ-carotene level appeared to be associated with more MS components. Serum oxidative status is useful in assessing the severity of MS.

  15. Outlining a Population "at Risk" of Parkinson's Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Martella, Giuseppina; D'Elia, Alessio; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; Imbriani, Paola; Madeo, Graziella; Monaco, Leonardo; Maltese, Marta; Pisani, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations "at risk" of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population "at risk" of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A sample of 65 patients and 65 controls also underwent serum dosing of iron, copper, mercury, and manganese by means of Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Positive family history, toxicants exposure, non-current-smoker, and alcohol nonconsumer status occurred as significant risk factors in our population. The number of concurring risk factors overlapping in the same subject impressively increased the overall risk. No significant differences were measured in the metal serum levels. Our findings indicate that combination of three to four concurrent PD-risk factors defines a condition "at risk" of PD. A simple stratification, based on these questionnaires, might be of help in identifying subjects suitable for neuroprotective strategies.

  16. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

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    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  17. Total serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

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    Vahideh Lajevardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves the skin, nails and joints. With regard to the role of the immune system in psoriasis, the current study compared serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis with control group. Current case-control study was conducted in Dermatology clinic of Razi hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Fifty-eight patients with psoriasis e referred to the clinic were assigned as patient group and 58 healthy subjects with matched age and sex as a control group. Patient's history, family history and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, duration and severity of disease using PASI, were collected and entered into a form. Consent form was obtained from participants. Serum IgE concentrations of both study groups were measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in the laboratory A total number of 58 patients with psoriasis, mean age of 44.15 (19-76 years and 58 controls with matched age and sex were studied. Mean average of serum IgE concentration in the control group was 115.13 versus 200/06 concentration in patients group (P=0.16. Serum IgE concentration in 22.4% of patients versus 17.2% in controls was greater than normal concentration (P=0.48. No significant correlation was between serum IgE concentration and disease severity using PASI (P=0.11, r=0.21, neither a significant correlation with disease duration, age and gender. According to the present study, serum IgE concentrations are not greater in patients with psoriasis. IgE concentration is also not associated with the severity of psoriasis based on the PASI score, therefore, the role of IgE in psoriasis can be considered insignificant as some previous studies indicate.

  18. Total serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mohtasham, Sima; Ansari, Mahsa; Hedayat, Kosar; Nassiri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves the skin, nails and joints. With regard to the role of the immune system in psoriasis, the current study compared serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis with control group. Current case-control study was conducted in Dermatology clinic of Razi hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Fifty-eight patients with psoriasis e referred to the clinic were assigned as patient group and 58 healthy subjects with matched age and sex as a control group. Patient's history, family history and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, duration and severity of disease using PASI, were collected and entered into a form. Consent form was obtained from participants. Serum IgE concentrations of both study groups were measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in the laboratory A total number of 58 patients with psoriasis, mean age of 44.15 (19-76 years) and 58 controls with matched age and sex were studied. Mean average of serum IgE concentration in the control group was 115.13 versus 200/06 concentration in patients group (P=0.16). Serum IgE concentration in 22.4% of patients versus 17.2% in controls was greater than normal concentration (P=0.48). No significant correlation was between serum IgE concentration and disease severity using PASI (P=0.11, r=0.21), neither a significant correlation with disease duration, age and gender. According to the present study, serum IgE concentrations are not greater in patients with psoriasis. IgE concentration is also not associated with the severity of psoriasis based on the PASI score, therefore, the role of IgE in psoriasis can be considered insignificant as some previous studies indicate.

  19. Epidemiological adaptation of quartz exposure modeling in Swedish aluminum foundries: nested case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Håkan B; Bellander, Tom

    2003-12-01

    In a recent cohort study in aluminum foundries and remelting plants an unexpectedly high risk of lung cancer was found in workers in sand foundries. On the basis of present and historical measurement data, we developed a statistical model for exposure to total dust and crystalline quartz for different jobs and time periods. Cumulative dose estimates of total dust and crystalline quartz were calculated and used in a nested case-control study in the cohort. From the cohort of foundry workers (n = 5016), 46 cases of lung cancer were identified. The final analysis was performed on 31 cases and 233 controls with one year or more of employment. Historical measurement data from the 1960s and onward were collected, totaling 203 total dust and 103 crystalline quartz exposure observations. Regression models, using the determinants of job title, time period, type of foundry, and size of production, were developed for assessing historical total dust and crystalline quartz air concentrations. These estimates were used to calculate individual cumulative exposure in the case-control study. In the multiple linear regression analysis, the determinants explained much of the variations in dust level (r(2) = 0.58). The explained variation in crystalline quartz was much lower (r(2) = 0.13). The regression coefficients for the type of foundry, time period, and size of production were statistically significant for total dust. On the basis of the regression analysis, the final models were used to calculate individual cumulative exposures. The calculated cumulative dust and quartz exposures averaged 33 mg/m(3) * year and 0.42 mg/m(3) * year, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) were not significant, but showed dose-response trends for both dust and crystalline quartz. PMID:14612297

  20. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

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    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  1. Female fertility, obstetric and gynaecological history in coeliac disease. A case control study.

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    Sher, K S; Mayberry, J F

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of infertility, abortions and perinatal mortality, age at menarche and menopause in coeliac disease (CD). It was a case control study in which patients and controls matched for age and sex were sent questionnaires about their fertility profile and other obstetric and gynaecological problems. All 80 patients and 70 controls replied but only 68 groups could be matched for this study. The mean age of menarche in patients was significantly older at 13.6 years than in controls at 12.7 years. The mean age at menopause in patients and controls were 47.6 and 50.1 years respectively. The study showed the mean number of children born to patients with CD was significantly less at 1.9 (SD +/- 0.9) compared to 2.5 (SD +/- 1.2) in controls. Before diagnosis the mean number of children born to patients was 1.4 and 1.8 in controls. After diagnosis and treatment, patients had 0.5 children (SD +/- 0.9) compared to 0.7 in controls (SD +/- 1.2). It seems likely that the overall difference in fertility is due to relative infertility prior to diagnosis and its correction by a gluten-free diet. Significantly more conceptions amongst women with CD (15%) ended in miscarriage prior to diagnosis than amongst controls (6%). After diagnosis and treatment the rate of miscarriage was similar at 7 and 12% respectively. There were 120 live babies and 7 stillbirths to patients compared with 161 live babies and 1 stillbirth to controls. In conclusion, this study shows that patients with CD are subfertile and have an increased incidence of stillbirths and perinatal deaths. PMID:8063029

  2. Stroke and plasma markers of milk fat intake – a prospective nested case-control study

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    Weinehall Lars

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dairy products are high in saturated fat and are traditionally a risk factor for vascular diseases. The fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 of plasma lipids are biomarkers of milk fat intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of a first-ever stroke in relation to the plasma milk fat biomarkers. Methods A prospective case-control study was nested within two population based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Among 129 stroke cases and 257 matched controls, plasma samples for fatty acid analyses were available in 108 cases and 216 control subjects. Proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 of plasma lipids, weight, height, blood lipids, blood pressures, and lifestyle data were employed in conditional logistic regression modelling. Results The proportions of fatty acids 17:0 and 15:0+17:0 of total plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in female controls than cases, but not in men. 17:0 and 15:0+17:0 were significantly and inversely related to stroke in the whole study sample as well as in women. The standardised odds ratio (95% CI in women to have a stroke was 0.41 (0.24–0.69 for 17:0 in plasma phospholipids. Adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity and diet had marginal effects on the odds ratios. A similar, but non-significant, trend was seen in men. Conclusion It is hypothesised that dairy or milk fat intake may be inversely related to the risk of a first event of stroke. The intriguing results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Follow up studies with greater power, and where intakes are monitored both by dietary recordings and fatty acid markers are needed.

  3. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  4. A microsurgical anterior cervical approach and the immediate impact of mechanical retractors: A case control study

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    Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A microsurgical anterior cervical approach with discectomy and fusion (MACDF is one of the most widely used procedures for treating radicular disorders. This approach is highly successful; however, it is not free from complications. These can be associated with soft tissue injuries. Aim of the Study: The recognition of the risks for these complications should be identified for timely prevention and safe treatment. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Retrospective case control study. This study includes a retrospective case series of 37 patients, paying special attention to immediate complications related to the use of mechanical retraction of soft tissue (dysphagia, dysphonia, esophageal lesions and local hematoma; and a comparative analysis of the outcomes after changes in the retraction method. Results: All selected cases had a positive neurological symptom response in relation to neuropathic pain. Dysphagia and dysphonia were found during the first 72 h in 94.1% of the cases in which automatic mechanical retraction was used for more than one hour during the surgical procedure. A radical change was noted in the reduction of the symptoms after the use of only manual protective blades without automatic mechanical retraction: 5.1% dysphagia and 0% dysphonia in the immediate post-operative period, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles.

  5. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  6. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

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    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study. RESULTS: Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  7. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

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    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients. PMID:27253153

  8. Risk factor of preterm labor in the west of iran: a case-control study.

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    Bahareh Derakhshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the most common cause of neonatal death. Risk factors of premature birth can be related with ethnicity and genetic. There is no comprehensive high sample size study in Kurdish ethnicity to determine risk factors related to prematurity. This study evaluated risk factors of preterm labor in Kurdish ethnicity.This case-control study was conducted in 200 preterm infants (case group and 400 term infants (control group, in Besat Hospital, Sanandaj, Iran, in the year 2012. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and analysis was performed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and logistic regression tests.In univariate analysis, mother's own prematurity, history of previous preterm labor, prematurity in the first-degree family members, history of dead children, premature rupture of membranes, multiple pregnancies, overt diabetes, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia, infertility and cervical incompetence had significant relation-ship with preterm labor. However, multivariate analysis results showed that abnormal amniotic fluid, premature rupture of membranes, double and multiple pregnancies, chronic hypertension, family history of premature birth, mothers age over 35 years, and cervical incompetence (P<0.05 had significant relationship with the premature birth.Screening of newborns at risk of preterm labor could be achieved by these risk factors: family history of prematurity, mother's own history of prematurity and previous preterm labor, history of previous neonatal death, decreased amniotic fluid, multiple pregnancies, overt diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, infertility and cervical incompetence, however some of these factors are not the direct cause of prematurity. Our study suggests genetic' s role in preterm labor.

  9. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

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    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients.

  10. The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case-control study.

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    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J; Grzebieta, R H; Olivier, J

    2013-04-01

    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of 'risky cycling behaviour' among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001-2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes. PMID:23377086

  11. Risk factors in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris: a case-control study.

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    Bakhshi, Mahin; Manifar, Soheila; Azizi, Nemat; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansouri, Parvin; Nasiri, Soheila; Hashemi, Zeynab; Mehdipour, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is considered a chronic disease with a potentially fatal outcome. Studies have suggested that environmental factors and personal habits play an important role in the pathogenesis of PV, but more studies are required to elaborate their connection to the disease. The goal of this multicenter case-control study was to determine some of the environmental factors related to PV. Cases (n = 99) were patients with PV, and controls (n = 198) were individuals who did not have PV. Data about demographics, history, clinical findings, occupational exposures to pesticides, smoking status, number of births (parity), herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, and fast food consumption were collected using a structured questionnaire. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the statistically significant factors related to PV were infection with HSV in recent weeks (odds ratio [OR], 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75-6.43), parity (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39-0.63), and lack of occupational exposure to pesticides (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21-0.60). Multivariate analysis revealed that significant factors were cessation of smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.36; 95% CI, 1.50-12.66), HSV infection (AOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.47-5.75), and lack of occupational exposure to pesticides (AOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.20-0.63). The findings indicated that cessation of smoking and HSV infection in recent weeks are risk factors for PV, while lack of occupational exposure to pesticides and increasing parity (a greater number of births) are protective factors against PV. PMID:27148665

  12. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

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    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001, inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001, mother's schooling (p = 0.028 and household income (p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85. In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.

  13. Risk Factors in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Case-control Study

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    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In order to evaluate some possible risk factors for the spread of hepatitis B infection, a case-control study was undertaken.Methods: The study population consisted of subjects who came to Karaj Hepatitis Center. All subjects who met the inclusion criteria were considered as having chronic hepatitis and comprised our case group. Risk factors were evaluated using a questionnaire. Backward conditional logistic regression analysis was used.Results: The case group consisted of 500 chronic subjects, and 434 subjects with negative tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV comprised the control group. Age, male sex, marital status (being married, history of contact with hepatitis, extramarital sexual activity, IV-drug use, major surgery, experimental dentist visit and some jobs (police, barber, and driver were found to be independent risk factors of being chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (odds ratio: 0.9,2.3, 2.1, 8.9, 6.5, 5.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.3, respectively.Conclusions: It seems to be of great importance to pay more attention to certain jobs, life styles and cultural matters in Iran that predispose people to a number of risk factors so as to implement measures to control HBV spread. Despite existence of a long list of risk factors, different epidemiological studies with alternative methodologies accompanied by meta-analysis of risk factors in each separate area seems to be helpful in providing information about transmission routes and surveillance of hepatitis B infection

  14. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

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    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case-control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking atorvastatin.

  15. The association between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis: A case-control study

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    Englund Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been reports both supporting and refuting an inverse relationship between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis (OA. We explore this relationship using a case-control study design. Methods Exclusion criteria were previous hip fracture (same side or contralateral side, age younger than 60 years, foreign nationality, pathological fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and cases were radiographic examinations were not found in the archives. We studied all subjects with hip fracture that remained after the exclusion process that were treated at Akureyri University Hospital, Iceland 1990-2008, n = 562 (74% women. Hip fracture cases were compared with a cohort of subjects with colon radiographs, n = 803 (54% women to determine expected population prevalence of hip OA. Presence of radiographic hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph, or Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or higher. Possible causes of secondary osteoporosis were identified by review of medical records. Results The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR for subjects with hip fracture having radiographic hip OA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.12-0.74 for men and 0.33 (95% CI 0.19-0.58 for women, compared to controls. The probability for subjects with hip fracture and hip OA having a secondary cause of osteoporosis was three times higher than for subjects with hip fracture without hip OA. Conclusion The results of our study support an inverse relationship between hip fractures and hip OA.

  16. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

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    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  17. Association of CD40 with rheumatoid arthritis confirmed in a large UK case-control study

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    Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Ke, Xiayi; Wilson, Anthony G; Bax, Deborah E; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective A recent meta-analysis of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent reported novel associations of markers mapping to the CD40, CCL21 and CDK6 genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility while a large-scale, case-control association study in a Japanese population identified association with multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD244 gene. The aim of the current study was to validate these potential RA susceptibility markers in a UK population. Methods A total of 4 SNPs (rs4810485 in CD40, rs2812378 in CCL21, rs42041 in CDK6 and rs6682654 in CD244) were genotyped in a UK cohort comprising 3962 UK patients with RA and 3531 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. Genotype counts in patients and controls were analysed with the χ2 test using Stata. Results Association to the CD40 gene was robustly replicated (p=2×10−4, OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.93) and modest evidence was found for association with the CCL21 locus (p=0.04, OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16). However, there was no evidence for association of rs42041 (CDK6) and rs6682654 (CD244) with RA susceptibility in this UK population. Following a meta-analysis including the original data, association to CD40 was confirmed (p=7.8×10−8, OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.92). Conclusion In this large UK cohort, strong association of the CD40 gene with susceptibility to RA was found, and weaker evidence for association with RA in the CCL21 locus. PMID:19435719

  18. Chiari malformation type I: a case-control association study of 58 developmental genes.

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    Aintzane Urbizu

    Full Text Available Chiari malformation type I (CMI is a disorder characterized by hindbrain overcrowding into an underdeveloped posterior cranial fossa (PCF, often causing progressive neurological symptoms. The etiology of CMI remains unclear and is most likely multifactorial. A putative genetic contribution to CMI is suggested by familial aggregation and twin studies. Experimental models and human morphometric studies have suggested an underlying paraxial mesoderm insufficiency. We performed a case-control association study of 303 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP across 58 candidate genes involved in early paraxial mesoderm development in a sample of 415 CMI patients and 524 sex-matched controls. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with classical, small-PCF CMI by means of MRI-based PCF morphometry (n = 186, underwent additional analysis. The genes selected are involved in signalling gradients occurring during segmental patterning of the occipital somites (FGF8, Wnt, and retinoic acid pathways and from bone morphogenetic proteins or BMP, Notch, Cdx and Hox pathways or in placental angiogenesis, sclerotome development or CMI-associated syndromes. Single-marker analysis identified nominal associations with 18 SNPs in 14 genes (CDX1, FLT1, RARG, NKD2, MSGN1, RBPJ1, FGFR1, RDH10, NOG, RARA, LFNG, KDR, ALDH1A2, BMPR1A considering the whole CMI sample. None of these overcame corrections for multiple comparisons, in contrast with four SNPs in CDX1, FLT1 and ALDH1A2 in the classical CMI group. Multiple marker analysis identified a risk haplotype for classical CMI in ALDH1A2 and CDX1. Furthermore, we analyzed the possible contributions of the most significantly associated SNPs to different PCF morphometric traits. These findings suggest that common variants in genes involved in somitogenesis and fetal vascular development may confer susceptibility to CMI.

  19. Determinants of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Case-Control Study in Gedaref State, Sudan.

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    Fabienne Nackers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving knowledge on local determinants of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is crucial to guide the development of relevant control strategies. This study aimed to identify individual and household level determinants of primary VL in 24 highly endemic villages of Tabarak Allah hospital's catchment area, Gedaref State, Sudan.From September 2012 to July 2013, in an unmatched case-control design, 198 patients with primary VL were compared to 801 controls free of VL symptoms and with a negative VL rapid test. Using random spatial sampling, controls were selected with a distribution of age, sex and village of residence proportionate to the distribution of the target population. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire.Children and men were at higher risk of VL. Reporting VL patient(s in the household in the previous year was the strongest VL risk factor. In a multivariate analysis, VL risk increased with household size, sleep location (outside the yard, not in the farm, evening outdoor activities in the rainy season (playing, watching TV, radio listening, use of ground nut oil as animal repellent and of smoke of Acacia seyal as indoor repellent, presence of dogs in the yard at night, Acacia nilotica in the yard's immediate surroundings and of a forest at eye range. VL risk appeared to decrease with the use of drinking water sources other than the village water tank, a buffer distance from the adjacent house yard, and with the presence of animals other than dogs in the yard at night. In contrast with previous studies, housing factors, mosquito-net use, black cotton soil, ethnicity, socioeconomic index, presence of Balanites aegyptica and Azadirachta indica in the yard were not independent VL determinants.Although these results do not provide evidence of causality, they provide useful suggestions for guiding further intervention studies on VL preventive measures.

  20. Breast cancer risk and drinking water contaminated by wastewater: a case control study

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    Swartz Christopher H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has a history of wastewater contamination in many, but not all, of its public water supplies; and the region has a history of higher breast cancer incidence that is unexplained by the population's age, in-migration, mammography use, or established breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Methods Participants were 824 Cape Cod women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988–1995 and 745 controls who lived in homes served by public drinking water supplies and never lived in a home served by a Cape Cod private well. We assessed each woman's exposure yearly since 1972 at each of her Cape Cod addresses, using nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N levels measured in public wells and pumping volumes for the wells. Nitrate-N is an established wastewater indicator in the region. As an alternative drinking water quality indicator, we calculated the fraction of recharge zones in residential, commercial, and pesticide land use areas. Results After controlling for established breast cancer risk factors, mammography, and length of residence on Cape Cod, results showed no consistent association between breast cancer and average annual nitrate-N (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.6 – 5.0 for ≥ 1.2 vs. Conclusion Results did not provide evidence of an association between breast cancer and drinking water contaminated by wastewater. The computer mapping methods used in this study to link routine measurements required by the Safe Drinking Water Act with interview data can enhance individual-level epidemiologic studies of multiple health

  1. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

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    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  2. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

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    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  3. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children.

  4. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  5. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  6. Maternal complication prevention: evidence from a case-control study in southwest Nigeria

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    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of strengthening maternal health services as a preventive intervention for morbidities and complications during pregnancy and delivery in developing countries cannot be over-emphasised, since use of prenatal health services improves maternal health outcomes.Aim: This study investigated differences in risk factors for maternal complications in booked and unbooked pregnant women in Nigeria, and provided evidence for their prevention.Setting: The study was carried out in a postnatal ward in a secondary health facility.Methods: This was a case-control study involving booked and unbooked pregnant women who had delivered. Consecutive enrolment of all unbooked pregnant women (cases was done, and one booked pregnant woman (control was enrolled and matched for age with each of these. Both groups were interviewed using a questionnaire, whilst records of delivery were extracted from the hospital files. Findings were subjected to logistical regression at a significance level of p < 0.05.Results: Booked women had a lower median length of labour (10 hours compared to unbooked women (13 hours. More women in the booked control group (139; 35.1% than in the unbooked case group (96; 23.6% reported at least one type of morbidity during the index pregnancy (p = 0.0004. Booking status was associated with a likelihood of spontaneous vaginal delivery. Young maternal age, low education, rural residence and low socio-economic status were associated with less likelihood of using prenatal services. Young maternal age, low education and intervention in the delivery were associated with a likelihood of experiencing a complication of delivery.Conclusion: Strengthening antenatal and secondary healthcare services as short- and mediumterm measures might be cost-effective as a preventive strategy in complications of pregnancy,whilst socio-economic dimensions of health are accorded priority in the long term.

  7. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsaei; Cheraghi; Dehghani; Jahangard

    2015-01-01

    Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP), mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged...

  8. Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes and cytochrome P-450 2D6 genotype : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillevoort, [No Value; de Boer, A; van der Weide, J; Steijns, LSW; Roos, RAC; Jansen, PAF; Leufkens, HGM

    2002-01-01

    To study the association between polymorphism of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6) and the risk of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes, as measured by the use of anti parkinsonian medication. Data for this case-control study were obtained from a psychiatric hospital where newly admit

  9. A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Yemeni children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Elemraid; I.J. Mackenzie; W.D. Fraser; G. Harper; B. Faragher; Z. Atef; N. Al-Aghbari; B.J. Brabin

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children are common in low resource settings, but there are few studies of their interactions. The aim is to evaluate nutritional factors associated with CSOM in Yemeni children. A case-control study of 75 children with CSOM and 74 health

  10. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie;

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose...

  11. Head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Mortimer; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA re-analysis of the data from 11 case-control studies was performed to investigate the association between head trauma and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To increase comparability of studies, exposures were limited to head trauma with loss of consciousness (hereafter referred to as 'head tra

  12. An exploratory case control study of risk factors for hepatitis E in rural Bangladesh.

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    Alain B Labrique

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the major cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis globally. Outbreaks are associated with fecal contamination of drinking water, yet the environmental reservoir of HEV between epidemics remains unclear. In contrast to neighboring countries, where epidemics and sporadic disease co-occur, HEV-endemic communities in rural Bangladesh seldom report outbreaks; sporadic hepatitis E is reported from urban and rural areas of the country. Besides typical enteric risk factors, other routes for HEV infection and disease are unclear. We conducted monthly household surveillance of a southern Bangladeshi community of 23,500 people to find incident cases of acute hepatitis E over a 22 month period. An algorithm was used to capture 279 candidate cases, of which 46 were confirmed acute HEV infections. An exploratory case-control study was conducted to identify putative risk factors for disease. Nearly 70% of cases were over 15 years old. Female gender seemed protective (OR:0.34 against hepatitis E in this conservative setting, as was the use of sanitary latrines (OR:0.28. Socioeconomic status or animal exposures were not significant predictors of disease, although outdoor employment and recent urban travel were. Unexpectedly, recent contact with a "jaundiced" patient and a history of injection exposure in the 3 months prior to disease (OR:15.50 were significant. Susceptible individuals from "endemic" communities share similar enteric exposure risks to those commonly associated with tourists from non-endemic countries. This study also raises the novel possibility of parenteral and person-to-person transmission of HEV in non-epidemic, sporadic disease settings.

  13. A breed-matched case-control study of potential risk-factors for canine pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Hedhammar, Åke; Egenvall, Agneta

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate plausible risk-factors for pyometra, a common disease affecting almost 25% of all (unspayed) female dogs before 10 years of age. Because of the strong breed-predilection, an age- and breed-matched case-control study was undertaken on 87 pairs (pyometra-cases and healthy controls) from five breeds (Rottweiler (n = 13), Collie (n = 8), Golden retriever (n = 24), Labrador retriever (n = 16) and German shepherd dog (n = 26)). The mean age was 7.9 y (range 0.8-13.8 y). Variables analyzed included pseudopregnancy, age at first oestrus, length of and regularity of the interoestrus interval, hormone treatments, nulliparity, number of parities, age at first whelping, previous urinary tract infections and mammary tumours. Data were modelled multivariably using matched-pair conditional logistic regression. Analysing interactions with breed, previous pregnancy was statistically associated with pyometra. When amalgamated, in three breeds previous pregnancy was protective (Rottweiler, Collie, Labrador retriever) and in one breed statistically intermediate (German shepherd dog) when compared to the baseline (Golden retriever). Previous pregnancy was a statistically significant factor that had a protective effect against pyometra in some breeds but not in the Golden retriever breed. These findings indicate that protective- and risk-factors may vary between different breeds. The obvious problem with low power and limited possibility for extrapolation, using few dogs in few breeds, is acknowledged. However, it is suggested that failure to control for the confounding effect of breed, especially in epidemiological studies on dog diseases, may lead to potentially erroneous conclusions. PMID:21196041

  14. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study from Mwanza, Tanzania.

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    Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in an urban population in Tanzania among culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients and non-TB neighbourhood controls. Participants were tested for diabetes according to WHO guidelines and serum concentrations of acute phase reactants were measured. The association between diabetes and TB, and the role of HIV as an effect modifier, were examined using logistic regression. Since blood glucose levels increase during the acute phase response, we adjusted for elevated serum acute phase reactants. RESULTS: Among 803 cases and 350 controls the mean (SD age was 34.8 (11.9 and 33.8 (12.0 years, and the prevalence of diabetes was 16.7% (95% CI: 14.2; 19.4 and 9.4% (6.6; 13.0, respectively. Diabetes was associated with TB (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5; 3.4, p<0.001. However, the association depended on HIV status (interaction, p = 0.01 due to a stronger association among HIV uninfected (OR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.5; 11.6, p = 0.01 compared to HIV infected (OR 0.1, 95% CI: 0.01; 1.8, p = 0.13 after adjusting for age, sex, demographic factors and elevated serum acute phase reactants. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is a risk factor for TB in HIV uninfected, whereas the association in HIV infected patients needs further study. The increasing diabetes prevalence may be a threat to TB control.

  15. Antipsychotic Medications and Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Yang, Shu-Yu; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization in association with the use of certain antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia patients. Methods A nationwide cohort of 31,177 inpatients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years whose records were enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008 and were studied after encrypting the identifications. Cases (n = 147) were patients with subsequent acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization after their first psychiatric admission. Based on a nested case-control design, each case was matched with 20 controls for age, sex and the year of first psychiatric admission using risk-set sampling. The effects of antipsychotic agents on the development of acute coronary syndrome were assessed using multiple conditional logistic regression and sensitivity analyses to confirm any association. Results We found that current use of aripiprazole (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.27–10.64, p<0.05) and chlorpromazine (adjusted RR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.40–6.24, p<0.001) were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome. Although haloperidol was associated with an increased risk (adjusted RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20–3.44, p<0.01), there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. These three antipsychotic agents were also associated with an increased risk in the first 30 days of use, and the risk decreased as the duration of therapy increased. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score-adjusted modeling showed that the results were similar to those of multiple regression analysis. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who received aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, or haloperidol could have a potentially elevated risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, particularly at the start of therapy. PMID:27657540

  16. Laboratory markers of disease severity in Plasmodium knowlesi infection: a case control study

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    Willmann Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium knowlesi malaria causes severe disease in up to 10% of cases in Malaysian Borneo and has a mortality rate of 1 - 2%. However, laboratory markers with the ability to identify patients at risk of developing complications have not yet been assessed as they have for other species of Plasmodium. Methods A case control study was undertaken in two hospitals in Sarikei and Sibu, Malaysian Borneo. One hundred and ten patients with uncomplicated (n = 93 and severe (n = 17 P. knowlesi malaria were studied. Standardized pigment-containing neutrophil (PCN count, parasite density and platelet counts were determined and analysed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results The PCN count was strongly associated with risk of disease severity. Patients with high parasite density (≥ 35,000/μl or with thrombocytopaenia (≤ 45,000/μl were also more likely to develop complications (odds ratio (OR = 9.93 and OR = 5.27, respectively. The PCN count yielded the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC estimate among all markers of severity (AUC = 0.8561, 95% confidence interval: 0.7328, 0.9794. However, the difference between all parameter AUC estimates was not statistically significant (Wald test, p = 0.73. Conclusion Counting PCN is labour-intensive and not superior in predicting severity over parasitaemia and platelet counts. Parasite and platelet counts are simpler tests with an acceptable degree of precision. Any adult patient diagnosed with P. knowlesi malaria and having a parasite count ≥35,000/μl or ≥1% or a platelet count ≤45,000/μl can be regarded at risk of developing complications and should be managed according to current WHO guidelines for the treatment of severe malaria.

  17. Occupational factors and risk of adult bone sarcomas: a multicentric case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bertoni, Franco; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Buemi, Antoine; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Kaerlev, Linda; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Merler, Enzo; Miranda, Ana; Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsson, Håkan; Fletcher, Tony; Olsen, Jorn

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the association between occupational factors and risk of bone sarcoma, a rare tumor with a largely unknown aetiology. A multicentric case-control study was conducted in 7 European countries in 1995-97. Ninety-six cases aged 35-69 years with a centrally reviewed diagnosis of bone sarcoma (68 chondrosarcomas and 28 osteosarcomas) were compared to 2,632 population (68%) or colon cancer (32%) controls. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on occupational, medical and reproductive history, smoking and alcohol consumption and selected exposures including use of pesticides. Response proportions were 90% among cases and 66% among controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for selected categories of job titles and branches of industry and for use of pesticides. We found an increased OR for bone sarcoma among blacksmiths, toolmakers, machine-tool operators (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.26), woodworkers (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.36-5.29) and construction workers (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 0.92-2.87). Ever users of pesticide had an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.31-4.13), with similar risks for exposure to insecticides and exposure to herbicides. Neither duration of employment in any of the analyzed occupational categories nor duration of use of pesticides showed an increasing trend in the risk of bone sarcoma. ORs of bone sarcoma were 1.03 (95% CI 0.23-4.57), 3.13 (95% CI 1.26-7.76) and 1.44 (95% CI 0.43-4.85) for the first, second and third tertile of days of use of pesticides. Our study suggests that novel and previously reported (woodworking) occupational factors play a role in the aetiology of bone sarcomas.

  18. Models for retrospective quantification of indoor radon exposure in case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In epidemiologic studies on lung cancer risk due to indoor radon the quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. Therefore, radon measurements in one or more dwellings, which in total have been inhabited by the participants for a sufficient time-period, are necessary as well as consideration of changes of building characteristics and ventilation habits, which influence radon concentration. Given data on 1-y alpha-track measurements and personal information from 6,000 participants of case-control studies in West and East Germany, and improved method is developed to assess individual radon exposure histories. Times spent in different rooms of the dwelling, which are known from a personal questionnaire, are taken into account. The time spent outside the house varies substantially among the participants. Therefore, assuming a substantially lower radon exposure outside the dwelling, the residence time constitutes an important aspect of total radon exposure. By means of an analysis of variance, important determinants of indoor radon are identified, namely constant conditions such as type of house, type of construction, year of construction, floor and type of basement, and changeable conditions such as heating system, window insulation, and airing habits. A correction of measurements in former dwellings by factors derived from the analysis is applied if current living conditions differ from those of the participants at the time when they were living in the particular dwellings. In rare cases the adjustment for changes leads to a correction of the measurements with a factor of about 1.4, but a reduction of 5% on average only. Exposure assessment can be improved by considering time at home and changes of building and ventilation conditions that affect radon concentration. The major concern that changes in ventilation habits and building conditions lead to substantial errors in exposure assessment cannot be confirmed in the

  19. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

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    Mor A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  20. Risk factors for infection with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case-case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Gómez Rueda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: To evaluate the association between quinolone exposure and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP and to estimate CRKP-specific mortality.Methods: Case-case-control study implemented in a tertiary care institution. Three groups of patients were analyzed: 61 consecutive cases of infection with CRKP (Group I; 61 randomly chosen cases of patients infected with carbapenem-sensitive Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP; Group II; and 122 randomly chosen controls without CRKP or CSKP infection. Matching was based on the length of stay in intensive care unit and the date of bacterial isolation. An active search was performed for patients with CRKP and CSKP infection, and prospective cases were included in the study. We compared the results for Groups I and II against those for the controls by using two conditional logistic regression analyses that included infection as the dependent variable and controlled for time at risk and co-morbidities.Results: Exposure to quinolones was not associated with CRKP infection: no association was found in the analysis of CRKP with the controls (OR= 1.7; 95% CI: 0.2-6.5 or in the analysis of CSKP against the controls (OR= 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2-1.6. Use of carbapenems (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.2-9.3 and colonization with CRKP (OR = 3.3; 95% IC: 1.2-9.3 were specific risk factors for infection with CRKP. Mortality associated with CRKP was 61.3%.Conclusion: No association was found between exposure to quinolones and infection with CRKP; however, colonization by CRKP and use of carbapenems are risk factors for infection with CRKP.

  1. Recent food shortage is associated with leprosy disease in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

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    Sabiena G Feenstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06-3.02; p = 0.030. A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71-1.02; p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease.

  2. Recent Food Shortage Is Associated with Leprosy Disease in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Sabiena G.; Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT) reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. Methods and Findings We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06–3.02); p = 0.030). A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71–1.02); p = 0.083). Conclusions Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease. PMID:21572979

  3. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  4. Fibre intake and renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Carlotta; Pelucchi, Claudio; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Montella, Maurizio; Ramazzotti, Valerio; Zucchetto, Antonella; Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2007-10-15

    Only 2 previous studies, conducted in Australia, United States and northern Europe, considered the role of dietary fibre intake on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk, and both showed a modest, inverse association. Therefore, we investigated in depth the topic of fibres and RCC, using data from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Italy from 1992 to 2004, including 767 cases with incident, histologically confirmed RCC and 1,534 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals as cases with acute nonmalignant conditions. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained after allowance for major identified confounding factors, including total energy intake. The continuous OR for an increase in intake equal to the difference between the 80th and the 20th percentile were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.82-1.08) for total dietary fibre, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.85-1.13) for soluble noncellulose polysaccharides, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05) for total insoluble fibre, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.04) for cellulose, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84-1.06) for insoluble noncellulose polysaccharides and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93-1.21) for lignin. With reference to the sources of fibre, we found an inverse association with vegetable fibre (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.97), but no association with fruit (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12) and grain fibre (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.15). The inverse association with vegetable fibre may reflect a real favorable effect, or be an indicator of a beneficial role of a diet rich in vegetable on RCC risk. PMID:17582601

  5. Association between statin therapy and tendon rupture: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Abhimanyu; Dwamena, Francesca C; Dwamena, Ben A

    2009-05-01

    Although case reports of a possible association between statin therapy and tendon rupture have been published, no analytical studies exploring this relationship have been reported. We conducted a case-control study using the electronic medical records at Michigan State University from 2002 to 2007 to assess whether statin use is a risk factor for tendon rupture. We compared exposure to statins in 93 cases of tendon rupture with similar exposure in 279 sex- and age-matched controls. Exposure to statins was defined as documentation in the electronic medical record of statin use in the 12 months preceding tendon rupture. For controls, the exposure period was defined as 1 year preceding the last office visit. We used a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for diabetes, renal disease, rheumatologic disease, and steroid use, to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs). There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the rates of statin use, with either univariate [OR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.84] or multivariate analyses (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.57-2.13). Based on predetermined subgroup analyses, statin exposure was found to be a significant risk factor for tendon rupture in women (adjusted OR = 3.76, 95% CI 1.11-12.75) but not in men (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.29-1.51). In conclusion, we found no overall association between statin use and tendon rupture, but subgroup analysis suggested that women with tendon rupture were more likely to be on statins. PMID:19454900

  6. Case-control study of risk factors for disease in the neck and shoulder area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, K; Björkqvist, B; Malm, P; Bjerre-Kiely, B; Karlsson, M; Axelson, O

    1994-04-01

    A case-control study was performed to elucidate the strength of the relation between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and physical, organisational, and psychosocial aspects of the work environment. Cases were identified as those persons who consulted a physician in a community in southern Sweden for new musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders during a study period from August 1988 to the end of October 1989. One hundred and nine cases were collected and clinically examined. The cases also answered the Nordic questionnaire on symptoms as well as a questionnaire on work conditions and background factors. Controls were drawn as a random sample of the working population in the community where the cases appeared. A total of 637 controls answered the same questionnaires as the cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. The odds ratios were 11.4 for women, 4.9 for immigrant background, and 3.7 for current smoking. To exercise rarely, compared with often, appeared as a preventive factor with an OR of 0.3. The ORs for various determinants of physical work load were 7.5 for repetitive movements demanding precision, 13.6 for light lifting, 3.6 for uncomfortable sitting positions, 4.8 for work with lifted arms, and 3.5 for a rushed work pace. Regarding work organisational determinants, the ORs were 16.5 for ambiguity of work role (uncertainty whether the person could manage the work) 2.6 for low quality work, and 3.8 for high demands on attention. Several of the determinants showed a significant dose-response relation with disease. It seems that work organisation and psychosocial work conditions are as important determinants for disease in the neck and shoulders as are the physical work conditions. PMID:8199669

  7. Diet and breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulos, D; Boyle, P; Xirouchaki, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lisseos, B; Vasilaros, S; MacMahon, B

    1986-12-15

    A case-control study of the role of diet in the etiology of breast cancer was conducted in Athens, Greece. There are reasons to believe that the diet of the Greek population is characterized by greater heterogeneity than that in most countries where such studies have been undertaken. The case series consisted of 120 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer admitted to either of two teaching hospitals over a 12-month period. The controls were 120 patients admitted to a teaching hospital for trauma and orthopedic conditions during the same period. Dietary histories concerning the frequency of consumption of 120 foods and drinks were obtained by interview. Cases reported significantly less frequent consumption of vegetables as a group and, within that group, specifically of cucumber, lettuce and raw carrot. After adjustment for potential external confounding variables and for confounding between food categories, the odds ratio for persons in the highest quintile of vegetable consumers, relative to those in the lowest quintile, was 0.09 with 95% confidence limits 0.03-0.30. That is to say, the lowest quintile of vegetable consumers had about 10 times the breast cancer risk of the highest quintile. For a score based on consumption of only the 3 specified salad items the odds ratio over the extreme quartiles was 0.12 (0.05-0.32). There was no association with consumption of fats and oils, alcohol or coffee, and no significant association with any other major food category (including alcohol and coffee) after adjustment for confounding variables. PMID:3793261

  8. The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E; Trichopoulos, D; Kalapothaki, V; Pourtsidis, A; Kogevinas, M; Kalmanti, M; Koliouskas, D; Kosmidis, H; Panagiotou, J P; Piperopoulou, F; Tzortzatou, F

    1997-01-01

    The risk profile of childhood leukaemia in Greece was studied through a case-control investigation that included all 153 incident cases of the disease, ascertained throughout the country during 1993 and 1994, and two hospital controls for every case matched for gender, age and place of residence. The data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and the associations are expressed in terms of adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Cases were born to mothers of a higher standard education, the OR for an increment of four schooling years being 1.48 (1.17-1.87) and had higher birth weight, the OR for an increment of 500g being 1.36 (1.04-1.77). Pet ownership and birth after a pregnancy with anaemia were associated with increased risk, the ORs being 2.18 (1.14-4.16) and 2.60 (1.39-4.86) respectively. From the frequency analyses, indicative inverse associations were found with birth order, household crowding and previous hospitalization with allergic diseases, whereas indicative positive associations were found with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and with neonatal jaundice. Substantial or significant elevations were not found with respect to maternal smoking and coffee drinking during pregnancy, diagnostic radiography and ultrasonographic examinations or blood transfusions. A significant inverse association with maternal consumption of alcohol could be due to multiple comparisons, but a detrimental effect can probably be excluded. A non-significant positive association with total shots of viral vaccinations and a weak non-significant inverse association with breast feeding were also found. We interpret the findings of this study as being compatible with acute childhood leukaemia being linked with delayed development of herd immunity to fairly common infectious agents, in conjunction with accelerated perinatal and early post-natal growth. PMID:9365177

  9. Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Huang, Jiang-ping; Xie, Xing

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Tea has anticarcinogenic effects against breast cancer in experimental studies. However, epidemiologic evidence that tea protects against breast cancer has been inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted in Southeast China between 2004 and 2005. The incidence cases were 1009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from breast disease clinics. Information on duration, frequency, quantity, preparation, type of tea consumption, diet and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals. Compared with non-tea drinkers, green tea drinkers tended to reside in urban, have better education and have higher consumption of coffee, alcohol, soy, vegetables and fruits. After adjusting established and potential confounders, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. The ORs were 0.87 (0.73-1.04) in women consuming 1-249 g of dried green tea leaves per annum, 0.68 (0.54-0.86) for 250-499 g per annum, 0.59 (0.45-0.77) for 500-749 g per annum and 0.61 (0.48-0.78) for >or=750 g per annum, with a statistically significant test for trend (P consumption of green tea can protect against breast cancer. More research to closely examine the relationship between tea consumption and breast cancer risk is warranted. PMID:17183063

  10. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  11. Risk of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepines: Applying common protocol to a multi-database nested case-control study. The protect project

    OpenAIRE

    Requena, Gema; Logie, John; González-González, Rocío; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Afonso, Ana; Souverein, Patrick C.; Merino, Elisa Martin; Boudiaf, Nada; Huerta, Consuelo; Bate, Andrew; Alvarez, Yolanda; García-Rodríguez, Luis A; Reynolds, Robert; Schlienger, Raymond G.; De Groot, Mark C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between benzodiazepines (BZD) and hip fractures has been estimated in several observational studies although diverse methodologies and definitions have hampered comparability. Objectives: To evaluate the discrepancies in the risk estimates of hip/femur fractures associated with BDZs across different databases and to assess the impact of different matching strategies. Methods: A case control study nested in a cohort of BZD users, examining their association with the...

  12. Gout, not induced by diuretics? A case-control study from primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, H.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Janssen, M.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is taken for granted that diuretics may induce gout, but there is a general lack of evidence on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of gout in patients who use diuretics, taking into account concurrent hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: A case-control st

  13. Risk Factors of Streptococcus suis Infection in Vietnam. A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.N.H. Dang; P.T.L. Thi; M. Wolbers; T.C. Quang; M.H.N. van; T.N.T. Vu; P.N. Hoan; H.C.T. Thi; S.D. Xuan; D.T. Song; T.H.H. Thi; H. Truong; J. Campbell; V.C.N. van; C.N. Tran; D.N. van; H.N. Thi; B.G. Spratt; H.T. Tinh; J. Farrar; C. Schultsz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. Methods and Findings: A case-control

  14. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in inmates: A case control study in Durango City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Ramos-Nevárez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Sáenz-Soto, L.; Liesenfeld, O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43–5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29–11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). Conclusions The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed. PMID:24678408

  15. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  16. Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease. INTRODUCTION: Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. METHODS: This case-control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high-and low-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t-test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied. RESULTS: Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = -0.328, p<0.01 and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05. Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = -0.269, p<0.05 and positively predicted by high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01. Also, low-density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01. The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level. CONCLUSION: In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients

  17. Incorporating single-locus tests into haplotype cladistic analysis in case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In case-control studies, genetic associations for complex diseases may be probed either with single-locus tests or with haplotype-based tests. Although there are different views on the relative merits and preferences of the two test strategies, haplotype-based analyses are generally believed to be more powerful to detect genes with modest effects. However, a main drawback of haplotype-based association tests is the large number of distinct haplotypes, which increases the degrees of freedom for corresponding test statistics and thus reduces the statistical power. To decrease the degrees of freedom and enhance the efficiency and power of haplotype analysis, we propose an improved haplotype clustering method that is based on the haplotype cladistic analysis developed by Durrant et al. In our method, we attempt to combine the strengths of single-locus analysis and haplotype-based analysis into one single test framework. Novel in our method is that we develop a more informative haplotype similarity measurement by using p-values obtained from single-locus association tests to construct a measure of weight, which to some extent incorporates the information of disease outcomes. The weights are then used in computation of similarity measures to construct distance metrics between haplotype pairs in haplotype cladistic analysis. To assess our proposed new method, we performed simulation analyses to compare the relative performances of (1 conventional haplotype-based analysis using original haplotype, (2 single-locus allele-based analysis, (3 original haplotype cladistic analysis (CLADHC by Durrant et al., and (4 our weighted haplotype cladistic analysis method, under different scenarios. Our weighted cladistic analysis method shows an increased statistical power and robustness, compared with the methods of haplotype cladistic analysis, single-locus test, and the traditional haplotype-based analyses. The real data analyses also show that our proposed method

  18. Incorporating single-locus tests into haplotype cladistic analysis in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Papasian, Chris; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-03-23

    In case-control studies, genetic associations for complex diseases may be probed either with single-locus tests or with haplotype-based tests. Although there are different views on the relative merits and preferences of the two test strategies, haplotype-based analyses are generally believed to be more powerful to detect genes with modest effects. However, a main drawback of haplotype-based association tests is the large number of distinct haplotypes, which increases the degrees of freedom for corresponding test statistics and thus reduces the statistical power. To decrease the degrees of freedom and enhance the efficiency and power of haplotype analysis, we propose an improved haplotype clustering method that is based on the haplotype cladistic analysis developed by Durrant et al. In our method, we attempt to combine the strengths of single-locus analysis and haplotype-based analysis into one single test framework. Novel in our method is that we develop a more informative haplotype similarity measurement by using p-values obtained from single-locus association tests to construct a measure of weight, which to some extent incorporates the information of disease outcomes. The weights are then used in computation of similarity measures to construct distance metrics between haplotype pairs in haplotype cladistic analysis. To assess our proposed new method, we performed simulation analyses to compare the relative performances of (1) conventional haplotype-based analysis using original haplotype, (2) single-locus allele-based analysis, (3) original haplotype cladistic analysis (CLADHC) by Durrant et al., and (4) our weighted haplotype cladistic analysis method, under different scenarios. Our weighted cladistic analysis method shows an increased statistical power and robustness, compared with the methods of haplotype cladistic analysis, single-locus test, and the traditional haplotype-based analyses. The real data analyses also show that our proposed method has practical

  19. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  20. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Graumann, A M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case herds were more than five times more likely than control herds to allow their animals access to risky water sources with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximity. Case herds were also more likely to share machinery or hire contractors than control herds. The risk decreased with increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups, enabling development of risk-based meat inspection systems.

  2. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556; training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3 and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8 carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9, current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4, hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1, and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6. Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

  3. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

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    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  4. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

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    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  5. Association of Serum Uric Acid with Preeclampsia: A Case Control Study

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    Razia Sultana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is still one of the important causes of maternal and fetal mortality in Bangladesh. Many researches have been done to identify a unique screening test that would predict the risk of developing PE before the classic symptoms appear. One of the most accessible and easiest screening tests is serum uric acid measurement. Numerous studies have demonstrated a relation between elevated maternal serum uric acid levels and adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Among several pathophysiologic factors the most commonly accepted explanation for hyperuricemia in PE is increased reabsorption and decreased excretion of uric acid.Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the association of serum uric acid with preeclampsia.Materials and method: A case control study was conducted in the department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2010 to June 2011. A total number of 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy attending in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital were selected purposively as study subjects. Among them 50 pregnant women with preeclampsia were selected as cases and 50 normal healthy pregnant women as controls.Results: Most of the study subjects were within 21 – 30 years of age group and mean age in case and control was 24.06±3.71 and 24.66±3.22 years respectively, which was not statistically different. Mean gestational age in case and control was 33.50±2.55 weeks and 33.60±2.95 weeks respectively, which was also not statistically different. Among the study subjects majority was primi in both groups (case 76%, contol 58% showing no statistical significance. Majority of the subjects in both groups were irregular in their antenatal checkup (case 52%, contol 40%. Uric acid concentration was measured in all the study subjects. The mean serum uric acid concentration in cases and controls were 7.01±1.90 mg/dl and 4.55±1.63 mg/dl respectively. This

  6. Lung Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Radon and Role of Smoking in Two Czech Nested Case-Control Studies

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    Ladislav Tomasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952–2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960–2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively. The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population.

  7. Familial aggregation of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one

  8. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding mate

  9. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia – a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, JS; Dohn, G;

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  10. Serologic reactions against Salmonella in samples from broiler parent stock with and without preceding colibacillosis: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Feld, Niels Christian; Andersen, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    . and other Enterobacteriaceae, e.g., Escherichia coli, because a high specificity of a Salmonella antibody test is desirable. Moreover, false-positive Salmonella results have economic consequences and impede planning the production. A case-control study based on cases of clinical E. coli infections...

  11. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B.; Sumnik, Z.; Schober, E.; Waldhor, T.; Battelino, T.; Bratanic, N.; Kurti, K.; Lebl, J.; Limbert, C.; Madacsy, L.; Odink, R.J.H.; Paskova, M.; Soltesz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  12. Income Inequality and Risk of Suicide in New York City Neighborhoods: A Multilevel Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.S.; Bosetti, C; Munoz, N.; Herrero, R; Bosch, F.X.; Eluf-Neto, J; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ; Franceschi, S; Peeling, RW

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7 countr

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013 influe

  15. Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

  16. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B; Sumnik, Z; Schober, E; Waldhor, T; Battelino, T; Bratanic, N; Kurti, K; Lebl, J; Limbert, C; Madacsy, L; Odink, RJH; Paskova, M; Soltesz, G

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  17. TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND BRAIN STEM EVOKED RESPONSE AUDIOMETRY: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM causes pathophysiological changes in multiple organ system. The peripheral, autonomic and central neuropathy is known to occur in T2DM, which can be studied electrophysiologically. AIM Present study is aimed to evaluate functional integrity of auditory pathway in T2DM by Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA. MATERIAL AND METHOD In the present case control study, BERA was recorded from the scalp of 20 T2DM patients aged 30-65 years and were compared with age matched 20 healthy controls. The BERA was performed using EMG Octopus, Clarity Medical Pvt. Ltd. The latencies of wave I, III, V and Wave I-III, I-V and III-V interpeak latencies of both right and left ear were recorded at 70dBHL. STATISTICAL RESULT AND USE Mean±SD of latencies of wave I, III, V and interpeak latency of I-III, I-V and III-V were estimated of T2DM and healthy controls. The significant differences between the two groups were assessed using unpaired student ‘t’ test for T2DM and control groups using GraphPad QuickCalcs calculator. P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULT In T2DM BERA study revealed statistically significant (p<0.05 prolonged latencies of wave I, III and V in both right (1.81±0.33ms, 3.96±0.32ms, 5.60±0.25ms and left (1.96±0.24ms, 3.79±0.22ms, 5.67±0.25ms ear as compared to controls at 70dB. Wave III-V interpeak latency of left ear (1.87±0.31, 1.85±0.41ms and wave I-III (2.51±0.42ms, 1.96±0.48ms and III-V (2.01±0.43ms, 1.76±0.45ms of right ear was prolonged in diabetic patient as compared to controls, although no significant difference was obtained (p<0.05. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Increase in absolute latencies and interpeak latencies inT2DM patients suggest involvement of central neuronal axis at the level of brain stem and midbrain.

  18. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A; Juurlink, David N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Up to four controls for each case were identified from the same cohort, matched on age, sex, and presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and required to have received one of the study antibiotics within 14 days before the case’s index date. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for association between admission to hospital with hyperkalaemia and receipt of a study antibiotic in the preceding 14 days, adjusted for conditions and drugs that may influence risk of hyperkalaemia. Results During the 18 year study period, 6903 admissions for hyperkalaemia were identified, 306 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic use. Of these, 248 (81%) cases were matched to 783 controls. 10.8% (17 859/165 754) of spironolactone users received at least one prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared with amoxicillin, prescription of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a marked increase in the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 21.6). The population attributable fraction was 59.7%, suggesting that approximately 60% of all cases of hyperkalaemia in older patients taking spironolactone and treated with an antibiotic for a urinary tract infection could be avoided if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not prescribed. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was also associated with an increase in the risk of

  19. Association of depression and stress in acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia RM Goldfeld

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychosocial factors have been reported to be independently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. However the stress variable is still sub detailed and there are few studies that used coronary angiography (CA to assess CAD. Objectives. To compare levels of depression, stress and stressful life events in three groups of individuals: post-MI (Myocardial Infarction patients; patients presenting symptoms and no previous MI who underwent cardiac catheterization and had non-significant obstructive CAD and individuals with no symptoms of cardiac disease or others diseases. Methods. We conducted a case-control study, with two cases groups and one control group. The study included 105 patients with recent Myocardial Infarction (MI group, 101 patients with cardiac symptoms and normal CA (CS group, and 100 patients without symptoms of disease (NS group. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess stress and vital events with an Odds Ratio of 95% confidence interval (CI, controlling for age, sex, education level, income, social support group, Body Mass Index (BMI, sedentary lifestyle and family history of MI or sudden death. Results. MI patients group showed depression with an OR= 4.47(95% CI, 2:36 to 8:46, p<.001, and stress OR= 5.37(95%CI, 2.94-9.78, p<.001 whereas CS group showed depression: OR= 6.95(95%CI, 3.64-13.28, p<.001 and stress: OR=9.18 (95%CI, 4.73-17.82, p<.001 compared to patients without symptoms. After adjusting the groups for the following risk factors: age, sex, education, income, social support, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history of MI or sudden death, the OR showed the following variation: in the MI group, depression OR=2.51 (95%CI, 1:05 to 5:98, p=.038, stress, OR=8.76(95%CI, 3:48 to 22:01, p<.001, while the CS group showed: depression OR=3.25(95%CI, 1.40-7.55,p<01 and stress OR=12.24 (95%, CI, 4.81-31.14, p<.001. The raised effect of variable stress after adjustment was promoted by age, sex and

  20. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheroz H Rabadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients

  1. Risk factors for obstetric fistula in Western Uganda: a case control study.

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    Justus Kafunjo Barageine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000-100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. METHODS: A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases and women without fistula (controls was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. RESULTS: Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 13.30, 95% CI = 6.74-26.39, respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.35-5.26, baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15-1.99, prolonged labour (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13-0.72 and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25% of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby of 3.5 kg or more, respondent height of 150 cm

  2. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

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    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  3. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Roggeri, Alessandro; Roggeri,Daniela Paola; Rossi, Elisa; Cataudella,Salvatore; Martini, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Daniela Paola Roggeri,1 Alessandro Roggeri,1 Elisa Rossi,2 Salvatore Cataudella,2 Nello Martini,3 1ProCure Solutions, Nembro, Bergamo, 2CINECA Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, 3Accademia Nazionale di Medicina, Rome, Italy Purpose: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy...

  4. Quality of Life and Mental Health in Patients with Chronic Diseases Who Regularly Practice Yoga and Those Who Do Not: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav; Paul, Anna

    2013-01-01

    While clinical trials have shown evidence of efficacy of yoga in different chronic diseases, subjective health benefits associated with yoga practice under naturalistic conditions have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of regular yoga practice with quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic diseases. Using a case-control design, patients with chronic diseases who regularly practiced yoga were selected from a large observational st...

  5. The Role of Colour Doppler And Spectral Flow Analysis In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinal Bhagat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of Doppler ultrasound to study blood flow in Obstetrics is of major importance because fetal inaccessibility precludes many other methods of study of fetal circulation. This study was undertaken to assess the role of Doppler in management of Pregnancy induced Hypertension. Methodology: The present case-control study was conducted in the department of Radiology, Govt. Medical College and New Civil Hospital, Surat. Details of obstetric history, age, last menstrual date and underlying risk factor, Doppler study of umbilical artery, fetal middle cerebral artery, both maternal uterine arteries and Ductus venosus was done. Parameters in form of Resistive index (RI, Pulsatility index (PI and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D of all four arteries were taken. Results: It was observed that 55% cases with pregnancy induced hypertension developed IUGR fetuses while 2% of the IUGR fetus was present in control group. There were 41 (54% cases with IUGR fetuses. Out of which 28 (68% cases with IUGR had fetoplacental Doppler abnormality. 13 cases had abnormally low PI of MCA with normal umbilical arterial Doppler indices, out of which 12 patients had abnormal fetal outcome. Conclusion: By examining the maternal vessels using Doppler ultrasound it is possible to determine, the risk of complication developing in the course of pregnancy long before clinical signs of preeclampsia appear so that therapeutic measures may be undertaken early. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 57-60

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism in pediatric stroke--case-control and family-based study.

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    Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Paweł; Kopyta, Ilona; Emich-Widera, Ewa; Pilarska, Ewa; Pienczk-Ręcławowicz, Karolina; Kaciński, Marek; Wendorff, Janusz; Żak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors of pediatric stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme, which regulates homocysteine metabolism, and some polymorphisms of gene encoding this enzyme are associated with a decreased activity of the enzyme. The aim of the study was to assess an association between the A1298C polymorphism and pediatric stroke. We also evaluated a possible synergistic effect of A1298C and C677T polymorphisms of this gene. The study group consisted of 88 children after ischemic stroke, 142 of their parents and 111 controls. The A1298C polymorphism was genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We used 2 study designs: a case-control model and a family-based association test. The Statistica 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares were used in all analyses. We did not observe any statistically significant differences either in the transmission of the A allele in the family-based test or in the frequency of the A allele in the patients group compared with the controls. We also did not notice any significant additive or synergistic effects between the A1298C and C677T polymorphisms. An analysis of the results obtained in this study and a critical review of previously published studies indicate that the A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is not related to ischemic stroke in children. PMID:25440348

  7. Development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh: a case-control study on risk factors.

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    Mahfuza Rifat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. METHODS: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93 and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66, some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85, service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively, smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5, and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34 were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. CONCLUSION: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh.

  8. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

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    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  9. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

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    Radek Bukowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA (90th percentile at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively. LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively, but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]. The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (95th percentile. Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference values. However, a

  10. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

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    Ismail Mohd N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 children, comprising 193 normal-weight and 209 overweight/obese. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body composition were measured, and WHO (2007 growth reference was used to categorise children into the two weight groups. Blood pressure (BP was taken, and blood was drawn after an overnight fast to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG and full lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. International Diabetes Federation (2007 criteria for children were used to identify metabolic syndrome. Results Participants comprised 60.9% (n = 245 Malay, 30.9% (n = 124 Chinese and 8.2% (n = 33 Indian. Overweight/obese children showed significantly poorer biochemical profile, higher body fat percentage and anthropometric characteristics compared to the normal-weight group. Among the metabolic risk factors, WC ≥90th percentile was found to have the highest odds (OR = 189.0; 95%CI 70.8, 504.8, followed by HDL-C≤1.03 mmol/L (OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.4, 11.1 and high BP (OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3, 18.7. Metabolic syndrome was found in 5.3% of the overweight/obese children but none of the normal-weight children (p Conclusions We conclude that being overweight or obese poses a greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome among children. Indian ethnicity is at higher risk compared to their counterparts of the same age. Hence, primary intervention strategies are

  11. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

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    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  12. Case-control study of ectopic pregnancies in Myanmar: infectious etiological factors.

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    Khin-Nwe-Oo; Wah-Wah-Aung; Moe-Thida; Khin-Thet-Wai; Hta-Hta-Yi; Win-Win-Mya

    2011-03-01

    We studied the role of infections in ectopic pregnancy and the different methods of detecting Chlamydia trachomatis infection using serology, cervical and tubal PCR assays, by using a hospital-based, case-control study conducted between November 2007 and September 2009. The sample size was 339 with 113 cases and 226 controls. The cases were women admitted for the management of ectopic pregnancy while the controls were women admitted for spontaneous miscarriage. Both cases and controls were tested for syphilis and chlamydial infection by serology. In addition, cervical samples from controls and both cervical and tubal samples from cases were examined for the presence of chlamydia and gonococcal DNA. Sociodemographic data and past histories were collected using set Proforma. Independent variables for multivariate analysis included previous history of spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, symptoms of sexully transmitted infections (STI), and use of contraception. Women with a previous history of ectopic pregnancy (adjusted OR 28.3; 95% CI 5.8-138.8; p = 0.01) and a past history of having had symptoms of STI (adjusted OR 11.06; 95% CI 5.45-22.44; p = 0.0005) were significantly more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy than those without such a history. Syphilis serology was positive in 13.3% of ectopic pregnancy cases compared to only 3.5% of controls (crude OR 0.24; 95% CI -0.10-0.58; p = 0.001). From cervical swabs, chlamydia DNA was detected significantly more frequently in cases than controls (8.0% vs 2.2%; crude OR 0.261; 95% CI -0.09-0.80, p = 0.012) but gonorrhea DNA detection rates were not significantly different (3.5% vs 0.9%, crude OR 0.24; 95% CI -0.04-1.35; p = 0.1). Chlamydia was positive in cases only as diagnosed tubal samples for PCR in 17 (15.0%), cervical samples for PCR in 9 (8.0%) and IgM ELISA in 6 (5.3%). Among the three STI tested for in this study, C. trachomatis was the most frequently associated with ectopic pregnancy and was more

  13. Case-control cohort study of patients' perceptions of disability in mastocytosis.

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    Olivier Hermine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indolent forms of mastocytosis account for more than 90% of all cases, but the types and type and severity of symptoms and their impact on the quality of life have not been well studied. We therefore performed a case-control cohort study to examine self-reported disability and impact of symptoms on the quality of life in patients with mastocytosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2004, 363 mastocytosis patients and 90 controls in France were asked to rate to their overall disability (OPA score and the severity of 38 individual symptoms. The latter was used to calculate a composite score (AFIRMM score. Of the 363 respondents, 262 were part of an ongoing pathophysiological study so that the following data were available: World Health Organization classification, standard measures of physical and psychological disability, existence of the D816V KIT mutation, and serum tryptase level. The mean OPA and AFIRMM scores and the standard measures of disability indicated that most mastocytosis patients suffer from disabilities due to the disease. Surprisingly, the patient's measurable and perceived disabilities did not differ according to disease classification or presence or absence of the D816V KIT mutation or an elevated (> or = 20 ng/mL serum tryptase level. Also, 32 of the 38 AFIRMM symptoms were more common in patients than controls, but there were not substantial differences according to disease classification, presence of the D816V mutation, or the serum tryptase level. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these results and for the purposes of treatment, we propose that mastocytosis be first classified as aggressive or indolent and that indolent mastocytosis then be categorized according to the severity of patients' perceived symptoms and their impact on the quality of life. In addition, it appears that mastocytosis patients suffer from more symptoms and greater disability than previously thought, that mastocytosis may therefore be under

  14. Powerful SNP-Set Analysis for Case-Control Genome-wide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Epstein, Michael P.; Deanne M Taylor; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Lin, Xihong

    2010-01-01

    GWAS have emerged as popular tools for identifying genetic variants that are associated with disease risk. Standard analysis of a case-control GWAS involves assessing the association between each individual genotyped SNP and disease risk. However, this approach suffers from limited reproducibility and difficulties in detecting multi-SNP and epistatic effects. As an alternative analytical strategy, we propose grouping SNPs together into SNP sets on the basis of proximity to genomic features su...

  15. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Heller Léo; Colosimo Enrico Antonio; Antunes Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables we...

  16. At-Risk Phenotype of Neurofibromatose-1 Patients: A Multicentre Case-Control Study

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    Ferkal Salah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess associations between subcutaneous neurofibromas (SC-NFs and internal neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1 and to determine whether the association between SC-NFs and peripheral neuropathy was ascribable to internal neurofibromas. Patients and methods Prospective multicentre case-control study. Between 2005 and 2008, 110 NF-1 adults having two or more SC-NFs were individually matched for age, sex and hospital with 110 controls who had no SC-NF. Patients underwent standardized MRI of the spinal cord, nerve roots and sciatic nerves and an electrophysiological study. Analyses used adjusted multinomial logistic regression (ORa to estimate the risk of the presence of internal neurofibromas or peripheral neuropathies associated with patients presented 2 to 9 SC-NFs, at least 10 SC-NFs as compared to patients without any (referential category. Results Cases had a mean age of 41 (± 13 years; 85 (80% had two to nine SC-NFs and 21 (19% at least ten SC-NFs. SC-NFs were more strongly associated with internal neurofibromas in patients with ten or more SC-NFs than in patients with fewer NF-SCs (e.g., sciatic nerve, aOR = 29.1 [8.5 to 100] vs. 4.3 [2.1 to 9.0]. The association with SC-NFs was stronger for diffuse, intradural, and > 3 cm internal neurofibromas than with other internal neurofibromas. Axonal neuropathy with slowed conduction velocities (SCV was more strongly associated with having at least ten SC-NFs (aOR = 29.9, 5.5 to 162.3 than with having fewer SC-NFs (aOR = 4.4, 0.9 to 22.0. Bivariate analyses showed that the association between axonal neuropathy with SCV and sciatic neurofibromas was mediated by the association between SC-NFs and sciatic neurofibromas. Conclusion The at-risk phenotype of NF-1 patients (i.e. NF-1 patients with SC-NFs is ascribable to associations linking SC-NFs to internal neurofibromas at risk for malignant transformation and to axonal neuropathies with slowed

  17. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

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    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  18. Indoor solid fuel use and tuberculosis in China: a matched case-control study

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    Enarson Donald A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China ranks second among the 22 high burden countries for tuberculosis. A modeling exercise showed that reduction of indoor air pollution could help advance tuberculosis control in China. However, the association between indoor air pollution and tuberculosis is not yet well established. A case control study was conducted in Anhui, China to investigate whether use of solid fuel is associated with tuberculosis. Methods Cases were new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients. Two controls were selected from the neighborhood of each case matched by age and sex using a pre-determined procedure. A questionnaire containing demographic information, smoking habits and use of solid fuel for cooking or heating was used for interview. Solid fuel (coal and biomass included coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, animal dung, and agricultural crop residue. A household that used solid fuel either for cooking and (/or heating was classified as exposure to combustion of solid fuel (indoor air pollution. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence limits for categorical variables were determined by Mantel-Haenszel estimate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results There were 202 new smear positive tuberculosis cases and 404 neighborhood controls enrolled in this study. The proportion of participants who used solid fuels for cooking was high (73.8% among cases and 72.5% among controls. The majority reported using a griddle stove (85.2% among cases and 86.7% among controls, had smoke removed by a hood or chimney (92.0% among cases and 92.8% among controls, and cooked in a separate room (24.8% among cases and 28.0% among controls or a separate building (67.8% among cases and 67.6% among controls. Neither using solid fuel for cooking (odds ratio (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.87 nor using solid fuel for heating (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54-2.02 was significantly associated with tuberculosis. Determinants significantly

  19. Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in Parkinson's Disease: A Case-Control Study

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    Giovannopoulou, Eirini; Charitoudis, George; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A case-control study. Purpose To investigate the effectiveness of transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (TPED) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Overview of Literature Patients with PD frequently suffer from radiculopathy and low back pain. Additionally, they demonstrate higher complication rates after open spine surgery. However, the clinical outcome of minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, such as TPED, have not been established for this population. Methods Patients diagnosed with lumbar disc hernia were divided into Group A (11 patients diagnosed with PD), and Group B (10 patients as the control, non-PD group). All patients underwent TPED. Indexes of visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were assessed right before surgery and at six weeks, three months, six months and one year post-surgery. Results At the baseline visit, groups did not differ significantly with age (p=0.724), gender (p=0.835), level of operation (p=0.407), ODI (p=0.497) and VAS (p=0.772). Parkinson's patients had higher scores in ODI at every visit, but the outcome was statistically significant only at 3 months (p=0.004) and one year (p=0.007). Similarly, VAS measurements were higher at each time point, with the difference being significant at 3 (psurgery. At the end of a year of follow up, ODI was reduced by 49.6% (±16.7) in Group A and 59.2% (±8.0) in Group B (p=0.111), translating to a 79.5% (±13.0) and 91.5% (±4.1) average improvement in daily functionality (p=0.024). VAS was reduced by 59.1 mm (±11.8) in Group A and 62.2 mm (±7.4) in Group B (p=0.485), leading to an 85.3 % (±4.0) and 91.9% (±2.6) general improvement in leg pain (psurgery.

  20. Ethnic variations in severe maternal morbidity in the UK- a case control study.

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    Manisha Nair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed a higher risk of maternal morbidity amongst black and other minority ethnic (BME groups, but were unable to investigate whether this excess risk was concentrated within specific BME groups in the UK. Our aim was to analyse the specific risks and to investigate reasons for any disparity. METHODS: Unmatched case-control analysis using data from the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS, February 2005-January 2013. Cases were 1,753 women who experienced severe morbidity during the peripartum period. Controls were 3,310 women who delivered immediately before the cases in the same hospital. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to adjust for known confounders and to understand their effects. RESULTS: Compared with white European women, the odds of severe maternal morbidity were 83% higher among black African women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.39-2.40, 80% higher among black Caribbean (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.14-2.82, 74% higher in Bangladeshi (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.05-2.88, 56% higher in other non-whites (non-Asian (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.05-2.33 and 43% higher among Pakistani women (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07-1.92. There was no evidence of substantial confounding. Anaemia in current pregnancy, previous pregnancy problems, inadequate utilisation of antenatal care, pre-existing medical conditions, parity>3, and being younger and older were independent risk factors but, the odds of severe maternal morbidity did not differ by socioeconomic status, between smokers and non-smokers or by BMI. DISCUSSION: This national study demonstrates an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity among women of ethnic minority backgrounds which could not be explained by known risk factors for severe maternal morbidity.

  1. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Garland Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious

  2. Effect of alcohol and tobacco use on vascular dementia: a matched case control study

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    Takahashi P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia in the United States. The underlying association of tobacco and alcohol with vascular dementia is not completely understood.Purpose: Determine the relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with the development of vascular dementia (VaD.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN. Cases of VaD were identified through medical record abstraction using conventionally accepted definitions of VaD, using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Ensignement en Neurosicences (NINDS-AIRENS criteria and were matched to controls by gender and age within 3 years among persons free of dementia on the index date. Exposure data for alcohol and tobacco use were abstracted by trained nurses, along with demographic, lifestyle, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and vascular comorbid disease characteristics. Matched conditional logistic regression for univariate and multivariate evaluation of the association of tobacco and alcohol use with VaD was utilized.Results: Current alcohol exposure was associated with a decreased risk of VaD with an odds ratio of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.74. This protective effect of alcohol was seen in men, women, and subjects under 80 years of age. Tobacco use was not associated with VaD in univariate and multivariate analysis, and stratified analysis did not reveal any subgroup-specific associations between tobacco use and VaD in the study population.Conclusion: Current alcohol use appears to have protective effects against the development of vascular dementia. The effects are more pronounced in subjects under age 80. This may reflect the direct vascular effects of alcohol on the vascular system or may represent a surrogate

  3. Risk factors for HIV infection among circumcised men in Uganda: a case-control study

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    Michael Ediau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Male circumcision (MC reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, the risk reduction effect of MC can be modified by type of circumcision (medical, traditional and religious and sexual risk behaviours post-circumcision. Understanding the risk behaviours associated with HIV infection among circumcised men (regardless of form of circumcision is critical to the design of comprehensive risk reduction interventions. This study assessed risk factors for HIV infection among men circumcised through various circumcision approaches. Methods: This was a case-control study which enrolled 155 cases (HIV-infected and 155 controls (HIV-uninfected, all of whom were men aged 18–35 years presenting at the AIDS Information Center for HIV testing and care. The outcome variable was HIV sero-status. Using SPSS version 17, multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with HIV infection. Results: Overall, 83.9% among cases and 56.8% among controls were traditionally circumcised; 7.7% of cases and 21.3% of controls were religiously circumcised while 8.4% of cases and 21.9% of controls were medically circumcised. A higher proportion of cases than controls reported resuming sexual intercourse before complete wound healing (36.9% vs. 14.1%; p18 years (AOR: 5.0, CI: 2.4–10.2; resuming sexual intercourse before wound healing (AOR: 3.4, CI: 1.6–7.3; inconsistent use of condoms (AOR: 2.7, CI: 1.5–5.1; and having sexual intercourse under the influence of peers (AOR: 2.9, CI: 1.5–5.5. Men who had religious circumcision were less likely to have HIV infection (AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9 than the traditionally circumcised but there was no statistically significant difference between those who were traditionally circumcised and those who were medically circumcised (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1. Conclusions: Being circumcised at adulthood, resumption of sexual intercourse before wound healing, inconsistent

  4. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

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    Hagos Godefay

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia.A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality.Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women's Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.11, as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14-4.18. Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17-14.30, as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37-4.85. Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman's lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model.The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women's Development Army, enhancing husbands' involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous illnesses or non-users of contraceptive services

  5. The association between household socioeconomic position and prevalent tuberculosis in Zambia: a case-control study.

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    Delia Boccia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although historically tuberculosis (TB has been associated with poverty, few analytical studies from developing countries have tried to: 1. assess the relative impact of poverty on TB after the emergence of HIV; 2. explore the causal mechanism underlying this association; and 3. estimate how many cases of TB could be prevented by improving household socioeconomic position (SEP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a case-control study nested within a population-based TB and HIV prevalence survey conducted in 2005-2006 in two Zambian communities. Cases were defined as persons (15+ years of age culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Controls were randomly drawn from the TB-free participants enrolled in the prevalence survey. We developed a composite index of household SEP combining variables accounting for four different domains of household SEP. The analysis of the mediation pathway between household SEP and TB was driven by a pre-defined conceptual framework. Adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (aPAF were estimated. Prevalent TB was significantly associated with lower household SEP [aOR = 6.2, 95%CI: 2.0-19.2 and aOR = 3.4, 95%CI: 1.8-7.6 respectively for low and medium household SEP compared to high]. Other risk factors for prevalent TB included having a diet poor in proteins [aOR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.1-8.7], being HIV positive [aOR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.7-5.8], not BCG vaccinated [aOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 2.8-20.8], and having a history of migration [aOR = 5.2, 95%CI: 2.7-10.2]. These associations were not confounded by household SEP. The association between household SEP and TB appeared to be mediated by inadequate consumption of protein food. Approximately the same proportion of cases could be attributed to this variable and HIV infection (aPAF = 42% and 36%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While the fight against HIV remains central for TB control, interventions addressing low household SEP and, especially food

  6. Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Exposure and Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Salcedo-Jaquez, Misael; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Beristain-Garcia, Isabel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Alvarado-Soto, Ediyair

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes infections all around the world. Infections with T. gondii are systemic and the parasite can persist in the heart muscle. Very little is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. We determined the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from heart diseases attending in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico; the association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of these patients was also investigated. Methods Through a case-control study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in 400 patients with heart diseases and 400 age- and gender-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, we analyzed the association of patient characteristics as determined by a standardized questionnaire with T. gondii exposure by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty-five (13.8%) of 400 patients and 32 (8.0%) of 400 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 - 2.90; P = 0.01). High anti-T. gondii IgG levels (> 150 IU/mL) were found in 28 (50.9%) of the 55 positive cases and in 14 (43.8%) of the 32 positive controls (P = 0.51). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (23.6%) of the 55 anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients and in 19 (59.4%) of 32 anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.54; P = 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.40 - 6.13; P = 0.004), and with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.01 - 4.12; P = 0.04). Conclusions Results obtained in this study indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease, and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure with alcohol

  7. Uterine rupture by intended mode of delivery in the UK: a national case-control study.

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    Kathryn E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports of the risk of morbidity due to uterine rupture are thought to have contributed in some countries to a decrease in the number of women attempting a vaginal birth after caesarean section. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of true uterine rupture in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors and outcomes, on the basis of intended mode of delivery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A UK national case-control study was undertaken between April 2009 and April 2010. The participants comprised 159 women with uterine rupture and 448 control women with a previous caesarean delivery. The estimated incidence of uterine rupture was 0.2 per 1,000 maternities overall; 2.1 and 0.3 per 1,000 maternities in women with a previous caesarean delivery planning vaginal or elective caesarean delivery, respectively. Amongst women with a previous caesarean delivery, odds of rupture were also increased in women who had ≥ two previous caesarean deliveries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.16-7.85 and <12 months since their last caesarean delivery (aOR 3.12, 95% CI 1.62-6.02. A higher risk of rupture with labour induction and oxytocin use was apparent (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 1.00-15.33. Two women with uterine rupture died (case fatality 1.3%, 95% CI 0.2-4.5%. There were 18 perinatal deaths associated with uterine rupture among 145 infants (perinatal mortality 124 per 1,000 total births, 95% CI 75-189. CONCLUSIONS: Although uterine rupture is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, even amongst women with a previous caesarean section planning a vaginal delivery, it is a rare occurrence. For women with a previous caesarean section, risk of uterine rupture increases with number of previous caesarean deliveries, a short interval since the last caesarean section, and labour induction and/or augmentation. These factors should be considered when counselling and managing the labour of women with a previous

  8. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

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    Hannah Kuper

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject.A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type. Two controls without disabilities were selected per case: A sibling control (sibling nearest in age and a neighbourhood control (nearest neighbour within one year of age. The caregiver completed a questionnaire on behalf of the child (e.g. information on feeding, poverty, illness, education, and anthropometric measures were taken. We undertook multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to estimate the relationship between disability and malnutrition.The study included 311 cases with disabilities, 196 sibling controls and 300 neighbour controls. Children with disabilities were more likely to report a range of feeding difficulties. They were 1.6-2.9 times more likely to have malnutrition in comparison to neighbour controls or family controls, including general malnutrition (low weight for age, stunting (low height for age, low body mass index (BMI or low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC for age. Children with disabilities were almost twice as likely to have wasting (low weight for height in comparison to neighbour controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, but this difference was not apparent compared with siblings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.7. Children with disabilities also faced other exclusions. For instance those aged 5+ were much more likely not to attend school than neighbour controls (OR = 8.5, 95% CI 4.3-16.9.Children with disabilities were particularly

  9. Occupation and risk of glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma: results from a German case-control study (interphone study group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, F; Schlehofer, B; Schüz, J;

    2010-01-01

    /electronic and transport, and the risk of glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study involving a total of 844 cases and 1688 controls conducted from 2000 to 2003, detailed information on life-long job histories was collected during personal interviews and used to create job......: Most of the observed odds ratios were close to 1.0 for ever having worked in the six occupational sectors and risk of glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. Sub-group analyses according to duration of employment resulted in two elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals excluding unity...

  10. Correlates of Lymphedema in Women with Breast Cancer: a Case Control Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Sayar, Negin; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Zakeri, Zeinab; Talei, Asra; Rostami, Sara; Khademi, Sahar; Sabzi Sarvestani, Amene; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the burden of breast cancer (BC) continues to increase. BC related lymphedema (BCRL) is currently non curable and as a life time risk it affects at least 25% of BC patients. Knowing more about BCRL and appropriate control of its modifiable risk factors can improve quality of life (QOL) of the affected patients. In this case control study to detect factors, 400 women with BCRL (as the case group) and 283 patients with BC without lymphedema (as the control group) that were referred to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences affiliated BC clinic center were assessed. The data were analyzed in SPSS. The mean age of the case group was 52.3±11.0 years and of the control group was 50.1±10.9 years. In patients with BCRL, 203(50.7%) had left (Lt) side BC and in non- lymphedema group 151 (53.3%) had Lt side BC. Out of all BCRL patients, 204 (51%) had lymphedema in all parts of their affected upper extremities, 100 (25%) had swelling in the arm and forearm and 23 (5.7%) had edema in both the upper extremity and trunk. Edema, heaviness, concern about changing body image, pain and paresthesia were the most common signs/symptoms among patients with BCRL. In BCRL patients, the difference of circumference between the affected upper limb and non-affected limb was 4.4±2.5 cm and the difference in volume displacement was 528.7±374.4 milliliters. Multiple variable analysis showed that moderate to severe activity (OR; odds ratio =14, 95% CI: 2.6-73.3 ), invasiveness of BC (OR =13.7, 95% CI: 7.3-25.6), modified radical mastectomy (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-7.9), BMI =>25 (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2-8.7), radiotherapy (OR=3.9, 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 ), past history of limb damage (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and the number of excised lymph nodes (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) were the significant predictors of lymphedema in women with BC. Modifiable risk factors of BCRL such as non-guided moderate to severe physical activity, high BMI and trauma to the limb should be controlled as early as possible in

  11. Economic burden of chronic bronchitis in the United States: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Blanchette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Christopher M Blanchette1, Melissa H Roberts1, Hans Petersen1, Anand A Dalal2, Douglas W Mapel31Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC, USA; 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground: Chronic bronchitis (CB is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed at a later stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We examined how this later diagnosis may impact health care costs and utilization during the 12 months prior to and 24 months post initial CB diagnosis.Methods: This retrospective case-control analysis used claims data from a large US database from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2007. Patients with CB aged 40 years and older were propensity matched (N = 11,674 to patients without evidence of COPD or asthma by demographics, CB diagnosis quarter/year, and comorbidities. Group differences were assessed using Student's t-test and Pearson chi-square test statistics.Results: Six months prediagnosis, CB patients had higher frequencies of any hospitalization (9.6%, 6.7%; P < 0.05, emergency department/urgent care visits (13.3%, 6.7%; P < 0.05, and prescriptions (97.3%, 94.1%; P < 0.05. Six months postdiagnosis, CB patients had 5.6 times more hospitalizations (P < 0.05 and 3.1 times more emergency department/urgent care visits (P < 0.05 compared with controls. Mean total costs (US$ for CB patients 12 months prediagnosis were significantly higher than controls (months 12–7: $4212, $3826; P < 0.05; months 6–1: $5289, $4285; P < 0.05. CB patients had higher mean total costs ($8919; P < 0.05 6 months postdiagnosis. Costs remained $2429 higher for CB patients 19–24 months postdiagnosis (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Health care costs and utilization among CB patients are increased both prior to diagnosis and during the 2 years postdiagnosis. This study suggests that not accurately diagnosing CB early has a

  12. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

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    Luis Maia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group, comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age, with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects. All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective Attention Test, Word List Generation Test, Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, a Portuguese depressive screening test (IACLIDE, STAI (anxiety trace and trait test and the Mini Mental state examination.Results: The outcomes demonstrate, for the first conclusive time in Portuguese patients, the occurrence of main deficits in terms of cognitive functioning (measured by a variety ofneuropsychological tests, and depressive and anxietysymptomatology. Conclusion: This article asset the need to pay attention in psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic and cognitive stimulation, and reinforcement of neuropsychological intervention in these types of patients.Objectivos: O impacto da artrite reumatóide nas funçõescognitivas não tem sido bem reconhecido em Portugal. Com este artigo original pretendemos elucidar este problema neste país específico.Métodos: Avaliámos os resultados de 60 pacientes femininos com artrite reumatóide (grupo de estudo, comparando cada paciente num estudo de caso-controle, emparelhando ossujeitos com Artrite Reumatóide (60 sujeitos com 60 pacientes Artrite Reumatóide, nas variáveis anos de escolaridade eidade (a variável género era uma constante = feminino.Todos os participantes foram avaliados com o Teste de Atenção Auditiva Selectiva (PASAT, teste de geração de lista de palavras, Bateria Neuropsicológica de Luria Nebraska, um teste português de despistagem de sintomatologia depressiva (IACLIDE, um teste de rastreamento de tra

  14. Case-control study of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children in Caithness near the Dounreay nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was performed to examine whether the observed excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the area around the Dounreay nuclear installation is associated with established risk factors, or with factors related to the plant, or with parental occupation in the nuclear industry. No raised relative risks were found for prenatal exposure to X-rays, social class of parents, employment at Dounreay before conception or diagnosis, father's dose of ionising radiation before conception, or child's residence within 50 m of the path of microwave transmission beams. Results also proved negative for all lifestyle factors except an apparent association with use of beaches within 25 km of Dounreay. However, this result was based on small numbers, arose in the context of multiple hypothesis testing, and is certainly vulnerable to possible systematic bias. It was concluded that the raised incidence of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma around Dounreay cannot be explained by paternal occupation at Dounreay or by paternal exposure to external ionising radiation before conception. The observation of an apparent association between the use of beaches around Dounreay and the development of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma might be an artefact of multiple testing and influenced by recall bias. (author)

  15. Environmental risk factors for clinical malaria: a case-control study in the Grau region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, J P; Hall, A J; Jaffar, S; Palacios, A; Lines, J; Llanos-Cuentas, A

    2001-01-01

    The role of environmental risk factors in clinical malaria has been studied mainly in Africa and Asia, few investigations have been carried out in Latin America. Field observations in northern coastal Peru, where the prevalence of malaria is high during the agricultural season, suggested that the risk of disease varied according to the characteristics of the house and the house environment. Environmental determinants of the risk of clinical malaria were therefore investigated through a case-control study: 323 clinical cases of malaria, recruited through community-based active case-finding, and 969 age-, sex- and village-matched controls were recruited into the study over a period of 12 months ending June 1997. Residual spraying of houses in the previous 6 months, living more than 100 m from a canal, a level of education equal to primary school or above and working in agriculture conferred significant protection from the risk of developing clinical malaria. The presence of spaces between the wall and roof in the subject's bedroom (eaves) and a house aged > 4 years statistically significantly increased the risk of disease. Based on these results we discuss possible control measures for malaria in this area of the country.

  16. Associations of serum organohalogen levels and prostate cancer risk: Results from a case-control study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Na; Chia, Sin Eng; Ong, Choon Nam; Kelly, Barry C

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that elevated exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. As part of a hospital-based case-control study of the Singaporean male population, we investigated associations between organohalogen exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Trace residue concentrations of 74 organohalogen contaminants, including several PCBs, OCPs and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), were determined in serum samples (n = 120) using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A variety of OCPs, PCBs and HFRs were detected in samples of both patients and controls. Mean concentrations of p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 187 were significantly higher (p 67th) were 5.67 (95% CI, 2.37-13.54) and 2.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 4.66), respectively. The results suggest that exposure to DDTs and PCBs may be associated with prostate cancer risk in Singaporean males. No such association was observed for the organohalogen flame retardants studied, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The study provides novel information regarding the occurrence, levels and potential associations with prostate cancer risk for several organohalogen contaminants in the Singapore population. However, further investigation and analyses should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  17. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China.Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P hygienic habit score of 0 to 2, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased from 0.10 to 0.015 with improving score of hygienic habits (P hygienic habits, higher hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  18. Risk factors for breast cancer for women in Punjab, Pakistan:Results from a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghausia Masood Gilani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades an increase in the incidence of breast cancer has been observed in the previously low-risk Asian countries. This study is designed to determine the risk factors of breast cancer for Pakistani women as little information exists in this regard. A case-control study of 564 female breast cancer cases diagnosed at the two cancer hospitals at Lahore (INMOL and SKMCH during the time period Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 1998 was carried out. Four hundred and forty eight women aged 24-80 years out of 564 cases were complete with respect to defined criteria and were eligible for the study. Population-based controls were selected to match for age of cases in the ratio 1:2. The data were analyzed considering ‘all women’ and then separate analyses were done for ‘premenopausal’ and ‘postmenopausal women’. Women with family history of breast cancer, history of consanguineous marriage, smoking and high BMI (≥28 are at increased risk of breast cancer for all three groups. Early menarche (45 years was a strong determinant of breast cancer. Higher number of full-term pregnancies (>3 was protective for ‘all women’ and ‘premenopausal women’ but in case of ‘postmenopausal women’ the poor with higher number of pregnancies were significantly protected. Late age at first FTP (>25 years is a significant risk factor for postmenopausal women.

  19. DHAT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND PYSCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES IN MALES: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu RN, Sharma VK, Ashutosh Kumar, Chintan Bavishi, Balaji More

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dhat syndrome is often taken as culture bound syndrome (CBS) of Indian subcontinent. There are many misconceptions which form base of symptoms and co morbidities. Aim: Dhat syndrome is reported on basis of self diagnosis. The study aims to study associated symptoms, sexual behavior and co morbidities in Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and case-control study was carried with help of trained local interviewers at Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, ...

  20. A Case-Control Study of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache’s Risk Factors Among Shiraz Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    S.M.T. Ayatollahi; Khosravi, A

    2005-01-01

    Studies of headache risk factors are numerous but their results are based on clinics and hospitals. Few data have been reported in children. No data are available regarding migraine and tension-type headache risk factors among Iranian children. Therefore we determined the sociodemographic risk factors of migraine and tension-type headaches and their correlations in schoolchildren.This study was a matched case-control method using the prevalence study data. The subjects were ...

  1. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  2. Reasons for Smoking Among Male Teenagers in Tehran, Iran: Two Case-Control Studies Using Snowball Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Rezaei; Saharnaz Nedjat; Banafsheh Golestan; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Identifying the underlying factors contributing to smoking among teenagers is important in establishing smoking control programs. The present study was designed to identify and compare factors revealed in a preceding qualitative study conducted on 13-15 year-old boys living in two different socio-economic districts in the Northern and Southern parts of Tehran. Methods: Two completely similar case-control studies, each with 200 subjects, were conducted using a snowball sampling....

  3. The Association of Postpartum Maternal Mental Health With Breastfeeding Status of Mothers: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Assarian, Fatemeh; Moravveji, Alireza; Ghaffarian, Hamideh; Eslamian, Reihaneh; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal health status might have an important effect on breastfeeding, growth, and general health of the infants. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding status of mothers in Kashan province. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 458 mothers in two groups of unsuccessful breastfeeding (case) and successful breastfeeding (control) attending Kashan province health clinics. In this study...

  4. Gingivitis and periodontitis as a risk factor for stroke: A case-control study in the Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour; Afsaneh Jahanshahi Afshar; Roya Borna; Behnas Seddighi; Amin Motamedi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis and gingivitis are one of the most infectious diseases in human. Several studies have been carried out on dependence of periodontitis and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingivitis and periodontitis as a risk factor for stroke in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 100 patients suffering from stroke as case group, and 100 hospitalized patients as control group. The case group included 42 males and ...

  5. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Nikanfar; Ali Akbar Taheri-Aghdam; Maria Yazdani; Sheida Shaafi; Nooshin Masoudian; Hossein Akbari; Parisa Youhanaee; Hamzeh Abbaszadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability. Methods: In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels ...

  6. Determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus: A case control study in a district tertiary care hospital in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Mamta; K. N., Ramesha; Sarma, Sankara P; Menon, Sangeetha; C. V., Sowmini; S, Ganesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the determinants of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Design: Case-control study. Setting: Sri Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, South India. Participants: 300 GDM women as cases and 300 age-matched controls. Study variables: Sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), menstrual history, obstetric history, infertility history, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, recurrent urinary tract infection ...

  7. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  8. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  9. [Dietary factors and oral cancer: a case-control study in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Góis Filho, José Francisco de; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino de; Abrahão, Márcio; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Eluf Neto, José; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2007-03-01

    Dietary factors associated with oral cancer were investigated in a case-control hospital-based study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2002. A total of 835 subjects, 366 with histologically confirmed incident cases of oral-cavity or pharyngeal cancer and 469 controls participated in the study. Dietary data were collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained from unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Inverse associations with risk of oral cancer were found for the highest intake of beans, OR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.22-0.64), raw vegetables, OR = 0.51 (95%CI: 0.29-0.93) and the intermediate tertile of rice and pasta intake, OR = 0.56 (95%CI: 0.38-0.83). Positive associations were observed for the highest intake of eggs, OR = 1.84 (95%CI: 1.23-2.75), potatoes, OR = 2.22 (95%CI: 1.53-3.25), and milk, OR= 1.80 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98). Some traditional Brazilian foods like rice and beans emerged as protective factors against oral cancer, independently of other risk factors. PMID:17334570

  10. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  11. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  12. Occupational risk factors for testicular cancer: a registry-based case-control study in Rhineland Palatinate – Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamyaa; Hammer, Gaël P.; Emrich, Katharina; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testicular cancer affects mainly men below the age of 50. An association with occupation and social status has been suggested but risk factors are not well understood. A registry-based case-control study focusing on occupation was performed in Germany. Methods: All 348 testicular cancer cases with available gainful occupational information registered between 2000 and 2005; as well as 564 suitable controls (from a pool of other cancers) were drawn from the Cancer Registry of Rhineland-Palatinate. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Slightly elevated OR were observed for technicians and related professionals (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00–2.63) and for clerical support workers (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14–2.56). This increase was highest in the age group 20–50 for technicians (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.23–3.33) and clerks (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.30–3.09), respectively. An association with testicular cancer was observed for no other occupation. Conclusion: An increased risk of testicular cancer was observed for technicians and related professionals and clerical support workers. This could be related to socioeconomic status or sedentary life style, two factors that were identified in previous studies. While the feasibility of a purely registry-based study was shown, missing occupational data and the choice of cancer controls represent challenges to the validity of this approach. PMID:24265602

  13. Parvovirus B19 infection and severe anaemia in Kenyan children: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuju James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During acute Human parvovirus B19 (B19 infection a transient reduction in blood haemoglobin concentration is induced, due to a 5-7 day cessation of red cell production. This can precipitate severe anaemia in subjects with a range of pre-existing conditions. Of the disease markers that occur during B19 infection, high IgM levels occur closest in time to the maximum reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Previous studies of the contribution of B19 to severe anaemia among young children in Africa have yielded varied results. This retrospective case/control study seeks to ascertain the proportion of severe anaemia cases precipitated by B19 among young children admitted to a Kenyan district hospital. Methods Archival blood samples from 264 children under 6 years with severe anaemia admitted to a Kenyan District Hospital, between 1999 and 2004, and 264 matched controls, were tested for B19 IgM by Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay and 198 of these pairs were tested for B19 DNA by PCR. 536 samples were also tested for the presence of B19 IgG. Results 7 (2.7% cases and 0 (0% controls had high B19 IgM levels (Optical Density > 5 × cut-off value (McNemar's exact test p = 0.01563, indicating a significant association with severe anaemia. The majority of strongly IgM positive cases occurred in 2003. 10/264 (3.7% cases compared to 5/264 (1.9% controls tested positive for B19 IgM. This difference was not statistically significant, odds ratio (OR = 2.00 (CI95 [0.62, 6.06], McNemar's exact test p = 0.3018. There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the B19 IgG (35 (14.8% vs 32 (13.6%, OR = 1.103 (CI95 [0.66, 1.89], McNemar's exact test, p = 0.7982, or the detection of the B19 DNA (6 (3.0% vs 5 (2.5%, OR = 1.2 (CI95 [0.33, 4.01], McNemar's exact test p = 1. Conclusions High B19 IgM levels were significantly associated with severe anaemia, being found only among the cases. This suggests that 7/264 (2.7% of cases of severe

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  15. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to phenoxyherbicides, chlorophenols, fencing work, and meat works employment: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N E; Smith, A. H.; Howard, J.K.; Sheppard, R A; Giles, H J; Teague, C A

    1986-01-01

    A previous case-control study which used the occupational information available on the New Zealand Cancer Registry found that agricultural workers were at increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The findings are now presented for the second phase of the study which entailed interviewing 83 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registered under code 202 of the International Classification of Diseases together with 168 controls with other types of cancer and 228 general population contro...

  16. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A.; Britton, Julie A.; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1434 cases and 1440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included 11...

  17. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of o...

  18. Lifestyle factors and lumbar disc disease : results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT).

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Barbara; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich; Bergmann, Annekatrin; Ellegast, Rolf; Elsner, Gine; Grifka, Joachim; Haerting, Johannes; Jäger, Matthias; Michaelis, Martina; Seidler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the large-scale case-control study EPILIFT, we investigated the dose-response relationship between lifestyle factors (weight, smoking amount, cumulative duration of different sports activities) and lumbar disc disease. METHODS: In four German study regions (Frankfurt am Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), 564 male and female patients with lumbar disc herniation and 351 patients with lumbar disc narrowing (chondrosis) aged 25 to 70 years were prospectively recruited. Fro...

  19. Occupational Lifting Tasks and Retinal Detachment in Non-Myopics and Myopics: Extended Analysis of a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mattioli, Stefano; Curti, Stefania; De Fazio, Rocco; Mt Cooke, Robin; Zanardi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Lifting heavy weights involves the Valsalva manoeuvre, which leads to intraocular pressure spikes. We used data from a case-control study to further investigate the hypothesis that occupational lifting is a risk factor for retinal detachment. Methods The study population included 48 cases (patients operated for retinal detachment) and 84 controls (outpatients attending an eye clinic). The odds ratios (OR) of idiopathic retinal detachment were estimated with a logistic regression mo...

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