WorldWideScience

Sample records for case-control association study

  1. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; XIAO, SHENG-XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  2. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

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    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  3. Sialolithiasis is associated with nephrolithiasis: a case-control study.

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    Wu, Chuan-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions This study demonstrates an association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. The results call for more awareness of this association among physicians and patients with nephrolithiasis. Objective Very few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the potential association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. As such, the association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis still remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the possible association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis using a population-based dataset. Methods Using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, this case-control study identified 966 patients with sialolithiasis as cases and 2898 sex- and age-matched subjects without sialolithiasis as controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association of sialolithiasis with previously diagnosed nephrolithiasis. Results Out of 3864 sampled patients, 165 (4.27%) had prior nephrolithiasis. Using Chi-square test, it was found that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior nephrolithiasis between the cases and controls (10.25% vs 2.28%, p nephrolithiasis for cases was 4.74 (95% CI = 3.41-6.58, p < 0.001) when compared to controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level of residence, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, chronic renal disease, and tobacco use. PMID:26808906

  4. Case-control association studies with matching and genomic controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2004-07-01

    Family-based association studies have gained in popularity for mapping disease-susceptibility gene(s) of complex diseases. However, recruiting family controls is often more difficult than recruiting unrelated controls. The author proposes a case-control study, where the possible biases due to population stratification are controlled by matching in the design stage and by genomic controlling in the data-analytic stage. The matching is based on a set of "stratum-delineating variables," such as, race, ethnicity, nationality, ancestry, and birthplace; and the genomic controlling is based on typing a number of null markers across the genome and applying the principle of multiplicative scaling of chi-square distribution. It pays to match carefully to have a higher proportion of correctly matched sets, as computer simulation showed that this would increase the power of the study. If matching is crude, one loses power but still has the correct type I error rate after genomic controlling. Power studies showed that the numbers of affected subjects required for the pair-matched study are comparable to those required by the case-parents design, if the study was conducted in a homogeneous population. As the (control-to-case) matching ratio increases, the number of affected subjects required decreases. With matching ratio tending toward infinity, the number required shrinks roughly by half. The case-control study with matching and genomic controlling frees us from family bondage, and the genetic problem as complicated as mapping genes can now be studied using simple epidemiologic methods. PMID:15185398

  5. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  6. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  7. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  8. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  9. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  10. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases)...

  11. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard JL; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotvped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affy...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mohitey; Rahul Redasani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, i...

  13. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

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    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mohitey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Material and Methods: 150 patients, 75 with AMI and 75 with CHD were included in the study. Data on hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol consumption were recorded. AMI patients were clinically examined 3-4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Clinical examination of CHD patients was carried out during the hospital stay. All teeth excluding third molars were studied and clinical data were recorded regarding Plaque Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Depth and Clinical Attachment Loss. Results: Percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing and the number of sites with more probing depth were significantly higher among AMI patients than those with CHD (P=0.05 and p=0.001 respectively.There was abundant plaque and debris around all tooth surfaces in AMI patients (p=0.001. Conclusion: Overall result of this case control study showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

  15. A case-control study of infant, maternal and perinatal characteristics associated with deformational plagiocephaly.

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    McKinney, Christy M; Cunningham, Michael L; Holt, Victoria L; Leroux, Brian; Starr, Jacqueline R

    2009-07-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly, an abnormal asymmetric flattening of infants' heads, is diagnosed in approximately 10% of infants. The prevalence of plagiocephaly has increased dramatically since 1992 when it was first recommended that infants be placed to sleep in a non-prone position to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The authors conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations between plagiocephaly and perinatal characteristics. The authors assessed whether risk factors for plagiocephaly have changed since 1992. Cases were born 1987-2002 in Washington State and diagnosed with plagiocephaly at the Craniofacial Center at Seattle Children's Hospital. Risk factor information was abstracted from birth certificate and hospital discharge data and unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Cases (n = 2764) were more likely than controls (n = 13 817) to have been injured at birth (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2, 1.7) or diagnosed with a congenital anomaly (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8, 2.3). Cases were more likely to have been male, a twin, or small-for-gestational-age. This first large-scale, case-control study of risk factors for plagiocephaly in a U.S. population provides new evidence that birth injuries and congenital anomalies are associated with plagiocephaly risk. PMID:19523080

  16. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

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    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, Pherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21–4.86). Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis. PMID:26666412

  17. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

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    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  18. Association of CD40 with rheumatoid arthritis confirmed in a large UK case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Ke, Xiayi; Wilson, Anthony G; Bax, Deborah E; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective A recent meta-analysis of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent reported novel associations of markers mapping to the CD40, CCL21 and CDK6 genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility while a large-scale, case-control association study in a Japanese population identified association with multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD244 gene. The aim of the current study was to validate these potential RA susceptibility markers in a UK population. Methods A total of 4 SNPs (rs4810485 in CD40, rs2812378 in CCL21, rs42041 in CDK6 and rs6682654 in CD244) were genotyped in a UK cohort comprising 3962 UK patients with RA and 3531 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. Genotype counts in patients and controls were analysed with the χ2 test using Stata. Results Association to the CD40 gene was robustly replicated (p=2×10−4, OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.93) and modest evidence was found for association with the CCL21 locus (p=0.04, OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16). However, there was no evidence for association of rs42041 (CDK6) and rs6682654 (CD244) with RA susceptibility in this UK population. Following a meta-analysis including the original data, association to CD40 was confirmed (p=7.8×10−8, OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.92). Conclusion In this large UK cohort, strong association of the CD40 gene with susceptibility to RA was found, and weaker evidence for association with RA in the CCL21 locus. PMID:19435719

  19. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

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    Jie-Mei Yu

    Full Text Available Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1 was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5% and 13 (2.8% of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571 or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400 were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774. The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  20. Medical risk factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

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    Jeffrey S Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: 5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor. RESULTS: The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori. Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.

  1. Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Guan, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Yu-Peng; Yang, Yong; Niu, Ying-Ying; Yao, Li-Yan; Yang, Yin-Dong; Yue, Hong-Yu; Meng, Li-Li; Cui, Xin-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Jin-Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P hazard ratio: 2.43(1.03-5.75)]; a similar trend was also found in men carrying the TC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 1.81(1.06-3.08)]. SNP rs4965814 of SELS may affect the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of ischemic stroke may give new therapeutic targets to pharmacologists. PMID:25390504

  2. Genetics of Myasthenia Gravis: A Case-Control Association Study in the Hellenic Population

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    Zoi Zagoriti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against proteins of the postsynaptic membrane, in the neuromuscular junction. The contribution of genetic factors to MG susceptibility has been evaluated through family and twin studies however, the precise genetic background of the disease remains elusive. We conducted a case-control association study in 101 unrelated MG patients of Hellenic origin and 101 healthy volunteers in order to assess the involvement of common genetic variants in susceptibility to MG. We focused on three candidate genes which have been clearly associated with several autoimmune diseases, aiming to investigate their potential implication in MG pathogenesis. These are interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5, TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20, and interleukin-10 (IL-10, key molecules in the regulation of immune function. A statistical trend of association (P=0.068 between IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the subgroups of early and late-onset MG patients was revealed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rest of the variants examined. As far as we are aware, this is the first worldwide attempt to address the possible association between IRF-5 and TNFAIP3 common genetic variants and the genetic basis of MG.

  3. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  4. Powerful SNP-Set Analysis for Case-Control Genome-wide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Epstein, Michael P.; Deanne M Taylor; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Lin, Xihong

    2010-01-01

    GWAS have emerged as popular tools for identifying genetic variants that are associated with disease risk. Standard analysis of a case-control GWAS involves assessing the association between each individual genotyped SNP and disease risk. However, this approach suffers from limited reproducibility and difficulties in detecting multi-SNP and epistatic effects. As an alternative analytical strategy, we propose grouping SNPs together into SNP sets on the basis of proximity to genomic features su...

  5. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  6. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

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    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  7. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  8. Chiari malformation type I: a case-control association study of 58 developmental genes.

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    Aintzane Urbizu

    Full Text Available Chiari malformation type I (CMI is a disorder characterized by hindbrain overcrowding into an underdeveloped posterior cranial fossa (PCF, often causing progressive neurological symptoms. The etiology of CMI remains unclear and is most likely multifactorial. A putative genetic contribution to CMI is suggested by familial aggregation and twin studies. Experimental models and human morphometric studies have suggested an underlying paraxial mesoderm insufficiency. We performed a case-control association study of 303 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP across 58 candidate genes involved in early paraxial mesoderm development in a sample of 415 CMI patients and 524 sex-matched controls. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with classical, small-PCF CMI by means of MRI-based PCF morphometry (n = 186, underwent additional analysis. The genes selected are involved in signalling gradients occurring during segmental patterning of the occipital somites (FGF8, Wnt, and retinoic acid pathways and from bone morphogenetic proteins or BMP, Notch, Cdx and Hox pathways or in placental angiogenesis, sclerotome development or CMI-associated syndromes. Single-marker analysis identified nominal associations with 18 SNPs in 14 genes (CDX1, FLT1, RARG, NKD2, MSGN1, RBPJ1, FGFR1, RDH10, NOG, RARA, LFNG, KDR, ALDH1A2, BMPR1A considering the whole CMI sample. None of these overcame corrections for multiple comparisons, in contrast with four SNPs in CDX1, FLT1 and ALDH1A2 in the classical CMI group. Multiple marker analysis identified a risk haplotype for classical CMI in ALDH1A2 and CDX1. Furthermore, we analyzed the possible contributions of the most significantly associated SNPs to different PCF morphometric traits. These findings suggest that common variants in genes involved in somitogenesis and fetal vascular development may confer susceptibility to CMI.

  9. Analysis of Case-Control Association Studies: SNPs, Imputation and Haplotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-11-01

    Although prospective logistic regression is the standard method of analysis for case-control data, it has been recently noted that in genetic epidemiologic studies one can use the "retrospective" likelihood to gain major power by incorporating various population genetics model assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium (HWE), gene-gene and gene-environment independence. In this article we review these modern methods and contrast them with the more classical approaches through two types of applications (i) association tests for typed and untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (ii) estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in the presence of haplotype-phase ambiguity. We provide novel insights to existing methods by construction of various score-tests and pseudo-likelihoods. In addition, we describe a novel two-stage method for analysis of untyped SNPs that can use any flexible external algorithm for genotype imputation followed by a powerful association test based on the retrospective likelihood. We illustrate applications of the methods using simulated and real data. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2009.

  10. Association between chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rosamma; Rajappan, Sreeraj; Nath, Sameera G; Paul, Binoy J

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities. A lot of similarities exist between RA and periodontitis at cellular and molecular levels. The relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is still unclear. This case-control study was undertaken to determine the possible association between chronic inflammatory diseases like RA and periodontitis. The case group consisted of 100 patients attending the Rheumatology clinic who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA group). Age- and gender-matched 112 patients without RA attending the Outpatient wing of Department of General Medicine formed the control group (NRA group). The number of missing teeth, gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were evaluated in both the groups. Rheumatoid disease activity was assessed by DAS-28 score system. Systemic markers of inflammation like erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in GI, OHI-S, PPD, CAL, ESR and CRP levels between cases (RA group) and controls (NRA group) (P < 0.05). Among subjects with RA, there was no association between the rheumatoid disease activity and the severity of periodontal disease. The occurrence and severity of periodontitis was found to be higher in RA subjects as compared to subjects without RA, suggesting a positive relation between these two chronic inflammatory diseases.

  11. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

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    Ravi Kumar Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies. Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI, mother’s age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal.

  12. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

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    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001, inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001, mother's schooling (p = 0.028 and household income (p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85. In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.

  13. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

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    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case-control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking atorvastatin.

  14. Recent food shortage is associated with leprosy disease in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

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    Sabiena G Feenstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06-3.02; p = 0.030. A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71-1.02; p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease.

  15. Recent Food Shortage Is Associated with Leprosy Disease in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Sabiena G.; Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT) reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. Methods and Findings We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06–3.02); p = 0.030). A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71–1.02); p = 0.083). Conclusions Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease. PMID:21572979

  16. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients. PMID:27253153

  17. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients.

  18. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism:A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; XI Qian Qian; WU Jun; HAN Yu; DAI Wei; SU Yuan Yuan; ZHANG Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. Results There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ2=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ2=45.248, P=0.000; χ2=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ2=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. Conclusion The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors.

  19. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Case Control Study

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    Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder in women of reproductive age. Psychosocial factors can play a role in PCOS. Methods: To determine the psychosocial factors associated with PCOS in a case control study, 742 PCOS cases were compared to 798 women without PCOS for psychiatric disorders and social conditions. The data were collected using a validated questionnaire of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire (DSM-IV was used to diagnose major psychopathological disorders and other depressive and anxiety syndromes. The suspected psychopathology was evaluated by a clinical psychiatrist. Results: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in education level (71.8% vs. 80.4%; (P<0.001, and employment status (60% vs. 53%; P=0.01 (respectively. Chronic anxiety (35.7% vs. 26.8%; P<0.001, depression (18.9% vs. 7.9 %; P<0.001, anxiety disorders (7.7% vs. 3.3%; P<0.001, and personality disorders (2.9% vs. 1.7%; P=0.01, were higher in the PCOS patients compared controls, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that chronic anxiety and depression were the most pscycologic pattern in PCO patients. Lower educational level and unemployment were higher in the cases than controls.

  20. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Paul C. Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.

  1. Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Exposure and Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Salcedo-Jaquez, Misael; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Beristain-Garcia, Isabel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Alvarado-Soto, Ediyair

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes infections all around the world. Infections with T. gondii are systemic and the parasite can persist in the heart muscle. Very little is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. We determined the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from heart diseases attending in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico; the association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of these patients was also investigated. Methods Through a case-control study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in 400 patients with heart diseases and 400 age- and gender-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, we analyzed the association of patient characteristics as determined by a standardized questionnaire with T. gondii exposure by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty-five (13.8%) of 400 patients and 32 (8.0%) of 400 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 - 2.90; P = 0.01). High anti-T. gondii IgG levels (> 150 IU/mL) were found in 28 (50.9%) of the 55 positive cases and in 14 (43.8%) of the 32 positive controls (P = 0.51). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (23.6%) of the 55 anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients and in 19 (59.4%) of 32 anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.54; P = 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.40 - 6.13; P = 0.004), and with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.01 - 4.12; P = 0.04). Conclusions Results obtained in this study indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease, and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure with alcohol

  2. Association between statin therapy and tendon rupture: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Abhimanyu; Dwamena, Francesca C; Dwamena, Ben A

    2009-05-01

    Although case reports of a possible association between statin therapy and tendon rupture have been published, no analytical studies exploring this relationship have been reported. We conducted a case-control study using the electronic medical records at Michigan State University from 2002 to 2007 to assess whether statin use is a risk factor for tendon rupture. We compared exposure to statins in 93 cases of tendon rupture with similar exposure in 279 sex- and age-matched controls. Exposure to statins was defined as documentation in the electronic medical record of statin use in the 12 months preceding tendon rupture. For controls, the exposure period was defined as 1 year preceding the last office visit. We used a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for diabetes, renal disease, rheumatologic disease, and steroid use, to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs). There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the rates of statin use, with either univariate [OR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.84] or multivariate analyses (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.57-2.13). Based on predetermined subgroup analyses, statin exposure was found to be a significant risk factor for tendon rupture in women (adjusted OR = 3.76, 95% CI 1.11-12.75) but not in men (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.29-1.51). In conclusion, we found no overall association between statin use and tendon rupture, but subgroup analysis suggested that women with tendon rupture were more likely to be on statins. PMID:19454900

  3. The association between household socioeconomic position and prevalent tuberculosis in Zambia: a case-control study.

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    Delia Boccia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although historically tuberculosis (TB has been associated with poverty, few analytical studies from developing countries have tried to: 1. assess the relative impact of poverty on TB after the emergence of HIV; 2. explore the causal mechanism underlying this association; and 3. estimate how many cases of TB could be prevented by improving household socioeconomic position (SEP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a case-control study nested within a population-based TB and HIV prevalence survey conducted in 2005-2006 in two Zambian communities. Cases were defined as persons (15+ years of age culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Controls were randomly drawn from the TB-free participants enrolled in the prevalence survey. We developed a composite index of household SEP combining variables accounting for four different domains of household SEP. The analysis of the mediation pathway between household SEP and TB was driven by a pre-defined conceptual framework. Adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (aPAF were estimated. Prevalent TB was significantly associated with lower household SEP [aOR = 6.2, 95%CI: 2.0-19.2 and aOR = 3.4, 95%CI: 1.8-7.6 respectively for low and medium household SEP compared to high]. Other risk factors for prevalent TB included having a diet poor in proteins [aOR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.1-8.7], being HIV positive [aOR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.7-5.8], not BCG vaccinated [aOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 2.8-20.8], and having a history of migration [aOR = 5.2, 95%CI: 2.7-10.2]. These associations were not confounded by household SEP. The association between household SEP and TB appeared to be mediated by inadequate consumption of protein food. Approximately the same proportion of cases could be attributed to this variable and HIV infection (aPAF = 42% and 36%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While the fight against HIV remains central for TB control, interventions addressing low household SEP and, especially food

  4. Association of Serum Uric Acid with Preeclampsia: A Case Control Study

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    Razia Sultana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is still one of the important causes of maternal and fetal mortality in Bangladesh. Many researches have been done to identify a unique screening test that would predict the risk of developing PE before the classic symptoms appear. One of the most accessible and easiest screening tests is serum uric acid measurement. Numerous studies have demonstrated a relation between elevated maternal serum uric acid levels and adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Among several pathophysiologic factors the most commonly accepted explanation for hyperuricemia in PE is increased reabsorption and decreased excretion of uric acid.Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the association of serum uric acid with preeclampsia.Materials and method: A case control study was conducted in the department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2010 to June 2011. A total number of 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy attending in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital were selected purposively as study subjects. Among them 50 pregnant women with preeclampsia were selected as cases and 50 normal healthy pregnant women as controls.Results: Most of the study subjects were within 21 – 30 years of age group and mean age in case and control was 24.06±3.71 and 24.66±3.22 years respectively, which was not statistically different. Mean gestational age in case and control was 33.50±2.55 weeks and 33.60±2.95 weeks respectively, which was also not statistically different. Among the study subjects majority was primi in both groups (case 76%, contol 58% showing no statistical significance. Majority of the subjects in both groups were irregular in their antenatal checkup (case 52%, contol 40%. Uric acid concentration was measured in all the study subjects. The mean serum uric acid concentration in cases and controls were 7.01±1.90 mg/dl and 4.55±1.63 mg/dl respectively. This

  5. A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Yemeni children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Elemraid; I.J. Mackenzie; W.D. Fraser; G. Harper; B. Faragher; Z. Atef; N. Al-Aghbari; B.J. Brabin

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children are common in low resource settings, but there are few studies of their interactions. The aim is to evaluate nutritional factors associated with CSOM in Yemeni children. A case-control study of 75 children with CSOM and 74 health

  6. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal car...

  7. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  8. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  9. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to compare the risk of different estrogens, progestins, and combinations. Results A total of 3593 cases of breast cancer were identified and compared with 9098 controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for breast cancer (BC associated with current or past use of HRT was 1.2 (1.1–1.3, and almost identical for lag times from 6 months to 6 years prior to diagnosis. No significant trend of increasing BC risk was found with increasing duration of HRT use, or time since first or last use in aggregate. Many established BC risk factors significantly modified the effect of HRT on BC risk, particularly first-degree family history of BC, higher age, lower education, higher body mass index (BMI, and never having used oral contraceptives (OCs during lifetime. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT formulation groups (estrogens, progestins, and combinations were too small for strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the BC risk seems not to vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in BC risk was observed between HRT containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion The BC risk of HRT use is rather small. Low risk estimates for BC and a high potential for

  10. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  11. Structural abnormalities and persistent complaints after an ankle sprain are not associated: An observational case control study in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Ochten (John); M.C.E. Mos (Marinka C E); N. Van Putte-Katier (Nienke); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Persistent complaints are very common after a lateral ankle sprain. Aim To investigate possible associations between structural abnormalities on radiography and MRI, and persistent complaints after a lateral ankle sprain. Design and setting Observational case control study on

  12. Association of depression and stress in acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia RM Goldfeld

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychosocial factors have been reported to be independently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. However the stress variable is still sub detailed and there are few studies that used coronary angiography (CA to assess CAD. Objectives. To compare levels of depression, stress and stressful life events in three groups of individuals: post-MI (Myocardial Infarction patients; patients presenting symptoms and no previous MI who underwent cardiac catheterization and had non-significant obstructive CAD and individuals with no symptoms of cardiac disease or others diseases. Methods. We conducted a case-control study, with two cases groups and one control group. The study included 105 patients with recent Myocardial Infarction (MI group, 101 patients with cardiac symptoms and normal CA (CS group, and 100 patients without symptoms of disease (NS group. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess stress and vital events with an Odds Ratio of 95% confidence interval (CI, controlling for age, sex, education level, income, social support group, Body Mass Index (BMI, sedentary lifestyle and family history of MI or sudden death. Results. MI patients group showed depression with an OR= 4.47(95% CI, 2:36 to 8:46, p<.001, and stress OR= 5.37(95%CI, 2.94-9.78, p<.001 whereas CS group showed depression: OR= 6.95(95%CI, 3.64-13.28, p<.001 and stress: OR=9.18 (95%CI, 4.73-17.82, p<.001 compared to patients without symptoms. After adjusting the groups for the following risk factors: age, sex, education, income, social support, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history of MI or sudden death, the OR showed the following variation: in the MI group, depression OR=2.51 (95%CI, 1:05 to 5:98, p=.038, stress, OR=8.76(95%CI, 3:48 to 22:01, p<.001, while the CS group showed: depression OR=3.25(95%CI, 1.40-7.55,p<01 and stress OR=12.24 (95%, CI, 4.81-31.14, p<.001. The raised effect of variable stress after adjustment was promoted by age, sex and

  13. DHAT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND PYSCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES IN MALES: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu RN, Sharma VK, Ashutosh Kumar, Chintan Bavishi, Balaji More

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dhat syndrome is often taken as culture bound syndrome (CBS) of Indian subcontinent. There are many misconceptions which form base of symptoms and co morbidities. Aim: Dhat syndrome is reported on basis of self diagnosis. The study aims to study associated symptoms, sexual behavior and co morbidities in Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and case-control study was carried with help of trained local interviewers at Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, ...

  14. The Association of Postpartum Maternal Mental Health With Breastfeeding Status of Mothers: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Assarian, Fatemeh; Moravveji, Alireza; Ghaffarian, Hamideh; Eslamian, Reihaneh; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal health status might have an important effect on breastfeeding, growth, and general health of the infants. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding status of mothers in Kashan province. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 458 mothers in two groups of unsuccessful breastfeeding (case) and successful breastfeeding (control) attending Kashan province health clinics. In this study...

  15. ASSOCIATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS WITH STROKE: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of death above the age of 60 years and the fifth leading cause of death in people aged 15-59 years old. In addition to specific complications of diabetes mellitus like nephropathy, retinopathy, etc., some other non-specific complications, notably coronary artery disease and stroke are also increasing in frequency in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a case-control study conducted from Feb-2016 to Apr-2016 (3 months. Study was done among stroke patients aged 20 years and above hospitalized in TMMC and RC, Moradabad, UP, Age and gender matched control subjects were selected among neurologically healthy people who were admitted for other ailments in this hospital. Sample size was 312 people containing 156 cases and 156 controls. Statistical analysis was done using Med Calc Version 12.7.5.0 software. Chi-square test was used as test of significance and p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. OBSERVATION Male:Female ratio among the cases and control was 1.51:1. Mean age of cases and controls were 51.30±11.13 and 51.93±14.60. Out of 156 cases, 77 (49.36% were suffering from Diabetes mellitus, while only 46 (29.48% controls were having diabetes mellitus. P value was 0.0003, which is highly significant. CONCLUSION In the present hospital-based case-control study, diabetes mellitus was found to be a significant risk factor in patients with stroke. Risk factor assessment is an important step towards better understanding of pathogenesis, prevention and control of stroke. RECOMMENDATIONS Physicians caring for patients at risk for stroke should be vigilant for diabetes as well as other concurrent stroke risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidaemia, heart diseases, etc., that tend to cluster with diabetes. Lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions for the modifiable risk

  16. Lack of Association between Stroke and Left Atrial Out-Pouching Structures: Results of a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Ji Young; Kim, Young Dae; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Clinical significance of out-pouching structures of the left atrium (LA) as potential embolic sources remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the association between stroke and LA out-pouching structures. Methods A case-control study was conducted to assess the prevalence of LA out-pouching structures in subjects with and without stroke. Case subjects were 270 stroke patients who had undergone cardiac CT. Control subjects were 270 age- and sex-matched patients without a ...

  17. The Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms with Multiple Sclerosis in a Case-Control Study from Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeah Abbas Al-Temaimi; Anwar Al-Enezi; Ahmad Al-Serri; Raed Alroughani; Fahd Al-Mulla

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Several factors influence vitamin D levels and its optimal multi-function maintenance. Our objective was to assess quantifiable variables influencing vitamin D level and metabolism in MS patients from Kuwait. In a case-control study involving 50 MS patients, and 50 healthy control individuals for which plasma vitamin D levels, supplement use, vitamin D receptor (VDR) variants, and skin pigmentation ind...

  18. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  19. The association between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been reports both supporting and refuting an inverse relationship between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis (OA. We explore this relationship using a case-control study design. Methods Exclusion criteria were previous hip fracture (same side or contralateral side, age younger than 60 years, foreign nationality, pathological fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and cases were radiographic examinations were not found in the archives. We studied all subjects with hip fracture that remained after the exclusion process that were treated at Akureyri University Hospital, Iceland 1990-2008, n = 562 (74% women. Hip fracture cases were compared with a cohort of subjects with colon radiographs, n = 803 (54% women to determine expected population prevalence of hip OA. Presence of radiographic hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph, or Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or higher. Possible causes of secondary osteoporosis were identified by review of medical records. Results The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR for subjects with hip fracture having radiographic hip OA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.12-0.74 for men and 0.33 (95% CI 0.19-0.58 for women, compared to controls. The probability for subjects with hip fracture and hip OA having a secondary cause of osteoporosis was three times higher than for subjects with hip fracture without hip OA. Conclusion The results of our study support an inverse relationship between hip fractures and hip OA.

  20. Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with allergic rhinitis: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Daniel; Andiappan Anand; Halldén Christer; Yun Wang; Säll Torbjörn; Tim Chew; Cardell Lars-Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Toll-like receptor proteins are important in host defense and initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of studies have identified associations between genetic variation in the Toll-like receptor genes and allergic disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The present study aim to search for genetic variation associated with allergic rhinitis in the Toll-like receptor genes. Methods A first association analysis genotyped 73 SNPs in 182 case...

  1. Antidepressant-warfarin interaction and associated gastrointestinal bleeding risk in a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Schelleman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most common and worrisome adverse effect of warfarin therapy. One of the factors that might increase bleeding risk is initiation of interacting drugs that potentiate warfarin. We sought to evaluate whether initiation of an antidepressant increases the risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding in warfarin users. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data (1999-2005 were used to perform an observational case-control study nested within person-time exposed to warfarin in those ≥18 years. In total, 430,455 warfarin users contributed 407,370 person-years of warfarin use. The incidence rate of hospitalization for GI bleeding among warfarin users was 4.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 4.42-4.55. Each gastrointestinal bleeding cases was matched to 50 controls based on index date and state. Warfarin users had an increased odds ratio of gastrointestinal bleeding upon initiation of citalopram (OR = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.25-2.38], fluoxetine (OR = 1.63 [95% CI, 1.11-2.38], paroxetine (OR = 1.64 [95% CI, 1.27-2.12], amitriptyline (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.02-2.11]. Also mirtazapine, which is not believed to interact with warfarin, increased the risk of GI bleeding (OR = 1.75 [95% CI, 1.30-2.35]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warfarin users who initiated citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, amitriptyline, or mirtazapine had an increased risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the elevated risk with mirtazapine suggests that a drug-drug interaction may not have been responsible for all of the observed increased risk.

  2. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T.; Lau, Kar W.; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V.; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk.METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n= 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).RESULTS: Ind...

  3. Association between Diet and Lifestyle Habits and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yu-Bin; Zhuang, Kang-Min; Kuang, Lei; Zhan, Qiang; Wang, Xian-fei; Liu, Si-De

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Recent papers have highlighted the role of diet and lifestyle habits in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but very few population-based studies have evaluated this association in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between diet and lifestyle habits and IBS. Methods A food frequency and lifestyle habits questionnaire was used to record the diet and lifestyle habits of 78 IBS subjects and 79 healthy subjects. Cross-tabulation analysis and lo...

  4. Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with allergic rhinitis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Toll-like receptor proteins are important in host defense and initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of studies have identified associations between genetic variation in the Toll-like receptor genes and allergic disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The present study aim to search for genetic variation associated with allergic rhinitis in the Toll-like receptor genes. Methods A first association analysis genotyped 73 SNPs in 182 cases and 378 controls from a Swedish population. Based on these results an additional 24 SNPs were analyzed in one Swedish population with 352 cases and 709 controls and one Chinese population with 948 cases and 580 controls. Results The first association analysis identified 4 allergic rhinitis-associated SNPs in the TLR7-TLR8 gene region. Subsequent analysis of 24 SNPs from this region identified 7 and 5 significant SNPs from the Swedish and Chinese populations, respectively. The corresponding risk-associated haplotypes are significant after Bonferroni correction and are the most common haplotypes in both populations. The associations are primarily detected in females in the Swedish population, whereas it is seen in males in the Chinese population. Further independent support for the involvement of this region in allergic rhinitis was obtained from quantitative skin prick test data generated in both populations. Conclusions Haplotypes in the TLR7-TLR8 gene region were associated with allergic rhinitis in one Swedish and one Chinese population. Since this region has earlier been associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in a Danish linkage study this speaks strongly in favour of this region being truly involved in the development of this disease.

  5. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the main causes for cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies and multiple variant models have been...... developed to predict prostate cancer risk. The association between genetic markers and clinico-pathological tumor variables has, however, been inconsistent. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 previously identified prostate cancer-associated risk SNPs were genotyped in 648 prostate cancer cases and 526 age......-matched controls. Family history was obtained by questionnaire. Age at diagnosis, clinical tumor variables including pre- and postoperative PSA, Gleason score, and T stage were obtained from prospectively collected clinical data (Aarhus Prostate Cancer Study). The SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom and Taqman...

  6. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neale, B.M.; Medland, S.; Ripke, S.; Anney, R.J.; Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Gill, M.; Kent, L.; Holmans, P.; Middleton, F.; Thapar, A.; Lesch, K.P.; Faraone, S.V.; Daly, M.; Nguyen, T.T.; Schafer, H.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Romanos, M.; Romanos, J.; Warnke, A.; Walitza, S.; Freitag, C.; Meyer, J.; Palmason, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Hawi, Z.; Sergeant, J.A.; Roeyers, H.; Mick, E.; Biederman, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. METHOD

  7. Extrapyramidal syndromes associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors : a case-control study using spontaneous reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillevoort, I; van Puijenbroek, E P; de Boer, A; Roos, R A C; Jansen, Paul A F; Leufkens, H G M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is associated with extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS). We analysed the spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) collected by The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Foundation Lareb in the period 198

  8. The association between atopic disorders and keloids: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Hajdarbegovic (Enes); A. Bloem (Annemieke); D.M.W. Balak (Deepak); B.H. Thio (Bing); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Keloids and atopic disorders share common inducing and maintaining inflammatory pathways that are characterized by T-helper cell 2 cytokines. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to test for associations between keloids and atopic eczema, asthma and hay fever.

  9. Optimal DNA Pooling-Based Two-Stage Designs in Case-Control Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yihong; Wang, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Study cost remains the major limiting factor for genome-wide association studies due to the necessity of genotyping a large number of SNPs for a large number of subjects. Both DNA pooling strategies and two-stage designs have been proposed to reduce genotyping costs. In this study, we propose a cost-effective, two-stage approach with a DNA pooling strategy. During stage I, all markers are evaluated on a subset of individuals using DNA pooling. The most promising set of markers is then evaluat...

  10. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Pedro; Lam Nelly; Sanchez Sixto E; Qiu Chunfang; Williams Michelle A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotens...

  11. Disentangling the Association between Statins, Cholesterol, and Colorectal Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Ronac; Lewis, James D.; Scott, Frank I.; Ahmad, Tariq; Goldberg, David S.; Datta, Jashodeep; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Boursi, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several prior studies have found an association between statin use and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that these findings may be due to systematic bias and examined the independent association of colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum cholesterol, and change in cholesterol concentration. Methods and Findings 22,163 colorectal cancer cases and 86,538 matched controls between 1995 and 2013 were identified within The Health Improvement Network (THIN) a population-representative database. Conditional logistic regression models estimated colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum total cholesterol (mmol/L), and change in total cholesterol level. We confirmed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer with statin use (long-term: odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91–0.99; short-term: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–0.99). However, to assess whether the observed association may result from indication bias, a subgroup analysis was conducted among patients prescribed a statin. In this subgroup (n = 5,102 cases, n = 19,032 controls), 3.1% of case subjects and 3.1% of controls discontinued therapy. The risk of colorectal cancer was not significantly different among those who continued statin therapy and those who discontinued (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79–1.22). Increased serum cholesterol was independently associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR, 0.89 per mmol/L increase; 95% CI, 0.87–0.91); the association was only present if serum cholesterol was measured near the cancer diagnosis (24 mo: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93–1.03). Decreases in serum total cholesterol >1 mmol/L ≥1 year prior to cancer diagnosis were associated with subsequent colorectal cancer (statin users: OR, 1.25; 95 CI%, 1.03–1.53; nonusers: OR, 2.36; 95 CI%, 1.78–3.12). As an observational study, limitations included incomplete data and residual confounding. Conclusions Although the risk of colorectal cancer was lower in statin users versus

  12. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  13. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The matched case-control study has been undertook to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be casually associated with autism in children. Cases were children to 14-year old with diagnosis of core autism or atypical autism. Controls were matched on age, sex and general practice. The 96 cases and 192 controls were included. The study provides strong evidence against association of autism with both MMR and a single measles individual vaccine. Additionally children vaccinated with MMR, regardless of age of vaccination (to 18th, 24th and 36th month of life), had risk equal half of that of single measles vaccinated (for vaccinated to 18th month OR=0.41 95%PU: 0.20-0.85). Our findings confirm that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of autism in children.

  14. North African influences and potential bias in case-control association studies in the Spanish population.

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    María Pino-Yanes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs, we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈ 5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈ 17% in Canary Islanders, whereas the sub-Saharan African influence was negligible. Strikingly, the Northwest African ancestry showed a wide inter-individual variation in Canary Islanders ranging from 0% to 96%, reflecting the violent way the Islands were conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the XV century. As a consequence, a comparison of allele frequencies between Spanish samples from the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands evidenced an excess of markers with significant differences. However, the inflation of p-values for the differences was adequately controlled by correcting for genetic ancestry estimates derived from a reduced number of AIMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the African influences estimated might be biased due to marker ascertainment, these results confirm that Northwest African genetic footprints are recognizable nowadays in the Spanish populations, particularly in Canary Islanders, and that the uneven African influences existing in these

  15. Diabetes mellitus is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective case-control study in hepatitis endemic area.

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    Ze Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of case-control patient studies have been conducted to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Despite some controversial reports, it has been suggested that DM is associated with HCC. The previous studies on this subject vary in the selection of populations, sample sizes, methodology, and analysis results. Therefore, it is necessary to further delineate the involvement of DM, together with other related risk factors, in HCC with large sample size and strict analysis methodology. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based retrospective case-control study at Perking Union Medical College Hospital, China. A total of 1,568 patients with liver diseases were enrolled in the statistical study to evaluate the association of DM and other risk factors with HCC. Among these patients, 716 of them were diagnosed with benign liver diseases, and 852 patients were diagnosed as HCC. We utilized binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression to investigate the associations among DM, hypertension, fatty liver, cirrhosis, gallstone, HBV infection, HCV infection, and HCC. RESULTS: Statistical analysis through the stepwise regression model indicated that the prevalence of DM, male gender, cirrhosis, HCV infection, or HBV infection is higher in the HCC patient group compared to the control group. However, the prevalence of gallstone is negatively associated with HCC cases. DM co-exists with HBV infection, male gender, and age in the HCC cases. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested that DM may synergize with HBV infection in HCC development. CONCLUSION: DM is strongly associated with the increased risk of HCC regardless of the prevalence of HBV infection, HCV infection, cirrhosis, male gender, and age. However, the synergistic interaction between DM and HBV in HCC occurrence is significant. Therefore, DM patients with HBV infection represent a very high HCC risk population and

  16. Armadillo meat intake was not associated with leprosy in a case control study, Curitiba (Brazil

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    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy's progression and its maintained endemic status, despite the availability of effective treatments, are not fully understood and recent studies have highlighted the possibility of involved Mycobacterium leprae ambient reservoirs. Wild armadillos can carry leprosy and, because their meat is eaten by humans, development of the disease among armadillo meat consumers has been investigated. This study evaluated the frequency of armadillo meat intake among leprosy patients as well as age and gender matched controls with other skin diseases from a dermatological unit. Armadillo meat consumption among both groups was adjusted by demographic and socioeconomic covariates based on a conditional multiple logistic regression model. One hundred twenty-one cases and 242 controls were evaluated; they differed in socioeconomic variables such as family income, hometown population and access to treated water. The multivariate analysis did not show an association between the intake of armadillo meat and leprosy (odds ratio = 1.07; CI 95% 0.56-2.04, even when only cases with no known contacts were analyzed. We conclude that leprosy is not associated with the intake of armadillo meat in these patients.

  17. Androgenetic alopecia, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance: Is there any association? A case-control study

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    Ola Ahmed Bakry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Although several previous studies have investigated the association of metabolic syndrome (MS and insulin resistance (IR with androgenetic alopecia (AGA, the results have been inconsistent. Aim: We attempted to assess the presence of MS and IR in patients with AGA. This may help to detect if AGA can be considered as a clue for underlying serious systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: One hundred male patients with stages III-VII AGA, in Hamilton-Norwood classification, and 100 normal, gender- and age-matched control subjects were included. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured for the all participants. The presence of MS and IR was evaluated. Results: There were statistically significant differences regarding mean values of body weight (P 102 cm was the most significant risk factor for developing MS. It increased the risk of MS by 1.25-folds (95% CI = 1.10-1.42, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our results support the recommendation for assessing MS and IR in all young males with stage III or higher AGA. Early intervention is critical to reduce the risk and complications of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life.

  18. No association between seropositivity for Hepatitis C virus and lichen planus: A case control study

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    Das Arup

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological association of lichen planus (LP with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has been recorded from some countries and HCV RNA3 has been isolated from lesional skin in patients with LP and chronic HCV infection. The observed geographical differences regarding HCV infection and LP could be immuno-genetically related. Aim: To determine whether HCV has a causal relationship with LP. Methods: Histopathologically proved cases of LP were subjected to antibody to HCV test by the Third Generation Enzyme Immunoassay Kit for the detection of antibody to HCV (Anti-HCV in human serum or plasma. They were routinely screened in the virology department by the reagent kit, HIVASE 1 + 2, adopting the "direct sandwich principle" for the assay to detect antibodies to HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. There were 150 age and sex matched controls (not suffering from LP and HIV-I and II negative, and negative for HCV. Results: Of the 104 patients studied only 2 patients (1.92% of generalized LP with disease duration of more than 3 months were found to be positive for antibodies to HCV. This was not a significant finding and no statistical methods, e.g. Chi square test etc. could be applied. Conclusion: Hepatitis C virus is not significant to the causation of LP in India.

  19. Replication of recently identified systemic lupus erythematosus genetic associations : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Endreffy, Emoeke; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Ruzickova, Sarka; Santos, Maria Jose; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Marchini, Maurizio; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Bijl, Marc; Carreira, Patricia; Witte, Torsten; Migliaresi, Sergio; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to replicate association of newly identified systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) loci. Methods We selected the most associated SNP in 10 SLE loci. These 10 SNPs were analysed in 1,579 patients with SLE and 1,726 controls of European origin by single-base extension. Comparison of

  20. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

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    Zhang Yuesheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.

  1. CNTFR Genotype and Sprint/power Performance: Case-control Association and Functional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto-Mikami, E; Fujita, Y; Murakami, H; Ito, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Fuku, N

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether rs41274853 in the 3'-untranslated region of the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor gene (CNTFR) is associated with elite sprint/power athletic status and assess its functional significance. A total of 211 Japanese sprint/power track and field athletes (62 international, 72 national, and 77 regional athletes) and 814 Japanese controls were genotyped at rs41274853. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to investigate whether this C-to-T polymorphism affects binding of microRNA miR-675-5p to this region. The TT genotype was significantly more frequent among international sprint/power athletes (19.4%) than in the controls after Bonferroni correction (7.9%, P=0.036, OR=2.81 [95% CI: 1.43-5.55]). Furthermore, in non-athletic young/middle-aged men (n=132), TT genotype carriers exhibited significantly greater leg extension power (26.6±5.4 vs. 24.0±5.4 W/kg BW, P=0.019) and vertical jump performance (50.1±6.9 vs. 47.9±7.5 cm, P=0.047) than the CC+CT genotype carriers. Reporter assays revealed that the miR-675-5p binds to this polymorphic region within the CNTFR mRNA, irrespective of the rs41274853 allele present. Although the functional significance of the rs41274853 polymorphism remains unclear, the CNTFR is one of the candidate genes contributing to sprint/power performance. PMID:26837930

  2. Herpesvirus-Associated Acute Urticaria: An Age Matched Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Mareri; Adler, Stuart P.; Giovanni Nigro

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute and recurrent acute urticaria are often associated with multiple factors including infections and recent data suggest a role for herpesviruses. OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis, that is, there is no association of herpesvirus infections with urticaria. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients between one month and 15 years of age were age matched to 37 controls who were healthy or had mild acute respiratory infections but without urticaria. Patients and controls were followed fo...

  3. The Distressed (Type D) Personality Is Independently Associated With Tinnitus : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Hilke; Middel, Berrie; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Staal, Michiel J.; Albers, Frans W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is a common and disturbing condition, reported by 10% to 20% of the general population. Objective: The authors sought to determine personality characteristics associated with tinnitus patients versus a control group of ear-nose-throat (ENT) patients without tinnitus. Method: Adu

  4. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovi...

  5. Risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis associated with conventional and atypical antipsychotics: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasse, Christiane; Jacobsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atypical and conventional antipsychotics with the risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study. DATA SOURCE: Health care databases of Northern Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 3083 adults hospitalized...... as the index date for the matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis in current users (0-90 days before admission or index date) and former users (> 90 days before admission or index date) of atypical...... with acute pancreatitis (case patients) and 30,830 control subjects. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Controls were selected from the general population by using risk-set sampling and were matched to case patients by age and sex. The date of the case patients' admission for acute pancreatitis was used...

  6. Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Luke E; Swerdfeger, Amy L; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-06-17

    There has been enormous debate regarding the possibility of a link between childhood vaccinations and the subsequent development of autism. This has in recent times become a major public health issue with vaccine preventable diseases increasing in the community due to the fear of a 'link' between vaccinations and autism. We performed a meta-analysis to summarise available evidence from case-control and cohort studies on this topic (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar up to April, 2014). Eligible studies assessed the relationship between vaccine administration and the subsequent development of autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Disagreement was resolved by consensus with another author. Five cohort studies involving 1,256,407 children, and five case-control studies involving 9,920 children were included in this analysis. The cohort data revealed no relationship between vaccination and autism (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.06) or ASD (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.20), nor was there a relationship between autism and MMR (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.01), or thimerosal (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.31), or mercury (Hg) (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.07). Similarly the case-control data found no evidence for increased risk of developing autism or ASD following MMR, Hg, or thimerosal exposure when grouped by condition (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.98; p=0.02) or grouped by exposure type (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.95; p=0.01). Findings of this meta-analysis suggest that vaccinations are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the components of the vaccines (thimerosal or mercury) or multiple vaccines (MMR) are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder.

  7. CASE-CONTROL ASSOCIATION STUDIES OF THE UBAP1 GENE AND NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA IN SOUTHERN CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾朝阳; 熊炜; 熊芳; 李小玲; 王蓉; 李伟芳; 钱骏; 李桂源

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the relation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the human novel gene UBAP1, which is located in the region of minimal heterozygosity deletion at 9pl3.2 and down-expressed in NPC. Methods: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within UBAP1 gene were analysed by sequencing in 105 NPC patients and 183 control subjects which matched to the NPC cases on age, sex and residence. Results: Significant association was found between NPC with one SNP mark (rs1049557), which is located at 3' non-region of UBAP1 gene; the relative risk of this SNP mark is 1.64 (genotype GG) and 1.31 (genotype CG). Conclusion: The result has proved again that UBAP1 gene may play a certain role in the occurrence and development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The SNP mark rs1049557, considering its location, may influence the expression of UBAP1 gene.

  8. Pre-operative patient education is associated with decreased risk of arthrofibrosis after total knee arthroplasty: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livbjerg, Anna Emilie; Froekjaer, Sara; Simonsen, Ole; Rathleff, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose was to investigate risk factors for postoperative stiffness and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). In one of the five Danish regions, all patients in a 4-year period who received MUA following total knee arthroplasty (N=36) were included in two case-control studies. Data on potential risk factors were extracted from the Danish Knee arthroplasty Register and from a postal questionnaire including long-term outcome measures regarding pain, function and quality of life (Oxford Knee Score and EQ-5D). Previous knee surgery and a high preoperative Knee Society Function Score were significant risk factors, whereas attending a preoperative information meeting was associated with a significantly decreased risk of postoperative stiffness requiring MUA (P<0.001). The long-term results following MUA (1-5 years) were equivalent to patients without postoperative stiffness. PMID:23507064

  9. Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from two Scandinavian case-control studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källberg, H; Jacobsen, Søren; Bengtsson, C;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and alcohol consumption in combination with smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). METHODS: Data from two independent case-control studies of RA, the Swedish EIRA (1204 cases and 871 controls) and the Danish...... CACORA (444 cases and 533 controls), were used to estimate ORs of developing RA for different amounts of alcohol consumed. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was significantly more common in controls (p... alcohol consumers, the quarter with the highest consumption had a decreased risk of RA of the order of 40-50% compared with the half with the lowest consumption (EIRA, OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.4 to 0.6); CACORA, OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.4 to 0.9)). For the subset of RA that is seropositive for antibodies...

  10. A case-control study of apolipoprotein E genotypes in Alzheimer's disease associated with Down syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Evenhuis (Heleen); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); W.A. van Gool (Willem)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe prevalence of clinical signs and neuropathological findings of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is high in Down's syndrome (DS). In the general population, the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 isoform is an important risk for AD. We studied the allelic frequencies of ApoE in 26 DS cases ful

  11. Analysis of eight genes modulating interferon gamma and human genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis: a case-control association study

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    Hoal Eileen G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma is a major macrophage-activating cytokine during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative pathogen of tuberculosis, and its role has been well established in animal models and in humans. This cytokine is produced by activated T helper 1 cells, which can best deal with intracellular pathogens such as M. tuberculosis. Based on the hypothesis that genes which regulate interferon gamma may influence tuberculosis susceptibility, we investigated polymorphisms in eight candidate genes. Methods Fifty-four polymorphisms in eight candidate genes were genotyped in over 800 tuberculosis cases and healthy controls in a population-based case-control association study in a South African population. Genotyping methods used included the SNPlex Genotyping System™, capillary electrophoresis of fluorescently labelled PCR products, TaqMan® SNP genotyping assays or the amplification mutation refraction system. Single polymorphisms as well as haplotypes of the variants were tested for association with TB using statistical analyses. Results A haplotype in interleukin 12B was nominally associated with tuberculosis (p = 0.02, but after permutation testing, done to assess the significance for the entire analysis, this was not globally significant. In addition a novel allele was found for the interleukin 12B D5S2941 microsatellite. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of using larger sample sizes when attempting validation of previously reported genetic associations. Initial studies may be false positives or may propose a stronger genetic effect than subsequently found to be the case.

  12. Associations of serum organohalogen levels and prostate cancer risk: Results from a case-control study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Na; Chia, Sin Eng; Ong, Choon Nam; Kelly, Barry C

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that elevated exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. As part of a hospital-based case-control study of the Singaporean male population, we investigated associations between organohalogen exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Trace residue concentrations of 74 organohalogen contaminants, including several PCBs, OCPs and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), were determined in serum samples (n = 120) using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A variety of OCPs, PCBs and HFRs were detected in samples of both patients and controls. Mean concentrations of p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 187 were significantly higher (p 67th) were 5.67 (95% CI, 2.37-13.54) and 2.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 4.66), respectively. The results suggest that exposure to DDTs and PCBs may be associated with prostate cancer risk in Singaporean males. No such association was observed for the organohalogen flame retardants studied, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The study provides novel information regarding the occurrence, levels and potential associations with prostate cancer risk for several organohalogen contaminants in the Singapore population. However, further investigation and analyses should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  13. The Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms with Multiple Sclerosis in a Case-Control Study from Kuwait.

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    Rabeah Abbas Al-Temaimi

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS. Several factors influence vitamin D levels and its optimal multi-function maintenance. Our objective was to assess quantifiable variables influencing vitamin D level and metabolism in MS patients from Kuwait. In a case-control study involving 50 MS patients, and 50 healthy control individuals for which plasma vitamin D levels, supplement use, vitamin D receptor (VDR variants, and skin pigmentation indices were ascertained; we found overall vitamin D levels to be deficient in both groups, and supplement use to be common practice. VDR variants TaqI and BsmI associated with MS risk, and ApaI associated with low disease progression. VDR variant FokI associated with higher vitamin D levels in both groups. We conclude that several quantifiable variables related to vitamin D associate with MS suggesting a possible clinical immuno-modulatory application of vitamin D for MS patients in Kuwait.

  14. Genetic variants of interleukin-10 gene promoter are associated with schizophrenia in Saudi patients: A case-control study

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    Saeed Mohammad Al-Asmary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10 gene is considered as a potential candidate gene in schizophrenia association studies. The polymorphisms on IL-10 gene have been reported to be linked with susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia within consistent results. Aims: The aim of this case-control study was to examine whether the -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C polymorphisms in IL-10 gene are implicated in schizophrenia development in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Molecular genotyping of IL-10 gene polymorphisms was performed to analyze the genotypes and alleles distribution of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in patients (n = 181 and healthy individuals as control group (n = 211. Results: The frequencies of GA genotype at -1082, and CC genotype at positions -592 and -819 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy subjects suggesting that GA, CC, and CC genotypes are susceptible to schizophrenia. The ACC haplotype known to be associated with intermediate production of IL-10 are more prevalent in our schizophrenia patients. On the other hand, genotypes -1082 GG, -819 CT, and -592 CA of IL-10 were more prevalent in healthy controls suggesting protective effects of GA, CT, and CA genotypes against schizophrenia. There was no significant association of IL-10 polymorphisms with sex or positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Conclusion: This study indicates that the IL-10 gene polymorphisms play a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia in Saudi Arabians patients.

  15. Risk factors associated with hantavirosis fatality: a regional analysis from a case-control study in Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Antunes Willemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has a high lethality rate that varies by region. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with fatal hantavirosis. Methods: This study was a case-control study that included all laboratory confirmed cases of hantavirosis. The cases were stratified by the different Brazilian regions using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. “Cases” were patients who progressed to death, whereas “controls” were patients who were cured. The odds ratio (OR and the adjusted OR were calculated. Results: Overall, 158 cases and 281 controls were included in this study. In the Midwest region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with flank pain, and the time between the beginning of symptoms and death was shorter than the time between the beginning of symptoms and a cure. In the Southeast region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with thrombocytopenia or reside in rural areas compared to those who progressed to a cure. Additionally, the cases sought medical assistance, notification and investigation more quickly than the controls. In the Southern region, the cases that died were 70% less likely to be male compared to the controls. Conclusions: HCPS manifests with nonspecific symptoms, and there are few published studies related to the condition, so determining a patient's therapeutic strategy is difficult. This study presents findings from different Brazilian regions and highlights the need for further investigations to improve comprehension about regional risk factors associated with hantavirosis and to reduce morbimortality.

  16. Association between chronic viral hepatitis infection and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based case-control study

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    Su Fu-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Taiwan, there is a high incidence of breast cancer and a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. In this case-control study, we used a population-based insurance dataset to evaluate whether breast cancer in women is associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Methods From the claims data, we identified 1,958 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer during the period 2000-2008. A randomly selected, age-matched cohort of 7,832 subjects without cancer was selected for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to calculate odds ratios of breast cancer associated with viral hepatitis after adjustment for age, residential area, occupation, urbanization, and income. The age-specific ( Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV, or the prevalence of combined HBC/HBV infection between breast cancer patients and control subjects (p = 0.48. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, revealed that age Conclusions HCV infection, but not HBV infection, appears to be associated with early onset risk of breast cancer in areas endemic for HCV and HBV. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies.

  17. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Campos, Hannia; Ma, Jing; Stampfer1, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating fatty acids are highly correlated with each other and analyzing fatty acid patterns could better capture their interactions and their relation to prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the associations between data-derived blood fatty acid patterns and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the Physicians’ Health Study. Fatty acids levels were measured in whole blood samples of 476 cases and their matched controls by age and smoking status. Fatty acid patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Two patterns explaining 40.9% of total variation in blood fatty acid levels were identified. Pattern 1, which mainly reflects polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, was suggestively positively related to prostate cancer risk (ORquintile 5 vs. quintile 1=1.37, 95%CI=0.91–2.05, Ptrend=0.07). Pattern 2, which largely reflects de novo lipogenesis, was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer risk (ORquintile5 vs quintile1=1.63, 95%CI=1.04–2.55, Ptrend=0.02). This association was similar across tumor stage, grade, clinical aggressiveness categories and follow-up time. Conclusion The two patterns of fatty acids we identified were consistent with known interactions between fatty acid intake and metabolism. A pattern suggestive of higher activity in the de novo lipogenesis pathway was related to higher risk of prostate cancer. PMID:27488836

  18. Genetic association of deleted in colorectal carcinoma variants with breast cancer risk: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghan; Wang, Xijing; Fu, Sidney W; Wang, Meng; Kang, Huafeng; Guan, Haitao; Zhang, Shuqun; Ma, Xiaobin; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Kang; Feng, Yanjing; Dai, Cong; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-05-31

    Deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), a netrin-1 dependence receptor, is correlated with cell progression, migration, and adhesion. Evidence indicated that DCC was frequently down-regulated in many cancers. However, the association of DCC with breast cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the impact of three DCC gene variants (rs2229080, rs7504990, and rs4078288) on breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. This study included 560 breast cancer patients and 583 age-matched healthy controls from Northwest China. The three gene variants were genotyped via Sequenom MassARRAY. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to evaluate the associations. We found that individuals with the rs2229080 C/G, C/C, and C/G-CC genotypes had a higher breast cancer risk, and the minor allele C was associated with increased breast cancer risk in an allele model. We observed a significantly decreased breast cancer risk with the rs7504990 C/T, T/T, and C/T-T/T genotypes, and the minor allele T was protective against breast cancer in an allele model. In addition, rs2229080 was associated with the axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis status. An age-stratified analysis revealed an association between rs2229080 and reduced breast cancer risk among older patients (≥ 49 years). Furthermore, the haplotype analysis showed that the Crs2229080Crs7504990Ars4078288 haplotype was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk. However, the results indicated a lack of association between rs4078288 and breast cancer risk. These findings affirmed that rs2229080 and rs7504990 polymorphisms in DCC might be related with breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women.

  19. DHAT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND PYSCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES IN MALES: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Sahu RN, Sharma VK, Ashutosh Kumar, Chintan Bavishi, Balaji More

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dhat syndrome is often taken as culture bound syndrome (CBS of Indian subcontinent. There are many misconceptions which form base of symptoms and co morbidities. Aim: Dhat syndrome is reported on basis of self diagnosis. The study aims to study associated symptoms, sexual behavior and co morbidities in Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and case-control study was carried with help of trained local interviewers at Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, Gandhi Medical College (GMC, Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, India. Cases were compared to healthy matched controls. The study was conducted using clinical interview, physical examination and other necessary investigations like urine analysis and microscopy. Results: Of the 50 cases and control, each, age group was 21 to 25 years (48% and education upto12th class (60%. 20% cases reported history of Masturbation. Extramarital or premarital sexual contact was found to have little significance on the syndrome. 76% of the patients met DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Anxiety and 56% patients met for Depression. 23 patients (46.3% were having a co-morbid somatic complains like body ache, weakness and fatigue. Erectile dysfunction by 34% & premature ejaculation by 8% was reported. In Urine routine analysis and microscope no oxalates or phosphates were noted. Conclusions: Dhat syndrome is more common among low educated young population. Laboratory evidence of any pathological cause was not found. Contrary to popular belief, it had no direct correlation with masturbation and pre and extra marital sexual contact.

  20. Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Type II Diabetes in Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

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    Solomon Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV has become the global “epidemic” with an estimated 123 million people currently infected worldwide. As the same time diabetes is also rapidly emerging as a global health care problem that threatens to reach pandemic levels by 2030. Objective. To investigate the magnitude of HCV infection in type II diabetes as compared to controls. Methodology. A case control study design was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from May to June 2010. A total of 604 study subjects were included in this study. Sociodemographic and risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. From serum sample, HCVAb screening was done by rapid antibody screening test. Liver functioning tests and total cholesterol tests were done by Dr. Lange LP 800 spectrophotometer. Results. The prevalence of HCV in type II diabetes and nondiabetic controls was 9.9% and 3.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositives have high risk of developing diabetes as compared with seronegatives (AOR = 2.997, 95% CI: (1.08, 8.315. Conclusion. In this study, we found a positive association between past HCV infection and type II diabetes. As we did not perform HCV RNA test, we could not assess the association with HCV viremia.

  1. CANNABIS USE AND ASSOCIATED HARMS AMONG SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS IN A NGERIAN CLINICAL SETTING: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Victor Lasebikan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The overall aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia with associated levels of harm in a Nigerian clinical setting.Method: In this case-control study, consecutive 150 patients with schizophrenia were matched by age and gender with an equal number of patients that utilized the general outpatient department of the State Hospital, Ring Road Ibadan.The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST was used to obtain prevalence of cannabis use and level of health risk as determined by the ASSIST score. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to determine the severity of psychosis. Results: Prevalence of cannabis use among the cases was 10.0% and 2.7% among the control group, p = 0.03. Mean ASSIST score was significantly higher among the cases compared with the control, p < 0.001. Respondents of male gender and those who were not married were significantly more likely to be cannabis users among patients with schizophrenia, p < 0.001, p < 0.02 respectively. Conclusion: Cannabis use was prevalent among patients with schizophrenia and was associated with health risks. Thus, routine screening for cannabis use and brief intervention is suggested to be integrated into care for adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

  2. Family-environmental factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chinese children: a case-control study.

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    Xianming du Prel Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, affecting an estimated 5 to 12% of school-aged children worldwide. From 15 to 19 million Chinese children suffer from ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD in a sample of Chinese children. METHODS: A pair-matched, case-control study was conducted with 161 ADHD children and 161 non-ADHD children of matching age and sex, all from 5-18 years of age. The ADHD subjects and the normal controls were all evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews. We examined the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD using the conditional multiple logistic regression with backward stepwise selection to predict the associated factors of ADHD. RESULTS: Having experienced emotional abuse and being a single child were both significant factors associated with children diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD subjects were more likely to have suffered from emotional abuse (OR = 11.09, 95% CI = 2.15-57.29, P = 0.004 and have been a single child in the family (OR = 6.32, 95% CI = 2.09-19.14, P = 0.001 when compared to normal controls. The results were not modified by other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that family-environmental factors are associated with ADHD among children in China. These findings, if confirmed by future research, may help to decrease ADHD by increasing the awareness of the effects of childhood emotional abuse.

  3. Contribution of type 2 diabetes associated loci in the Arabic population from Tunisia: a case-control study

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    Almawi Wassim Y

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have both reproducibly identified several common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs that confer type 2 diabetes (T2D risk in European populations. Our aim was to evaluate the contribution to T2D of five of these established T2D-associated loci in the Arabic population from Tunisia. Methods A case-control design comprising 884 type 2 diabetic patients and 513 control subjects living in the East-Center of Tunisia was used to analyze the contribution to T2D of the following SNPs: E23K in KCNJ11/Kir6.2, K121Q in ENPP1, the -30G/A variant in the pancreatic β-cell specific promoter of Glucokinase, rs7903146 in TCF7L2 encoding transcription factor 7-like2, and rs7923837 in HHEX encoding the homeobox, hematopoietically expressed transcription factor. Results TCF7L2-rs7903146 T allele increased susceptibility to T2D (OR = 1.25 [1.06–1.47], P = 0.006 in our study population. This risk was 56% higher among subjects carrying the TT genotype in comparison to those carrying the CC genotype (OR = 1.56 [1.13–2.16], P = 0.002. No allelic or genotypic association with T2D was detected for the other studied polymorphisms. Conclusion In the Tunisian population, TCF7L2-rs7903146 T allele confers an increased risk of developing T2D as previously reported in the European population and many other ethnic groups. In contrast, none of the other tested SNPs that influence T2D risk in the European population was associated with T2D in the Tunisian Arabic population. An insufficient power to detect minor allelic contributions or genetic heterogeneity of T2D between different ethnic groups can explain these findings.

  4. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda.

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    Nazarius M Tumwesigye

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city.The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45, lower engine capacity (<100 cc (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70, riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52, riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18 and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9. Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late.More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all

  5. Case-control study of factors associated with chronic Chagas heart disease in patients over 50 years of age

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    Silvana de Araújo Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Ninety patients over 50 years of age were examined for factors related to (CCHD. Fourty-six patients (51.1% with Chagas heart disease (anomalous ECG were assigned to the case group and 44 (48.9% were included in the control group as carriers of undetermined forms of chronic disease. Social, demographic (age, gender, skin color, area of origin, epidemiological (permanence within an endemic zone, family history of Chagas heart disease or sudden death, physical strain, alcoholism, and smoking, and clinical (systemic hypertension variables were analyzed. The data set was assessed through single-variable and multivariate analysis. The two factors independently associated with heart disease were age - presence of heart disease being three times higher in patients over 60 years of age (odds ratio, OR: 2.89; confidence interval of 95%: 1.09-7.61 - and family history of Chagas heart disease (OR: 2.833, CI 95%: 1.11-7.23. Systemic hypertension and gender did not prove to hold any association with heart disease, as neither did skin color, but this variable showed low statistical power due to reduced sample size.

  6. The association between acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence in bitches and early spaying: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bleser, B; Brodbelt, D C; Gregory, N G; Martinez, T A

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted between December 2005 and August 2006 in London (1) to estimate the strength of association between early ovariohysterectomy (spaying) and urinary incontinence (sphincter mechanism incompetence), (2) to identify other risk factors for incontinence, and (3) to assess any implications of incontinence on the owner-pet relationship. Cases were defined as bitches that developed incontinence after spaying and were treated, and the controls comprised continent spayed bitches. Questionnaires from 202 cases were compared to 168 controls, and analysed using multivariable logistic regression. No significant association between early spaying and incontinence was detected although there was a tendency that early spayed bitches were less likely to be incontinent. Docked bitches were 3.8 times more likely to be incontinent than undocked bitches; bitches weighing over 10 kg were 3.7 times more likely to be incontinent than smaller dogs; and older bitches were more likely to be incontinent (OR=3.1-23.8) than younger animals. Some owners were found to have a negative attitude towards incontinence. PMID:20004121

  7. Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study

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    Yoo Keun-Young

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breast cancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. Methods Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 1,011 and controls (n = 1,011 with no present or previous history of cancer, matched on year of birth and menopausal status, were selected from several teaching hospitals and community in Seoul during 1995–2003. Information on paternal and maternal ages and other factors was collected by interviewed questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusting for family history of breast cancer in 1st or 2nd degree relatives, and lifetime estrogen exposure duration. Results The risk of breast cancer significantly increased as the paternal age increased (p for trend = 0.025. The association was stronger after controlling for maternal age; women whose fathers were aged ≥40 years at their birth had 1.6-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with fathers aged Conclusion These findings suggest that older paternal age increases the risk of breast cancer in their female offspring.

  8. Genetic variants associated with lean and obese type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaomu; Xing, Xiaoyan; Hong, Jing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yang, Wenying

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly phenotypically heterogeneous. Genetics of the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D is not clear. The aim of the present study was to identify the associations of T2D-related genetic variants with the risks for lean and obese T2D among the Chinese Han population. A case-control study consisting of 5338 T2D patients and 4663 normal glycemic controls of Chinese Han recruited in the Chinese National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study was conducted. T2D cases were identified according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Lean T2D was defined as T2D patient with a body mass index (BMI) lean T2D, and SNPs in or near KCNQ1 and FTO were associated with the risk for obese T2D. The results showed that the GRS for 25 T2D-related SNPs was more strongly associated with the risk for lean T2D (Ptrend = 2.66 × 10) than for obese T2D (Ptrend = 2.91 × 10) in our study population. Notably, the T2D GRS contributed to lower obesity-related measurements and greater β-cell dysfunction, including lower insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test, decreased insulinogenic index, and Homeostasis Model Assessment for β-cell Function. In conclusion, our findings identified T2D-related genetic loci that contribute to the risk of lean and obese T2D individually and additively in a Chinese Han population. Moreover, the study highlights the contribution of known T2D genomic loci to the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D in Chinese Hans.

  9. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS: A HOSPITAL BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Somjit, Pornpana; Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee; Siri, Sukhontha; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among type 2 diabetics in Thailand. We conducted a hospital based case-control study in Nakhon Nayok Province, between August 2008 and July 2010. The subjects were comprised of 230 cases (with DR) and 230 controls (without DR) who were gender and age matched. All subjects were interviewed and their medical records were reviewed. Seventy-five percent of subjects were married and 42% were aged 60-69 years. Fifty-five percent had a primary school education, 27% had no occupation and 67% had family income > 10,000 Baht per month. On multiple logistic regression analysis, factors associated with DR were: having a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 141-160 mg/dl, 161-180 mg/dl and > 180 mg/dl [OR = 7.23; 95% confidence interval CI: 2.80-18.72; OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.66-11.33, and OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.39-10.18], having a HbA1c > 9% (OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.15-4.43), having a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.04-4.19), and having hypertension (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.19-2.71). Elevated blood sugar, blood pressure and body weight are all associated with DR. Further study is needed to determine if controlling these factors could reduce the prevalence of DR. PMID:26513935

  10. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

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    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  11. A Two-Stage Penalized Logistic Regression Approach to Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Studies

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    Jingyuan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-stage penalized logistic regression approach to case-control genome-wide association studies. This approach consists of a screening stage and a selection stage. In the screening stage, main-effect and interaction-effect features are screened by using L1-penalized logistic like-lihoods. In the selection stage, the retained features are ranked by the logistic likelihood with the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD penalty (Fan and Li, 2001 and Jeffrey’s Prior penalty (Firth, 1993, a sequence of nested candidate models are formed, and the models are assessed by a family of extended Bayesian information criteria (J. Chen and Z. Chen, 2008. The proposed approach is applied to the analysis of the prostate cancer data of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project in the National Cancer Institute, USA. Simulation studies are carried out to compare the approach with the pair-wise multiple testing approach (Marchini et al. 2005 and the LASSO-patternsearch algorithm (Shi et al. 2007.

  12. Ventilation and dampness in dorms and their associations with allergy among college students in China: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Bao, L;

    2011-01-01

    the window) for wheezing was 3.56 [95% Confident Interval (CI): 1.56-8.14] and for rhinitis 2.81 (95% CI: 1.32-5.97). The AOR of a low air change rate (below the median value of 0.7/h) for wheezing was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.38-3.75) and for dry cough 2.26 (95% CI: 1.08-4.75). The prevalence of students......Abstract To study the associations between dorm environment and occupants' health, a nested case-control study on 348 college students was carried out in 2006-2007 at Tianjin University, China. Two hundred and twenty-three dorm rooms where the 'cases' and 'controls' resided were inspected. Measured...... ventilation rate (above the median). This supports the hypothesis that ventilation rate is an effect modifier for moisture problems and indoor pollutants. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dorm rooms, a kind of residential environment for students, may be more polluted than the home environment. This is especially...

  13. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Nikanfar; Ali Akbar Taheri-Aghdam; Maria Yazdani; Sheida Shaafi; Nooshin Masoudian; Hossein Akbari; Parisa Youhanaee; Hamzeh Abbaszadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability. Methods: In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels ...

  14. Power and sample size calculations in the presence of phenotype errors for case/control genetic association studies

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    Finch Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotype error causes reduction in power to detect genetic association. We present a quantification of phenotype error, also known as diagnostic error, on power and sample size calculations for case-control genetic association studies between a marker locus and a disease phenotype. We consider the classic Pearson chi-square test for independence as our test of genetic association. To determine asymptotic power analytically, we compute the distribution's non-centrality parameter, which is a function of the case and control sample sizes, genotype frequencies, disease prevalence, and phenotype misclassification probabilities. We derive the non-centrality parameter in the presence of phenotype errors and equivalent formulas for misclassification cost (the percentage increase in minimum sample size needed to maintain constant asymptotic power at a fixed significance level for each percentage increase in a given misclassification parameter. We use a linear Taylor Series approximation for the cost of phenotype misclassification to determine lower bounds for the relative costs of misclassifying a true affected (respectively, unaffected as a control (respectively, case. Power is verified by computer simulation. Results Our major findings are that: (i the median absolute difference between analytic power with our method and simulation power was 0.001 and the absolute difference was no larger than 0.011; (ii as the disease prevalence approaches 0, the cost of misclassifying a unaffected as a case becomes infinitely large while the cost of misclassifying an affected as a control approaches 0. Conclusion Our work enables researchers to specifically quantify power loss and minimum sample size requirements in the presence of phenotype errors, thereby allowing for more realistic study design. For most diseases of current interest, verifying that cases are correctly classified is of paramount importance.

  15. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

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    Wijnand J Teeuw

    Full Text Available Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD, and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively. Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007. This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.

  16. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent. PMID:26348353

  17. Hearing Loss is Associated With Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Case-Control Study in Older People

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    Shih-Chang Hung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It remains unknown whether hearing loss increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to examine the association between hearing loss and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in older people in Taiwan. Methods: Analyzing the database from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Program, this case-control study enrolled 488 subjects ≥65 years old with newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease as a case group and 1952 subjects without Alzheimer’s disease as a control group from 1998–2011. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other comorbidities were identified by analyzing ICD-9 coding in claims data. The association of hearing loss, other comorbidities, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease were compared between groups. Results: After controlling for confounders, multivariable logistic regression showed an adjusted odds ratio of Alzheimer’s disease of 1.39 in people with hearing loss (95% CI, 1.05–1.84 versus those without. Parkinson’s disease (OR 4.44; 95% CI, 2.54–7.78, head injury (OR 2.31; 95% CI, 1.46–3.66, depression (OR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19–2.39, hypertension (OR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10–1.79, and age (each year, OR 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.05 also showed strong links with Alzheimer’s. Conclusions: Hearing loss is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease in older people in Taiwan.

  18. A method for detecting epistasis in genome-wide studies using case-control multi-locus association analysis

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    Galan Jose

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difficulty in elucidating the genetic basis of complex diseases roots in the many factors that can affect the development of a disease. Some of these genetic effects may interact in complex ways, proving undetectable by current single-locus methodology. Results We have developed an analysis tool called Hypothesis Free Clinical Cloning (HFCC to search for genome-wide epistasis in a case-control design. HFCC combines a relatively fast computing algorithm for genome-wide epistasis detection, with the flexibility to test a variety of different epistatic models in multi-locus combinations. HFCC has good power to detect multi-locus interactions simulated under a variety of genetic models and noise conditions. Most importantly, HFCC can accomplish exhaustive genome-wide epistasis search with large datasets as demonstrated with a 400,000 SNP set typed on a cohort of Parkinson's disease patients and controls. Conclusion With the current availability of genetic studies with large numbers of individuals and genetic markers, HFCC can have a great impact in the identification of epistatic effects that escape the standard single-locus association analyses.

  19. Preconceptional factors associated with very low birthweight delivery in East and West Berlin: a case control study

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    Reiher Horst

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birthweight, i.e. a birthweight Methods In 1992, two years after the German unification, we started to recruit two cohorts of very low birthweight infants and controls in East and West Berlin for a long-term neurodevelopmental study. The present analysis was undertaken to compare potential preconceptional risk factors for very low birthweight delivery in a case-control design including 166 mothers (82 East vs. 84 West Berlin with very low birthweight delivery and 341 control mothers (166 East vs. 175 West. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of various dichotomous parental covariates and their interaction with living in East or West Berlin. After backward variable selection, short maternal school education, maternal unemployment, single-room apartment, smoking, previous preterm delivery, and fetal loss emerged as significant main effect variables, together with living in West Berlin as positive effect modificator for single-mother status. Conclusion Very low birthweight has been differentially associated with obstetrical history and indicators of maternal socioeconomic status in East and West Berlin. The ranking of these risk factors is under the influence of the political framework.

  20. Association between microRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk based on the findings of 66 case-control studies.

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    Xiao Pin Ma

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules, which participate in diverse biological processes and may regulate tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNA may contribute to diverse functional consequences, including cancer development, by altering miRNA expression. Numerous studies have shown the association between miRNA SNPs and cancer risk; however, the results are generally debatable and inconclusive, mainly due to limited statistical power. To assess the relationship between the five most common SNPs (miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-499 rs3746444, miR-149 rs2292832, and miR-27a rs895919 and the risk cancer development, we performed a meta-analysis of 66 published case-control studies. Crude odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the strength of the association. No association was observed between rs2910164 and cancer risk in the overall group. However, in stratified analysis, we found that either the rs2910164 C allele or the CC genotype was protective against bladder cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer, whereas it was a risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN. Further, rs11614913 was found to be significantly associated with decreased cancer risk, in particular, for bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and SCCHN. For miR-499, a significant association was found between the rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer risk in pooled analysis. In subgroup analysis, similar results were mainly observed for breast cancer. Finally, no association was found between rs2292832 and rs895919 polymorphisms and cancer risk in the overall group and in stratified analysis. In summary, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-146a rs2910164, and miR-499 rs3746444 are risk factors for cancer development, whereas mir-149 rs2292832 and miR-27a rs895919 are not associated with cancer risk.

  1. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) μg/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis

  2. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  3. Risk factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received tranexamic acid: A case-control study

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    Felix R Montes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifibrinolytic agents are used during cardiac surgery to minimize bleeding and reduce exposure to blood products. Several reports suggest that tranexamic acid (TA can induce seizure activity in the postoperative period. To examine factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received TA. University-affiliated hospital. Case-control study. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified. During this time, all patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB received TA. Cases were defined as patients who developed seizures that required initiation of anticonvulsive therapy within 48 h of surgery. Exclusion criteria included subjects with preexisting epilepsy and patients in whom the convulsive episode was secondary to a new ischemic lesion on brain imaging. Controls who did not develop seizures were randomly selected from the initial cohort. From an initial cohort of 903 patients, we identified 32 patients with postoperative seizures. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-eight cases and 112 controls were analyzed. Cases were more likely to have a history of renal impairment and higher preoperative creatinine values compared with controls (1.39 ± 1.1 vs. 0.98 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P = 0.02. Significant differences in the intensive care unit, postoperative and total lengths of stay were observed. An association between high preoperative creatinine value and postoperative seizure was identified. TA may be associated with the development of postoperative seizures in patients with renal dysfunction. Doses of TA should be reduced or even avoided in this population.

  4. Factors associated with tuberculosis treatment default in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon: a case control-study.

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    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    Full Text Available SETTING: Treatment default is a serious problem in tuberculosis control because it implies persistence of infection source, increased mortality, increased relapse rates and facilitates the development of resistant strains. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed tuberculosis treatment default determinants in the Amazonas State to contribute in planning appropriate control interventions. DESIGN: Observational study with a retrospective cohort using Brazilian Disease Notification System data from 2005 to 2010. A nested case control study design was used. Patients defaulting from treatment were considered as 'cases' and those completing treatment as 'controls'. In the analysis, 11,312 tuberculosis patients were included, 1,584 cases and 9,728 controls. RESULTS: Treatment default was observed to be associated to previous default (aOR 3.20; p<0.001, HIV positivity (aOR 1.62; p<0.001, alcoholism (aOR 1.51; p<0.001, low education level (aOR 1.35; p<0.001 and other co-morbidities (aOR 1.31; p = 0.05. Older patients (aOR 0.98; p = 0.001 and DOT (aOR 0,72; p<0.01 were considered as protective factor for default. CONCLUSIONS: Associated factors should be considered in addressing care and policy actions to tuberculosis control. Information on disease and treatment should be intensified and appropriate to the level of education of the population, in order to promote adherence to treatment and counter the spread of multidrug resistance to anti-TB drugs.

  5. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: A Community-based Case-control Study.

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    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension.We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis.After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified analyses

  6. Association between Concentrations of Metals in Urine and Adult Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Wuhan, China.

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    Xiji Huang

    Full Text Available Several metals have been reported to be associated with childhood asthma. However, the results on relationships between metals and risk of childhood asthma are inconclusive, and the research on adult asthma in the Chinese general population is rare.To investigate potential associations between levels of urinary metals and adult asthma.A case-control study of 551 adult asthma cases and 551 gender- and age-matched controls was conducted in Wuhan, China. Demographic information was obtained, and lung function was assessed. The urinary concentrations of 22 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.After adjusting for other metalsand other covariates, urinary cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, uranium and selenium were positively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI of 1.69 (1.00, 2.85, 3.76 (2.30, 6.16, 4.89 (3.04, 7.89, 6.06 (3.27, 11.21, 6.99 (4.37, 11.19 and 9.17 (4.16, 20.21, respectively. By contrast, urinary lead, barium, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese and rubidium were negatively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI of 0.48 (0.29, 0.80, 0.44 (0.27, 0.71, 0.41 (0.26, 0.64, 0.40 (0.24, 0.66, 0.30 (0.22, 0.41, 0.23 (0.14, 0.39 and 0.07 (0.03, 0.15, respectively. When comparing urinary metals in different subgroups of cases with those in matched controls, the associations of above 13 metals with asthma prevalence were nearly the same.Our results suggested that asthma prevalence in the Chinese adults was positively associated with urinary chromium, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, and uranium, and negatively associated with urinary manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, barium and lead. Additional research with larger populations in different regions is required to support our findings.

  7. Association between Concentrations of Metals in Urine and Adult Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiji; Xie, Jungang; Cui, Xiuqing; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Xiaojie; Lu, Wei; Shen, Yan; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Several metals have been reported to be associated with childhood asthma. However, the results on relationships between metals and risk of childhood asthma are inconclusive, and the research on adult asthma in the Chinese general population is rare. Objectives To investigate potential associations between levels of urinary metals and adult asthma. Methods A case-control study of 551 adult asthma cases and 551 gender- and age-matched controls was conducted in Wuhan, China. Demographic information was obtained, and lung function was assessed. The urinary concentrations of 22 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results After adjusting for other metalsand other covariates, urinary cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, uranium and selenium were positively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.69 (1.00, 2.85), 3.76 (2.30, 6.16), 4.89 (3.04, 7.89), 6.06 (3.27, 11.21), 6.99 (4.37, 11.19) and 9.17 (4.16, 20.21), respectively. By contrast, urinary lead, barium, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese and rubidium were negatively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 0.48 (0.29, 0.80), 0.44 (0.27, 0.71), 0.41 (0.26, 0.64), 0.40 (0.24, 0.66), 0.30 (0.22, 0.41), 0.23 (0.14, 0.39) and 0.07 (0.03, 0.15), respectively. When comparing urinary metals in different subgroups of cases with those in matched controls, the associations of above 13 metals with asthma prevalence were nearly the same. Conclusions Our results suggested that asthma prevalence in the Chinese adults was positively associated with urinary chromium, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, and uranium, and negatively associated with urinary manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, barium and lead. Additional research with larger populations in different regions is required to support our findings. PMID:27191859

  8. Association between occupational history of exposure to tobacco dust and risk of carcinoma cervix: A case-control study

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    N Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women in India. There is thus a need to identify unexplored risk factors such as occupational exposure to tobacco dust to justify its increasing trend so as to recommend suitable preventive measures. Aims: The aim was to study the association between occupational exposure to tobacco dust with development of carcinoma cervix. Settings and Design: Case-control study done in two tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore. Methodology: 239 histologically confirmed new cases of cervical cancer and the equivalent number of age-matched controls from 2011 to 2012 were interviewed about occupational history of beedi rolling and related factors. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, unpaired t-test, logistic regression. Results: Exposure rate to tobacco dust following beedi rolling was 63 (26.4% among cases and 38 (15.9% among controls (P = 0.005, odds ratio [OR] =1.893. The latent period from occupational exposure of tobacco dust subsequent to beedi rolling and development of cervical cancer was found to be 26.5 ± 8.5 years. Adjusted OR of beedi rolling with development of cervical cancer was found to be 1.913 (P = 0.005 after controlling the confounding effect of tobacco usage and was 1.618 (P = 0.225 after controlling the effects of all confounders. Three-quarters of beedi rollers were working in conditions of inadequate ventilation and hardy anybody used face mask during work. About a quarter of participants underwent voluntary screening for cervical cancer. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to tobacco dust was found to be associated with risk of developing cervical cancer. Measures to promote awareness, timely screening of this disease along with the improvement in working conditions is required for improving the health status of beedi rollers and to minimize the incidence of carcinoma cervix in the community.

  9. Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study

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    Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. Objectives To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. Methods A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children’s mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Results Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. Conclusions The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience.

  10. Association of low levels of vitamin D with chronic stable angina: A prospective case-control study

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    Ab Hameed Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Chronic stable angina is the initial manifestation of CAD in approximately 50% of the patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is crucial for cardiovascular health. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our region is 83%. A low level of vitamin D is associated with chronic stable angina. Aim: This study was aimed at supporting or refuting this hypothesis in our population. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective case-control study. We studied 100 cases of chronic stable angina and compared them with 100 matched controls. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <20 ng/mL, vitamin D insufficiency as 20-30 ng/mL and normal vitamin D level as 31-150 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases and controls was 75% and 10%, respectively. 75% of the cases were vitamin D-deficient (<20 ng/mL; 12% were vitamin D-insufficient (20-30 ng/mL, and 13% had normal vitamin D levels (31-150 ng/mL. None had a toxic level of vitamin D. Among the controls, 10% were vitamin D-deficient, 33% were vitamin D-insufficient, and 57% had normal vitamin D levels. The mean vitamin level among cases and controls was 15.53 ng/mL and 40.95 ng/mL, respectively, with the difference being statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0001. There was no statistically significant relation between the disease severities, i.e., on coronary angiography (CAG with vitamin D level. Among the cases, we found that an increasing age was inversely related to vitamin D levels (P = 0.027. Conclusion: Our study indicates a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and chronic stable angina. Low levels may be an independent, potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor.

  11. Association of a mammographic parenchymal pattern (MPP) descriptor with breast cancer risk: a case-control study

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    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Helvie, Mark A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman

    2010-03-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of improving breast cancer risk prediction by computerized mammographic parenchymal pattern (MPP) analysis. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of the MPP measures with breast cancer risk. The case group included 168 contralateral CC-view mammograms of breast cancer patients dated at least one year prior to cancer diagnosis, and the control group included 522 CC-view mammograms from one breast of normal subjects. We extracted and compared four types of statistical texture feature spaces that included run length statistics and region size statistics (RLS/RSS) features, spatial gray level dependence (SGLD) features, gray level difference statistics (GLDS) features, and the feature space combining these three types of texture features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with stepwise feature selection was trained and tested with leave-one-case-out resampling to evaluate whether the breast parenchyma of future cancer patients could be distinguished from those of normal subjects in each feature space. The areas under ROC curves (Az) were 0.71, 0.72, 0.71 and 0.76 for the four feature spaces, respectively. The Az obtained from the combined feature space was significantly (pbreast cancer risk and four categories of MPP measures: 0.2 (C4) while patient age was treated as a confounding factor. The adjusted ORs of breast cancer for C2, C3 and C4 were 3.23, 7.77 and 25.43, respectively. The preliminary result indicated that our proposed computerized MPP measures were strongly associated with breast cancer risk.

  12. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis and its association with fatigue: A case-control study

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    Mohammad Reza Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a presentation of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. This study aims to compare this problem in MS patients with healthy people and to determine its association with chronic fatigue in MS patients. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed on 120 MS patients and 60 healthy subjects matched for age and sex, in 2009 in MS Clinic Alzahra Hospital. Sleep quality, rhythm and fatigue severity were assessed using PSQI (Pittsburgh sleep quality index and FSS (Fatigue severity Scale questionnaires, respectively. Its reliability and validity has been confirmed in several studies (Cronbach′s alpha = 0.83. This index has seven sections including patient′s assessment of his/her sleep, sleep duration, efficacy of routine sleep, sleep disorders, use of hypnotic medication, and dysfunction in daily activities. Results: Circadian rhythm sleep disorder was more frequent in MS patients relative to healthy subjects (P: 0.002. It was higher in MS patients with severe fatigue relative to MS patients with mild fatigue (P: 0.05. Fatigue severity was 49.9 ± 8.2 and 22.5 ± 7.4 in the first and second group, respectively. PSQI index was 7.9 ± 4.5 in patients with severe fatigue and 5.9 ± 4.5 in patients with mild fatigue and 4.5 ± 2.4 in the control group (P: 0.0001. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are more frequent in MS patients and those with fatigue. Recognition and management of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in MS patients, especially those with fatigue may be helpful in improving care of these patients.

  13. Association of genetic polymorphisms with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Hainan population: a case-control study

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    Ding YP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yipeng Ding,1,* Danlei Yang,2,* Xiaojie Xun,3 Zhifeng Wang,4 Pei Sun,1 Dongchuan Xu,1 Ping He,1 Huan Niu,1 Tianbo Jin3,5 1Department of Emergency, People’s Hospital of Hainan Province, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Respiration, People’s Hospital of Qionghai, Qionghai, Hainan, People’s Republic of China; 5National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi'an, People’s Republic of China *The authors are joint first authors Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is predicted to become the third most common cause of death and the fifth most common cause of disability in the world by 2020. Recently, variants in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A, cholinergic receptor, neuronal nicotinic, alpha polypeptide-5, and iron-responsive element-binding protein 2 gene (IREB2 genes were found to be associated with COPD. This study aims to identify whether the variations in these genes are related to COPD in the Hainan population of the People’s Republic of China. Patients and methods: We genotyped 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a case-control study with 200 COPD cases and 401 controls from Hainan, People’s Republic of China. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the chi-squared (Χ2 test, genetic model analysis, haplotype analysis, and stratification analysis. Results: In the genetic model analysis, we found that the genotype T/T of rs13180 of IREB2 decreased the COPD risk by 0.52-fold (P=0.025. But in the further stratification analysis, we failed to find the association between the selected single nucleotide polymorphisms with COPD risk in Han population. In addition, the haplotype

  14. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

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    Ombeka Victor O

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945 defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215 and 20.4% (193 abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20 attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15 to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14 to feeling better and 10.8% (13 to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3, herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7, low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0, alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9, previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68, co-infection with Human immune

  15. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

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    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  16. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

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    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  17. Case-control association study of ABCB1 gene and major depressive disorder in a local Chinese Han population

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    Xie WW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Wei Xie,1,2* Lin Zhang,1* Ren-Rong Wu,1 Yan Yu,3 Jing-Ping Zhao,1 Le-Hua Li1 1Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, National Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Ningbo Kangning Hospital, Ningbo, 3People’s Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Human P-glycoprotein encoded by the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1 gene is expressed in the blood–brain barrier. ABCB1 protects the brain from many drugs and toxins such as glucocorticoids through the efflux pump. Recent evidence suggests that a specific allele of the ABCB1 gene confers susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD in the Japanese population. The aim of this study was to explore the association of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms with MDD in a local Chinese Han population.Methods: Two hundred and ninety-two MDD patients and 208 unrelated individuals were matched by age and sex and examined using a case-control design. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ABCB1 gene, including rs1045642, rs2032583, rs2032582, rs2235040, rs1128503, and rs2235015, were genotyped by ligase detection reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis were investigated in the two study groups. Results: Significant protection for MDD individuals carrying the TG haplotype of rs1045642–rs2032582 was observed (odds ratio 0.470, 95% confidence interval 0.251–0.897, P=0.01.The rs2032582 (G2677T and rs1128503 (C1236T SNPs of ABCB1 showed nominal associations with MDD; the other four SNPs of the ABCB1 gene were not associated with MDD.Conclusion: Chinese individuals carrying the TG haplotype of rs1045642–rs2032582 had a nearly 53% lower risk of developing MDD. To the best of our

  18. Association of Macro- and Micro-nutrients Intake with the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Behrooz; Golaleh Asghari; Zohreh Hosseini; Parvin Mirmiran; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and it has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of MS. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between MS risk and intake of some macro- and micro-nutrients in Tehran (Iran). Materials and Methods: In this hospital based, case-control study, a total of 60 newly diagnosed patients with MS and 140 controls underwent face-to-face inter...

  19. Risk of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepines: Applying common protocol to a multi-database nested case-control study. The protect project

    OpenAIRE

    Requena, Gema; Logie, John; González-González, Rocío; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Afonso, Ana; Souverein, Patrick C.; Merino, Elisa Martin; Boudiaf, Nada; Huerta, Consuelo; Bate, Andrew; Alvarez, Yolanda; García-Rodríguez, Luis A; Reynolds, Robert; Schlienger, Raymond G.; De Groot, Mark C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between benzodiazepines (BZD) and hip fractures has been estimated in several observational studies although diverse methodologies and definitions have hampered comparability. Objectives: To evaluate the discrepancies in the risk estimates of hip/femur fractures associated with BDZs across different databases and to assess the impact of different matching strategies. Methods: A case control study nested in a cohort of BZD users, examining their association with the...

  20. Calf-Level Factors Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia – A Multi-Country Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A.; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Henning, Joerg; Stoll, Alexander; Nielen, Mirjam; Van Schaik, Gerdien; Smolenaars, Anja; Schouten, Matthijs; den Uijl, Ingrid; Fourichon, Christine; Guatteo, Raphael; Madouasse, Aurélien; Nusinovici, Simon; Deprez, Piet; De Vliegher, Sarne; Laureyns, Jozef; Booth, Richard; Cardwell, Jackie M.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves). Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval – ci 2.4, 134.4; p = 0.005), and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p = 0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p = <0.001). Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p = 0.012), but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p = 0.024). Feeding exclusively dam’s milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p = 0.002). The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92) for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19) for feeding other cows’ colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22) for feeding dam’s milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in

  1. Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP, a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves. Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval - ci 2.4, 134.4; p = 0.005, and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p = 0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p = <0.001. Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p = 0.012, but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p = 0.024. Feeding exclusively dam's milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p = 0.002. The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92 for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19 for feeding other cows' colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22 for feeding dam's milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in

  2. Association of JAK-STAT pathway related genes with lymphoma risk: results of a European case-control study (EpiLymph)

    OpenAIRE

    Butterbach, Katja; Beckmann, Lars; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Benavente, Yolanda; Becker, Nikolaus; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadié, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Staines, Anthony; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Nieters, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested an important role of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway in tumour development. Therefore, we explored genetic variants in JAK-STAT pathway associated genes with lymphoma risk. In samples of the EpiLymph case-control study we genotyped 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using GoldenGate BeadArrayTM Technology (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Here, we report the associations between selected SNPs and haplotypes of the JAK-STAT pathway and risk...

  3. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xu; Yu-Jing Fang; Yu-Ming Chen; Min-Shan Lu; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Bo Yan; Xiao Zhong; Cai-Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  4. A case-control study identifying chromosomal polymorphic variations as forms of epigenetic alterations associated with the infertility phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Athalye, Arundhati S; Madon, Prochi F;

    2009-01-01

    To study the association of chromosomal polymorphic variations with infertility and subfertility.......To study the association of chromosomal polymorphic variations with infertility and subfertility....

  5. A Case-Control Study of the Association Between Serum Copper Level and Febrile Seizures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl MAHYAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Bakhtiyari H, Daneshi Khohan MM, Javadi A. A Case-Control Study of the Association Between SerumCopper Level and Febrile Seizures in Children. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:23-28.ObjectiveFebrile seizures are the most common cause of seizure in children. Identification of risk factors is very important. This study was conducted to determine the association between the serum copper level and simple febrile seizure in children.Materials & MethodsIn this study, 30 children with simple febrile seizures (case group were compared with 30 children with febrile illness without seizures (control group regarding serum copper level. This study was conducted in Qazvin children’s hospital (Qazvin, Iran.ResultsThe mean serum copper levels in the case and control groups were 141.41±30.90 and 129.43±18.97 mcg/dl, respectively. This difference was not significant statistically.ConclusionThis study revealed that there is no association between serum copper levels and febrile seizures. It seems that copper deficiency is not a risk factor for febrile seizures in children.References1. Mikati MA. Febrile seizures in: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, GemeIII JWS, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Nelson textbookof pediatrics.19th edition. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2011.p. 2017-19.2. Ferrie C, Newton R, Martland T. Febrile seizure in:Mclntosh N, Helms PJ, Smyth RL, Logan S. Forfar& Arneils textbook of pediatrics, London: ChurchillLivingstone; 2008. p. 860-1.3. Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Fallahi M, Javadi A.Risk factors ofthe first febrile seizures in Iranian children. Int J Pediatr2010;2010:862897.[Epub 2010 Jun 24].4. Siqueira LF. Febrile seizures: update on diagnosisand management. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2010 Jul-Aug;56(4:489-92.5. Daoud A, Batieha A. Iron status a possible risk factor forthe first seizure. Epilepsy 2002;43(7:740-43.6. Hartfield DS, Tan J, Yager JY, Rosychuk RJ, SpadyD, Haines C, et al. The association between

  6. Risk factors associated with sporadic salmonellosis in children: a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study based on 884 laboratory-confirmed sporadic Salmonella cases reported to the German infectious disease notification system. For controls, we recruited 510 rotavirus cases via the same system. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed separately for children aged 0-3 years and 4-14 years. In both age groups, the highest odds ratios (OR) were found for raw ground pork consumption [0-3 years: OR 8·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·4-30·8; 4-14 years: OR 4·5, 95% CI 1·1-19]. Further risk factors were exposure to animals (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), consumption of poultry (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), food items containing eggs (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2) and black pepper (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-3·5) in children aged 0-3 years, and consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3·6, 95% CI 1·4-9·3) in children aged 4-14 years. This study highlights the significance of raw pork products ('Mett' in German) as risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis in children in Germany. PMID:24886979

  7. Variation in Breast Cancer–Risk Factor Associations by Method of Detection: Results From a Series of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Brian L.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Hampton, John M.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Titus, Linda J.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Remington, Patrick L; Newcomb, Polly A.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about breast cancer overdiagnosis have increased the need to understand how cancers detected through screening mammography differ from those first detected by a woman or her clinician. We investigated risk factor associations for invasive breast cancer by method of detection within a series of case-control studies (1992–2007) carried out in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire (n = 15,648 invasive breast cancer patients and 17,602 controls aged 40–79 years). Approximately half...

  8. A case control study on psychiatric disorders in Hashimoto disease and euthyroid goitre: not only depressive but also anxiety disorders are associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone Fiora; Marci Anna; Murru Andrea; Carpiniello Bernardo; Hardoy Maria; Carta Mauro; Deiana Luca; Cadeddu Mariangela; Mariotti Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders in Hashimoto disease and Euthyroid Goitre in a case control study. Methods Cases included 19 subjects with Hashimoto disease in euthyroid phase, 19 subjects with euthyroid goitre, 2 control groups each of 76 subjects matched (4/1) according to age and sex drawn from the data base of a community based sample. Psychiatric diagnoses were formulated using the International Composite Diagnostic Interview Simplified, ...

  9. Occupational and other exposures associated with male end-stage renal disease: A case/control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenland, N.K.; Thun, M.J.; Ferguson, C.W.; Port, F.K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1990-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 325 men ages 30-69 who were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1976 and 1984, and resided in four urban areas of Michigan in 1984. Cases were selected from the Michigan Kidney Registry and excluded men with diabetic, congenital, and obstructive nephropathies. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were pair-matched to cases for age, race, and area of residence. Telephone interviews were conducted with 69 percent of eligible cases and 79 percent of eligible controls. Risk of ESRD was significantly related to phenacetin or acetaminophen consumption (odds ratio(OR) = 2.66), moonshine consumption (OR = 2.43), a family history of renal disease (OR = 9.30); and regular occupational exposures to solvents (OR = 1.51) or silica (OR = 1.67). Particular occupational exposures with elevated risk were solvents used as cleaning agents and degreasers (OR = 2.50) silica exposure in foundries or brick factories (OR = 1.92), and silica exposure during sandblasting (OR = 3.83). Little or no trend of increased risk with duration of exposure was found for these occupational exposures, with the exception of silica in sandblasting. Limitations of these data include representativeness of cases, possible overreporting by cases, and misclassification of exposures inherent in self-reports.

  10. Reduced Serum Level of Interleukin-10 is Associated with Cerebral Infarction: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifei; Yang, Haiqing; Diao, Zengyan; Li, Yi; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    IL-10 expression limits inflammation and restricts the size of CNS damage from stroke. In this study, we examined the correlation between cerebral infarction (CI) and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) using a combination of case-control study and meta-analysis of published data, with an aim of understanding the relevance of serum IL-10 levels to CI development. This study enrolled a total of 169 CI patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between May 2011 and November 2014. During the same period, a group of 145 individuals were recruited at the same hospital as healthy controls after thorough physical examination. Serum IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS 19.0 (IBM, 2010, Chicago, IL, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software were used for data analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) were significantly lower in CI patients when compared to healthy controls (15.36 ± 3.21 vs. 21.64 ± 5.17, t = 13.12, P  0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that, with the exception of triglyceride (TG) and uric acid (UA) levels (both P > 0.05), the other seven parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), strongly correlated with CI development (all P relationship in Asians (SMD = 2.522, 95 % CI 0.468~4.576, P = 0.016) but not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). Our study provided convincing evidence that the patients with CI exhibit consistently reduced serum levels of IL-10, and IL-10 may be a major player in the development and progression of CI. PMID:26253723

  11. Five known tagging DLL3 SNPs are not associated with congenital scoliosis: A case-control association study in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Qiu, Gui-Xing; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Yi-Peng; Fei, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Genetic etiology hypothesis is widely accepted in the development of congenital scoliosis (CS). The delta-like 3 (DLL3) gene, a member of the Notch signaling pathway, was implicated to contribute to human CS. In this study, a case-control association study was conducted to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the DLL3 gene with CS in a Chinese Han Population. Five known tagging SNPs of the DLL3 gene were genotyped among 270 Chinese Han subjects (128 nonsyndromic CS patients and 142 matched controls). CS patients were divided into 3 types: type I-failure of formation (29 cases), type II-failure of segmentation (50 cases), and type III-mixed defects (49 cases). The 5 SNPs were analyzed by the allelic and genotypic association analysis, genotype-phenotype association analysis, and haplotype analysis. Allele frequencies of 5 tagging SNPs (SNP1: rs1110627, SNP2: rs3212276, SNP3: rs2304223, SNP4: rs2304222, and SNP5: rs2304214) in CS cases and controls were comparable and there were no available inheritance models. The SNPs were not associated with clinical phenotypes. Moreover, the 5 makers in the DLL3 gene were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). Both global haplotype and individual haplotype analyses showed that the haplotypes of SNP1/SNP2/SNP3/SNP4/SNP5 did not correlate with the disease (P >0.05). Together, these data suggest that genetic variants of the DLL3 gene are not associated with CS in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27472720

  12. Serum 25(OH Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nikanfar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS. In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability.In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels for patients and controls, as well as expanded disability status scale (EDSS, duration of disease and diagnostic lag for patients were evaluated. We followed up patients for 6 months and relapses were recorded.The mean serum vitamin D levels were 19.16 ± 17.37 inpatients and 25.39 ± 19.67 in controls (P = 0.560. The mean serum vitamin D levels were 12.65 ± 13.3 in patients with relapses and 22.08 ± 18.22 in patients without any relapses (P < 0.001. There was no significant correlation between EDSS score and serum vitamin D levels (r = -0.08, P = 0.280. There was a significant positive correlation between EDSS score and disease duration (r = 0.52, P < 0.001.In conclusion, vitamin D level in patients with MS was significantly lower than the healthy subjects, but no significant relationship was found between vitamin D levels and disability. Our findings did not suggest a protective role for serum vitamin D levels against disability.

  13. Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Robert F

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291 were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT. Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-∞ reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56% of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission.

  14. Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Kightlinger, Lon; Werpy, Matthew C; Brown, Ellen; Stevens, Valerie; Hepper, Clark; Keane, Tim; Benson, Robert F; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R

    2007-01-01

    Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291) were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT). Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR) 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-∞) reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56%) of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission. PMID:17688692

  15. Impact of Circulating Vitamin D Binding Protein Levels on the Association Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with elevated pancreatic cancer risk. As this is contrary to an expected inverse association between vitamin D status and cancer, we examined whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary carrier of vitamin D compounds in circulation, plays a role in this relationship. Prediagnostic serum DBP and 25(OH)D were studied in relation to risk of pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study of 234 pancre...

  16. ERAP1 variants are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in East Asian population: a new Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis of published series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Zhang, X

    2015-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) has been confirmed to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian. However, whether they are associated with AS in East Asian population remains unidentified. We investigated this relationship by a new Chinese case-control study and a meta-analysis of published series. 368 cases and 460 controls were recruited in the Chinese case-control study. Genotyping was completed using the chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Allelic associations were analysed using contingency tables. In the meta-analysis, up to 2748 cases and 2774 controls from seven different studies and the new Chinese study were combined using Review Manager software version 5.1.1. Mantel-Haenszel or Inverse Variance test was used to calculate fixed or random-effects pooled ORs. In the new Chinese study, strong association with AS was observed for marker rs10050860, rs27434 and rs1065407 at P value of ERAP1 variants are associated with AS in East Asian population, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism for AS in East Asians and Caucasians. PMID:25817437

  17. A method for detecting epistasis in genome-wide studies using case-control multi-locus association analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galan Jose; Quintas Antonio; Royo Jose; Sáez María; Bermudo Fernando; González-Pérez Antonio; Gayán Javier; Morón Francisco; Ramirez-Lorca Reposo; Real Luis; Ruiz Agustín

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The difficulty in elucidating the genetic basis of complex diseases roots in the many factors that can affect the development of a disease. Some of these genetic effects may interact in complex ways, proving undetectable by current single-locus methodology. Results We have developed an analysis tool called Hypothesis Free Clinical Cloning (HFCC) to search for genome-wide epistasis in a case-control design. HFCC combines a relatively fast computing algorithm for genome-wide...

  18. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  19. Association between LGALS2 3279C>T and coronary artery disease: A case-control study and a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIAN, JIANGFANG; FANG, PEILIANG; DAI, DONGJUN; BA, YANNA; YANG, XI; HUANG, XIAOYAN; LI, JUNXIN; CHEN, XIAOLIANG; GUO, JIAN; GUAN, FENG; PENG, PING; ZHAO, RUOCHI; ZHANG, SHANGSHI; GAO, FANG; TANG, LINLIN; ZHANG, CHENG; JI, HUIHUI; HONG, QINGXIAO; YE, HUADAN; XU, LIMIN; ZHONG, QILONG; LIU, PANPAN; ZHOU, JIANQING; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become the main cause of mortality worldwide. Lectin galactoside-binding soluble-2 (LGALS2) is involved in the cytokine lymphotoxin-α (LTA) cascade that may influence the progress of CAD. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the LGALS2 3279C>T (rs7291467) polymorphism and CAD. A total of 562 cases and 572 controls were recruited to examine the association. A systematic meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the contribution of LGALS2 3279C>T polymorphism to the risk of CAD among 12,093 cases and 11,020 controls. There was no significant association found in the present case-control study. However, the meta-analysis showed that LGALS2 3279C>T played a protective role in CAD [P=0.008, odds ratio (OR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.82–0.97] and particularly in the Asian population (P=0.006; OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71–0.94). The present case-control study did not find a significant association between LGALS2 3279C>T and CAD in the Eastern Han Chinese population. However, the meta-analysis indicated that LGALS2 3279C>T played a protective role in CAD, suggesting an ethnic difference in the association of the locus with CAD. PMID:25279163

  20. Moving into a new era of periodontal genetic studies: relevance of large case-control samples using severe phenotypes for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, R D; Safii, S H; Baharuddin, N A; Ng, C C; Cheong, S C; Bartold, P M; Schaefer, A S; Loos, B G

    2014-12-01

    Studies to elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for periodontal disease have gone through various phases. In the majority of cases, the initial 'hypothesis-dependent' candidate-gene polymorphism studies did not report valid genetic risk loci. Following a large-scale replication study, these initially positive results are believed to be caused by type 1 errors. However, susceptibility genes, such as CDKN2BAS (Cyclin Dependend KiNase 2B AntiSense RNA; alias ANRIL [ANtisense Rna In the Ink locus]), glycosyltransferase 6 domain containing 1 (GLT6D1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), have been reported as conclusive risk loci of periodontitis. The search for genetic risk factors accelerated with the advent of 'hypothesis-free' genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite many different GWAS being performed for almost all human diseases, only three GWAS on periodontitis have been published - one reported genome-wide association of GLT6D1 with aggressive periodontitis (a severe phenotype of periodontitis), whereas the remaining two, which were performed on patients with chronic periodontitis, were not able to find significant associations. This review discusses the problems faced and the lessons learned from the search for genetic risk variants of periodontitis. Current and future strategies for identifying genetic variance in periodontitis, and the importance of planning a well-designed genetic study with large and sufficiently powered case-control samples of severe phenotypes, are also discussed. PMID:24528298

  1. A likelihood-based method for haplotype association studies of case-control data with genotyping uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Wensheng; GUO; Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the associations between traits and haplotypes based on Fl (fluorescent intensity) data sets, We consider a clustering algorithm based on mixtures of t distributions to obtain all possible genotypes of each individual (i.e. "GenoSpectrum"). We then propose a likelihood-based approach that incorporates the genotyping uncertainty to assessing the associations between traits and haplotypes through a haplotypebased logistic regression model, Simulation studies show that our likelihood-based method can reduce the impact induced by genotyping errors.

  2. Association of Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease with Adiponectin Genes SNP+45 and SNP+276: A Case-Control Study

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    Claudia D. Gherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We hypothesized that adiponectin gene SNP+45 (rs2241766 and SNP+276 (rs1501299 would be associated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Furthermore, the association between circulating adiponectin levels, fetuin-A, and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease was investigated. Method. Several blood parameters (such as adiponectin, fetuin-A, and TNF-α were measured in 346 patients, 226 with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and 120 without symptomatic PAD (non-PAD. Two common SNPs of the ADIPOQ gene represented by +45T/G 2 and +276G/T were also investigated. Results. Adiponectin concentrations showed lower circulating levels in the PAD patients compared to non-PAD patients (P0.05. Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrated that neither adiponectin SNP+45 nor SNP+276 is associated with the risk of PAD.

  3. Association of Low Levels of Vitamin D with Chronic Stable Angina: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Hameed Raina; Mohammad Sultan Allai; Zafar Amin Shah; Khalid Hamid Changal; Manzoor Ahmad Raina; Fayaz Ahmad Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Chronic stable angina is the initial manifestation of CAD in approximately 50% of the patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is crucial for cardiovascular health. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our region is 83%. A low level of vitamin D is associated with chronic stable angina. Aim: This study was aimed at supporting or refuting this hypothesis in our population. M...

  4. Cardiac complications associated with short-term mortality in schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia: a nationwide case-control study.

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    Ya-Tang Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. METHODS: In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741, we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia. Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. RESULTS: Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01. Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01, incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183 and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01. Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.

  5. Association between 5p12 genomic markers and breast cancer susceptibility: evidence from 19 case-control studies.

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    Xiaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between polymorphisms on 5p12 and breast cancer (BC has been widely evaluated since it was first identified through genome-wide association approach; however, the studies have yielded contradictory results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on two wildly studied polymorphisms (rs10941679 and rs4415084 on 5p12. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of association. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles involving 100,083 cases and 163,894 controls were included. An overall random-effects per-allele OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.12; P = 4.5 × 10(-8 and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05-1.12; P = 4.2 × 10(-7 was found for the rs10941679 and rs4415084 polymorphism respectively. Significant results were found in Asians and Caucasians when stratified by ethnicity; whereas no significant associations were found among Africans/African-Americans. Similar results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In addition, we find both rs4415084 and rs10941679 conferred significantly greater risks of ER-positive breast cancer than of ER-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that rs10941679-G allele and rs4415084-T allele might be risk-conferring factors for the development of breast cancer, especially in Caucasians and East-Asians.

  6. Association of estrogen receptor beta variants and serum levels of estradiol with risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

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    Wu Huanlei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous estrogens may play a vital role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor beta is the predominant subtype which mediates the biological effect of estrogens, while loss of expression of estrogen receptor beta has been indicated as a common step in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. Epidemiological studies have revealed several functional polymorphisms of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2 for cancer risk, but relevant study in CRC is limited, particularly in men. This study aimed to investigate the association of circulating estradiol and variations of ESR2 with CRC risk in men. Methods We initiated a case–control study consisting of 390 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls in men only. We genotyped ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1256049 and rs4986938 and measured serum estradiol concentration using chemilluminescence immunoassay. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the associations between these variables and CRC risk. Results ESR2 rs1256049 CT/TT genotypes were associated with reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR], 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.0, while rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes were associated with increased risk of CRC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0–2.1. In addition, the CRC risk increased with the number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs in a dose–response manner (Ptrend, 0.003. Specifically, subjects carrying risk genotypes of both SNPs had the highest risk of CRC (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–3.3.. Moreover, serum estradiol concentration alone was associated with risk of CRC in men (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, 1.0–1.3. However, individuals presenting both rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes and high level of serum estradiol had a high risk of CRC (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.4–3.9, compared with those presenting CC genotype and low level of serum estradiol. The similar joint results were not observed for SNP rs1256049. Conclusions These results suggest that endogenous

  7. Post hoc Analysis for Detecting Individual Rare Variant Risk Associations Using Probit Regression Bayesian Variable Selection Methods in Case-Control Sequencing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas B; McDonnell, Shannon; Albright, Lisa Cannon; Teerlink, Craig; Stanford, Janet; Ostrander, Elaine A; Isaacs, William B; Xu, Jianfeng; Cooney, Kathleen A; Lange, Ethan; Schleutker, Johanna; Carpten, John D; Powell, Isaac; Bailey-Wilson, Joan; Cussenot, Olivier; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Giles, Graham; MacInnis, Robert; Maier, Christiane; Whittemore, Alice S; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Wiklund, Fredrik; Catolona, William J; Foulkes, William; Mandal, Diptasri; Eeles, Rosalind; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ackerman, Michael J; Olson, Timothy M; Klein, Christopher J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Rare variants (RVs) have been shown to be significant contributors to complex disease risk. By definition, these variants have very low minor allele frequencies and traditional single-marker methods for statistical analysis are underpowered for typical sequencing study sample sizes. Multimarker burden-type approaches attempt to identify aggregation of RVs across case-control status by analyzing relatively small partitions of the genome, such as genes. However, it is generally the case that the aggregative measure would be a mixture of causal and neutral variants, and these omnibus tests do not directly provide any indication of which RVs may be driving a given association. Recently, Bayesian variable selection approaches have been proposed to identify RV associations from a large set of RVs under consideration. Although these approaches have been shown to be powerful at detecting associations at the RV level, there are often computational limitations on the total quantity of RVs under consideration and compromises are necessary for large-scale application. Here, we propose a computationally efficient alternative formulation of this method using a probit regression approach specifically capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds to thousands of RVs. We evaluate our approach to detect causal variation on simulated data and examine sensitivity and specificity in instances of high RV dimensionality as well as apply it to pathway-level RV analysis results from a prostate cancer (PC) risk case-control sequencing study. Finally, we discuss potential extensions and future directions of this work. PMID:27312771

  8. The Associations between VEGF Gene Polymorphisms and Diabetic Retinopathy Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 11 Case-Control Studies

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    Liyuan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Published data on the associations of VEGF polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR susceptibility are inconclusive. A systematic meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify this topic. Methods. Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, OVID, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and Cochrane Library with the last report up to January 10, 2014. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated for VEGF–2578C/A (rs699947, –1154G/A (rs1570360, –460T/C (rs833061, −634G>C (rs2010963, and +936C/T (rs3025039 in at least two published studies. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effect model by using the software STATA 12.0. Results. A total of 11 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A significant relationship between VEGF+936C/T (rs3025039 polymorphism and DR was found in a recessive model (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.20–8.41, and P(z=0.01 in Asian and overall populations, while a significant association was also found between –460T/C (rs833061 polymorphism and DR risk under a recessive model (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.12–4.01, and P(z=0.02. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that +936C/T (rs3025039 is likely to be associated with susceptibility to DR in Asian populations, and the recessive model of –460T/C (rs833061 is associated with elevated DR susceptibility.

  9. [A case-control study of factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy based on a sample from a university maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa de Albuquerque Arruda; Coutinho, Isabela C; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland

    2013-03-01

    Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more than one pregnancy (cases) and 90 adult women with a history of only one pregnancy during adolescence (controls). Statistical analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with 5% significance. Early sexual initiation (pregnancy (pregnancy, while partner change was inversely associated. Repeat teen pregnancy was mainly associated with reproductive and socioeconomic factors. Partner change appeared as a protective factor. Measures should be adopted during the postpartum period of teenage mothers in order to avoid repeat pregnancy.

  10. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  11. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nishinaka

    Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  12. A case-control study on the association of hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma in Northeast Brazil

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    Helma Cotrim

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers were investigated in 40 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and in two age and sex matched control groups, comprising 40 patients with other cancers and 80 healthy individuals, resident in Bahia, Brazil. Serologic tests were done by radioimmunoassay. The study observed high proportion of seropositivity to HBsAg (42.5% and of those presenting HBsAg or antiHBc (65.0% among HCC cases, higher in men than women and in those aged 17 to 30 years old. HBsAg seropositivity among HCC patients was greater than in the control group with other cancers (7.5% and in healthy controls (2.5%, corresponding to odds ratio estimates of 15.0 (95% CI 3.29, 68.30 and 33.0 (95% CI 9.13, 119.28, both statistically significant. HBeAg was not observed and antiHBe was present in 41.2% of cases, suggesting the absence of viral replication, possibly with viral DNA intergration into the hepatocyte genome. The presence of cirrhosis was associated with HBsAg seropositivity among HCC cases. A history of chronic alcoholism is shown to be more frequently related to those cases with cirrhosis. This study highlights the relevant association between HCC and HBV in Northeast Brazil, particularly for young individuals, and the high risk of development of HCC for HBsAg carriers.

  13. A case-control study on the association of hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma in Northeast Brazil

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    Cotrim Helma

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers were investigated in 40 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and in two age and sex matched control groups, comprising 40 patients with other cancers and 80 healthy individuals, resident in Bahia, Brazil. Serologic tests were done by radioimmunoassay. The study observed high proportion of seropositivity to HBsAg (42.5% and of those presenting HBsAg or antiHBc (65.0% among HCC cases, higher in men than women and in those aged 17 to 30 years old. HBsAg seropositivity among HCC patients was greater than in the control group with other cancers (7.5% and in healthy controls (2.5%, corresponding to odds ratio estimates of 15.0 (95% CI 3.29, 68.30 and 33.0 (95% CI 9.13, 119.28, both statistically significant. HBeAg was not observed and antiHBe was present in 41.2% of cases, suggesting the absence of viral replication, possibly with viral DNA intergration into the hepatocyte genome. The presence of cirrhosis was associated with HBsAg seropositivity among HCC cases. A history of chronic alcoholism is shown to be more frequently related to those cases with cirrhosis. This study highlights the relevant association between HCC and HBV in Northeast Brazil, particularly for young individuals, and the high risk of development of HCC for HBsAg carriers.

  14. Association between mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 20 case-control studies.

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    Qiaoli Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs profiles can be used as diagnostic markers for human cancers. The associations between mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1 SNPs rs889312 A>C, rs16886165 T>G and breast cancer risk have been widely evaluated, but the results were inconsistent. To derive a conclusive assessment of the associations, we performed a meta-analysis by combining data from all eligible case-control studies up to date. METHODS: By searching PubMed, ISI web of knowledge, Embase and Cochrane databases, we identified all eligible studies published before September 2013. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of associations in fixed-effect or random-effect model. False-positive report probability (FPRP was calculated to confirm the significance of the results. RESULTS: A total of 59670 cases in 20 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for SNPs rs889312 and rs16886165 polymorphisms with a per-allele OR of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.09-1.13 and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.09-1.20 respectively. For rs889312, in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were identified in Europeans and Asians, but not in Africans. When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER expression status, rs889312 was associated with both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. Results from the FPRP analyses were consistent with and supportive to the above results. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that rs889312-C allele and rs16886165-G allele might be risk factors for breast cancer, especially in Europeans and Asians.

  15. U-shaped association between telomere length and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk: a case-control study in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangbo; Xue, Wenjie; Ji, Yong; Zhu, Xun; Gu, Yayun; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yong; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Jiaping; Hu, Zhibin; Jin, Guangfu; Shen, Hongbing

    2015-12-01

    Telomeres play a critical role in biological ageing by maintaining chromosomal integrity and preventing chromosome ends fusion. Epidemiological studies have suggested that inter-individual differences of telomere length could affect predisposition to multiple cancers, but evidence regarding esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was still uncertain. Several telomere length-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (TLSNPs) in Caucasians have been reported in genome-wide association studies. However, the effects of telomere length and TL-SNPs on ESCC development are unclear. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study (1045 ESCC cases and 1433 controls) to evaluate the associations between telomere length, TL-SNPs, and ESCC risk in Chinese population. As a result, ESCC cases showed overall shorter relative telomere length (RTL) (median: 1.34) than controls (median: 1.50, P telomeres may be risk factors for ESCC in the Chinese population.

  16. The association between component malalignment and post-operative pain following navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty: results of a cohort/nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czurda, Thomas; Fennema, Peter; Baumgartner, Martin; Ritschl, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have noted an adverse relationship between implant malalignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and post-operative pain. Although some evidence exists indicating that computer-assisted surgical navigation for TKA can improve the accuracy of component alignment, its impact on clinical outcomes is currently unknown. The dual goals of the present cohort/nested case-control study were to (1) compare self-reported responses to the Western Ontario-McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire between computer-assisted TKA (123 patients) using the imageless PiGalileo navigation system and conventional TKA (207 patients) [cohort analysis], and (2) to investigate a potential association between malalignment and post-operative pain in 19 painful knees and 19 asymptomatic knees obtained from the cohort analysis using matched sampling [nested case-control study]. In the cohort analysis, a relevant but non-significant (P = 0.06) difference in the occurrence of chronic pain was observed between the navigated (12%) and conventional arms (20%). Median post-operative WOMAC pain score was 100 (range, 50-100) in the conventional group and 100 (range, 65-100) in the navigated group. However, the Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference in favor of the navigated group (P = 0.01). In the nested case-control analysis, radiological outcomes and computer tomography (CT) measurements of femoral rotation were compared between the groups. The CT rotation measurements yielded evidence of a relationship between post-operative pain and incorrect rotational alignment of the femoral component of more than 3 degrees (OR: 7; 95% CI: 1.2-42; P = .033). In conclusion, there was no clinical benefit to computer-assisted navigation; however, a statistically significant relationship was observed between incorrect rotational alignment of the femoral component and symptoms of post-operative pain following TKA.

  17. Aetiology and factors associated with bacterial diarrhoeal diseases amongst urban refugee children in Eastleigh, Kenya: A case control study

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    Waqo G. Boru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kenya is home to over 400 000 refugees from neighbouring countries. There is scanty information about diarrhoea amongst urban refugees in Kenya.Objectives: We investigated the enteric bacteria causing diarrhoea amongst urban refugee children and described the associated factors.Method: During the period of August–December 2010, urban refugee children between the ages of two and five who attended Eastleigh County Council Health Centre were enrolled into the study. Diarrhoeal cases were compared with age-matched children with no diarrhoea (controls. Stool specimens were collected and enteric bacteria isolated. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors.Results: A total of 41 cases and 41 controls were enrolled in the study. The age and country of origin were similar for cases and controls. The bacterial isolation rates amongst the cases were: non-pathogenic Escherichia coli 71%, Shigella dysenteriae 2.4%, Shigella flexneri 2.4%, Salmonella paratyphi 5%. For the controls, non-pathogenic E. coli 90% and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC2.4% were amongst the organisms isolated. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin; resistance to other antibiotics varied by isolate type. Factors associated independently with diarrhoea included children not washing their hands with soap (aOR 5.9, p < 0.05, neighbour(s having diarrhoea (aOR 39.8, p < 0.05, children not exclusively breastfed for their first 6 months (aOR 7.6, p < 0.05 and children eating food cooked the previous day (aOR 23.8, p = 0.002.Conclusions: Shigella species, Salmonella species and ETEC were found to be responsible for diarrhoea amongst the urban refugee children. Measures to control and guide the use of antibiotics are critical for the prevention of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to improve personal and domestic hygiene, including educational campaigns to promote appropriate handwashing, should be encouraged.

  18. Association of Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis in a Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study

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    Liu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by destruction of the interlobular bile ducts and a striking female predominance. The aim of this study was to identify associations between estrogen receptor (ESR gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing PBC and abnormal serum liver tests in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six patients with PBC (case group and 35 healthy individuals (control group from the First Hospital of Jilin University were studied. Whole genomic DNA was extracted from all the participants. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2234693, rs2228480, and rs3798577 from ESR1 and two (rs1256030 and rs1048315 from ESR2 were analyzed by a pyrosequencing method. Demographic data and liver biochemical data were collected. Results: Subjects with the T allele at ESR2 rs1256030 had 1.5 times higher risk of developing PBC than those with the C allele (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1277, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1872-4.5517. Haplotypes TGC of ESR1 rs2234693, rs2228480, and rs3798577 were risk factors for having PBC. The C allele at ESR1 rs2234693 was associated with abnormal alkaline phosphatase (OR = 5.2469, 95% CI = 1.3704-20.0895 and gamma-glutamyl transferase (OR = 3.4286, 95% CI = 1.0083-13.6578 levels in PBC patients. Conclusions: ESR2 rs1256030 T allele may be a significant risk factor for the development of PBC. Screening for patients with gene polymorphisms may help to make early diagnoses in patients with PBC.

  19. Are failures of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction associated with steep posterior tibial slopes? A case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yue; Hong Lei; Feng Hua; Wang Qianqian; Zhang Hui; Song Guanyang

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently,increasing number of literature has identified the posterior tibial slope (PTS) as one of the risk factors of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.However,few studies conceming the association between failure of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and PTS have been published.The objective of this study was to explore the association between the failure of ACLR and PTS at a minimum of two years follow-up.Methods Two hundred and thirty eight eligible patients from June 2009 to October 2010 were identified from our database.A total of 20 failure cases of ACLR and 20 randomly selected controls were included in this retrospective study.The demographic data and the results of manual maximum side-to-side difference with KT-1000 arthrometer at 30° of knee flexion and pivot-shift test before the ACLR and at the final follow-up were collected.The medial and lateral PTSs were measured using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan,based on Hudek's measurement.A comparison of PTS between the two groups was performed.Results The overall failure rate of the present study was 8.4%.Of the 40 participants,the mean medial PTS was 4.1°±3.2° and the mean lateral PTS was 4.6°±2.6°.The medial PTS of the ACLR failure group was significantly steeper than the control group (3.5°±2.5° vs.6.1°±2.1°,P=0.000).Similarly,the lateral PTS of the ACLR failure group was significantly steeper than the control group (2.9°±2.1 ° vs.5.5°±3.0°,P=0.006).For medial PTS ≥5°,the odds ratio of ACLR failure was 6.8 (P=0.007); for lateral PTS ≥5°,the odds ratio of ACLR failure was 10.8 (P=0.000).Conclusion Both medial and lateral PTS were significantly steeper in failures of ACLR than the control group.Medial or lateral PTS ≥5° was a new risk factor of ACLR failure.

  20. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

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    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence.

  1. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p < .001), nonmelanoma skin cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. The results suggest a plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence. PMID:25942634

  2. Endothelium-based biomarkers are associated with cerebral malaria in Malawian children: a retrospective case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Conroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differentiating cerebral malaria (CM from other causes of serious illness in African children is problematic, owing to the non-specific nature of the clinical presentation and the high prevalence of incidental parasitaemia. CM is associated with endothelial activation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived biomarkers are associated with the pathophysiology of severe malaria and may help identify children with CM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were tested from children recruited with uncomplicated malaria (UM; n = 32, cerebral malaria with retinopathy (CM-R; n = 38, clinically defined CM without retinopathy (CM-N; n = 29, or non-malaria febrile illness with decreased consciousness (CNS; n = 24. Admission levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, Ang-1, soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2, von Willebrand factor (VWF, its propeptide (VWFpp, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10 were measured by ELISA. Children with CM-R had significantly higher median levels of Ang-2, Ang-2:Ang-1, sTie-2, VWFpp and sICAM-1 compared to children with CM-N. Children with CM-R had significantly lower median levels of Ang-1 and higher median concentrations of Ang-2:Ang-1, sTie-2, VWF, VWFpp, VEGF and sICAM-1 compared to UM, and significantly lower median levels of Ang-1 and higher median levels of Ang-2, Ang-2:Ang-1, VWF and VWFpp compared to children with fever and altered consciousness due to other causes. Ang-1 was the best discriminator between UM and CM-R and between CNS and CM-R (areas under the ROC curve of 0.96 and 0.93, respectively. A comparison of biomarker levels in CM-R between admission and recovery showed uniform increases in Ang-1 levels, suggesting this biomarker may have utility in monitoring clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that endothelial proteins are informative biomarkers of malarial disease severity. These results

  3. Frequent Use of Antibiotics Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk : Results of a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Vincent K; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Smeets, Hugo M.; Siersema, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microbiotical dysbiosis induced by a Western diet seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Few other factors with an effect on the colonic microbiota and their association with CRC have been evaluated. AIM: We investigated whether the use of an

  4. Case-control study of six genes asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres: association of BAIAP2 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribasés, Marta; Bosch, Rosa; Hervás, Amaia;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disease that persists into adulthood in at least 30% of patients. There is evidence suggesting that abnormal left-right brain asymmetries in ADHD patients may be involved in a variety of ADHD......-related cognitive processes, including sustained attention, working memory, response inhibition and planning. Although mechanisms underlying cerebral lateralization are unknown, left-right cortical asymmetry has been associated with transcriptional asymmetry at embryonic stages and several genes differentially...... expressed between hemispheres have been identified. METHODS: We selected six functional candidate genes showing at least 1.9-fold differential expression between hemispheres (BAIAP2, DAPPER1, LMO4, NEUROD6, ATP2B3, and ID2) and performed a case-control association study in an initial Spanish sample of 587...

  5. ZDHHC8 as a candidate gene for schizophrenia: Analysis of a putative functional intronic marker in case-control and family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabs Burkhard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome 22q11 region is proposed as a major candidate locus for susceptibility genes to schizophrenia. Recently, the gene ZDHHC8 encoding a putative palmitoyltransferase at 22q11 was proposed to increase liability to schizophrenia based on both animal models and human association studies by significant over-transmission of allele rs175174A in female, but not male subjects with schizophrenia. Methods Given the genetic complexity of schizophrenia and the potential genetic heterogeneity in different populations, we examined rs175174 in 204 German proband-parent triads and in an independent case-control study (schizophrenic cases: n = 433; controls: n = 186. Results In the triads heterozygous parents transmitted allele G preferentially to females, and allele A to males (heterogeneity χ2 = 4.43; p = 0.035. The case-control sample provided no further evidence for overall or gender-specific effects regarding allele and genotype frequency distributions. Conclusion The findings on rs175174 at ZDHHC8 are still far from being conclusive, but evidence for sexual dimorphism is moderate, and our data do not support a significant genetic contribution of rs175174 to the aetiopathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  6. A case-control study to examine HLA haplotype associations in patients with posttreatment chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempner, Mark S; Wormser, Gary H; Wade, Karen; Trevino, Richard P; Tang, Jianming; Kaslow, Richard A; Schmid, Christopher

    2005-09-15

    In a comparison of 95 patients with systemic symptoms that persisted after antibiotic treatment for acute Lyme disease (posttreatment chronic Lyme disease) and 104 control subjects without such symptoms after antibiotic treatment, we sought associations between human leukocyte antigen class II (DRB1 and DQB1) markers and posttreatment chronic Lyme disease. No strong association between posttreatment chronic Lyme disease and any class II allele or genotype was found.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients with mucosal inflammation : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Koen M. J.; de Smit, Menke J.; Brouwer, Elisabeth; de Kok, Fenne A. C.; Kraan, Jan; Altenburg, Josje; Verheul, Marije K.; Trouw, Leendert A.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Vissink, Arjan; Westra, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies (RA-AAB) can be present in serum years before clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It has been hypothesized that initiation of RA-AAB generation occurs at inflamed mucosal surfaces, such as in the oral cavity or lungs. The aim of t

  8. Association between mannose-binding lectin variants, haplotypes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chenghao; Lin, Yong; Cai, Lin; Mao, Qianguo; Niu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The innate immunity gene mannose-binding lectin2 (MBL2) has played an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the relationship between MBL2 variants and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk has not yet been identified. In total, 315 HCC cases and 315 healthy controls were enrolled and blood samples were acquired. High resolution melt analysis (HRM) was employed to genotype 6 polymorphisms in MBL2 gene. Increased HCC risk in carriers of LL genotype of -550 polymorphism with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 1.61 (95%CI = 1.00-2.57) was observed but no significant association detected in HL genotype. Both YX and XX genotype demonstrated a significantly elevated HCC risk in the analysis of -221 polymorphism. The B variants in codon 54 was also significantly associated with elevated HCC risk. HYB was identified as the protective factor of HCC while LXB was significantly associated with increase HCC risk. ELISA technique revealed that the MBL2 protein was significantly reduced in HCC cases. Moreover, both IL-1β and IL-6 were inversely associated with plasma MBL2 level.The mutations in MBL2 could lead to compromised innate immunity, and possibly lead to elevated HCC risk, and a novel haplotype HXB has been identified with a rate of 12.5%. PMID:27557564

  9. Association study of PDE4B gene variants in Scandinavian schizophrenia and bipolar disorder multicenter case-control samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kähler, Anna K; Otnaess, Mona K; Wirgenes, Katrine V;

    2010-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), which is involved in cognitive function in animal models, is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). Variations in PDE4B have previously been associated with SZ, with a suggested gender-specific effect. We have genotyped...

  10. The association between atopic diseases and childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retrospective matched case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the association between attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and atopic diseases have been inconclusive. Objectives: We assessed whether children with ADHD are more likely to have a history of atopy like asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema than children without ADHD.

  11. Phenotype, genotype, and worldwide genetic penetrance of LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Healy (Daniel); M. Falchi (Mario); S.S. O'Sullivan (Sean); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); A. Durr; S. Bressman (Susan); A. Brice; J.O. Aasly (Jan); C.P. Zabetian (Cyrus); S. Goldwurm; J.J. Ferreira (Joaquim); E. Tolosa; D.M. Kay (Denise); C. Klein (Christoph); D.R. Williams (David); C. Marras (Connie); A.E. Lang; Z.K. Wszolek (Zbigniew); J. Berciano (José); A.H.V. Schapira (Anthony); T. Lynch (Tim); K.P. Bhatia (Kailash); T. Gasser (Thomas); A.J. Lees (Andrew); N.W. Wood (Nicholas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mutations in LRRK2, the gene that encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The International LRRK2 Consortium was established to answer three key clinical questions: can LRRK2-associated PD be distinguished from idiopathic PD; which mutat

  12. Saliva as a surrogate to explore the association between lipid profiles and chronic periodontitis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kalburgi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased salivary lipids in chronic periodontitis patients suggest an association between hyperlipidemia and periodontitis. The relatively easy and non-invasive nature of saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess the lipid status. Further research is needed to determine its specificity as a surrogate to serum lipid profiles.

  13. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor expression in non-cancerous bronchial epithelia is associated with lung cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egloff Ann Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal bronchial tissue expression of GRPR, which encodes the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, has been previously reported by us to be associated with lung cancer risk in 78 subjects, especially in females. We sought to define the contribution of GRPR expression in bronchial epithelia to lung cancer risk in a larger case-control study where adjustments could be made for tobacco exposure and sex. Methods We evaluated GRPR mRNA levels in histologically normal bronchial epithelial cells from 224 lung cancer patients and 107 surgical cancer-free controls. Associations with lung cancer were tested using logistic regression models. Results Bronchial GRPR expression was significantly associated with lung cancer (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 2.32-9.77 in a multivariable logistic regression (MLR model adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and pulmonary function. MLR analysis stratified by smoking status indicated that ORs were higher in never and former smokers (OR = 7.74; 95% CI = 2.96-20.25 compared to active smokers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 0.46-6.33. GRPR expression did not differ by subject sex, and lung cancer risk associated with GRPR expression was not modified by sex. Conclusions GRPR expression in non-cancerous bronchial epithelium was significantly associated with the presence of lung cancer in never and former smokers. The association in never and former smokers was found in males and females. Association with lung cancer did not differ by sex in any smoking group.

  14. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B;

    2010-01-01

    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the...... Breast Cancer Association Consortium....

  15. Impact of the AHI1 gene on the vulnerability to schizophrenia: a case-control association study.

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    Olga Rivero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Abelson helper integration-1 (AHI1 gene is required for both cerebellar and cortical development in humans. While the accelerated evolution of AHI1 in the human lineage indicates a role in cognitive (dysfunction, a linkage scan in large pedigrees identified AHI1 as a positional candidate for schizophrenia. To further investigate the contribution of AHI1 to the susceptibility of schizophrenia, we evaluated the effect of AHI1 variation on the vulnerability to psychosis in two samples from Spain and Germany. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in a genomic region including the AHI1 gene were genotyped in two samples from Spain (280 patients with psychotic disorders; 348 controls and Germany (247 patients with schizophrenic disorders; 360 controls. Allelic, genotypic and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls in both samples separately, as well as in the combined sample. The effect of genotype on several psychopathological measures (BPRS, KGV, PANSS assessed in a Spanish subsample was also evaluated. We found several significant associations in the Spanish sample. Particularly, rs7750586 and rs911507, both located upstream of the AHI1 coding region, were found to be associated with schizophrenia in the analysis of genotypic (p = 0.0033, and 0.031, respectively and allelic frequencies (p = 0.001 in both cases. Moreover, several other risk and protective haplotypes were detected (0.006association of rs7750586 and rs911507 with the risk for schizophrenia. The analysis of clinical measures also revealed an effect on symptom severity (minimum P value = 0.0037. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data support, in agreement with previous reports, an effect of AHI1 variation on the susceptibility to schizophrenia in central and southern European populations.

  16. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456), exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows. PMID:27447670

  17. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.456), exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher's exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows. PMID:27447670

  18. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Duringer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20% samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322, gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456, exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367, or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00. While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows.

  19. Association between the interleukin-13 gene and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in southern Chinese Han population: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yi; SHI Guo-chao; WAN Huan-ying; YANG Kun; PAN Chun-ming; CHENG Qi-jian; DAI Ran-ran

    2013-01-01

    Background Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been implicated to be responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells from the blood to the lung,regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and induction of mucin production and secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).We determined plasma IL-13 levels in patients with COPD and investigated its association with common polymorphisms of IL-13 gene in a case-control study.Methods We genotyped 160 cases and 175 control subjects in a local hospital using Mass-ArrayTM Technology Platform then tested the association of four SNPs in IL-13 (rs1295685,rs1800925,rs1881457,rs20541) with COPD,and then determined plasma IL-13 levels in patients with COPD and controls.Results Association was found between IL-13 gene SNPs (rs20541 and rs1800925) and an increased risk of COPD.By linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis,two blocks (rs1881457 and rs1800925; rs20541 and rs1295685) were found.The risk of COPD was found associated with the IL-13 gene polymorphism among southern Chinese Han population.Plasma IL-13 level was increased in COPD patients compared with controls.Conclusions The polymorphism of the IL-13 gene is associated with an increased risk of COPD in southern Chinese Han population.Plasma IL-13 levels were found elevated in patients with COPD.

  20. Evaluation of Association of Serum Magnesium with Dyslipidaemia in Diabetic Nephropathy and ndash; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netravati B Sajjan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To estimate Serum magnesium and lipid profile in type II diabetes mellitus without complications, diabetic nephropathy and healthy controls. To correlate Serum magnesium and lipid profile in cases and controls. MATERIALS and METHODS: The study was done on 50 clinically diagnosed diabetic nephropathy, 50 Type II diabetics without complications and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls. Serum Magnesium, Fasting Blood sugar (FBS, lipid profile and spot urine microalbumin were estimated. Data obtained was analyzed for Mean, standard deviation, and lsquo;p' value and and lsquo;r' value. RESULTS: We observed highly significant decrease in magnesium (p <0.001 and dyslipidaemia in diabetic nephropathy compared to diabetics without complications and controls. CONCLUSION: Hypomagnesaemia occurs in diabetics due to osmotic diuresis. Decreased Mg progresses the dyslipidaemia in Diabetic nephropathy leading to further complications like CRF and coronary artery diseases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(4.000: 318-321

  1. Both high and low serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with tuberculosis: a case-control study in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Skifte, Turid; Andersson, Mikael;

    2010-01-01

    .9, 22.2) had higher risks of active TB (P = 0.003; adjustment for alcohol and ethnicity). Supplementing individuals with low vitamin D to normalise serum 25(OH)D concentrations was estimated to result in a 29% reduction in the number of TB cases. The study indicated that vitamin D supplementation may......), sex and district. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured and OR of TB were the outcome. Compared with individuals with 25(OH)D concentrations between 75 and 140 nmol/l, individuals with concentrations 140 nmol/l (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1...... be beneficial to individuals with insufficient vitamin D concentrations but may increase the risk of TB among individuals with normal or high concentrations....

  2. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation).

  3. sEPCR Levels in Chronic Myeloproliferative Diseases and Their Association with Thromboembolic Events: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Atalay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Venous, arterial, and microcirculatory events are frequently encountered in the clinical course of essential thrombocytosis and polycythemia vera. We aimed to investigate the levels of soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR in myeloproliferative diseases to see whether there was a difference between the patients with and without history of thromboembolism. METHODS: The study included patients with polycythemia vera (n=12, patients with essential thrombocytosis (n=13, and controls (n=29. In all groups, we measured proteins C and S, antithrombin and sEPCR levels, and plasma concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1+2, and D-dimer. RESULTS: Comparing the patients with and without history of thromboembolic attack, statistically significant differences were not observed in terms of sEPCR, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1+2, and hematocrit levels (p=0.318, 0.722, 0.743, 0.324, and 0.065, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant increase in the parameters that reflect activation of coagulation, such as sEPCR, thrombinantithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1+2, and D-dimer, reflects the presence of a basal condition that leads to a tendency toward thrombosis development in ET and PV when compared to healthy controls.

  4. FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Thron

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have been linked with increased body weight. However, the data on an association of FTO with cardiovascular diseases remains conflicting. Therefore, we ascertained whether FTO is associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS, one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases in the Western world.In this population-based case-control study the FTO SNP rs9939609 was analyzed in 300 German patients with AVS and 429 German controls of the KORA survey S4, representing a random population. Blood samples were collected prior to aortic valve replacement in AVS cases and FTO rs9939609 was genotyped via ARMS-PCR. Genotype frequencies differed significantly between AVS cases and KORA controls (p = 0.004. Separate gender-analyses uncovered an association of FTO with AVS exclusively in males; homozygote carriers for the risk-allele (A had a higher risk to develop AVS (p = 0.017, odds ratio (OR 1.727; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.087-2.747, recessive model, whereas heterozygote carriers for the risk-allele showed a lower risk (p = 0.002, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.384-0.828, overdominant model. After adjustment for multiple co-variables, the odds ratios of heterozygotes remained significant for an association with AVS (p = 0.008, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.369-0.861.This study revealed an association of FTO rs9939609 with AVS. Furthermore, this association was restricted to men, with heterozygotes having a significantly lower chance to develop AVS. Lastly, the association between FTO and AVS was independent of BMI and other variables such as diabetes mellitus.

  5. A 3' UTR SNP in COL18A1 is associated with susceptibility to HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese: three independent case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidences indicate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis related genes are associated with risk of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. COL18A1 encodes the precursor of endostatin, which is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor, and we speculate that SNPs in COL18A1 may be associated with susceptibility to HCC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a 2-stage association study in 3 independent case-control groups in a total of 1067 chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and 808 hepatitis B virus (HBV related HCC patients in Han Chinese. Four SNPs which can represent all potential functional SNPs with MAF>0.1 recorded in HapMap database were genotyped using TaqMan methods. Levels of total COL18A1 mRNA were also examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We found that rs7499 located in 3'-UTR to be strongly associated with HBV related HCC (P(combined = 0.0000005, OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.63-0.82. COL18A1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased as the disease progressed (P = 0.000026. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that COL18A1 rs7499 may contribute to the risk of HCC in Han Chinese.

  6. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and cerebral malaria: TLR2 Δ22 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria in a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In malaria endemic areas, host genetics influence whether a Plasmodium falciparum-infected child develops uncomplicated or severe malaria. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor for P. falciparum-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI, and polymorphisms within the TLR2 gene may affect disease pathogenesis. There are two common polymorphisms in the 5' un-translated region (UTR of TLR2, a 22 base pair deletion in the first unstranslated exon (Δ22, and a GT dinucleotide repeat in the second intron (GTn. Methods These polymorphisms were examined in a Ugandan case control study on children with either cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria. Serum cytokine levels were analysed by ELISA, according to genotype and disease status. In vitro TLR2 expression was measured according to genotype. Results Both Δ22 and GTn polymorphisms were highly frequent, but only Δ22 heterozygosity was associated with protection from cerebral malaria (OR 0.34, 95% confidence intervals 0.16, 0.73. In vitro, heterozygosity for Δ22 was associated with reduced pam3cys inducible TLR2 expression in human monocyte derived macrophages. In uncomplicated malaria patients, Δ22 homozygosity was associated with elevated serum IL-6 (p = 0.04, and long GT repeat alleles were associated with elevated TNF (p = 0.007. Conclusion Reduced inducible TLR2 expression may lead to attenuated pro-inflammatory responses, a potential mechanism of protection from cerebral malaria present in individuals heterozygous for the TLR2 Δ22 polymorphism.

  7. Genetic risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in children with sickle cell disease: design of a case-control association study and genomewide screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brambilla Donald

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenotypic heterogeneity of sickle cell disease is likely the result of multiple genetic factors and their interaction with the sickle mutation. High transcranial doppler (TCD velocities define a subgroup of children with sickle cell disease who are at increased risk for developing ischemic stroke. The genetic factors leading to the development of a high TCD velocity (i.e. cerebrovascular disease and ultimately to stroke are not well characterized. Methods We have designed a case-control association study to elucidate the role of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for cerebrovascular disease as measured by a high TCD velocity in children with sickle cell disease. The study will consist of two parts: a candidate gene study and a genomewide screen and will be performed in 230 cases and 400 controls. Cases will include 130 patients (TCD ≥ 200 cm/s randomized in the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP study as well as 100 other patients found to have high TCD in STOP II screening. Four hundred sickle cell disease patients with a normal TCD velocity (TCD Discussion It is expected that this study will yield important information on genetic risk factors for the cerebrovascular disease phenotype in sickle cell disease by clarifying the role of candidate genes in the development of high TCD. The genomewide screen for a large number of SNPs may uncover the association of novel polymorphisms with cerebrovascular disease and stroke in sickle cell disease.

  8. Association of decreased spermatozoa omega-3 fatty acid levels and increased oxidative DNA damage with varicocele in infertile men: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Xin; Yuan, Dong-Juan; Wang, Qi-Ling; Jiang, Fang; Guo, Jian; Tang, Yun-Ge; Zheng, Li-Xin; Kang, Jing X

    2016-04-01

    Varicocele is commonly associated with male infertility because it impairs normal sperm morphology and activity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important determinants of sperm cell structure and function, but their relationship with varicocele remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PUFA composition in spermatozoa of infertile men with varicocele and to evaluate the potential relationship between PUFA and varicocele. This case control study recruited 92 infertile men with varicocele, 99 infertile men without varicocele and 95 fertile male control subjects. Semen morphology and activity parameters were assessed and seminal plasma 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content was determined by ELISA. Sperm concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Infertile men with varicocele had lower concentrations of omega-3 PUFA, higher omega-6:omega-3 PUFA ratios and greater oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa compared with infertile men without varicocele and normal subjects. The degree of varicocele and DNA damage was associated with decreased omega-3 PUFA concentrations and semen quality in infertile men with varicocele. The findings suggest that omega-3 PUFA deficiency could be implicated in varicocele-associated infertility, and highlight the need for intervention trials to test the usefulness of omega-3 supplementation in reducing sperm abnormalities in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:25405715

  9. Association of common polymorphisms in GLUT9 gene with gout but not with coronary artery disease in a large case-control study.

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    Klaus Stark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (UA levels have recently been shown to be genetically influenced by common polymorphisms in the GLUT9 gene in two genome-wide association analyses of Italian and British populations. Elevated serum UA levels are often found in conjunction with the metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is the major risk factor for gout and has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the association of polymorphisms in GLUT9 with gout and coronary artery disease (CAD or myocardial infarction (MI. To test our hypotheses, we performed two large case-control association analyses of individuals from the German MI Family Study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: First, 665 patients with gout and 665 healthy controls, which were carefully matched for age and gender, were genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within or near the GLUT9 gene. All four SNPs demonstrated highly significant association with gout. SNP rs6855911, located within intron 7 of GLUT9, showed the strongest signal with a protective effect of the minor allele with an allelic odds ratio of 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.75; p = 3.2*10(-7. Importantly, this finding was not influenced by adjustment for components of the metabolic syndrome or intake of diuretics. Secondly, 1,473 cases with severe CAD or MI and 1,241 healthy controls were tested for the same four GLUT9 SNPs. The analyses revealed, however, no significant association with CAD or with MI. Additional screening of genome-wide association data sets showed no signal for CAD or MI within the GLUT9 gene region. CONCLUSION: Thus, our results provide compelling evidence that common genetic variations within the GLUT9 gene strongly influence the risk for gout but are unlikely to have a major effect on CAD or MI in a German population.

  10. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (<25th percentile; aOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.01-5.04), and tended to be associated with being short (<150 cm; aOR=2.05; 95% CI: 0.92-4.54). This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that breastfeeding during late pregnancy increases the risk for SGA; however, studies with greater statistical power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. PMID:23020780

  11. Inhaled Corticosteroids Use Is Not Associated With an Increased Risk of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Two Nested Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jimin; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Seongmi; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoon, Ho Il

    2016-05-01

    There have been concerns that systemic corticosteroid use is associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and diabetes mellitus. However, the relationship between inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and the risk of PIH has not been fully examined, and there was no study investigating the association between ICS use and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aims of the study are to determine whether the use of ICSs during pregnancy increases the risk of PIH and GDM in women.We conducted 2 nested case-control studies utilizing the nationwide insurance claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (Seoul, Republic of Korea), in which 1,306,281 pregnant women who delivered between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 were included. Among them, PIH cases and GDM cases were identified and matched controls were included. Conditional logistic regression analyses adjusted by other concomitant drugs use during and before pregnancy and confounding covariates including comorbidities were performed.Total 43,908 PIH cases and 219,534 controls, and 34,190 GDM cases and 170,934 control subjects were identified. When other concomitant drugs use during pregnancy was adjusted, ICS use was associated with an increased rate of PIH (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.05-1.87]). ICS medication possession ratios and cumulative doses were associated with an increased risk of PIH. However, the statistical significance was not found in other models. In both unadjusted and adjusted multivariable models, ICSs use was not associated with increase in the risk of GDM.ICSs use is not associated with an increased risk of PIH and GDM. PMID:27258493

  12. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

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    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  13. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  14. Exposure to ionizing radiation during dental X-rays is not associated with risk of developing meningioma: a meta-analysis based on seven case-control studies.

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    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available Many observational studies have found that exposure to dental X-rays is associated with the risk of development of meningioma. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Summary odds ratio (OR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to compute the risk of meningioma development according to heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to further explore the potential heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed.Seven case-control studies involving 6,174 patients and 19,459 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Neither exposure to dental X-rays nor performance of full-mouth panorex X-rays was associated with an increased risk of development of meningioma (overall: OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.70-1.32; dental X-rays: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89-1.25; panorex X-rays: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34. However, exposure to bitewing X-rays was associated with a slightly increased risk of development of meningioma (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.Based on the currently limited data, there is no association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the heterogeneity among studies. Additional large, high-quality clinical trials are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.

  15. Prophylactic use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a single center hospital-based case-control study in Serbia

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    Nikola Panic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD develops through the loss of normal bacterial intestinal flora. We have conducted a case-control study in order to assess whether prophylactic administration of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii prevents occurrence of AAD among adult hospitalized patients. Methods. Single-center hospital based case-control study was conducted in University Clinic “Dr Dragisa Misovic-Dedinje”, Belgrade, Serbia. Hospital records were screened in order to identify all the patients developing AAD in period January 1. 2010 – August 31. 2015. For every case, one age and gender matched control was randomly selected among patients hospitalized at the same time at the same department who were administered with antibiotics and did not develop AAD. For both cases and controls data were extracted on demographics, medical history, indication for use of antibiotics, antibiotics used, and prophylactic use of S.boulardii probiotics. The relationship between occurrence of AAD and putative risk factors were measured using the odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence interval (CI derived from logistic regression analysis. Results. Number of 59 cases and 59 controls were included in the study. Most of AAD cases were associated with old age (mean age of 78.05, and almost half (49.15% were hospitalized on geriatrics department. Most prescribed class of antibiotics among cases was III generation cephalosporins (50.85%, followed by fluoroquinolones (28.81% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20.34%. Significantly more cases than controls were treated with carbapenems (16.95% vs. 5.08% respectively, p=0.04. Significantly less cases were administered with prophylactic S. boulardii probiotics (18.64% vs. 42.37% p=0.005. We identified prophylactic use of S. boulardii to act protectively against development of AAD from both univariate (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.72 and multivariate analysis (OR:0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80. Use of

  16. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

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    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  17. Anxiety disorders are associated with quality of life impairment in patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes: a case-control study

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    Maria Augusta B. dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the presence of anxiety disorders and quality of life in patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. Methods: Case-control study of 996 patients with type 2 diabetes and 2,145 individuals without diabetes. The sole inclusion criterion for the case group was insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. We compared the case and control groups for sociodemographic variables, laboratory and clinical data, and presence of anxiety disorders. Quality of life was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, and the prevalence of anxiety disorder was evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Patients with diabetes had a higher prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The presence of these disorders in combination with type 2 diabetes was associated with worse quality of life in the physical, social, psychological, and environmental domains. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing and treating anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes, so as to prevent more serious complications associated with these comorbidities.

  18. Risk of lung cancer associated with six types of chlorinated solvents: results from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods: Two case-control studies of occupation and lung cancer were conducted in Montreal, including 2,016 cases and 2,001 population controls. Occupational exposure to a host of agents was evaluated using a combination of subject-reported job history and expert assessment. We e...

  19. The association between dietary lignans, phytoestrogen-rich foods, and fiber intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a German case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Vrieling, A.; Heinz, J.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Linseisen, J.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estrogens and may affect breast cancer risk by mimicking estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In Western societies, whole grains and possibly soy foods are rich sources of phytoestrogens. A population-based case-control study in German postmenopausal women

  20. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had no

  1. Association of Methylentetraydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677 C > T gene polymorphism and homocysteine levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients from Malaysia: a case-control study

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    Liew Siaw C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methyl donors. The methyl donors are required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Mutation of MTHFR 677 C > T disrupts its thermostability therefore leads to defective enzyme activities and dysregulation of homocysteine levels. Methods This case-control study (n = 367 was conducted to investigate the correlation of the MTHFR gene polymorphism [NM_005957] and psoriasis vulgaris amongst the Malaysian population. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from a subgroup of consented psoriasis vulgaris patients and matched controls (n = 84 for the quantification of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Results There was no significant increase of the MTHFR 677 C > T mutation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris compared with controls (χ2 = 0.733, p = 0.392. No significant association between homocysteine levels and MTHFR gene polymorphism in cases and controls were observed (F = 0.91, df = 3, 80, p = 0.44. However, homocysteine levels in cases were negatively correlated with vitamin B12 (r = -0.173 and folic acid (r = -0.345 levels. Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in cases were also negatively correlated (r = -0.164. Conclusions Our results indicate that there was no significant association between the MTHFR gene polymorphism and psoriasis vulgaris in the Malaysian population. There was no significant increase of the plasma homocysteine level in the psoriasis patients compared to the controls.

  2. Association between the BsmI Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from a Pakistani Case-Control Study.

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    Muhammad Usman Rashid

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is postulated to decrease the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation via the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the VDR gene, rs1544410 (BsmI and rs2228570 (FokI, are inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian populations, while data for Asians are scarce. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of these SNPs to breast cancer risk in Pakistani breast cancer patients and in controls participating in a hospital-based breast cancer case-control study (PAK-BCCC.Genotyping of the BsmI and FokI SNPs was performed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of 463 genetically enriched female breast cancer cases with known BRCA1/2 status and in 1,012 controls from Pakistan. The association between SNP genotypes and breast cancer risk was investigated by logistic regression adjusted for potential breast cancer risk factors and stratified by BRCA1/2 status and family history. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were reported.The b allele of the BsmI was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per b allele OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49, P = 0.003. Subgroup analysis revealed that this effect was restricted to BRCA1/2 non-carriers (per b allele OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002 and was stronger in those who reported a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (per b allele OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.22, P = 0.002. No association with breast cancer risk was detected for the FokI SNP.The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in Pakistani women negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations.

  3. Genetic association between NFKB1 −94 ins/del ATTG Promoter Polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 42 case-control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Xie, Tianhang; Xu, Jin; Wang, Haoyang; Zeng, Weinan; Rao, Shuquan; Zhou, Kai; Pei, Fuxing; Zhou, Zongke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have indicated that the functional -94 ins/del ATTG polymorphism in the promoter region of human nuclear factor-kappa B1 (NFKB1) gene may be associated with cancer risk. However, some studies yielded conflicting results. To clarify precise association, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 42 case-control studies involving 43,000 subjects (18,222 cases and 24,778 controls). The overall results suggested that the -94 ins/del ATTG polymorphism had a decreased risk for cancer, reaching significant levels in five genetic models (dominant model: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79–0.95, P = 0.002; recessive model: OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74–0.94, P = 0.003; homozygous model: OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.90, P = 0.001; heterozygous model: OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83–0.98, P = 0.011; allelic model: OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83–0.96, P = 0.002). Furthermore, the -94 ins/del ATTG polymorphism could confer a decreased or increased risk for cancer development among Asians and Caucasians, respectively. Additionally, the stratification analysis revealed a significant association between the variant and decreased risk of oral, ovarian, and nasopharyngeal cancer in Asians. After we adjusted p values using the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method to account for multiple comparisons, these associations remained. PMID:27443693

  4. TNF-α -308 G > A (rs1800629) Polymorphism is Associated with Celiac Disease: A Meta-analysis of 11 Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif; Mandal, Raju K.; Jawed, Arshad; Dar, Sajad A.; Wahid, Mohd; Panda, Aditya K.; Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Ahmed Khan, Md. Ekhlaque; Haque, Shafiul

    2016-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) remains one of the most significant autoimmune diseases worldwide. The pathogenesis of CD is not clearly understood and is probably attributed to genomic variations and host genetic make-up. Case-control and cohort studies of the association between the TNF-α -308 G > A (rs1800629) polymorphism and CD susceptibility have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar web-databases were searched for pertinent reports showing association of TNF-α -308 G > A gene with CD risk. A total of eleven reports involving 1774 controls and 1147 CD cases were included. Significant associations in four genetic models, viz. variant allele (A vs. G: p = 0.001 OR = 2.051, 95% CI = 1.452-2.895), variant homozygous (AA vs. GG: p = 0.001 OR = 6.626, 95% CI = 3.569-12.300), recessive (AA vs. GG + AG: p = 0.001 OR = 4.766, 95% CI = 3.177-7.152) and dominant (AA + AG vs. GG: p = 0.008 OR = 1.910, 95% CI = 1.181-3.088) were found in comparison with wild type homozygous GG genotype. However, heterozygous genetic model did not show any association. Sensitivity analysis revealed stable and statistically robust results. Our results suggest that TNF-α -308 G > A gene polymorphism significantly contributes to CD susceptibility.

  5. TNF-α -308 G > A (rs1800629) Polymorphism is Associated with Celiac Disease: A Meta-analysis of 11 Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif; Mandal, Raju K; Jawed, Arshad; Dar, Sajad A; Wahid, Mohd; Panda, Aditya K; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Ahmed Khan, Md Ekhlaque; Haque, Shafiul

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) remains one of the most significant autoimmune diseases worldwide. The pathogenesis of CD is not clearly understood and is probably attributed to genomic variations and host genetic make-up. Case-control and cohort studies of the association between the TNF-α -308 G > A (rs1800629) polymorphism and CD susceptibility have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar web-databases were searched for pertinent reports showing association of TNF-α -308 G > A gene with CD risk. A total of eleven reports involving 1774 controls and 1147 CD cases were included. Significant associations in four genetic models, viz. variant allele (A vs. G: p = 0.001; OR = 2.051, 95% CI = 1.452-2.895), variant homozygous (AA vs. GG: p = 0.001; OR = 6.626, 95% CI = 3.569-12.300), recessive (AA vs. GG + AG: p = 0.001; OR = 4.766, 95% CI = 3.177-7.152) and dominant (AA + AG vs. GG: p = 0.008; OR = 1.910, 95% CI = 1.181-3.088) were found in comparison with wild type homozygous GG genotype. However, heterozygous genetic model did not show any association. Sensitivity analysis revealed stable and statistically robust results. Our results suggest that TNF-α -308 G > A gene polymorphism significantly contributes to CD susceptibility. PMID:27597177

  6. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

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    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  7. Risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in subjects from primary care units. A case-control study

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    Bernad Jesús

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFL consists in the accumulation of fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Many etiologic factors are associated with NAFL, such as, the metabolic syndrome factors, medications, bariatric surgery, nutritional disorders. However, very little information is available on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a health problem in the general population. Methods and design The aim of the study is establish the risk factors most frequently associated with NAFL in a general adult population assigned to the primary care units and to investigate the relationship between each component of the metabolic syndrome and the risk of having a NAFL. A population based case-control, observational and multicenter study will be carried out in 18 primary care units from the "Area de Gestión del Barcelonés Nord y Maresme" (Barcelona attending a population of 360,000 inhabitants and will include 326 cases and 370 controls. Cases are defined as all subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria and with evidence of fatty liver in an abdominal ultrasonography performed for any reason. One control will be randomly selected for each case from the population, matched for age, gender and primary care center. Controls with fatty liver or other liver diseases will be excluded. All cases and controls will be asked about previous hepatic diseases, consumption of alcohol, smoking and drugs, and a physical examination, biochemical analyses including liver function tests, the different components of the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score will also be performed. Paired controls will also undergo an abdominal ultrasonography. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the factors most frequently associated with the presence of NAFL investigate the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the risk of fatty liver and study the influence of the different primary care professionals in avoiding the evolution

  8. Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study

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    Serin Simay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of hospital care. We aimed to evaluate costs and risk factors for VAP in adult ICU. Methods This is a-three year retrospective case-control study. The data were collected between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. During the study period, 132 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial pneumonia of 731 adult medical-surgical ICU patients. Of these only 37 VAP patients were assessed, and multiple nosocomially infected patients were excluded from the study. Sixty non-infected ICU patients were chosen as control patients. Results Median length of stay in ICU in patients with VAP and without were 8.0 (IQR: 6.5 and 2.5 (IQR: 2.0 days respectively (P Conclusion Respiratory failure, coma, depressed consciousness, enteral feeding and length of stay are independent risk factors for developing VAP. The cost of VAP is approximately five-fold higher than non-infected patients.

  9. Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh

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    Abul H. Milton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 µg/L through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5 and 360 controls (BMI 18.5–24.99 were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant’s age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 µg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6 increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years.

  10. Associations of IL-4, IL-4R, and IL-13 gene polymorphisms in coal workers' pneumoconiosis in China: a case-control study.

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    Meilin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The IL-4, IL-4 receptor (IL4R, and IL-13 genes are crucial immune factors and may influence the course of various diseases. In the present study, we investigated the association between the potential functional polymorphisms in IL-4, IL-4R, and IL-13 and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP risk in a Chinese population. METHODS: Six polymorphisms (C-590T in IL-4, Ile50Val, Ser478Pro, and Gln551Arg in IL-4R, C-1055T and Arg130Gln in IL-13 were genotyped and analyzed in a case-control study of 556 CWP and 541 control subjects. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the IL-4 CT/CC genotypes were associated with a significantly decreased risk of CWP (odds ratio (OR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.58-0.95, compared with the TT genotype, particularly among subgroups of age <65 years (OR = 0.68, 95%CI = 0.46-0.99 and dust exposure years ≥26 years (OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.50-0.94. Moreover, the polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of CWP patients with stage I. In addition, a combined effect was observed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing numbers of risk variant alleles (P(trend = 0.023, and individuals with 11-12 risk alleles had a 47% higher risk of CWP than those with 0-8 risk alleles (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.05-2.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the IL-4 C-590T polymorphism is involved in the etiology of CWP and susceptibility to this disease. Larger studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  11. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium: a combined case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Couch, Fergus J.; Benitez, Javier; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Malats, Nuria; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna J.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of liv...

  12. Prediabetes Is Associated with HNF-4α P2 Promoter Polymorphism rs1884613: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Population and an Updated Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyi; Chen, Sihan; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Zhongwei; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Ma, Jianping; Zhong, Xiaohong; Yan, Yanqiong; Tang, Linlin; Mai, Yifeng; Han, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Controversy remains for the association between hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) P2 promoter polymorphism rs1884613 and type 2 diabetes (T2D). There was no association test of this polymorphism with prediabetes and T2D in the Chinese population. Moreover, an updated meta-analysis in various ethnic groups is needed to establish the contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Methods. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform approach, we genotyped rs1884613 of HNF-4α in the P2 promoter region among 490 T2D patients, 471 individuals with prediabetes, and 575 healthy controls. All the individuals were recruited from 16 community health service centers in Nanshan district in Shenzhen province. Using STATA 11.0 software, meta-analysis was performed to summarize the overall contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Results. Polymorphism rs1884613 was associated with genetic susceptibility to prediabetes in the whole samples (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.16–1.68, P = 0.0001) and the female subgrouped samples (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.92, P = 0.003) after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). In contrast, there was no association of rs1884613 with T2D in the whole samples and male in our case-control study and meta-analysis. Conclusions. Our results suggest that rs1884613 contributes to susceptibility to prediabetes, whereas this polymorphism may not play an important role in the development of T2D. PMID:25400315

  13. Prediabetes Is Associated with HNF-4α P2 Promoter Polymorphism rs1884613: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Population and an Updated Meta-Analysis

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    Changyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Controversy remains for the association between hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α P2 promoter polymorphism rs1884613 and type 2 diabetes (T2D. There was no association test of this polymorphism with prediabetes and T2D in the Chinese population. Moreover, an updated meta-analysis in various ethnic groups is needed to establish the contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Methods. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform approach, we genotyped rs1884613 of HNF-4α in the P2 promoter region among 490 T2D patients, 471 individuals with prediabetes, and 575 healthy controls. All the individuals were recruited from 16 community health service centers in Nanshan district in Shenzhen province. Using STATA 11.0 software, meta-analysis was performed to summarize the overall contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Results. Polymorphism rs1884613 was associated with genetic susceptibility to prediabetes in the whole samples (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.16–1.68, P=0.0001 and the female subgrouped samples (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.92, P=0.003 after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI. In contrast, there was no association of rs1884613 with T2D in the whole samples and male in our case-control study and meta-analysis. Conclusions. Our results suggest that rs1884613 contributes to susceptibility to prediabetes, whereas this polymorphism may not play an important role in the development of T2D.

  14. Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine exposure is highly associated with childhood obesity: A case-control study using the vaccine safety datalink

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    David A Geier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity among children and adolescents in the United States has tripled since 1980, and has become a major public health concern. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and the children′s subsequent risk of an obesity diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A hypothesis-testing, case-control study was undertaken to evaluate exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life, among cases diagnosed with childhood obesity and controls by examining automated medical records for children born from 1991 to 2000 who were continuously enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database. Results: This study found highly significant associations as follows. Cases diagnosed with obesity were significantly (P < 0.00001 more likely to have received greater exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered within the first month of life (odds ratio (OR =1.511, first 2 months of life (OR = 1.486, and first 6 months of life (OR = 3.795 than the controls. Similar outcomes were observed when the overall data were separated by gender. In a dose-response manner, cases diagnosed with obesity were significantly more likely than controls to have received greater exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered within the first 6 months of life (OR = 1.0375 per μg of mercury, P < 0.00001. Conclusions: In a dose-response manner, the present study associates an increased organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines with an increased risk of obesity diagnosis, and suggests that Thimerosal is an obesogen. The results are biologically plausible and future studies are needed to examine this phenomenon.

  15. Human bocaviruses are not significantly associated with gastroenteritis: results of retesting archive DNA from a case control study in the UK.

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    Sameena Nawaz

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis is a common illness causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite improvements in detection methods, a significant diagnostic gap still remains. Human bocavirus (HBoVs, which are associated with respiratory infections, have also frequently been detected in stool samples in cases of gastroenteritis, and a tentative association between HBoVs, and in particular type-2 HBoVs, and gastroenteritis has previously been made. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HBoVs in gastroenteritis, using archived DNA samples from the case-control Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (IID. DNA extracted from stool samples from 2,256 cases and 2,124 controls were tested for the presence of HBoV DNA. All samples were screened in a real time PCR pan-HBoV assay, and positive samples were then tested in genotype 1 to 3-specific assays. HBoV was detected in 7.4% but no significantly different prevalence was observed between cases and controls. In the genotype-specific assays 106 of the 324 HBoV-positive samples were genotyped, with HBoV-1 predominantly found in controls whilst HBoV-2 was more frequently associated with cases of gastroenteritis (p<0.01. A significant proportion of HBoV positives could not be typed using the type specific assays, 67% of the total positives, and this was most likely due to low viral loads being present in the samples. However, the distribution of the untyped HBoV strains was no different between cases and controls. In conclusion, HBoVs, including HBoV-2 do not appear to be a significant cause of gastroenteritis in the UK population.

  16. Lack of association of dairy food, calcium, and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Fukushima, W; Sasaki, S; Kiyohara, C; Tsuboi, Y; Yamada, T; Oeda, T; Miki, T; Kawamura, N; Sakae, N; Fukuyama, H; Hirota, Y; Nagai, M

    2011-02-01

    Three previous cohort studies in the USA reported that dairy product consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, but not in women. We examined the relationship between consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and the risk of PD using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, and dietary factors including cholesterol, dietary glycemic index, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin B(6), caffeine, iron, and alcohol. Total dairy product consumption was not materially associated with the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.62). No evident relationships were observed between intake of milk, yogurt, cheese, or ice cream and the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.75, 0.63, 0.59, and 0.35, respectively). There were no measurable associations between consumption of calcium or vitamin D and PD (P for trend = 0.37 and 0.69, respectively). No significant interactions were observed between the dietary exposures and sex regarding PD. Our results suggest that intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D was not related to PD, regardless of sex. However, such null relationships might be a consequence of PD. PMID:21169048

  17. Toxocariasis in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Aims Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Methods Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demog...

  18. Mind wandering and driving: a responsibility case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    GALERA, Cédric; Orriols, Ludivine; M'BAILARA, Katia; LABOREY, Magali; Contrand, Benjamin; RIBEREAU-GAYON, Régis; Masson, Françoise; Bakiri, Sarah; GABAUDE, Catherine; Fort, Alexandra; MAURY, Bertrand; Lemercier, Céline; Cours, Maurice; BOUVARD, Manuel-Pierre; LAGARDE, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between mind wandering (i.e. thinking unrelated to the task at hand) and the risk of being responsible for the crash. Design Responsibility case-control study. Setting Adult emergency department of the Bordeaux University hospital (France) from April 2010 to August 2011. Participants 955 injured drivers presenting as a result of motor vehicle crash. Main outcome measures The main outcome variable was responsibility for the crash. Exposures were mind wanderi...

  19. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  20. Lack of association between serological evidence of past Coxiella burnetii infection and incident ischaemic heart disease: nested case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Amouyel Philippe; Bingham Annie; Ducimetiere Pierre; Yarnell John WG; Woodside Jayne V; Wyatt Dorothy E; O'Neill Hugh J; Coyle Peter V; McKenna James P; Murray Liam J; McCaughey Conall; Montaye Michele; Arveiler Dominique; Haas Bernadette; Ferrieres Jean

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii causes the common worldwide zoonotic infection, Q fever. It has been previously suggested that patients who had recovered from acute Q fever (whether symptomatic or otherwise) may be at increased risk of ischaemic heart disease. We undertook this study to determine if past infection with Coxiella burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, is a risk factor for the subsequent development of ischaemic heart disease. Methods A nested case-control study with...

  1. Associations between Burkitt lymphoma among children in Malawi and infection with HIV, EBV and malaria: results from a case-control study.

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    Nora Mutalima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma, a childhood cancer common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has been associated with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV and malaria, but its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is not clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma among children (aged < or = 15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology unit in Blantyre, Malawi between July 2005 and July 2006. Cases were 148 children diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma and controls were 104 children admitted with non-malignant conditions or cancers other than hematological malignancies and Kaposi sarcoma. Interviews were conducted and serological samples tested for antibodies against HIV, EBV and malaria. Odds ratios for Burkitt lymphoma were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, and residential district. Cases had a mean age of 7.1 years and 60% were male. Cases were more likely than controls to be HIV positive (Odds ratio (OR = 12.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.3 to 116.2, p = 0.03. ORs for Burkitt lymphoma increased with increasing antibody titers against EBV (p = 0.001 and malaria (p = 0.01. Among HIV negative participants, cases were thirteen times more likely than controls to have raised levels of both EBV and malaria antibodies (OR = 13.2; 95% CI 3.8 to 46.6; p = 0.001. Reported use of mosquito nets was associated with a lower risk of Burkitt lymphoma (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.9, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support prior evidence that EBV and malaria act jointly in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma, suggesting that malaria prevention may decrease the risk of Burkitt lymphoma. HIV may also play a role in the etiology of this childhood tumor.

  2. Genetic variants in PCSK1 gene are associated with the risk of coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes in a Chinese Han population: a case control study.

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    Xiaowei Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, converted by proprotein convertase 1 (PC1/3 from proinsulin and proglucagon, are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of PCSK1 gene, which encodes PC1/3, with the risk of CAD in Chinese patients with T2DM. METHODS: We selected and genotyped 5 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at PCSK1 gene (across 39873bp locus in a case-control study of Chinese Han population involving 425 diabetic patients (62.1% male, mean age 63.2 years with CAD as positive cases and 258 diabetic patients (44.2% male, mean age 62.0 years without CAD as controls. RESULTS: The allele frequencies at rs3811951 were significantly different between cases and controls (30.7% vs. 37.2%, with the allele G associated with decreased risk for CAD (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59-0.94, p = 0.013. In recessive inheritance mode, the carriers of GG had a lower risk (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.31-0.82, p = 0.005, even after adjusted for gender, age, BMI and smoking (OR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.24-0.77, p = 0.004. The carriers of the minor allele A at rs156019 had a higher risk (OR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.10-2.50, p = 0.016 after adjustment in dominant inheritance mode. The SNP rs6234 was also significantly associated with CAD risk in women, with the carriers of the minor allele G at rs6234 associated with a reduced CAD risk in recessive inheritance mode (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.18-0.95, p = 0.036 after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results found that common genetic variants in PCSK1 were associated with CAD in Chinese patients with T2DM.

  3. Risk factors for Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease in farmed bison (Bison bison) herds in western Canada: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana L; Barkema, Herman W; Woodbury, Murray; Ribble, Carl; Perez-Casal, Jose; Windeyer, M Claire

    2016-07-01

    North American bison producers have been attempting to control and prevent Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease without the benefit of bison-specific knowledge. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of disease associated with M. bovis infection in western Canadian farmed bison, and to identify herd-level risk factors for M. bovis-associated disease. Bison producers (n=49) from western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia) were selected for a 1:2 case-control study. Data were collected by an in-person interview using a questionnaire regarding clinical presentations of outbreaks and herd-level management factors. Risk factors associated with M. bovis outbreaks were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. All 17 case herds had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of M. bovis infection within the last 5 years. In 11 (65%) of the 17 case herds, disease associated with M. bovis infection recurred in subsequent years. Overall, 88% of case herds had recently introduced bison that later developed clinical signs associated with M. bovis infection. Within a bison operation, a median of 8% (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 3-11%) developed clinical signs: lameness, reluctance to move, swollen joints, difficulty breathing, coughing, sluggishness, and loss of body condition. Also, calving percentage the year after the first M. bovis outbreak was lower than calving percentage the year before the outbreak. Herd-level mortality risk during the first M. bovis outbreak in case herds ranged from 0.5 to 50% (median 5%, IQR: 3-10%) and the median case fatality risk was 100%. Case herds were more likely than control herds to have a feedlot unit (OR=7), to receive regular visits from rental trailers or trailers from other farms (OR=15), to annually vaccinate bison (OR=7), and to lose at least one bison due to fatal respiratory disease in the previous year (OR=9). These findings will aid development of evidence

  4. On combining family and case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Landi, Maria T

    2008-11-01

    Studies to detect genetic association with disease can be family-based, often using families with multiple affected members, or population based, as in population-based case-control studies. If data on both study types are available from the same population, it is useful to combine them to improve power to detect genetic associations. Two aspects of the data need to be accommodated, the sampling scheme and potential residual correlations among family members. We propose two approaches for combining data from a case-control study and a family study that collected families with multiple cases. In the first approach, we view a family as the sampling unit and specify the joint likelihood for the family members using a two-level mixed effects model to account for random familial effects and for residual genetic correlations among family members. The ascertainment of the families is accommodated by conditioning on the ascertainment event. The individuals in the case-control study are treated as families of size one, and their unconditional likelihood is combined with the conditional likelihood for the families. This approach yields subject specific maximum likelihood estimates of covariate effects. In the second approach, we view an individual as the sampling unit. The sampling scheme is accommodated using two-phase sampling techniques, marginal covariate effects are estimated, and correlations among family members are accounted for in the variance calculations. The models are compared in simulations. Data from a case-control and a family study from north-eastern Italy on melanoma and a low-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, MC1R, are used to illustrate the approaches. PMID:18454494

  5. Association Between Statin Use and Open-angle Glaucoma in Hyperlipidemia Patients: A Taiwanese Population-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Huang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between statin use and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) risk in hyperlipidemia patients.We used the research database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to conduct a population-based case-control study. A total of 1276 patients with newly diagnosed OAG were identified from 2004 to 2011. Controls comprised of 12,760 patients without glaucoma and were frequency-matched for age, sex, history of diabetes mellitus, and year of hyperlipidemia diagnosis at a 1:10 ratio. Accumulated defined daily doses (DDDs) of statins prescribed during follow-up were calculated. Average statin use was calculated as the sum of DDDs divided by the duration from the initial statin prescription date to the index date (per year), and was subdivided into 3 levels: <30, 30 to 119, and ≥120 DDDs. Comorbidity, including hypertension, depression, and the Charlson comorbidity index, the frequency of eye care visits, and the use of nonstatin cholesterol-lowering drugs, were all considered as confounding factors.For the group with statin use, the adjusted odds ratio of OAG was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.15) when compared with the group without statin use. Subanalysis showed that a high dosage of statin use (≥120 DDD/y) resulted in a1.24-fold increased risk of OAG (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.49). The incidence of OAG was increased with the increase of the dosage of statin use (P for trend = 0.0458).Clinicians should be cautious of hyperlipidemia patients with a high dosage of statin use because it might be associated with an increased risk of OAG. Ophthalmologist consultation is necessary for this high-risk group. PMID:26559301

  6. Sequence variations in DNA repair gene XPC is associated with lung cancer risk in a Chinese population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein, xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), participates in recognizing DNA lesions and initiating DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Because mutations in XPC cause a high risk of cancer in XP patients, we hypothesized that inherited sequence variations in XPC may alter DNA repair and thus susceptibility to cancer. In this hospital-based case-control study, we investigated five XPC tagging, common single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagging SNPs) in 1,010 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 1,011 matched cancer free controls in a Chinese population. In individual tagging SNP analysis, we found that rs3731055AG+AA variant genotypes were associated with a significantly decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.90] but an increased risk of small cell carcinomas [adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.07]. Furthermore, we found that haplotype ACCCA was associated with a decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma [OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62–0.97] but an increased risk of small cell carcinomas [OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.04–2.71], which reflected the presence of rs3731055A allele in this haplotype. Further stratified analysis revealed that the protective effect of rs3731055AG+AA on risk of lung adenocarcinoma was more evident among young subjects (age ≤ 60) and never smokers. These results suggest that inherited sequence variations in XPC may modulate risk of lung cancer, especially lung adenocarcinoma, in Chinese populations. However, these findings need to be verified in larger confirmatory studies with more comprehensively selected tagging SNPs

  7. Assessment of association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with bronchial asthma and oxidative stress in children: A case control study

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    Suresh Ram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH originate from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and ambient air pollution by these is increasing. There is also an increase in the global prevalence of asthma, for which environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the important factors. Exposure to pollutants and other allergens induces chronic airway inflammation by generation of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess association, if any, between exposure to PAH and asthma as well as oxidative stress in children. Method: In this hospital-based case control study, cases of bronchial asthma aged 1-14 years and healthy matched controls were included. Oxidative stress was measured by assessing the levels of enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Results : Forty-two cases and 20 controls were enrolled. Mean blood level of phenanthrene, a PAH, was 63.11 ppb ± 115.62 and 4.20 ppb ± 10.68 ppb in cases and controls, respectively ( P = 0.02. Mean blood levels of GSH was significantly lower in cases and controls (27.39 mg/ml ± 11.09 versus 47.39 g/ml ± 13.83; P -value = 0.001. Likewise, mean blood level of MDA in nanomole/ml was significantly higher in asthma as compared with controls (12.85 ± 5.40 versus 8.19 ± 5.16; P -value = 0.002, suggestive of increased oxidative stress. Conclusions: Because elevated blood level of phenanthrene is associated with bronchial asthma as well as with oxidative stress, measures to reduce exposure to PAH may possibly lead to reduced incidence and severity of bronchial asthma.

  8. Original Research: A case-control genome-wide association study identifies genetic modifiers of fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Ding, Liang-Hao; Story, Michael D; Steinberg, Martin H; Sebastiani, Paola; Hoppe, Carolyn; Ballas, Samir K; Pace, Betty S

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited blood disorders that have in common a mutation in the sixth codon of the β-globin (HBB) gene on chromosome 11. However, people with the same genetic mutation display a wide range of clinical phenotypes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is an important genetic modifier of SCD complications leading to milder symptoms and improved long-term survival. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a case-control experimental design in 244 African Americans with SCD to discover genetic factors associated with HbF expression. The case group consisted of subjects with HbF≥8.6% (133 samples) and control group subjects with HbF≤£3.1% (111 samples). Our GWAS results replicated SNPs previously identified in an erythroid-specific enhancer region located in the second intron of the BCL11A gene associated with HbF expression. In addition, we identified SNPs in the SPARC, GJC1, EFTUD2 and JAZF1 genes as novel candidates associated with HbF levels. To gain insights into mechanisms of globin gene regulation in the HBB locus, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses were conducted. We observed strong LD in the low HbF group in contrast to a loss of LD and greater number of haplotypes in the high HbF group. A search of known HBB locus regulatory elements identified SNPs 5' of δ-globin located in an HbF silencing region. In particular, SNP rs4910736 created a binding site for a known transcription repressor GFi1 which is a candidate protein for further investigation. Another HbF-associated SNP, rs2855122 in the cAMP response element upstream of Gγ-globin, was analyzed for functional relevance. Studies performed with siRNA-mediated CREB binding protein (CBP) knockdown in primary erythroid cells demonstrated γ-globin activation and HbF induction, supporting a repressor role for CBP. This study identifies possible molecular determinants of HbF production. PMID:27022141

  9. Original Research: A case-control genome-wide association study identifies genetic modifiers of fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Ding, Liang-Hao; Story, Michael D; Steinberg, Martin H; Sebastiani, Paola; Hoppe, Carolyn; Ballas, Samir K

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited blood disorders that have in common a mutation in the sixth codon of the β-globin (HBB) gene on chromosome 11. However, people with the same genetic mutation display a wide range of clinical phenotypes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is an important genetic modifier of SCD complications leading to milder symptoms and improved long-term survival. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a case-control experimental design in 244 African Americans with SCD to discover genetic factors associated with HbF expression. The case group consisted of subjects with HbF≥8.6% (133 samples) and control group subjects with HbF≤£3.1% (111 samples). Our GWAS results replicated SNPs previously identified in an erythroid-specific enhancer region located in the second intron of the BCL11A gene associated with HbF expression. In addition, we identified SNPs in the SPARC, GJC1, EFTUD2 and JAZF1 genes as novel candidates associated with HbF levels. To gain insights into mechanisms of globin gene regulation in the HBB locus, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses were conducted. We observed strong LD in the low HbF group in contrast to a loss of LD and greater number of haplotypes in the high HbF group. A search of known HBB locus regulatory elements identified SNPs 5′ of δ-globin located in an HbF silencing region. In particular, SNP rs4910736 created a binding site for a known transcription repressor GFi1 which is a candidate protein for further investigation. Another HbF-associated SNP, rs2855122 in the cAMP response element upstream of Gγ-globin, was analyzed for functional relevance. Studies performed with siRNA-mediated CREB binding protein (CBP) knockdown in primary erythroid cells demonstrated γ-globin activation and HbF induction, supporting a repressor role for CBP. This study identifies possible molecular determinants of HbF production. PMID:27022141

  10. The environment as an unrecognized reservoir for community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300: a case-control study.

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    Anne-Catrin Uhlemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infections are spreading, but the source of infections in non-epidemic settings remains poorly defined. METHODS: We carried out a community-based, case-control study investigating socio-demographic risk factors and infectious reservoirs associated with MRSA infections. Case patients presented with CA-MRSA infections to a New York hospital. Age-matched controls without infections were randomly selected from the hospital's Dental Clinic patient population. During a home visit, case and control subjects completed a questionnaire, nasal swabs were collected from index respondents and household members and standardized environmental surfaces were swabbed. Genotyping was performed on S. aureus isolates. RESULTS: We enrolled 95 case and 95 control subjects. Cases more frequently reported diabetes mellitus and a higher number of skin infections among household members. Among case households, 53 (56% were environmentally contaminated with S. aureus, compared to 36 (38% control households (p = .02. MRSA was detected on fomites in 30 (32% case households and 5 (5%; p<.001 control households. More case patients, 20 (21% were nasally colonized with MRSA than were control indexes, 2 (2%; p<.001. In a subgroup analysis, the clinical isolate (predominantly USA300, was more commonly detected on environmental surfaces in case households with recurrent MRSA infections (16/36, 44% than those without (14/58, 24%, p = .04. CONCLUSIONS: The higher frequency of environmental contamination of case households with S. aureus in general and MRSA in particular implicates this as a potential reservoir for recolonization and increased risk of infection. Environmental colonization may contribute to the community spread of epidemic strains such as USA300.

  11. Contribution of syntaxin 1A to the genetic susceptibility to migraine: a case-control association study in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Roser; Ribasés, Marta; Cuenca-León, Ester; Narberhaus, Bernat; Serra, Selma A; del Toro, Mireia; Roig, Manuel; Fernández-Fernández, José M; Macaya, Alfons; Cormand, Bru

    2009-05-15

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder with a complex inheritance pattern. Mutations in genes encoding proteins that are involved in ion transport across the neuronal membrane have been linked to rare monogenic variants of migraine. These or other related genes and proteins are also candidates to be involved in the inherited predisposition to the more common forms of migraine without aura (MO) or migraine with aura (MA). One of these proteins, syntaxin 1A, encoded by the STX1A gene, is a key molecule in ion channel regulation and synaptic exocytosis. We assessed the contribution of STX1A to migraine by analyzing three SNPs that cover the entire gene (rs6951030-rs941298-rs4363087), in a case-control association study in 210 migraine patients (102 MO, 86 MA, 22 hemiplegic migraine) and 210 sex-matched unrelated controls. The single-marker analysis revealed significant differences in both allele frequencies (P=0.0087, OR=1.48) and genotype distributions (P=0.0133) of the rs941298 SNP between migraineurs and controls, with an overrepresentation of T-allele carriers in the migraine sample (OR=1.78). We subsequently performed a haplotype-based analysis and observed evidence of an overrepresentation of the A-T-G (rs6951030-rs941298-rs4363087) allelic combination in migraine patients and an increased frequency of carriers of this risk haplotype (P=0.008, OR=1.71). These differences remained significant when patients were subdivided into MO and MA. When the control series was enlarged for rs941298, we confirmed the association only with the whole migraine group.

  12. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lin, Wen-Shan; Chang, Tzu-Yang; Yang, Horng-Woei; Chen, Wei-Fang; Lien, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Bi-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Chen, Chia-Ching; Wu, Yi-Lei; Hung, Chen-Mei; Li, Hsin-Jung; Chan, Chon-In; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto disease (HD), is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909), +49A/G (rs231775), and CT60 (rs3087243), were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001) and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15–1.77; Pc = 0.002). Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27–2.09; Pc < 0.001) and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22–2.04; Pc < 0.001). Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D’ = 0.92). Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population. PMID:27111218

  13. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Ting

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD, including Graves disease (GD and Hashimoto disease (HD, is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4 polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909, +49A/G (rs231775, and CT60 (rs3087243, were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001 and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.77; Pc = 0.002. Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27-2.09; Pc < 0.001 and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.04; Pc < 0.001. Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D' = 0.92. Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population.

  14. Association of p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism with susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma: evidence from a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Chakrabarti, S; Roy, S D; Baishya, N; Reddy, R R; Suklabaidya, S; Kumar, A; Mohanty, S; Maji, S; Suryanwanshi, A; Rajasubramaniam, S; Asthana, M; Panda, A K; Singh, S P; Ganguly, S; Shaw, O P; Bichhwalia, A K; Sahoo, P K; Chattopadhyay, N R; Chatterjee, K; Kundu, C N; Das, A K; Kannan, R; Zorenpuii; Zomawia, E; Sema, S A; Singh, Y I; Ghosh, S K; Sharma, K; Das, B S; Choudhuri, T

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is a critical player in the fight against cancer as it controls the cell cycle check point, apoptotic pathways and genomic stability. It is known to be the most frequently mutated gene in a wide variety of human cancers. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of p53 at codon72 leading to substitution of proline (Pro) in place of arginine (Arg) has been identified as a risk factor for development of many cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the association of this polymorphism with NPC across the published literature has shown conflicting results. We aimed to conduct a case-control study for a possible relation of p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism with NPC risk in underdeveloped states of India, combine the result with previously available records from different databases and perform a meta-analysis to draw a more definitive conclusion. A total of 70 NPC patients and 70 healthy controls were enrolled from different hospitals of north-eastern India. The p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism was typed by polymerase chain reaction, which showed an association with NPC risk. In the meta-analysis consisting of 1842 cases and 2330 controls, it was found that individuals carrying the Pro allele and the ProPro genotype were at a significantly higher risk for NPC as compared with those with the Arg allele and the ArgArg genotype, respectively. Individuals with a ProPro genotype and a combined Pro genotype (ProPro+ArgPro) also showed a significantly higher risk for NPC over a wild homozygote ArgArg genotype. Additionally, the strength of each study was tested by power analysis and genotype distribution by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The outcome of the study indicated that both allele frequency and genotype distribution of p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism were significantly associated with NPC risk. Stratified analyses based on ethnicity and source of samples supported the above result. PMID:27159678

  15. Association of the 4 g/5 g polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case control study

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    Cho Seong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 polymorphism is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels and it has been suggested that lower PAI-1 levels may provide protective effects on inflammation, local microcirculatory disturbance, and fibrotic changes, which are likely associated with development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL. Methods The association of the 4 G/5 G PAI-1 polymorphism with the development and clinical outcome of SSNHL is evaluated via a case control study. 103 patients with SSNHL and 113 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled at University of Ferrara, Italy and hearing loss outcome was measured at least 3 months after the onset of hearing loss. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using the QIAamp kit and the 4 G/5 G polymorphism in the −675 promoter region was genotyped with an allele-specific PCR. Genotype distribution was tested in patients and compared to controls by chi-square and odd-ratio analysis. The codominant and recessive models were used for the multiple logistic regression analyses of the PAI-1 gene allele. Results In this population, 5 G/5 G genotype had a two-time lower frequency in SSNHL patients compared to healthy controls (15.5% vs 30.1% and was associated with decreased odds compared to 4 G/5 G genotype (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.75, p = 0.005. In addition, the patients with 5 G/5 G genotype showed a trend of more than 2 times higher ratio of hearing recovery (> 20 dB after systemic corticosteroid treatment compared to 4 G/5 G genotype (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.32 - 16.83, p = 0.39, suggesting a better clinical outcome. Conclusions The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 may be associated with a reduced risk of SSNHL in the Italian population.

  16. Association of HLA-G 3’ Untranslated Region Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population: A Case-Control Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Yuki; Kawasaki, Aya; Oka, Shomi; Kondo, Yuya; Ito, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Kusaoi, Makio; Amano, Hirofumi; Suda, Akiko; Setoguchi, Keigo; Nagai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohno, Shigeru; Katayama, Masao; Kono, Hajime; Hirohata, Shunsei; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Sumida, Takayuki; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Tohma, Shigeto; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G plays a role in fetal-maternal tolerance as well as immunoregulation, and has been suggested to be involved in autoimmune diseases and cancers. HLA-G encodes two potentially functional polymorphisms in the 3’ untranslated region, 14bp insertion/deletion (14bp indel, rs371194629) and a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1063320, previously reported to affect HLA-G expression level or splicing isoform and to be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results of SLE association studies are inconsistent, probably due to the small sample size of each study and lack of consideration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-class II haplotypes in each population. In this study, we performed association studies of these polymorphisms on 843 patients with SLE and 778 healthy controls in a Japanese population, in many of whom HLA-DRB1 alleles have been genotyped at the four-digit level. LD was detected between DRB1*13:02, protective against multiple autoimmune diseases in the Japanese, and the rs1063320 G (D’ = 0.86, r2 = 0.02) and with 14bp del (D’ = 0.62, r2 = 0.01), but not between SLE-susceptible DRB1*15:01 and HLA-G. Although significant association with overall SLE was not detected, 14bp ins allele was significantly associated with SLE with the age of onset <20 years, when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0067, PFDR = 0.039, OR 1.44, additive model) or with SLE patients with the age of onset ≥20 (P = 0.033, PFDR = 0.0495, OR 2.09, additive model). This association remained significant after conditioning on DRB1*13:02 or DRB1*15:01. On the other hand, significant association was detected between rs1063320 C and anti-RNP antibody and anti-Sm antibody positive SLE, which was dependent on negative LD with DRB1*13:02. eQTL analysis showed reduced HLA-G mRNA level in 14bp ins/ins individuals. In conclusion, our observations showed that HLA-G 14bp ins allele represents a genetic contribution on early-onset SLE

  17. Socio-Environmental Factors Associated with the Risk of Contracting Buruli Ulcer in Tiassale, South Cote d'Ivoire: A Case-Control Study.

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    Raymond T A S N'krumah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The exact mode of transmission remains elusive; yet, some studies identified environmental, socio-sanitary, and behavioral risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of such factors to contracting BU in Tiassalé, south Côte d'Ivoire.A case-control study was conducted in 2012. Cases were BU patients diagnosed according to clinical definition put forth by the World Health Organization, readily confirmed by IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis prior to our study and recruited at one of the health centers of the district. Two controls were matched for each control, by age group (to the nearest 5 years, sex, and living community. Participants were interviewed after providing oral witnessed consent, assessing behavioral, environmental, and socio-sanitary factors.A total of 51 incident and prevalent cases and 102 controls were enrolled. Sex ratio (male:female was 0.9. Median age was 25 years (range: 5-70 years. Regular contact with unprotected surface water (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.1-19.7 and absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities (aOR = 18.5, 95% CI = 5.2-66.7 were identified as the main factors associated with the risk of contracting BU. Etiologic fractions among exposed to both factors were 84.9% and 94.6%, respectively. Good knowledge about the risks that may result in BU (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8 and perception about the disease causes (aOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02-0.3 showed protection against BU with a respective preventive fraction of 70% and 90%.Main risk factors identified in this study were the contact with unprotected water bodies through daily activities and the absence of protective equipment during agricultural activities. An effective strategy to reduce the incidence of BU should involve compliance with protective equipment during agricultural

  18. The TGFBR1*6A allele is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TGF-β receptor type I is a mediator of growth inhibitory signals. TGFBR1*6A (rs11466445) is a common polymorphic variant of the TGF-β receptor I gene and has been associated with tumour susceptibility. Nevertheless, the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TGFBR1*6A and colorectal cancer, age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage in a Spanish population. The case-control study involved 800 Spanish subjects: 400 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 400 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the TGFBR1*6A polymorphism were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. Analysis of somatic mutations at the GCG repeat of TGFBR1 exon 1 and germline allele-specific expression were also conducted to obtain further information on the contribution of the TGFBR1*6A allele to CRC susceptibility. There was no statistically significant association between the TGFBR1*6A allele and CRC (p > 0.05). The OR was 1.147 (95% CI: 0.799–1.647) for carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele and 0.878 (95% CI: 0.306–2.520) for homozygous TGFBR1*6A individuals compared with the reference. The frequency of the polymorphism was not affected by age, sex or tumour stage. The TGFBR1*6A allele was more prevalent among colon tumour patients than among rectal tumour patients. Tumour somatic mutations were found in only two of 69 cases (2.9%). Both cases involved a GCG deletion that changed genotype 9A/9A in normal DNA to genotype 9A/8A. Interestingly, these two tumours were positive for microsatellite instability, suggesting that these mutations originated because of a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. Allele-specific expression of the 9A allele was detected in seven of the 14 heterozygous 9A/6A tumour cases. This could have been caused by linkage disequilibrium of the TGFBR1*6A allele with

  19. Death of a Son is Associated With Risk of Suicide Among Parous Women in Taiwan: A Nested Case-Control Study

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    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chien-Chun; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of the sex of a deceased child on maternal suicide has not been studied. We examined whether the death of a child, especially a son, increased the risk of suicide among parous Taiwanese women. Methods This matched case-control study was done within a cohort of 1 292 462 Taiwanese women who experienced a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987 and were followed up until 31 December 2008. From the cohort, 2701 suicide cases were identifie...

  20. Etiology and Factors Associated with Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age in Mali: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

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    Thomas Bénet

    Full Text Available There are very limited data on children with pneumonia in Mali. The objective was to assess the etiology and factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children <5 years of age in Mali.A prospective hospital-based case-control study was implemented in the Pediatric department of Gabriel Touré University Hospital at Bamako, Mali, between July 2011-December 2012. Cases were children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia; Controls were hospitalized children without respiratory features, matched for age and period. Respiratory specimens, were collected to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood was collected from cases only. Factors associated with pneumonia were assessed by multivariate logistic regression.Overall, 118 cases and 98 controls were analyzed; 44.1% were female, median age was 11 months. Among pneumonia cases, 30.5% were hypoxemic at admission, mortality was 4.2%. Pneumonia cases differed from the controls regarding clinical signs and symptoms but not in terms of past medical history. Multivariate analysis of nasal swab findings disclosed that S. pneumoniae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.6-7.0, human metapneumovirus (aOR = 17.2, 95% CI: 2.0-151.4, respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] (aOR = 7.4, 95% CI: 2.3-23.3, and influenza A virus (aOR = 10.7, 95% CI: 1.0-112.2 were associated with pneumonia, independently of patient age, gender, period, and other pathogens. Distribution of S. pneumoniae and RSV differed by season with higher rates of S. pneumoniae in January-June and of RSV in July-September. Pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 were more frequent in pneumonia cases than in the controls (P = 0.009, and P = 0.04, respectively.In this non-PCV population from Mali, pneumonia in children was mainly attributed to S. pneumoniae, RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A virus. Increased pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in children could significantly reduce the

  1. Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A population based case-control study in China

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    Li Qilong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer, such as gastric, colon and rectal cancer, is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of gastrointestinal cancer development still remains unclear. RAS genes have been elucidated as major participants in the development and progression of a series of human tumours and the single nucleotide polymorphism at H-RAS cDNA position 81 was demonstrated to contribute to the risks of bladder, oral and thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that this polymorphisms in H-RAS could influence susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Chinese population. Methods A population based case-control study, including 296 cases with gastrointestinal cancer and 448 healthy controls selected from a Chinese population was conducted. H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. Results In the healthy controls, the TT, TC and CC genotypes frequencies of H-RAS T81C polymorphism, were 79.24%, 19.87% and 0.89%, respectively, and the C allele frequency was 10.83%. Compared with TT genotype, the TC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 2.21–6.08, while the CC genotype showed an increased risk as well (adjusted OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 0.54–19.86, but it was not statistically significant. In contrast, the frequency of TC genotype was not significantly increased in colon cancer and rectal cancer patients. Further analysis was performed by combining TC and CC genotypes compared against TT genotype. As a result, a statistically significant risk with adjusted OR of 3.65 (95%CI, 2.22–6.00 was found in gastric cancer, while no significant association of H-RAS T81C polymorphism with colon cancer and rectal cancer was observed. Conclusion These findings indicate, for the first time, that there

  2. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands : a population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Anna M; van Essen, Anthonie J; te Meerman, Gerard J; Bakker, Marian K; van der Biezen, Jan J; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M; Vermeij-Keers, Christl; de Walle, Hermien E K; te Meerman, Gerhardus

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Clef

  3. Characteristics associated with falls among the elderly within aged care wards in a tertiary hospital: a retrospective case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-li; LIU Yun-hu; Daniel KY Chan; SHEN Qing; Huong Van Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Background Falls are the most frequently reported adverse events in inpatient settings. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of inpatient falls within aged care wards in a tertiary hospital to investigate the associated characteristics of elderly patients suffering from falls and fall-related characteristics.Methods Consecutive retrospective cross-sectional design spanned July 2006 to December 2008. Patient group: Information on all aged care inpatients who suffered from 1 or more falls was extracted from Incident information Management System (IIMS). Further details about the particular admission(s) were obtained from patients' medical records, e.g., patients' characteristics and circumstances surrounding the falls. Randomly selected aged care patients who did not suffer from a fall and who were discharged from the hospital in the same period served control group. Characteristics among patients with single fall and recurrent falls, as well as non-fallers were compared. Results Of the 438 falls evaluated, 71.9% occurred in patients' room and 18.9% in patients' bathroom/toilet. The common activities were moving/transferring and taking shower/toileting, respectively, 70.3%, 12.1% while occurring falls; and time of falls had a high peak during 9:00-11:00 a.m. Many were unassisted while falling. The common contributing factors for fall were intrinsic factors. Patients with recurrent falls were more likely to have lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Logistic regression analysis showed length of stay longer than five weeks, dementia and stroke were independent risk factors for recurrent falls; and living in hostel/nursing home preadmission, needing assistance with mobility, cognitive impairment, stroke, incontinence and arthritis/osteoporosis were independent risk factors for fall.Conclusions In an aged care ward, falls are independently associated with recurrent factors. Cognitive impairment/dementia was a strong risk factor for falls, and main

  4. Fatores associados à natimortalidade em uma maternidade escola em Pernambuco: estudo caso-controle Factors associated with stillbirth in a school maternity in Pernambuco: a case control study

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    Lannuze Gomes Andrade

    2009-06-01

    ,8-4,6, idade materna maior ou igual que 35 anos (OR=2,2; IC=1,0-4,9 e escolaridade menor que oito anos de estudo (OR=1,6; IC=1,02-2,6. CONCLUSÕES: foi encontrado um elevado coeficiente de mortalidade fetal, sendo os principais fatores associados aos óbitos: malformações, o número de consultas de pré-natal menor que seis, as síndromes hemorrágicas, história de atendimento anterior à admissão, idade materna ou igual que 35 anos e escolaridade menor que oito anos de estudo.PURPOSE: to investigate the main factors associated with fetal death in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: an observational, case-control study, including cases attended from June 1st 2004 to 31st March 2005. A number of 116 stillbirth cases and 472 live birth controls, with deliveries assisted at the service, were included. The cases were identified in the record book from the delivery room. The puerperium women were identified by the name and register number at a puerperium infirmary. The controls were selected, using the puerperium infirmary neighborhood criterion, identifying the beds with numbers immediately lower (two patients and higher (two patients than the patient's, as far as they had delivered live babies. In case they did not agree to participate in the research, the next beds with numbers consecutively lower or higher were approached. The χ2 association and Fisher's exact tests were used when necessary to test the association between the independent (predictive and dependent (stillborn variables, considering 5% as the significance level. To determine the association strength, the estimate of relative risk for case-control cases, Odds Ratio (OR was used, with 95% as the confidence interval (CI. Logistic regression analysis according to the hierarchy model was done to control confounding factors. RESULTS: the fetal mortality rate corresponded to 24.4 by 1,000 births. After the multivariate analysis, the variables which kept significantly associated with fetal death were

  5. An ADAM33 polymorphism associates with progression of preschool wheeze into childhood asthma: a prospective case-control study with replication in a birth cohort study.

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    Ester M M Klaassen

    Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.

  6. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  7. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  8. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita;

    2011-01-01

    : Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed...... with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's chi(2), Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results: The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish...... panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P...

  9. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  10. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  11. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Gulnar Azevedo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  12. Case-control study of mesothelioma in the shipyard industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to asbestos and low-level gamma radiation and mesothelioma. One hundred nineteen cases and four hundred fifty-two latency-matched controls were selected. Analyses were conducted using the conditional maximum likelihood estimate of the odds ratio and conditional logistic regression for matched sets. The results from the analyses revealed a relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma; the strength of this relationship increased with the intensity and duration of the asbestos exposure. Exposure to low-level gamma radiation was also associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. There was no interaction between asbestos and radiation. Shipyard employment in non-asbestos jobs and male gender were also found to be associated with mesothelioma

  13. Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants Associate With Hypertension: A Case-Control Study in a Finnish Population-The TAMRISK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkari, Seppo T; Määttä, Kirsi M; Kunnas, Tarja A

    2015-11-01

    Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and expression has been associated with hypertension, but less is known whether the 2 known functional polymorphic sites in the iNOS gene (g.-1026 C/A (rs2779249), g.2087 G/A (rs2297518)) affect susceptibility to hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the genetic variants of iNOS and diagnosed hypertension in a Finnish cohort.This study included 320 hypertensive cases and 439 healthy controls. All participants were 50-year-old men and women and the data were collected from the Tampere adult population cardiovascular risk study (TAMRISK). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and iNOS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed using KASP genotyping PCR. Data analysis was done by logistic regression.At the age of 50 years, the SNP rs2779249 (C/A) associated significantly with hypertension (P = 0.009); specifically, subjects carrying the A-allele had higher risk of hypertension compared to those carrying the CC genotype (OR = 1.47; CI = 1.08-2.01; P = 0.015). In addition, a 15-year follow-up period (35, 40, and 45 years) of the same individuals showed that carriers of the A-allele had more often hypertension in all of the studied age-groups. The highest risk for developing hypertension was obtained among 35-year-old subjects (odds ratio [OR] 3.83; confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-12.27; P = 0.024). Those carrying variant A had also significantly higher readings of both systolic (P = 0.047) and diastolic (P = 0.048) blood pressure during the follow-up. No significant associations between rs2297518 (G/A) variants alone and hypertension were found. However, haplotype analysis of rs2779249 and rs2297518 revealed that individuals having haplotype H3 which combines both A alleles (CA-GA, 19.7% of individuals) was more commonly found in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (OR = 2.01; CI = 1.29-3.12; P = 0

  14. Association between CRP and TNF-α genes Variants and Cardiovascular Heart Disease in a Mexican Population: Protocol for a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Hernández-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α are considered markers of inflammation and have been shown to predict the risk of incident cardiovascular events. However, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive examination of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CRP and TNF-α genes; due to this, we will present a protocol study to evaluate the role of the CRP and TNF-α genes in Mexican individuals. Methods/design: we will perform a case-control study to explore the CRP and TNF-α genotype distribution as well as the serum influence of rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2794521 and rs1205 (polymorphisms of the CRP gene and rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 (of the TNF-α gene in Mexican individuals who present coronary artery disease. Ethics and dissemination: a written informed consent will be obtained from all the participating subjects. An article detailing the results of the study will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal, in accordance with STROBE criteria.

  15. Temporomandibular disorders. A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, Jose V.; Sanchis, Jose M.; Carbonell, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the risk factors and clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) (axis I) versus an age and gender matched control group. Study Design: A total of 162 patients explored according to the RDC/TMD (mean age 40.6±18.8 years, range 7-90; 11.1% males and 88.9% females) were compared with 119 controls, measuring differences in TMD risk factors (sleep...

  16. Risk of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepines: Applying common protocol to a multi-database nested case-control study. The protect project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Requena, Gema; Logie, John; González-González, Rocío; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Afonso, Ana; Souverein, Patrick C.; Merino, Elisa Martin; Boudiaf, Nada; Huerta, Consuelo; Bate, Andrew; Alvarez, Yolanda; García-Rodríguez, Luis A.; Reynolds, Robert; Schlienger, Raymond G.; De Groot, Mark C.H.; Klungel, Olaf H.; De Abajo, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between benzodiazepines (BZD) and hip fractures has been estimated in several observational studies although diverse methodologies and definitions have hampered comparability. Objectives: To evaluate the discrepancies in the risk estimates of hip/femur fractures associate

  17. The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study analyses the effect of active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social networks on the development of lung cancer in patients who smoke. Our hypothesis is that study participants who lack social networks and do not actively participate in a sports club are at a greater risk for lung cancer than those who do. Methods Data for the study were taken from the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS, a retrospective case-control study examining potential psychosocial risk factors for the development of lung cancer. Our sample consisted of n = 158 participants who had suffered lung cancer (diagnosis in the patient document and n = 144 control group participants. Both groups had a history of smoking. Data on social networks were collected by asking participants whether they participated in a sports club and about the number of friends and relatives in their social environment. In addition, sociodemographic data (gender, age, education, marital status, residence and religion, physical activity and data on pack years (the cumulative number of cigarettes smoked by an individual, calculated by multiplying the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked divided by 20 were collected to control for potential confounders. Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results The results reveal that participants who are physically active are at a lower risk of lung cancer than those who are not (adjusted OR = 0.53*; CI = 0.29-0.97. Older age and lower education seem also to be risk factors for the development of lung cancer. The extent of smoking, furthermore, measured by pack years is statistically significant. Active participation in a sports club, number of friends and relatives had no statistically significant influence on the development of the cancer. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that there is a lower risk for physically active participants to develop

  18. Association of sulfotransferase SULT1A1 with breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of case-control studies with subgroups of ethnic and menopausal statue

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Zhimin; Shen Zhenzhou; Yan Tingting; Zhou Liheng; Jiang Yiwei; Lu Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfotransferase (SULT) plays an important role in the formation of estrogen which is usually conferred as a risk factor for breast cancer. Polymorphism of the SULT1A1 may be closely associated with breast cancer. However, studies on the association between polymorphism and breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis including ethnic subgroup and menopausal statue subgroup to investigate the association of SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism wi...

  19. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  20. A case-control association study and family-based expression analysis of the bipolar disorder candidate gene PI4K2B

    OpenAIRE

    Houlihan, Lorna; Christoforou, A.; Arbuckle, M I; Torrance, H. S.; Anderson, S. M.; Muir, Walter,; Porteous, D. J.; Blackwood, D H; Evans, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and recurrent major depression are complex psychiatric illnesses with a substantial, yet unknown genetic component. Linkage of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression with markers on chromosome 4p15–p16 has been identified in a large Scottish family and three smaller families. Analysis of haplotypes in the four chromosome 4p-linked families, identified two regions, each shared by three of the four families, which are also supported by a case-control ass...

  1. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  2. The association of aggressive and chronic periodontitis with systemic manifestations and dental anomalies in a jordanian population: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Karasneh Jumana A; Abbadi Muna S; Taha Anas H; Ababneh Khansa T; Khader Yousef S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between dental anomalies and periodontitis has not been documented by earlier studies. Although psychological factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, very little information has so far been published about the association of anxiety and depression with aggressive periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis with certain systemic manifestations an...

  3. No evidence of association between Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met genotype and performance on neuropsychological tasks in children with ADHD: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donovan Michael C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between the functional Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene and neurocognitive performance. Two studies showed that subjects with the low activity Met allele performed better on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and another study found an effect on processing speed and attention. Methods We set out to examine the association between the Val158Met polymorphism and performance on neurocognitive tasks including those tapping working memory, attention and speed, impulsiveness and response inhibition in a sample of 124 children with ADHD. Task performance for each genotypic group was compared using analysis of variance. Results There was no evidence of association with performance on any of the neurocognitive tasks. Conclusions We conclude that Val158Met COMT genotype is not associated with neurocognitive performance in our sample.

  4. Inference of the Haplotype Effect in a Matched Case-Control Study Using Unphased Genotype Data*

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Samiran; Gruber, Stephen B.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rennert, Gad

    2008-01-01

    Typically locus specific genotype data do not contain information regarding the gametic phase of haplotypes, especially when an individual is heterozygous at more than one locus among a large number of linked polymorphic loci. Thus, studying disease-haplotype association using unphased genotype data is essentially a problem of handling a missing covariate in a case-control design. There are several methods for estimating a disease-haplotype association parameter in a matched case-control stud...

  5. A case-control study of asthma and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, Wafic M; Tran, Therese H; Mulla, Zuber D

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found inverse associations between allergy and the development of certain tumors. The authors sought to determine if there was an association between asthma and ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted using Florida hospital data (year 2001). Discharge diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Cases were 1,582 women whose principal discharge diagnosis was a malignant neoplasm of the ovary. Two control series were used: 4,744 women whose principal diagnosis was an upper limb bone fracture, and 21,830 women whose principal diagnosis was an acute myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, Medicaid status, obesity, and smoking were calculated. Cases were 30% less likely than fracture control to be asthmatics (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99, p = .04). Similarly, cases when compared to acute myocardial infarction controls were significantly less likely to have asthma (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87, p = .005). The results of this statewide exploratory study suggest that individuals with asthma may have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than nonasthmatics. PMID:20439229

  6. Association of Adiponectin SNP+45 and SNP+276 with Type 2 Diabetes in Han Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis of 26 Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yiping Li; Xianli Li; Li Shi; Man Yang; Ying Yang; Wenyu Tao; Lei Shi; Yuxin Xiong; Ying Zhang; Yufeng Yao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many studies have reported that the SNP+45(T>G) and SNP+276(G>T) polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Chinese Han population. However, the previous studies yielded many conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis of the association of the adiponectin gene with T2DM in the Chinese Han population is required. In the current study, we first determined the distribution of the adiponectin SNP+276 polymorphism in T2DM and nondiabetes (NDM)...

  7. Higher alcohol intake may modify the association between mammographic density and breast cancer: An analysis of three case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Shannon M; Koga, Karin; Woolcott, Christy G.; Dahl, Timothy; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Yaffe, Martin J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and mammographic density are established risk factors for breast cancer. This study examined whether the association of mammographic density with breast cancer varies by alcohol intake. Mammographic density was assessed in digitized images for 1,207 cases and 1,663 controls from three populations (Japan, Hawaii, California) using a computer-assisted method. Associations were estimated by logistic regression. When comparing ever to never drinking, mean density was similar a...

  8. Human Bocaviruses Are Not Significantly Associated with Gastroenteritis: Results of Retesting Archive DNA from a Case Control Study in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sameena Nawaz; Allen, David J.; Farah Aladin; Christopher Gallimore; Miren Iturriza-Gómara

    2012-01-01

    Gastroenteritis is a common illness causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite improvements in detection methods, a significant diagnostic gap still remains. Human bocavirus (HBoV)s, which are associated with respiratory infections, have also frequently been detected in stool samples in cases of gastroenteritis, and a tentative association between HBoVs, and in particular type-2 HBoVs, and gastroenteritis has previously been made. The aim of this study was to determine th...

  9. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B;

    2010-01-01

    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in th...

  10. Absence of association between angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphism and development of adult respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Rossa WK

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that genetic predisposition may influence the susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and disease outcomes. A recent study has suggested that the deletion allele (D allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene is associated with hypoxemia in SARS patients. Moreover, the ACE D allele has been shown to be more prevalent in patients suffering from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in a previous study. Thus, we have investigated the association between ACE insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism and the progression to ARDS or requirement of intensive care in SARS patients. Method One hundred and forty genetically unrelated Chinese SARS patients and 326 healthy volunteers were recruited. The ACE I/D genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results There is no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and the allelic frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between the SARS patients and the healthy control subjects. Moreover, there is also no evidence that ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with the progression to ARDS or the requirement of intensive care in the SARS patients. In multivariate logistic analysis, age is the only factor associated with the development of ARDS while age and male sex are independent factors associated with the requirement of intensive care. Conclusion The ACE I/D polymorphism is not directly related to increased susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and is not associated with poor outcomes after SARS-coronavirus infection.

  11. Meta-analysis of the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer based on case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliu Peng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and playing important roles in inflammatory diseases as well as tumor development. Previous studies investigating the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC risk reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis of all available studies to explore this association. METHODS: All studies published up to October 2013 on the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Ten studies with 6,774 cases and 9,772 controls were included for -1195A>G polymorphism, 13 studies including 6,807 cases and 10,052 controls were available for -765G>C polymorphism, and 8 studies containing 5,121 cases and 7,487 controls were included for 8473T>C polymorphism. With respect to -765G>C polymorphism, we did not find a significant association with CRC risk when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. However, in subgroup analyses by ethnicity and cancer location, with a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.05/2, statistical significant increased CRC risk was found in the Asian populations (dominant model CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 1.399, 95%CI: 1.113-1.760, P = 0.004 and rectum cancer patients (CC vs. GG: OR = 2.270, 95%CI: 1.295-3.980, P = 0.004; Recessive model CC vs. CG+GG: OR = 2.269, 95%CI: 1.297-3.970, P = 0.004. In subgroup analysis according to source of control, no significant association was detected. With respect to -1195A>G and 8473T>C polymorphisms, no significant association with CRC risk was demonstrated in the overall and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that the COX-2 -765G>C polymorphism may be a risk factor for

  12. Association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Amin, Shajrul; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), the phase II xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes, have been associated with increased cancer risk. In this study, we assessed the association of functional polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1 with esophageal cancer in Kashmir, India, an area with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 using a multiplex PCR in 492 pairs of ESCC cases and individually matched controls. The associations between polymorphisms in these genes and ESCC risk were examined by conditional logistic regression models adjusted for multiple potential confounders. In addition, the interaction between these genes and several environmental exposures with regard to ESCC risk was assessed. Our results showed an association between the GSTT1 null genotype and ESCC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.39). Although GSTM1 alone was not associated with ESCC risk, individuals with the GSTM1 (-)/GSTT1 (+) genotype showed an inverse relation with ESCC risk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.32-0.93), compared to GSTM1 (+)/GSTT1 (+) individuals. We found a significant interaction between the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes with regard to ESCC risk (P = 0.001); however, there were no interactions between environmental factors and GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes. This study indicates that GSTT1 null genotype is associated with ESCC risk in Kashmiri population. The association between GSTM1 and ESCC risk needs further investigations. Interactions of these genotypes with environmental exposures should be examined in multicentric studies with bigger sample sizes.

  13. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2,048 cases and 2,173 hospital- and population-based controls from ten European countries (alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at three time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancers and BMI at time of interview and 2 years before interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 and 2 years before interview, BMI decrease (BMI change <-5%) vs. BMI stability (-5% ≤ BMI change <5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancers (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥+5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and\\/or drinking behaviors and\\/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.

  14. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  15. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Zhang; Shushu Li; Lu Liu; Li Wang; Xue Xiao; Zhenzhen Sun; Xichen Wang; Chao Wang; Meilin Wang; Lei Li; Qiujin Xu; Weimin Gao; Shou-Lin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based stu...

  16. Genome-wide association reveals genetic effects on human Aβ42 and τ protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids: a case control study

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    Schellenberg Gerard D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is common and highly heritable with many genes and gene variants associated with AD in one or more studies, including APOE ε2/ε3/ε4. However, the genetic backgrounds for normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD in terms of changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of Aβ1-42, T-tau, and P-tau181P, have not been clearly delineated. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS in order to better define the genetic backgrounds to these three states in relation to CSF levels. Methods Subjects were participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. The GWAS dataset consisted of 818 participants (mainly Caucasian genotyped using the Illumina Human Genome 610 Quad BeadChips. This sample included 410 subjects (119 Normal, 115 MCI and 176 AD with measurements of CSF Aβ1-42, T-tau, and P-tau181P Levels. We used PLINK to find genetic associations with the three CSF biomarker levels. Association of each of the 498,205 SNPs was tested using additive, dominant, and general association models while considering APOE genotype and age. Finally, an effort was made to better identify relevant biochemical pathways for associated genes using the ALIGATOR software. Results We found that there were some associations with APOE genotype although CSF levels were about the same for each subject group; CSF Aβ1-42 levels decreased with APOE gene dose for each subject group. T-tau levels tended to be higher among AD cases than among normal subjects. From adjusted result using APOE genotype and age as covariates, no SNP was associated with CSF levels among AD subjects. CYP19A1 'aromatase' (rs2899472, NCAM2, and multiple SNPs located on chromosome 10 near the ARL5B gene demonstrated the strongest associations with Aβ1-42 in normal subjects. Two genes found to be near the top SNPs, CYP19A1 (rs2899472, p = 1.90 × 10-7 and NCAM2 (rs1022442, p = 2.75 × 10-7 have been reported as genetic

  17. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  18. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  19. Association between Genetic Variants on Chromosome 15q25 Locus and Several Nicotine Dependence Traits in Polish Population: A Case-Control Study

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    Krzysztof Buczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking continues to be a leading cause of disease and mortality. Recent research has confirmed the important role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR gene cluster on chromosome 15q 24-25 in nicotine dependence and smoking. In this study we tested the association of smoking initiation, age at onset of daily smoking, and heaviness of smoking with five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster. The group of 389 adult subjects of European ancestry from the north of Poland, including 212 ever (140 current and 72 former and 177 never smokers with mean age 49.26, was genotyped for rs16969868, rs1051730, rs588765, rs6495308, and rs578776 polymorphisms. Distributions of genotypes for rs16969868 and rs1051730 were identical so they were analyzed together. Further analysis revealed the association between rs16969868-1051730 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.30–5.42 and number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD with heaviness of nicotine addiction measured by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND (OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.24–5.43. No association between these polymorphisms and other phenotypes was found. Similarly, the association between rs588765, rs6495308, rs578776, and analyzed phenotypes was not confirmed. This study provides strong evidence for the role of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster in heaviness of nicotine addiction.

  20. Association Between XRCC3 Thr241Met Polymorphism and Risk of Breast Cancer: Meta-Analysis of 23 Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Li CHEN; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that gene and environmental factors, such as BRCA1/2 mutations, ionized radiation, and chemical carcinogens, are related with breast cancer. X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is involved in homologous repair of double DNA breaks. It was reported that Thr241Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC3 is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the finding remains controversial. The current meta-analysis aims to determine wheth...

  1. Variants of C-C motif chemokine 22 (CCL22 are associated with susceptibility to atopic dermatitis: case-control studies.

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    Tomomitsu Hirota

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory skin disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. AD is characterized by the local infiltration of T helper type 2 (Th2 cells. Recent clinical studies have shown important roles of the Th2 chemokines, CCL22 and CCL17 in the pathogenesis of AD. To investigate whether polymorphisms of the CCL22 gene affect the susceptibility to AD, we conducted association studies and functional studies of the related variants. We first resequenced the CCL22 gene and found a total of 39 SNPs. We selected seven tag SNPs in the CCL22 gene, and conducted association studies using two independent Japanese populations (1(st population, 916 cases and 1,032 controls; 2(nd population 1,034 cases and 1,004 controls. After the association results were combined by inverse variance method, we observed a significant association at rs4359426 (meta-analysis, combined P = 9.6×10⁻⁶; OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85. Functional analysis revealed that the risk allele of rs4359426 contributed to higher expression levels of CCL22 mRNA. We further examined the allelic differences in the binding of nuclear proteins by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The signal intensity of the DNA-protein complex derived from the G allele of rs223821, which was in absolute LD with rs4359426, was higher than that from the A allele. Although further functional analyses are needed, it is likely that related variants play a role in susceptibility to AD in a gain-of-function manner. Our findings provide a new insight into the etiology and pathogenesis of AD.

  2. Variants of C-C motif chemokine 22 (CCL22) are associated with susceptibility to atopic dermatitis: case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomomitsu; Saeki, Hidehisa; Tomita, Kaori; Tanaka, Shota; Ebe, Kouji; Sakashita, Masafumi; Yamada, Takechiyo; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Miyatake, Akihiko; Doi, Satoru; Enomoto, Tadao; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Tohru; Masuko, Hironori; Sasaki, Takashi; Ebihara, Tamotsu; Amagai, Masayuki; Esaki, Hitokazu; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Noguchi, Emiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. AD is characterized by the local infiltration of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Recent clinical studies have shown important roles of the Th2 chemokines, CCL22 and CCL17 in the pathogenesis of AD. To investigate whether polymorphisms of the CCL22 gene affect the susceptibility to AD, we conducted association studies and functional studies of the related variants. We first resequenced the CCL22 gene and found a total of 39 SNPs. We selected seven tag SNPs in the CCL22 gene, and conducted association studies using two independent Japanese populations (1(st) population, 916 cases and 1,032 controls; 2(nd) population 1,034 cases and 1,004 controls). After the association results were combined by inverse variance method, we observed a significant association at rs4359426 (meta-analysis, combined P = 9.6×10⁻⁶; OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85). Functional analysis revealed that the risk allele of rs4359426 contributed to higher expression levels of CCL22 mRNA. We further examined the allelic differences in the binding of nuclear proteins by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The signal intensity of the DNA-protein complex derived from the G allele of rs223821, which was in absolute LD with rs4359426, was higher than that from the A allele. Although further functional analyses are needed, it is likely that related variants play a role in susceptibility to AD in a gain-of-function manner. Our findings provide a new insight into the etiology and pathogenesis of AD.

  3. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

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    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  4. Cannabis-dependence risk relates to synergism between neuroticism and proenkephalin SNPs associated with amygdala gene expression: case-control study.

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    Didier Jutras-Aswad

    Full Text Available Many young people experiment with cannabis, yet only a subgroup progress to dependence suggesting individual differences that could relate to factors such as genetics and behavioral traits. Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and proenkephalin (PENK genes have been implicated in animal studies with cannabis exposure. Whether polymorphisms of these genes are associated with cannabis dependence and related behavioral traits is unknown.Healthy young adults (18-27 years with cannabis dependence and without a dependence diagnosis were studied (N = 50/group in relation to a priori-determined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the DRD2 and PENK genes. Negative affect, Impulsive Risk Taking and Neuroticism-Anxiety temperamental traits, positive and negative reward-learning performance and stop-signal reaction times were examined. The findings replicated the known association between the rs6277 DRD2 SNP and decisions associated with negative reinforcement outcomes. Moreover, PENK variants (rs2576573 and rs2609997 significantly related to Neuroticism and cannabis dependence. Cigarette smoking is common in cannabis users, but it was not associated to PENK SNPs as also validated in another cohort (N = 247 smokers, N = 312 non-smokers. Neuroticism mediated (15.3%-19.5% the genetic risk to cannabis dependence and interacted with risk SNPs, resulting in a 9-fold increase risk for cannabis dependence. Molecular characterization of the postmortem human brain in a different population revealed an association between PENK SNPs and PENK mRNA expression in the central amygdala nucleus emphasizing the functional relevance of the SNPs in a brain region strongly linked to negative affect.Overall, the findings suggest an important role for Neuroticism as an endophenotype linking PENK polymorphisms to cannabis-dependence vulnerability synergistically amplifying the apparent genetic risk.

  5. Evidence for association between the HLA-DQA locus and abdominal aortic aneurysms in the Belgian population: a case control study

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    Sakalihasan Natzi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity likely contribute to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of autoimmunity in the etiology of AAAs using a genetic association study approach with HLA polymorphisms. Methods HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DRB3-5 alleles were determined in 387 AAA cases (180 Belgian and 207 Canadian and 426 controls (269 Belgian and 157 Canadian by a PCR and single-strand oligonucleotide probe hybridization assay. Results We observed a potential association with the HLA-DQA1 locus among Belgian males (empirical p = 0.027, asymptotic p = 0.071. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the HLA-DQA1*0102 allele frequencies between AAA cases (67/322 alleles, 20.8% and controls (44/356 alleles, 12.4% in Belgian males (empirical p = 0.019, asymptotic p = 0.003. In haplotype analyses, marginally significant association was found between AAA and haplotype HLA-DQA1-DRB1 (p = 0.049 with global score statistics and p = 0.002 with haplotype-specific score statistics. Conclusion This study showed potential evidence that the HLA-DQA1 locus harbors a genetic risk factor for AAAs suggesting that autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of AAAs.

  6. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and bipolar disorder in European populations: A risk association in case-control, family-based and GWAS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chang, Hong; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a nerve growth factor that has antidepressant-like effects in animal models and may be implicated in the etiology of mood-related phenotypes. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the BDNF gene was demonstrated to influence BDNF's secretion and function, as well as mood and cognitive related phenotypes. However, previous genetic association studies of Val66Met polymorphism in the clinical risk of mood disorders have been complicated, possibly due to phenotypic diversity, underpowered statistical association or ancestry-specific effects. Here, we collected mood phenotypic and genetic data in over 90,000 individuals from diverse ethnic groups and conducted a systematic meta-analysis. The results showed that the Val66Met polymorphism was significantly associated with BPD in Europeans (Pmeta=0.0029, OR=1.136), but not in Asians (Pmeta=0.443). Also, it appears that the risk for MDD conferred by BDNF is waning, as the Val66Met variant was not associated with MDD in either European or Asian samples (Pmeta>0.5). PMID:27236043

  7. Associations of genetic variations in EYA4, GRHL2 and DFNA5 with noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese population: a case- control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuhui; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhangping; Yang, Luoxian; Wang, Xuchu; Jiang, CaiXia; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Yuyong; Chen, Yanjuan; Wu, Ou; Zhu, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Background Both environmental and genetic factors are attributable to the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between genetic variations in the EYA4, GRHL2 and DFNA5 genes and the risk to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a Chinese population. Methods A case–control study was conducted with 476 NIHL workers and 475 normal hearing workers matched with gender, years of noise exposure, and intensity of noise exposure. Twelv...

  8. Association of CDKN2BAS Polymorphism rs4977574 with Coronary Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study and a Meta-Analysis

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    Yi Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to explore the significant association between a non-protein coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4977574 of CDKN2BAS gene and coronary heart disease (CHD. A total of 590 CHD cases and 482 non-CHD controls were involved in the present association study. A strong association of rs4977574 with CHD was observed in females (genotype: p = 0.002; allele: p = 0.002, odd ratio (OR = 1.57, 95% confidential interval (CI = 1.18–2.08. Moreover, rs4977574 was more likely to be a risk variant of CHD under the recessive model in females (χ2 = 10.29, p = 0.003, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.31–2.77. A breakdown analysis by age had shown that there was an 87% increased risk of CHD for females younger than 65 years (genotype: χ2 = 14.64, degrees of freedom (df = 2, p = 0.0002; allele: χ2 = 11.31, df = 1, p = 0.0008, OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.30–2.70. Similar observation was also found in males younger than 65 years (genotype: χ2 = 8.63, df = 2, p = 0.04; allele: χ2 = 7.55, df = 1, p = 0.006, OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.11–1.90. p values were adjusted by age, sex, smoking, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. Meta-analysis of 23 studies among 36,452 cases and 39,781 controls showed a strong association between rs4977574 and the risk of CHD (p < 0.0001, OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.22–1.31.

  9. Vacuolating cytotoxin genotypes are strong markers of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori strains: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ameer A; Hussein, Nawfal R; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C

    2014-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a "clean" Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity.

  10. Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study

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    Zodpey Sanjay P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

  11. Association of MMP - 12 polymorphisms with severe and very severe COPD: A case control study of MMPs - 1, 9 and 12 in a European population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haq, Imran

    2010-01-15

    Abstract Background Genetic factors play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but are poorly understood. A number of candidate genes have been proposed on the basis of the pathogenesis of COPD. These include the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes which play a role in tissue remodelling and fit in with the protease - antiprotease imbalance theory for the cause of COPD. Previous genetic studies of MMPs in COPD have had inadequate coverage of the genes, and have reported conflicting associations of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP haplotypes, plausibly due to under-powered studies. Methods To address these issues we genotyped 26 SNPs, providing comprehensive coverage of reported SNP variation, in MMPs- 1, 9 and 12 from 977 COPD patients and 876 non-diseased smokers of European descent and evaluated their association with disease singly and in haplotype combinations. We used logistic regression to adjust for age, gender, centre and smoking history. Results Haplotypes of two SNPs in MMP-12 (rs652438 and rs2276109), showed an association with severe\\/very severe disease, corresponding to GOLD Stages III and IV. Conclusions Those with the common A-A haplotype for these two SNPs were at greater risk of developing severe\\/very severe disease (p = 0.0039) while possession of the minor G variants at either SNP locus had a protective effect (adjusted odds ratio of 0.76; 95% CI 0.61 - 0.94). The A-A haplotype was also associated with significantly lower predicted FEV1 (42.62% versus 44.79%; p = 0.0129). This implicates haplotypes of MMP-12 as modifiers of disease severity.

  12. No association between exposure to perfluorinated compounds and congenital cryptorchidism: a nested case-control study among 215 boys from Denmark and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterholm Jensen, Dorte; Christensen, Jeppe; Virtanen, Helena E; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma; Veje, Christine W; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    Geographical differences in the occurrence of diseases in male reproductive organs, including malformation in reproductive tract, between Denmark and Finland have been reported. The reason for these differences is unknown, but differences in exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities have been suggested. Among these chemicals are perfluoro-alkylated substances (PFASs), a group of water- and grease-repellent chemicals used in outdoor clothes, cookware, food packaging, and textiles. In this study, we, therefore, investigated differences in PFAS exposure levels between Denmark and Finland and the association between cord blood PFAS levels and congenital cryptorchidism. Boys from a joint ongoing prospective birth cohort study were included. We analyzed PFAS levels in cord blood serum samples collected from 29 Danish boys with congenital cryptorchidism, 30 healthy Danish matched controls recruited from 1997 to 2001, 30 Finnish cases, and 78 Finnish healthy matched controls recruited from 1997 to 1999. Additionally, 48 Finnish cases recruited from 2000 to 2002 were included. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in all the 215 Danish and Finnish cord blood samples with significantly higher levels being observed in the Danish samples (medians: PFOA, 2.6 ng/ml and PFOS, 9.1 ng/ml) than in the Finnish samples (medians: PFOA, 2.1 ng/ml and PFOS, 5.2 ng/ml). We found no associations between cord blood PFOA and PFOS levels and congenital cryptorchidism after adjustment for confounders. Our data indicate that women in Denmark and Finland are generally exposed to PFOA and PFOS but there are differences in exposure levels between countries. We found no statistically significant association between cord blood PFOA and PFOS levels and congenital cryptorchidism; however, our study was small and larger studies are warranted. PMID:24218628

  13. The association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and risk of leukemia in different populations: a meta-analysis of case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang F

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fang Wang,1,2,* Qian Zhao,1,2,* Hai-rong He,3 Ya-jing Zhai,4 Jun Lu,3 Hai-bo Hu,1 Jin-song Zhou,1 Yong-hua Yang,5 Yuan-jie Li1 1Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Centre, 2College of Pharmacy, Xi’an Medical University, 3Clinical Research Center, 4Department of Pharmacy, 5Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Associations between Arg399Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the XRCC1 gene and leukemia susceptibility have been studied extensively, however, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine these associations using meta-analytical methods.Methods: A meta-analysis was performed to examine the associations between XRCC1 Arg399Gln SNP and leukemia risk. A literature search of PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted to identify relevant studies published up to March 10, 2015. The references of the retrieved articles were also screened. All the statistical analyses were conducted using Review Manager software.Results: The XRCC1 Arg399Gln SNP was found to be associated with increased childhood risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among Asians under the dominant (odds ratio [OR] 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–2.97, P<0.0001, allele contrast (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.33–2.23, P<0.0001, and homozygote contrast (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.25–4.36, P=0.008 models. However, no association was found in Caucasians between the SNP and risk of either chronic myeloid leukemia or chronic lymphocytic leukemia under any contrast model.Conclusion: The findings of the current meta-analysis indicate that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln SNP is a risk factor for childhood lymphoblastic leukemia in Asians. Keywords: Arg399Gln, AML, ALL, CML, CLL, susceptibility

  14. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  15. Association of sulfotransferase SULT1A1 with breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of case-control studies with subgroups of ethnic and menopausal statue

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    Shao Zhimin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfotransferase (SULT plays an important role in the formation of estrogen which is usually conferred as a risk factor for breast cancer. Polymorphism of the SULT1A1 may be closely associated with breast cancer. However, studies on the association between polymorphism and breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis including ethnic subgroup and menopausal statue subgroup to investigate the association of SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism with breast cancer. Methods PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science databases were searched for the correlative articles up to January 2010 (10362 breast cancer patients and 14250 controls. The risk (odds ratio, OR was used to estimate the association between SULT1A1 polymorphism and breast cancer risk. All of the data from each study use either fixed-effects or random-effects. Results We found that SULT1A1 Arg213His had no exact effect to increase the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.97-1.17, P = 0.164, but it did increase the risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the dominant model (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.04-1.58, P = 0.019. No similar effect was found among premenopausal breast cancer women (OR = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.88-1.27, P = 0.537. There was a significant increase in breast cancer risk among Asian women (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.00-4.14, P = 0.051 but not Caucasian women in recessive model. There was publication bias among postmenopausal women subgroup (P = 0.002, however by using the trim and fill method, if the publication bias was the only source of the funnel plot asymmetry, it needed two more studies to be symmetrical. The value of Log OR did not change too much after the adjustment and the fail-safe number of missing studies that would bring the P-value changed was 17. Conclusions We concluded that the polymorphism of SULT1A1 Arg213His might be one of the high risk factors for breast cancer in Asian women and in postmenopausal women for all

  16. Association of Parental Environmental Exposures and Supplementation Intake with Risk of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts: A Case-Control Study in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Yanru Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to check the possible association of potential parental environmental exposures and maternal supplementation intake with the risk of nonsyndromic orofacial clefting (NSOC. A retrospective study comprised 499 cases and 480 controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province. Chi-square analysis and unconditional multiple logistic regression were used in the study. The results showed that maternal history of fever and the common cold without fever (ORCL/P = 3.11 and 5.56, 95%CI: 1.67–5.82 and 2.96–10.47, ORCPO = 3.31 and 8.23, 95%CI: 1.58–6.94 and 4.08–16.95, paternal smoking and alcohol consumption (ORCL/P = 2.15 and 5.04, 95%CI: 1.37–3.38 and 3.00–8.46, ORCPO = 1.82 and 4.40, 95%CI: 1.06–3.13 and 2.50–7.74, maternal exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides (ORCL/P = 6.07, 5.67 and 5.97, 95%CI: 1.49–24.76, 1.34–24.09 and 2.10–16.98, ORCPO = 10.65, 7.28 and 3.48, 95%CI: 2.54–44.67, 1.41–37.63 and 1.06–11.46 and multivitamin use during the preconception period (ORCL/P = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02–0.23, ORCPO = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01–0.30 were associated with cleft lip or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO. Maternal history of skin disease and negative life events (ORCL/P = 12.07 and 1.67, 95%CI: 1.81–80.05 and 1.95–2.67 were associated with CL/P. Some potential parental hazardous exposures during the periconception period and maternal use of multivitamins during the preconception period were associated with risk of NSOC.

  17. Association of the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism with susceptibility to neural tube defects in offsprings: evidence from 25 case-control studies.

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    Lifeng Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA methylation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. In addition, it is a possible risk factor in neural tube defects (NTDs. The association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and NTD susceptibility has been widely demonstrated, but the results remain inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis with 2429 cases and 3570 controls to investigate the effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on NTDs. METHODS: An electronic search of PubMed and Embase database for papers on the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD risk was performed. All data were analysed with STATA (version 11. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: A significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD susceptibility was revealed in our meta-analysis ( TT versus CC: OR= 2.022, 95% CI: 1.508, 2.712; CT+TT versus CC: OR = 1.303, 95% CI: 1.089, 1.558; TT versus CC+CT: OR= 1.716, 95% CI: 1.448, 2.033; 2TT+CT versus 2CC+CT: OR= 1.330, 95% CI: 1.160, 1.525. Moreover, an increased NTD risk was found after stratification of the MTHFR C677T variant data by ethnicity and source of controls. CONCLUSION: The results suggested the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for NTDs. Further functional studies to investigate folate-related gene polymorphisms, periconceptional multivitamin supplements, complex interactions, and the development of NTDs are warranted.

  18. Association between genetic variants of the leukotriene biosynthesis pathway and the risk of stroke: a case-control study in the Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hao; ZHANG Jing; WANG Jun; SUN Tao; XIAO Hang; ZHANG Jin-song

    2013-01-01

    Background Leukotrienes are arachidonic acid derivatives long known for their inflammatory properties.Leukotrienebased inflammation has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in atherosclerosis,a major risk factor for several human diseases.Recently,human genetic studies from us and others suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leukotriene pathway genes influence the risk of atherosclerotic diseases such as stroke.This study aimed to assess the role of additional leukotriene pathway genes as a stroke risk factor within the Chinese Han population.Methods We sequenced the promoter,exonic,and intronic regions of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5),and then genotyped five SNPs in LTA4H and four SNPs in ALOX5 among 691 cases with stroke and 732 controls from the Chinese population.Results We detected a significant association between an intronic SNP in LTA4H (rs6538697) and stroke in our subjects (adjusted odds ratio,recessive model,1.75; P=0.022); and the SNP rs2029253 in ALOX5 was associated with a decreased risk of stroke (adjusted odds ratio,0.76; 95% confidence interval,0.59-0.97).Conclusion Genetic variants in LTA4H and ALOX5 may modulate the risk of stroke in the Chinese Han population.

  19. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

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    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  20. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ruiz; Maria Teresa Martínez-Ros; Alberto Cárceles-Alvarez; Perales, Joseph E.; Diana Carolina Jaimes-Vega; Alicia Cánovas-Conesa; Virtudes Gomaríz-Peñalver; Soldin, Offie P.; Miguel Felipe Sánchez-Sauco; Juan Antonio Ortega-García

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  1. A Combination of CD28 (rs1980422 and IRF5 (rs10488631 Polymorphisms Is Associated with Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Control Study.

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    Lucia Vernerova

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse genetic architecture of RA by utilizing multiparametric statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA and redundancy analysis (RDA.A total of 1393 volunteers, 499 patients with RA and 894 healthy controls were included in the study. The presence of shared epitope (SE in HLA-DRB1 and 11 SNPs (PTPN22 C/T (rs2476601, STAT4 G/T (rs7574865, CTLA4 A/G (rs3087243, TRAF1/C5 A/G (rs3761847, IRF5 T/C (rs10488631, TNFAIP3 C/T (rs5029937, AFF3 A/T (rs11676922, PADI4 C/T (rs2240340, CD28 T/C (rs1980422, CSK G/A (rs34933034 and FCGR3A A/C (rs396991, rheumatoid factor (RF, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA and clinical status was analysed using the LDA and RDA.HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, STAT4, IRF5 and PADI4 significantly discriminated between RA patients and healthy controls in LDA. The correlation between RA diagnosis and the explanatory variables in the model was 0.328 (Trace = 0.107; F = 13.715; P = 0.0002. The risk variants of IRF5 and CD28 genes were found to be common determinants for seropositivity in RDA, while positivity of RF alone was associated with the CTLA4 risk variant in heterozygous form. The correlation between serologic status and genetic determinants on the 1st ordinal axis was 0.468, and 0.145 on the 2nd one (Trace = 0.179; F = 6.135; P = 0.001. The risk alleles in AFF3 gene together with the presence of ACPA were associated with higher clinical severity of RA.The association among multiple risk variants related to T cell receptor signalling with seropositivity may play an important role in distinct clinical phenotypes of RA. Our study demonstrates that multiparametric analyses represent a powerful tool for investigation of mutual relationships of potential risk factors in complex diseases such as RA.

  2. FAS and FASL Gene Polymorphisms Are Not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection Based on a Case-Control Study in a Brazilian Population

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    Bárbara B. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FAS and FASL genes with the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods. Blood samples were collected from 116 HBV-infected patients at the Hospital of the Santa Casa de Misericordia Foundation (Belém, PA, Brazil. Seronegative individuals were used as controls. DNA samples were extracted from the leukocytes and assayed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by RFLP analysis with restriction endonucleases. Results. The frequencies of the mutant genotypes for -670FAS (GG, Ivs2nt-124FASL (GG, Ivs3nt-169FASL (ΔT/ΔT, and -844FASL (TT were higher in the HBV patients, and the FAS-1377AA genotype was more frequent in the control group; however, the differences between the allele and genotype frequencies were not statistically significant. When the HBV patient population was divided into two groups (inactive carriers and active chronic hepatitis patients, the mutant genotypes were found to be more prevalent in the active chronic hepatitis group with respect to the FAS gene polymorphisms; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The results suggest that the polymorphisms in FAS and FASL genes are not associated with HBV infection or even with the natural history of the infection in the Brazilian Amazon region.

  3. Association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence: a case-control study in young patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and unaffected siblings

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    Tanck Michael W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. There is growing evidence that DTNPB1 contributes to intelligence and cognition. In this study, we investigated association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the DTNBP1 gene and intellectual functioning in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (first-episode psychosis, FEP, their healthy siblings, and unrelated controls. Methods From all subjects IQ measurements were obtained (verbal IQ [VIQ], performance IQ [PIQ], and full scale IQ [FSIQ]. Seven SNPs in the DTNBP1 gene were genotyped using single base primer extension and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser deionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF. Results Mean VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores differed significantly (p Conclusion Although preliminary, our results provide evidence for association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence in patients with FEP and their unaffected siblings. Genetic variation in the DTNBP1 gene may increase schizophrenia susceptibility by affecting intellectual functioning.

  4. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

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    Freire Claudia Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS and to healthy controls (CG to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc, and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P  0.05 and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P  Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with MS and regardless the presence of established cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Evidence from case-control and longitudinal studies supports associations of genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6 with human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Dato, Serano; Tan, Qihua;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the common genetic variation in 16 genes recurrently regarded as candidates for human longevity: APOE; ACE; CETP; HFE; IL6; IL6R; MTHFR; TGFB1; APOA4; APOC3; SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. In a case...... confirmed the effects of variation in APOE and CETP and furthermore pointed to HSPA14 as a longevity gene. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes, only one SNP, rs2069827 (IL6), was borderline significantly associated with survival from age 92 (P-corrected = 0.......064). This advantageous effect of the minor allele was supported when investigating a Dutch longitudinal cohort (N = 563) of oldest-old (age 85+). Since rs2069827 was located in a putative transcription factor binding site, quantitative RNA expression studies were conducted. However, no difference in IL6 expression...

  6. A Case-Control Study Indicates that no Association Exists Between Polymorphisms of IL-33 and IL-1RL1 and Preeclampsia

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    Xiaoyan Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Preeclampsia (PE is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome involving varieties of cytokines, and previous studies have shown that IL-33 and its receptor IL-1RL1 play pivotal roles in the development of it. As a polygenetic hereditary disease, it is necessary to study the gene analysis for PE. Therefore, the present study was to determine whether IL-33 rs3939286 and IL-1RL1 rs13015714 associated with susceptibility to PE in Chinese Han women. Methods: 1,031 PE patients and 1,298 controls were enrolled and the genotyping for rs3939286 in IL-33 and rs13015714 in IL-1RL1 was performed by TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE was examined to ensure the group representativeness and Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the differences in genetic distributions between the two groups. Results: No significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies of the two polymorphisms loci were observed between cases and controls. There were also no significant differences in genetic distributions between mild/severe and early/late-onset PE and control groups. Conclusion: Although our data suggested that the polymorphisms of IL-33 rs3939286 and IL-1RL1 rs13015714 might not be critical risk factors for PE in Chinese Han women, the results need to be validated in different nations.

  7. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. PMID:27684861

  8. A history of late and very late stent thrombosis is not associated with increased activation of the contact system, a case control study

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    Brügger-Andersen Trygve

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiological pathways resulting in Late Stent Thrombosis (LST remain uncertain. Findings from animal studies indicate a role of the intrinsic coagulation pathway in arterial thrombus formation, while clinical studies support an association with ischemic cardiovascular disease. It is currently unknown whether differences in the state of the contact system might contribute to the risk of LST or Very Late Stent Thrombosis (VLST. We assessed the relation between levels of several components involved in the contact system and a history of LST and VLST, termed (VLST in a cohort of 20 patients as compared to a matched control group treated with PCI. Methods and Results Activated factor XII (FXIIa, FXII zymogen (FXII, FXIIa-C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inhibitor, Kallikrein-C1-inhibitor, FXIa-C1-inhibitor and FXIa-α1-antitrypsin (AT-inhibitor complexes were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assy (ELISA methodology. Cases and controls showed similar distributions in sex, age, baseline medications and stent type. Patients with a history of (VLST had a significantly greater stent burden and a higher number of previous myocardial infarctions than the control patients. There were no significant between-group differences in the plasma levels of the components of the contact system. Conclusion In a cohort of patients with a history of (VLST, we did not observe differences in the activation state of the intrinsic coagulation system as compared to patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention without stent thrombosis.

  9. A Molecular Case-Control Study on the Association of Melatonin Hormone and rs#10830963 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in its Receptor MTNR1B Gene with Breast Cancer

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    Nadia A Abd El Moneim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main function of the pineal hormone melatonin which is mediated via its two receptors, MTNR1A and MTNR1B, is to mediate dark signals in addition to anti-oxidation, immune system enhancement, protection from radiation, and anti-cancer functions. A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the MTNR1B gene is rs#10830963, which is well known as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study intends to figure out the role of melatonin and its receptor MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism in breast cancer incidence, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: This study included 43 females with breast cancer and 45 apparently normal healthy females. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR was used for amplification and genotyping of the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism in whole blood. Serum melatonin levels were measured using a ready-for-use radioimmunoassay kit. Results: For the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism, we observed a significantly higher GG genotype frequency among cases (72.1% than controls (13.3%, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 83.78% and specificity of 76.47%. The cases had a frequency of 11.6% for the CC genotype and 16.3% for the CG genotype which was significantly lower compared to controls that had a 44.4% frequency of the CC genotype and 42.2% frequency of the CG genotype. The GG genotype had a significant association with larger tumor volume (P=0.048. Serum melatonin levels were significantly lower among breast cancer patients than controls. Using the ROC curve analysis, serum melatonin showed a significant AUC (72.6%, P39.5 pg/ml. Conclusion: The risk for breast cancer incidence increased as the serum levels of melatonin decreased and in females homozygous for the G allele (GG genotype of the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism. The GG genotype was found to be associated with increased breast tumor volume as a marker of a poor prognosis breast cancer.

  10. Salivary levels of inflammatory cytokines and their association to periodontal disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Consuelo Penha Castro; Victor, Elis Cabral; Franco, Mayra Moura; Fernandes, José Mauro Carneiro; Maor, Yehoshua; de Andrade, Marcelo Souza; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pereira; Benatti, Bruno Braga

    2016-09-01

    Both Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and periodontal disease (PD) present a similar immunological profile mainly characterized by altered cytokine levels. In this study we sought to investigate the salivary levels of inflammatory cytokines and their association with PD in SLE patients. 60 patients with SLE and 54 systemically healthy individuals underwent a full periodontal clinical examination. They were then grouped according to their periodontal status. Stimulated saliva was collected in order to evaluate the salivary levels of interferon (IFN-γ), Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, IL-1β, and IL-4. Systemically healthy individuals with periodontitis (group P) presented higher levels of cytokines when compared to systemically healthy individuals, with no periodontal disease (group S) (p0.05), for most of the analyzed cytokines. There was a positive correlation in SLE patients, including IL-1β and all periodontal clinical parameters (pperiodontitis. IL-1β and IL-4 salivary levels were also positively correlated with periodontal status indicating their potential as markers of the amount and extent of periodontal damage in patients with SLE. PMID:27371775

  11. Risk factors for psoriasis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slavenka; Raznatovic, Milena; Marinkovic, Jelena; Jankovic, Janko; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study of 110 consecutive psoriatic outpatients and 200 unmatched controls was carried out in order to analyze the association of psoriasis with smoking habits, alcohol consumption, family history of psoriasis and stressful life events. Stressful life events were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events, a semi-structured interview covering 63 life events. According to our results, the risk of psoriasis is higher in urban dwellers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-13.18), patients who were divorced (OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.26-14.34) and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.12-4.67). Alcohol consumption (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.26-5.17), family history of psoriasis (OR = 33.96; 95% CI = 14.14-81.57) and change in work conditions (OR = 8.34; 95% CI = 1.86-37.43) are also risk factors for psoriasis. Separate analyses for men and women showed that the risk of developing psoriasis was stronger in men with a family history of psoriasis (OR = 30.39; 95% CI = 6.72-137.42) than in women (OR = 16.99; 95% CI = 7.21-40.07). The effect of environmental tobacco smoke at home was found only in women (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.26-4.73). Future well-designed epidemiological studies need to be performed in order to determine whether lifestyle factors and stress could be risk factors triggering or aggravating psoriasis.

  12. Coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction are associated with stroke in patients affected by persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a case-control study

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    Andrea Passantino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke, and its rate is expected to rise because of the ageing population. The absolute rate of stroke depends on age and comorbidity. Risk stratification for stroke in patients with NVAF derives from populations enrolled in randomized clinical trials. However, participants in clinical trials are often not representative of the general population. Many stroke risk stratification scores have been used, but they do not include transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE, pulsate wave Doppler (PWD and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tools. The role of TTE, PWD and TDI findings has not been previously determined. Our study goal was to determine the association between TTE and PWD findings and stroke prevalence in a population of NVAF prone outpatients. Patients were divided into two groups: P for stroke prone and F for stroke free. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning cardiovascular risk factors, age (p=0.2, sex (p=0.2, smoking (p=0.3, diabetes (p=0.1 and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.2; hypertension was statistically significant (p less than 0.001. There were statistically significant differences concerning coronary artery disease, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI (p less than 0.05 and non- AMI coronaropathy (p less than 0.04, a higher rate being in the P group. Concerning echo-Doppler findings, a higher statistically significant rate of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH (p less than  0.05 and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (p less than 0.001 was found in the P group and dilated left atrium (p Case-control study of six genes asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres: association of BAIAP2 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribasés, Marta; Bosch, Rosa; Hervás, Amaia;

    2009-01-01

    -related cognitive processes, including sustained attention, working memory, response inhibition and planning. Although mechanisms underlying cerebral lateralization are unknown, left-right cortical asymmetry has been associated with transcriptional asymmetry at embryonic stages and several genes differentially...

  13. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  14. Reduced Risk for Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance Associated with Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian Behavior in Female Buddhists: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Kun Chiang; Ying-Lung Lin; Chi-Ling Chen; Chung-Mei Ouyang; Ying-Tai Wu; Yu-Chiao Chi; Kuo-Chin Huang; Wei-Shiung Yang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). Methods We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (∼80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital i...

  15. Association of the 4 g/5 g polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Seong; Chen Haimei; Kim Il; Yokose Chio; Kang Joseph; Cho David; Cai Chun; Palma Silvia; Busi Micol; Martini Alessandro; Yoo Tae J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 polymorphism is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels and it has been suggested that lower PAI-1 levels may provide protective effects on inflammation, local microcirculatory disturbance, and fibrotic changes, which are likely associated with development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Methods The association of the 4 G/5 G PAI-1 polymorphism with the development and clinical outcome of SSNHL is eva...

  16. Efficacy and safety evaluation of pentoxifylline associated with other antioxidants in medical treatment of Peyronie's disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2015-12-01

    , progression of disease was observed in all patients belonging to Group C: plaque volume +123.3%; curvature +15.7°; no recovery of penile rigidity. The statistically significant results of our study show that multimodal treatment with PTX in association with other antioxidants and topical diclofenac is efficacious in treating early-stage PD. Furthermore, treatment proved to be more effective when PTX was administered both orally and by penile injection. No serious adverse effects occurred.Keywords: multimodal treatment, penile curvature, penile injections, antioxidant supplementation

  17. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  18. Prediabetes Is Associated with HNF-4α P2 Promoter Polymorphism rs1884613: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Population and an Updated Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Changyi Wang; Sihan Chen; Tao Zhang; Zhongwei Chen; Shengyuan Liu; Xiaolin Peng; Jianping Ma; Xiaohong Zhong; Yanqiong Yan; Linlin Tang; Yifeng Mai; Liyuan Han; Shiwei Duan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Controversy remains for the association between hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) P2 promoter polymorphism rs1884613 and type 2 diabetes (T2D). There was no association test of this polymorphism with prediabetes and T2D in the Chinese population. Moreover, an updated meta-analysis in various ethnic groups is needed to establish the contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Methods. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform approach, we genotyped rs1884613 of HNF-4α in the P2 promoter...

  19. Risk Factors for Infection and Colonization with Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Los Angeles County Jail: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Cynthia L.; Eells, Samantha J.; Tan, Jennifer; Bancroft, Elizabeth A.; Malek, Mark; Harawa, Nina T; Lewis, Martha J.; Santana, Elaine; Miller, Loren G.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and outbreaks occur in correctional facilities, such as jails and prisons. Spread of these infections can be extremely difficult to control. Development of effective prevention protocols requires an understanding of MRSA risk factors in incarcerated persons.

  1. A case-control study on association of SULT1A1 polymorphism and smoked meat intake with breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蘋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of smoked meat intake,SULT1A1 polymorphism as well as their combined effects with breast cancer risk. Methods A total of 400 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases from a cancer hospital in Sichuan province and 400 healthy controls from participants

  2. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Johnson (Nichola); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Orr (Nick); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); M. Jones (Michael); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); Folkerd, E.J. (Elizabeth J.); Haynes, B.P. (Ben P.); J.L. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); G.S. Dite (Gillian); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F. Atsma (Femke); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); S.P. Renner (S.); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); Cordina, E. (Emilie); F. Menegaux (Florence); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); H. Flyger (Henrik); R.L. Milne (Roger); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); J. Benítez (Javier); L. Bernstein (Leslie); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); C.C. Dur (Christina Clarke); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Mul̈ler (Heiko); V. Arndt (Volker); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); T. Dörk (Thilo); Bogdanova, N.V. (Natalia V.); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.H. Wu (Anna); D. Van Den Berg (David); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-Chen); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); D. Smeets (Dominiek); P. Neven (Patrick); H. Wildiers (Hans); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); S. Nickels (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); V. Pensotti (Valeria); F.J. Couch (Fergus); Olson, J.E. (Janet E.); X. Wang (X.); Fredericksen, Z. (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); G. Severi (Gianluca); Baglietto, L. (Laura); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); Soucy, P. (Penny); S.-H. Teo; C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); S.-Y. Phuah (Sze-Yee); Cornes, B.K. (Belinda K.); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Alnæs, G.G. (Grethe Grenaker); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); W. Zheng (Wei); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); P. Devillee (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); Chanock, S.J. (Stephen J.); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); P. Hall (Per); N. Schoof (Nils); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); Liu, J. (Jianjun); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); S.S. Cross (Simon); W.J. Blot (William); L.B. Signorello (Lisa B.); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); D. Kang (Daehee); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.K. Park (Sue K.); J.-Y. Choi (Ji-Yeob); J.M. Hartman (Joost); X. Miao; Lim, W.Y. (Wei Yen); A. Tang (Anthony); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Försti (Asta); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); Jaworska-Bieniek, K. (Katarzyna); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); Gaborieau, V. (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); Vachon, C. (Celine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); Huang, C.-S. (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); Bolla, M.K. (Manjeet K.); J. Wang (Jinxia); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); M. Dowsett (Mitch); A. Ashworth (Alan); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); J. Peto (Julian); I.D.S. Silva (Isabel Dos Santos); O. Fletcher (Olivia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 year

  3. Association of XPC Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Southern Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhu, Jinhong; Jiang, Dan-Hua; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a key component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Dysfunctional XPC protein may impair NER-mediated DNA repair capacity and further lead to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the XPC gene, Lys939Gln (rs2228001 A > C) and Ala499Val (rs2228000 C > T), have been investigated in various types of cancer. We genotyped these two polymorphisms in 1141 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 1173 healthy controls to explore their causative association with CRC susceptibility. Overall, no association was observed between these two variants and the risk of CRC. Our meta-analysis also confirmed a lack of overall association. Stratified analyses were performed by age, gender, smoking status, pack-year, drinking status, tumor sites, and Duke's stages. We found that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk in subjects at 57 years of age or younger (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.004-1.86, p = 0.047) and non-drinkers (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10-2.12, p = 0.011). Our results indicated that XPC Lys939Gln may be a low-penetrance CRC susceptibility polymorphism. Our findings warrant further validation. PMID:27669310

  4. Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Outcomes in Children With Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy Admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmine; Singhi, Pratibha; Singhi, Sunit; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Saini, Arushi Gahlot

    2016-05-01

    The authors prospectively compared the neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes in 50 consecutive children with sepsis-associated encephalopathy admitted to intensive care unit with healthy controls. Children with sepsis-associated encephalopathy had significantly worse mean verbal IQ, full-scale IQ, General Development Score, and its physical, adaptive, social-emotional, cognitive, and communication subscales. Significant proportion of cases (52% vs 32% in controls) had low intelligence. Decline in school performance (44%), disobedience (28%), and stubbornness/irritable behavior (26%) were the most common behavior changes. Children with Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤10 and ≤8 had impairments in full-scale IQ even though overall Glasgow Coma Scale score did not show significant correlation with developmental outcomes. In conclusion, children with sepsis-associated encephalopathy have delayed neurodevelopment, low verbal IQ, decline in school performance and low intelligence at short-term follow-up. Irritability, shock and duration of sedation are associated with poor behavioral outcomes, especially scholastic performance. PMID:26500243

  5. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Nichola

    2014-05-26

    We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years.

  6. KRAS rs61764370 is associated with HER2-overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast cancer in hormone replacement therapy users: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the 3'-untranslated region of the KRAS oncogene (KRAS variant; rs61764370) disrupts a let-7 miRNA binding and was recently reported to act as a genetic marker for increased risk of developing human cancers. We aimed to investigate an association of the KRAS variant with sporadic and familial breast cancer and breast tumor characteristics. Genotyping was accomplished in 530 sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer cases, 165 familial breast cancer cases (including N = 29, who test positive for BRCA1/2 mutations) and 270 postmenopausal control women using the flurogenic 5' nuclease assay. Information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and tumor characteristics in sporadic breast cancer cases was ascertained from a postal questionnaire and pathology reports, respectively. Associations between the KRAS genotype and breast cancer or breast tumor characteristics were assessed using chi-square test and logistic regression models. No evidence of association was observed between the KRAS variant and risk of sporadic and familial breast cancer - either among BRCA carriers or non-BRCA carriers. The KRAS variant was statistically significantly more often associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) - positive tumors and tumors of higher histopathologic grade. However, both associations were detected only in HRT users. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the KRAS variant rs61764370 is implicated in the aetiology of sporadic or of familial breast cancer. In postmenopausal women using HRT, the KRAS variant might lead to HER2 overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast tumors, both indicators of a worse prognosis

  7. The Associations of Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Soluble Receptor with Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study within the Prospective EPIC Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Verena A; Nieters, Alexandra; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Nielsen, Michael R Skjelbo; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Racine, Antoine; Teucher, Birgit; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors (RAGE) have been implicated in cancer development through their proinflammatory capabilities. However, prospective data on their association with cancer of specific sites, including pancreatic cancer, are limited. METHODS: Prediagnostic blood levels of the AGE product Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and the endogenous secreted receptor for AGE (esRAGE) were measured using ELISA in 454 patients with exocrine pancreatic ca...

  8. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 variant is associated with familial breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmutzler Rita K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 is a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Aberrant TCF7L2 expression modifies Wnt signaling and mediates oncogenic effects through the upregulation of c-MYC and cyclin D. Genetic alterations in TCF7L2 may therefore affect cancer risk. Recently, TCF7L2 variants, including the microsatellite marker DG10S478 and the nearly perfectly linked SNP rs12233372, were identified to associate with type 2 diabetes. Methods We investigated the effect of the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant on familial breast cancer (BC risk by means of TaqMan allelic discrimination, analyzing BRCA1/2 mutation-negative index patients of 592 German BC families and 735 control individuals. Results The T allele of rs12255372 showed an association with borderline significance (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04, and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend revealed an allele dose-dependent association of rs12255372 with BC risk (Ptrend = 0.04. Conclusion Our results suggest a possible influence of TCF7L2 rs12255372 on the risk of familial BC.

  9. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Kun Chiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR. METHODS: We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. RESULTS: The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79 and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76 compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92 and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997, for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06. CONCLUSION: The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  10. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variant is associated with familial breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutzler Rita K; Meindl Alfons; Hemminki Kari; Shanmugam Kalai S; Burwinkel Barbara; Sutter Christian; Wappenschmidt Barbara; Kiechle Marion; Bartram Claus R; Frank Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Aberrant TCF7L2 expression modifies Wnt signaling and mediates oncogenic effects through the upregulation of c-MYC and cyclin D. Genetic alterations in TCF7L2 may therefore affect cancer risk. Recently, TCF7L2 variants, including the microsatellite marker DG10S478 and the nearly perfectly linked SNP rs12233372, were identified to associate with type 2 diabetes. Methods We inves...

  11. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    health professionals, and as the gold standard for educational supervision.2,4-6 Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine: if strugglers in specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to controls (non-strugglers), and which performance indicators during...... not identified as cases in the case extraction period. We aimed at a case-control ratio of 1:4 and intend to match on graduation year. Ten different performance measures relating to medical school admission, first year performance and overall program performances will be examined, such as: pre-university exam...

  12. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  13. Relationship of associated secondary hyperparathyroidism to serum fibroblast growth factor-23 in end stage renal disease: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Sliem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is an insidious disease that develops early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD and increases in severity as the glomerular filtration rate deteriorates. Recent studies have identified fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 as a new protein with phosphaturic activity. It is mainly secreted by osteoblasts and is now considered the most important factor for regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. It is not yet proven if there is any direct relation between parathyroid hormone (PTH and FGF23. The present study aims to evaluate the relation between serum FGF23, phosphorus, and PTH in end-stage renal disease in patients with SHPT on regular hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: Forty-six consecutive CKD adult patients (case group and 20 healthy adults (control group were included in the study. All patients had SHPT and were on regular hemodialysis. Both groups were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination and biochemical studies. Serum phosphorus, calcium, ferritin, hemoglobin level, blood urea, creatinine, PTH, and FGF23 were analyzed. Results: Levels of FGF23 were significantly higher in the case group in comparison with those in the control group, viz., 4-fold, and positively correlated with PTH. Phosphorus levels in the case group were significantly high in spite of the increasing levels of FGF23. Both PTH and FGF23 were positively correlated with phosphorus and negatively with hemoglobin levels. Conclusion: SHPT and FGF23 may have a partial role in the development of anemia in patients with CKD. FGF23 could be a central factor in the pathogenesis of SHPT. Its role in controlling hyperphosphatemia in CKD is vague.

  14. The polymorphism rs3024505 proximal to IL-10 is associated with risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease in a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Ernst, A.; Christensen, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas...... and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1 beta or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population....

  15. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto Kei; Nishioka Makiko; Miyashita Yumi; Hiki Yoshito; Sasaki Takashi; Nishimura Rimei; Nemoto Masami; Sakuma Toru; Ohashi Toya; Fukuda Kunihiko; Eto Yoshikatsu; Tajima Naoko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery c...

  16. Dietary fatty acid distribution modifies obesity risk linked to the rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in a Spanish case-control study of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleres, Adriana; Ochoa, M Carmen; Rendo-Urteaga, Tara; Martínez-González, M Angel; Azcona San Julián, M Cristina; Martínez, J Alfredo; Marti, Amelia

    2012-02-01

    The rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been widely associated with childhood obesity in several European cohorts. This association appears to be dependent on dietary macronutrients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether dietary fatty acid intake distribution could interact with this FTO genetic variation and obesity in a Spanish case-control study of children and adolescents. A total of 354 Spanish children and adolescents aged 6-18 years (49 % males) were genotyped for the rs9939609 variant of the FTO gene. Anthropometric parameters were taken and energy intake was measured. We observed an interaction between the consumption of SFA (percentage of total energy) and PUFA:SFA ratio and obesity risk linked to the rs9939609 SNP of the FTO gene. In the study population of the present study, the risk allele carriers consuming more than 12·6 % SFA (of total energy) had an increased obesity risk compared with TT carriers. In a similar way, A allele carriers with an intake ratio lower than 0·43 PUFA:SFA presented a higher obesity risk than TT subjects. In summary, the present study reports for the first time the influence of dietary fatty acid distribution on the effect of the rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene on children and adolescents' obesity risk. PMID:21798115

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus and vitamin D deficiency are associated with shorter telomere length among African Americans: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffecker, Brett M; Raffield, Laura M; Kamen, Diane L; Nowling, Tamara K

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African American females. The causes of SLE are unknown but postulated to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the possible environmental triggers. In this study we evaluated relationships between vitamin D status, cellular aging (telomere length) and anti-telomere antibodies among African American Gullah women with SLE. The study population included African American female SLE patients and unaffected controls from the Sea Island region of South Carolina. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using a nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR. Anti-telomere antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with SLE had significantly shorter telomeres and higher anti-telomere antibody titers compared to age- and gender-matched unaffected controls. There was a positive correlation between anti-telomere antibody levels and disease activity among patients and a significant correlation of shorter telomeres with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both patients and controls. In follow-up examination of a subset of the patients, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in African American patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus and vitamin D deficiency are associated with shorter telomere length among African Americans: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Hoffecker

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African American females. The causes of SLE are unknown but postulated to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the possible environmental triggers. In this study we evaluated relationships between vitamin D status, cellular aging (telomere length and anti-telomere antibodies among African American Gullah women with SLE. The study population included African American female SLE patients and unaffected controls from the Sea Island region of South Carolina. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using a nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR. Anti-telomere antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Patients with SLE had significantly shorter telomeres and higher anti-telomere antibody titers compared to age- and gender-matched unaffected controls. There was a positive correlation between anti-telomere antibody levels and disease activity among patients and a significant correlation of shorter telomeres with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both patients and controls. In follow-up examination of a subset of the patients, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in African American patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.

  19. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in...

  20. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  1. Association between monovalent influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine and pneumonia among the elderly in the 2009-2010 season in Japan: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kyoko; Suzuki, Kanzo; Washio, Masakazu; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between monovalent influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (H1N1pdm) vaccine and pneumonia in elderly people. Study design was a hospital-based, matched case-control study. Cases comprised patients ≥ 65 years old who had been newly diagnosed with pneumonia. For each case, 2 controls were defined as individuals with other diseases (not pneumonia) who were matched by sex, age, entry date, and the visited hospital. Study period was the interval from 1 September 2009 until 30 September 2010. Because a pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) occurred during study period, we analyzed selected subjects who had enrolled during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pneumonia in H1N1pdm-vaccinated subjects compared with unvaccinated subjects using a conditional logistic regression model to assess the association between H1N1pdm vaccine and pneumonia. The subjects during the period of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were 20 cases and 40 controls. Subjects who had received H1N1pdm vaccine showed a significantly decreased OR for pneumonia (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01-0.98) compared with unvaccinated subjects. In conclusion, H1N1pdm vaccination may have prevented pneumonia among the elderly during the 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Japan.

  2. Case-control study of dementia of the Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, L.R.; Schuman, L.M.; Mortimer, J.A.; Hutton, J.T.; Boatman, R.A.; Christians, B.

    1985-03-01

    A case-control study to assess factors of possible etiologic significance to dementia of the Alzheimer type was conducted with 78 male cases diagnosed in 1979-1982 at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota and age-race-sex-matched hospital and neighborhood controls (14 of 16 autopsied cases were histopathologically confirmed). Information was obtained on variables relevant to vital, genetic, and immunologic hypotheses, and on possible occupational and environmental exposures, drug use, psychologic stress, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The only major difference between patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and controls was a significantly greater occurrence of antecedent head trauma in the patients (odds ratio = 4.50). This finding is consistent with the literature on posttraumatic dementia but its importance is presently unclear.

  3. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands: a population based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Cleft Registry and a population-based birth defects registry (Eurocat) of children and foetuses born in the Northern Netherlands between 1997 and 2009. Cases were live-born infants with non-syndromic clefts (n = 367) and controls were infants or foetuses with chromosomal/syndromal (n = 924) or non-folate related anomalies (n = 2,021). We analyzed type/timing/duration of supplement use related to traditional cleft categories as well as to their timing (early/late embryonic periods) and underlying embryological processes (fusion/differentiation defects). Consistent supplement use during the aetiologically relevant period (weeks 0–12 postconception) was associated with an increased risk of clefts (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95 % confidence interval 1.19–2.49), especially of cleft lip/alveolus (3.16, 1.69–5.91). Further analysis systematically showed twofold to threefold increased risks for late differentiation defects—mainly clefts of the lip/alveolus—with no significant associations for early/late fusion defects. Effects were attributable to folic acid and not to other multivitamin components, and inclusion of partial use (not covering the complete aetiologically relevant period) generally weakened associations. In conclusion, this study presents several lines of evidence indicating that periconceptional folic acid in the Northern Netherlands is associated with an increased risk of clefts, in particular of cleft lip/alveolus. This association is strengthened by the specificity, consistency, systematic pattern, and duration of exposure-response relationship of our findings, underlining the need to evaluate public health strategies regarding folic acid and to

  4. Case-control studies show that a non-conservative amino-acid change from a glutamine to arginine in the P2RX7 purinergic receptor protein is associated with both bipolar- and unipolar-affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillin, A; Bass, N J; Choudhury, K; Puri, V; Kosmin, M; Lawrence, J; Curtis, D; Gurling, H M D

    2009-06-01

    Three linkage studies of bipolar disorder have implicated chromosome 12q24.3 with lod scores of over 3.0 and several other linkage studies have found lods between 2 and 3. Fine mapping within the original chromosomal linkage regions has identified several loci that show association with bipolar disorder. One of these is the P2RX7 gene encoding a central nervous system-expressed purinergic receptor. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A, G allele) and a microsatellite marker NBG6 were both previously found to be associated with bipolar disorder (P=0.00071 and 0.008, respectively). rs2230912 has also been found to show association with unipolar depression. The effect of the polymorphism is non-conservative and results in a glutamine to arginine change (Gln460Arg), which is likely to affect P2RX7 dimerization and protein-protein interactions. We have confirmed the allelic associations between bipolar disorder and the markers rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A, G allele, P=0.043) and NBG6 (P=0.010) in a London-based sample of 604 bipolar cases and 560 controls. When we combined these data with the published case-control studies of P2RX7 and mood disorder (3586 individuals) the association between rs2230912 (Gln460Arg) and affective disorders became more robust (P=0.002). The increase in Gln460Arg was confined to heterozygotes rather than homozygotes suggesting a dominant effect (odds ratio 1.302, CI=1.129-1.503). Although further research is needed to prove that the Gln460Arg change has an aetiological role, it is so far the most convincing mutation to have been found with a role for increasing susceptibility to bipolar and genetically related unipolar disorders.

  5. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  6. Mead acid (20:3n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not associated with risk of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Seki, Shoji; Hori, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2015-05-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) involves the replacement of ligamentous tissue with ectopic bone. Although genetics and heritability appear to be involved in the development of OPLL, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Given previous findings that 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid [20:3n-9, Mead acid (MA)] has depressive effects on osteoblastic activity and anti-angiogenic effects, and that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a preventive effect on heterotopic ossification, we hypothesized that both fatty acids would be involved in OPLL development. To examine the biological significance of these and other fatty acids in OPLL, we conducted this case-control study involving 106 patients with cervical OPLL and 109 age matched controls. Fatty acid composition was determined from plasma samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident OPLL were evaluated by logistic regression. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant differences between patients and controls in the levels of MA or n-3 PUFAs (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any associations with OPLL risk for MA or n-3 PUFAs. In conclusion, no potential role was found for MA or n-3 PUFAs in ectopic bone formation in the spinal canal. PMID:25669698

  7. Columnar cell lesions and subsequent breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroner, Sarah A.; Collins, Laura Christine; Schnitt, Stuart Jay; Connolly, James Leo; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla May

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breast cancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood.Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast c...

  8. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  9. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional i...

  10. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among Spanish children and mothers' occupation: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Infante-Rivard, C; Mur, P.; Armstrong, B; ALVAREZ-DARDET, C.; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between mothers' occupational exposure during pregnancy and the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. DESIGN: The study was a case-control investigation. A face to face interview was used to assess exposures at work and relevant confounding variables. SETTING: The study was community based and was carried out in five provinces of Spain. SUBJECTS: 128 cases less than 15 years of age were interviewed (91% of those eli...

  11. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  12. Association between the European GWAS-identified susceptibility locus at chromosome 4p16 and the risk of atrial septal defect: a case-control study in Southwest China and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    Full Text Available Atrial septal defect (ASD is the third most frequent type of congenital heart anomaly, featuring shunting of blood between the two atria. Gene-environment interaction remains to be an acknowledged cause for ASD occurrence. A recent European genome-wide association study (GWAS of congenital heart disease (CHD identified 3 susceptibility SNPs at chromosome 4p16 associated with ASD: rs870142, rs16835979 and rs6824295. A Chinese-GWAS of CHD conducted in the corresponding period did not reveal the 3 susceptibility SNPs, but reported 2 different risk SNPs: rs2474937 and rs1531070. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the 3 European GWAS-identified susceptibility SNPs and ASD risk in the Han population in southwest China. Additionally, to increase the robustness of our current analysis, we conducted a meta-analysis combining published studies and our current case-control study. We performed association, linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analysis among the 3 SNPs in 190 ASD cases and 225 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. Genotype and allele frequencies among the 3 SNPs showed statistically significant differences between the cases and controls. Our study found that individuals carrying the allele T of rs870142, the allele A of rs16835979, and the allele T of rs6824295 had a respective 50.1% (odds ratio (OR = 1.501, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.122-2.009, PFDR-BH = 0.018, 48.5% (OR = 1.485, 95%CI = 1.109-1.987, PFDR-BH = 0.012, and 38.6% (OR = 1.386, 95%CI = 1.042-1.844, PFDR-BH = 0.025 increased risk to develop ASD than wild-type allele carriers in our study cohort. In the haplotype analysis, we identified a disease-risk haplotype (TAT (OR = 1.540, 95%CI = 1.030-2.380, PFDR-BH = 0.016. Our meta-analysis also showed that the investigated SNP was associated with ASD risk (combined OR (95%CI = 1.35 (1.24-1.46, P < 0.00001. Our study provides compelling evidence to motivate better understanding of the etiology

  13. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidetti Daniela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112 were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142. Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  14. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  15. A Case-Control Study of Association between Diarrhea in Newborn Calves and Infection with Rotavirus and Coronavirus in Some Industrial Dairy Herds of Mashhad Aarea, Iran in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari Safavi, E.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 1:1 matched case-control study of calves under 1 month of age was carried out by weekly visits to 7 dairy farms in Mashhad from May 2008 to October 2008. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 112 calves with clinical signs of diarrhea and from 112 matched animals without clinical signs of diarrhea as assessed by a scoring system. The samples were investigated for the presence of Rotavirus and Coronavirus by a commercial antigen capture ELISA test. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 29.5% and 17% of diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves, respectively and Coronavirus antigen was detected in 2.7% and 1.8% of diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves, respectively. Among diarrheic calves Rotavirus was the most common in the third week of life and Coronavirus was detected only in some cases of second week of life. The excretion of Rotavirus in the feces of scouring calves was significantly higher than in non-diarrheic calves (P value =0.03, odds ratio = 1.9 (1.05 – 3.76, but there was not any significant association between shedding of Coronavirus in the feces and diarrhea (P value =0.66, odds ratio = 1.4 (0.24 –9.05. These results indicate that in these industrial dairy farms in Mashhad, infections by Rotavirus can be considered as an important cause for newborn calf diarrhea.

  16. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair xenoderma pigmentosum group D gene and its association with head and neck cancer susceptibility in rural Indian population: a hospital based case-control study from south-western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas D. Datkhile

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that polymorphisms in cd199 of XPD gene could play a role in modifying genetic susceptibility of individual to head and neck cancer in Maharashtra patients. Thus, the case-control study suggest that selected DNA repair genes represent genetic determinants in oral carcinogenesis along with other risk factors in the rural Indian population. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1997-2005

  17. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  18. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigati...

  19. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Laila Sh. Dorgham; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were colle...

  20. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli John J; Dosman James A; McDuffie Helen H; Karunanayake Chandima P; Pahwa Punam

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regre...

  1. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  2. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio) to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk). The excess relative risk (ERR) used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices) is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense) between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices) in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided) using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  3. Lupus Myocarditis: A Case-Control Study from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Yan-Lin Zhu; Meng-Tao Li; Na Gao; Xin You; Qing-Jun Wu; Jin-Mei Su

    2015-01-01

    Background:Myocarditis is an uncommon but serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of lupus myocarditis (LM) and to determine risk factors of LM in hospitalized Chinese patients with SLE.Methods:We conducted a retrospective case-control study.A total of 25 patients with LM from 2001 to 2012 were enrolled as the study group,and 1 O0 patients with SLE but without LM were randomly pooled as the control group.Univariable analysis was performed using Chi-square tests for categorical variables,and the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test was performed for continuous variables according to the normality.Results:LM presented as the initial manifestation of SLE in 7 patients (28%) and occurred mostly at earlier stages compared to the controls (20.88 ± 35.73 vs.44.08 ± 61.56 months,P =0.008).Twenty-one patients (84%) experienced episodes of symptomatic heart failure.Echocardiography showed that 23 patients (92%) had decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (<50%) and all patients had wall motion abnormalities.A high SLE Disease Activity Index was the independent risk factor in the development of LM (odds ratio =1.322,P < 0.001).With aggressive immunosuppressive therapies,most patients achieved satisfactory outcome.The in-hospital mortality was not significantly higher in the LM group than in the controls (4% vs.2%,P =0.491).Conclusions:LM could result in cardiac dysfunction and even sudden death.High SLE disease activity might potentially predict the occurrence of LM at the early stage of SLE.Characteristic echocardiographic findings could confirm the diagnosis of LM.Early aggressive immunosuppressive therapy could improve the cardiac outcome of LM.

  4. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  5. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  6. Phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols: a case control study on soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J G; Christophers, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A case control study on patients with soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma was undertaken to test whether there was any association between these diseases and past exposure to chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides or chlorophenols. It was carried out over the period 1982-1988 in Victoria, Australia. Thirty males with soft tissue sarcoma and 52 males with malignant lymphoma were matched by age, place of residence and sex with one population control and one cancer control each. Exposure was...

  7. Ethnic Identity and the Risk of Schizophrenia in Ethnic Minorities: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in non-Western immigrants. Methods: Matched case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, including 100 non-Western immigrant cases, gene...

  8. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S; Kales Stefanos N; Christoudias Stavros G; Christiani David C

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefig...

  9. Transmisión nosocomial de la hepatitis C asociada a procedimientos anestésicos: un estudio de casos y controles Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C associated with anesthesia procedures: a case-control study[ign].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir la asociación entre el antecedente de procedimientos anestésicos y el riesgo de infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC en pacientes con cirugía previa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño de casos y controles; los casos fueron pacientes con anticuerpo (anti-VHC positivo confirmado por RIBA y/o RNA VHC y los controles fueron sujetos con el anti-VHC negativo. El riesgo de infección se estimó por razón de momios (RM y análisis multivariado con regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 362 sujetos, 211 casos y 151 controles; en 70 casos (33.2%, con cirugía previa, los procedimientos anestésicos se identificaron como único factor de riesgo significativo para la infección por el VHC (RM ajustada 2.44, IC 95% 1.44 - 4.11. CONCLUSIONES: Este es el primer estudio en México que demuestra asociación de riesgo significativa con el antecedente de procedimientos anestésicos por cirugía previa, en uno de cada tres enfermos con hepatitis C.OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection had been related with anesthesia procedures. The study aim was to measure the association between anesthesia procedures in cases with previous surgery and HCV infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a case-control study were included subjects that attended to the Central Blood Bank of the West Medical National Center, Mexican Institute of the Social Security in Guadalajara, Jalisco between july 2005 and september 2007. Cases were patients with positive hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and/or nucleic acid test (HCV RNA; the control group was blood donors with negative antibody. An exhaustive questionnaire about risk factors for hepatitis C, was applied. The risk of HCV infection was determined with the Odds Ratio (OR and multivariate analysis was made by logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 362 subjects, 211 cases and 151 controls; in 70 (33.2% cases were found significant

  10. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies Visitantes hospitalares como controles em estudos caso-controle

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  11. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  12. Fatores associados à rosácea em amostras populacionais do Sul do Brasil: análise de estudos casos-controles Factors associated with rosacea in population samples of Southern Brazil: analysis of case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Rangel Bonamigo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A rosácea é dermatose que apresenta uma série de variáveis associadas a seu surgimento. A maioria dos estudos é proveniente dos Estados Unidos da América e de países europeus, sendo escasso o conhecimento produzido e publicado acerca da doença no Hemisfério Sul, particularmente no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Descrever os principais fatores clínicos e histopatológicos associados à rosácea em amostras populacionais do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dois estudos casos-controles realizados em seqüência, com análise univariada e bivariada, utilizando-se p BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a dermatosis that has many factors associated with its onset. Most studies on this condition come from the United States and European countries, with little information produced and published about the disease in the Southern hemisphere, particularly in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To describe the main clinical and histopathological factors associated with rosacea in population samples from southern Brazil. METHODS: Two case-control studies performed sequentially, with univariate and bivariate analysis, using p<0.05 for statistical significance (Chi-square test and Mantel-Haenzel, for stratifications RESULTS: Rosacea is most frequent among women and in the age range of 40-50 years. Almost all cases have phototypes II and III. The inflammatory forms of rosacea are more often diagnosed than the vascular form and there is an association with serological positivity to Helicobacter pylori and with histopathological presence of Demodex folliculorum (p<0.05. Emotional and climatic changes, exposure to the sun and intake of alcoholic beverages were the main factors described as provoking or worsening the disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have obtained an overview of rosacea in a sample of the southern population of Brazil. While some data are similar to those already described internationally, other aspects, such as economic issues and the factors described as provoking or worsening the

  13. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

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    MohammadReza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Salehiomran MR, Mahzari M. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:20-23.ObjectiveFebrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc and febrile seizure. Zinc, asa major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serumzinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years.This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case and 50 febrile children without seizures (control, that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the northof Iran. Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method.ResultsThe mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001. The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to thecontrol groups.  ConclusionOur findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children. ReferencesVarma RR. Febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr 2002; 69(8; 697-700.Talebian A, Vakili Z, Talar SA, Kazemi M, Mousavi GA. Assessment of the relation between serum zinc and magnesium levels in children with febrile

  14. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

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    Medhi R

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Robin Medhi, Banani Das, Arpana Das, Mansur Ahmed, Sonika Bawri, Suditi Rai Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Assam, India Purpose: To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results: Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03, preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03. Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478, low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g, and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417 were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover

  15. Life events influence the development of ankylosing spondylitis: A case-control study

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    Apurva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a small pilot case-control study exploring the role of stressors of day-to-day life in triggering ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the effect of various coping strategies adopted by the patients. We consider AS as a good model to study the hypothesis due to its close association with the well-described genetic marker, HLA B27. The onset of rheumatic diseases has been commonly observed. However, the role of stress and stressful life events in the development of rheumatic disease is a matter of debate. Though there are explainable hypothesis, clinical evidence on this association is limited

  16. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D

    1989-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  17. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  18. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association of Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J.L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schäfer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although twin and family studies have shown attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus, additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotyped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. A consensus SNP set was imputed using BEAGLE 3.0, resulting in an analysis dataset of 1,033,244 SNPs. The data were analyzed using a generalized linear model. Results No genome-wide significant associations were found. The most significant results implicated the following genes: PRKG1, FLNC, TCERG1L, PPM1H, NXPH1, PPM1H, CDH13, HK1 and HKDC1. Conclusions The current analyses are a useful addition to the present literature and will make a valuable contribution to future meta-analyses. The candidate gene findings are consistent with a prior meta-analysis in suggesting that the effects of ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small and/or include multiple rare alleles. PMID:20732627

  19. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27493405

  20. Association analysis of PALB2 and BRCA2 in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in a scandinavian case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesli, Martin; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Mattingsdal, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    ,868/2,938) and the STEP-UCL/ED-DUB-STEP2 study (n¿=¿2,558/3,274) in a meta-analysis which revealed a P-value of 1.2¿×¿10(-5) for association between PALB2 SNP rs420259 and BD (n¿=¿5,547/20,241). Neither the PALB2 SNP rs420259 nor the BRCA2 SNP rs9567552 were nominally significantly associated with the SCZ...... (Nominal P¿=¿0.00043). Additionally, we replicated the association between PALB2 SNP rs420259 and BD (Nominal P¿=¿0.025). We then combined our sample with another Nordic case-control sample (n¿=¿435/11,491) from Iceland, and added results from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) (n¿=¿1...

  1. Thrombosis in ovarian cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, R L; Fry, D J; Swindell, R.; McGurk, A; Clamp, A R; Jayson, G C; Hasan, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic events are common in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis in large registry-based studies. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 417 patients with ovarian cancer treated at a tertiary cancer centre between 2006 and 2009 was studied to identify the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic events and the prognostic impact of thrombosis. Patient outcomes were evaluated against a matched control group without thrombosis. Results: Ninety-nine thro...

  2. Management of Esophageal Carcinoma Associated with Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Case-Control Analysis

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    Florence Trivin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Esophageal carcinoma and cirrhosis have the overlapping etiologic factors. Methods. In a retrospective analysis conducted in 2 Breton institutions we wanted to asses the frequency of this association and the outcome of these patients in a case-control study where each case (cirrhosis and esophageal cancer was paired with two controls (esophageal cancer. Results. In a 10-year period, we have treated 958 esophageal cancer patients; 26 (2.7% had a cirrhosis. The same treatments were proposed to the 2 groups; cases received nonsignificantly different radiation and chemotherapy dose than controls. Severe toxicities and deaths were more frequent among the cases. At the end of the treatment 58% of the cases and 67% of the controls were in complete remission; median and 2-year survival were not different between the 2 groups. All 4 Child-Pugh B class patients experienced severe side effects and 2 died during the treatment. Conclusions. This association is surprisingly infrequent in our population! Child-Pugh B patients had a dismal prognosis and a bad tolerance to radiochemotherapy; Child-Pugh A patients have the same tolerance and the same prognosis as controls and the evidence of a well-compensated cirrhosis has not modified our medical options.

  3. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  4. Drug exposure and psoriasis vulgaris: case-control and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arnon D; Bonneh, Dan Y; Reuveni, Haim; Vardy, Daniel A; Naggan, Lechaim; Halevy, Sima

    2005-01-01

    Intake of drugs is considered a risk factor for psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between drugs and psoriasis. A case-control study including 110 patients who were hospitalized for extensive psoriasis was performed. A control group (n = 515) was defined as patients who had undergone elective surgery. A case-crossover study included 98 patients with psoriasis. Exposure to drugs was assessed during a hazard period (3 months before hospitalization) and compared to a control period in the patient's past. Data on drug sales were extracted by data mining techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regression and conditional logistic regression. In the case-control study, psoriasis was associated with benzodiazepines (OR 6.9), organic nitrates (OR 5.0), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (OR 4.0) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (OR 3.7). In the case-crossover study, psoriasis was associated with ACE inhibitors (OR 9.9), beta-blockers (OR 9.9), dipyrone (OR 4.9) and NSAIDs (OR 2.1). Extensive psoriasis may be associated with intake of ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs or beta-blockers. PMID:16191849

  5. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  6. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie;

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose...

  7. Does occupational exposure to solvents and pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 polymorphisms increase the risk of bladder cancer? The Belgrade case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija G Matic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI was calculated. RESULTS: The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.2, p = 0.032. The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4-34.7, p = 0.001. The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1-19.7, p = 0.001. The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3-fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9-15.1, p = 0.002. Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9-22.5, p = 0.067. CONCLUSION: Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  8. Pregnancy associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective case-control analysis of maternal survival outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pregnancy-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PANPC) has been associated with poor survival. Recent advances in radiation technology and imaging techniques, and the introduction of chemotherapy have improved survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not clear whether these changes have improved survival in PANPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare five-year maternal survival in patients with PANPC and non-pregnant patients with NPC. Methods: After adjusting for age, stage and chemotherapy mode, we conducted a retrospective case-control study among 36 non-metastatic PANPC patients and 36 non-pregnant NPC patients (control group) who were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Results: The median age of both groups was 30 years (range, 23–35 years); median follow-up for all patients was 70 months. Locoregionally-advanced disease accounted for 83.3% of all patients with PANPC and 92.9% of patients who developed NPC during pregnancy. In both the PANPC and control groups, 31 patients (86.1%) received chemotherapy and all patients received definitive radiotherapy. The five-year rates for overall survival (70% vs. 78%, p = 0.72), distant metastasis-free survival (79% vs. 76%, p = 0.77), loco-regional relapse-free survival (97% vs. 91%, p = 0.69) and disease-free survival (69% vs. 74%, p = 0.98) were not significantly different between the PANPC and control groups. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed that only N-classification was significantly associated with five-year OS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in the modern treatment era, pregnancy itself may not negatively influence survival outcomes in patients with NPC; however, pregnancy may delay the diagnosis of NPC

  9. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  10. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...

  11. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin and HDL-C levels in a case control observational study in association with obesity in a Pakistani cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, -; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-06-01

    Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of such a promoter variant of the leptin gene, G-2548A polymorphism, with obesity and its effect on various anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Pakistani cohort consisting of 250 obese and 225 non-obese control subjects. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed significant association with obesity in Pakistan. In addition, the polymorphism showed association with weight, height, BMI, WC, HDLC and serum leptin levels. The findings suggest that the leptin promoter G-2548A variant may play its part in the progression to obesity by not only affecting the body's fat distribution but also by changing the serum leptin and HDLC levels. PMID:27240985

  12. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin and HDL-C levels in a case control observational study in association with obesity in a Pakistani cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shabana; Shahida Hasnain

    2016-06-01

    Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of such a promoter variant of the leptin gene, G-2548A polymorphism, with obesity and its effect on various anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Pakistani cohort consisting of 250 obese and 225 non-obese control subjects. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed significant association with obesity in Pakistan. In addition, the polymorphism showed association with weight, height, BMI, WC, HDLC and serum leptin levels. The findings suggest that the leptin promoter G-2548A variant may play its part in the progression to obesity by not only affecting the body’s fat distribution but also by changing the serum leptin and HDLC levels.

  13. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  14. 个体因素与耐多药肺结核关系的病例对照研究%A case-control study on association between individual risk factors and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松华; 彭颖; 马伟; 槐鹏程; 王晓萌; 钟节鸣; 汪心婷; 王凯; 王黎霞; 姜世闻; 李峻

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨个体因素与耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)的关系,确定耐多药肺结核的高危人群.方法 对浙江省5个地市的MDR-TB患者、同时对异烟肼和利福平敏感的非MDR-TB患者和社区健康人群共555人进行问卷调查,分别以非MDR-TB患者和社区健康人群作为对照进行分析,使用SPSS 16.0软件进行单因素x2检验和多因素logistic回归分析,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 以非MDR-TB患者为对照的多因素分析显示,低收入(人均年纯收入≤2 500元)的肺结核患者更易发生MDR-TB(OR=2.309,95% CI=1.325~4.024),主要通过报刊书籍获得健康知识(OR=0.519,95% CI=0.310~0.869)是MDR-TB的保护因素;以健康人群为对照的多因素分析显示,男性(OR=2.634,95%CI=1.098~6.319)、主要通过医务人员获得健康知识(OR=3.145,95% CI=1.502~6.586)以及居住地离当地结防机构>10km(OR=2.279,95%CI=1.086~4.782)者更易发生MDR-TB,主要通过报刊书籍获得健康知识(OR=0.206,95% CI=0.087~0.484)是MDR-TB的保护因素.结论 性别、经济收入、获得健康知识的途径和居住地离结防机构的距离与MDR-TB有关.%Objective To identify the personal risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) , and to find out high risk populations of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods A case-control study was employed on 555 subjects including patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis but were sensitive to isoniazid and rifampin and health controls in 5 cities of Zhejiang. Results A total of 144 MDR-TB patients and 411 controls were included in the study. Multivariate analyses based on patient controls and health controls revealed that low per capita income (less than 2500 yuan) (OR-. 2.039, 95% CI-. 1. 325 - 4. 024), male (OR-. 2. 634, 95%C7: 1.098 - 6.319), acquiring health knowledge mainly from medical personnel (OR: 3. 145, 95% CI: 1. 502 -6. 586

  15. Case-control study on the association of sleep and type 2 diabetes mellitus%睡眠与2型糖尿病关系的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 吴东妮; 肖艳杰; 卢智泉

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the association between sleep relative behaviors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and make the effect nursing measures for sleep behaviors of T2DM patients. METHODS Research design was taken case-control study for 1 : 1 pair-matching. Collected information with questionnaire investigation.Analyzed information by T test and multivariate conditional Logistic regression models. RESULTS There were significant differences of sleep quality between case group and control group (t = 10.15, P < 0.05). There was a association between sleep relative behaviors (nap, sleeping late, snoring, difficulty sleeping, not enough sleep at night and sleep quality) and T2DM. The multivariate conditional Logistic regression models showed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were respectively [(OR = 6.70, 95% CI: 4.29-10.44); (Oft = 7.57, 95% CI: 4.14-13.86); (OR = 4.02, 95% CI: 2.56-6.31); (OR = 6.95, 95% CI: 3.52-13.71); (OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.99-5.30); (OR = 5.70, 95% CI: 3.65-8.87)]. CONCLUSION It should be noted that there is a closely relationship between sleep relative behaviors and T2DM in this study. Sleeping late, snoring, difficulty sleeping, not enough sleep at night and bad sleep quality may be danger to T2DM, but moderate nap may be benefit to T2DM.%目的 探讨睡眠相关行为与2型糖尿病(T2DM)发病情况之间的关系,有效制定T2DM患者睡眠行为护理干预措施.方法 科研设计采用1∶1匹配的病例对照研究法;资料收集采用问卷调查法;资料处理分析采用t检验及多元条件Logistic回归模型分析法.结果 病例组与对照组睡眠质量差异有统计学意义(t=10.15,P<0.05).睡眠相关行为:午睡情况、晚睡情况、打鼾情况、入睡困难情况、夜间睡眠充足与否及睡眠质量等因素与T2DM发病存在关联,多元条件Logistic回归模型的OR值和OR95%CI分别为[(OR =6.70,95%CI:4.29~10.44); (OR =7.57,95%CI:4.14~13.86)(OR=4.02,95

  16. Association between the Interaction of Key Genes Involved in Effector T-Cell Pathways and Susceptibility to Develop allergic Rhinitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that interaction between key genes mediating signaling and transcriptional networks involving effector T-cell responses may influence an individual's susceptibility to develop allergic rhinitis(AR.The aim of this study was todetermine whether specific interactions between key genes involved in effector T-cell pathways are associated with an individual's susceptibility to develop AR in Han Chinese subjects.A cohort of 489 patients with AR and 421 healthy controls was enrolled from the Han Chinese population in Beijing, China. AR was established by questionnaire and clinical examination, and peripheral blood was drawn from all subjects for DNA extraction. A total of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 26 reprehensive candidate genes involved in T helper 1 (Th1, Th2, Th17, Th9 and T regulatory cell pathways were selected from the International Haplotype Mappingdatabase for Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB population, and IlluminaGoldenGate assay was conducted for SNP genotyping. The PLINK software package was used to perform statistical analyses.Simple SNP-phenotype association analysis using logistic regression showed SNP rs8193036 in IL17A gene, rs2569254 in IL-12 and rs1898413 in RORα weresignificantlyassociatedwith AR.Simple SNP-phenotype association analysis with genetic models demonstrated thatrs2569254 in IL-12, rs1031508 in STAT4, and rs3741809 in IL-26 were likely to be recessive, rs8193036 in IL17A allelic, rs897200in STAT4 genotypic, and rs1898413 in RORα dominant. Epistasis analyses exhibited that 83 SNPs in 23 genes were significantly interactive; of which 59 interactions/SNP pairs demonstrated OR values higher than 2 or lower than 0.5, and 12 interactions/SNP pairs OR values higher than 4 or lower than 0.25. STAT3, RORα and IL-26, involved in Th17 pathway,were the mostfrequentlyinteractive genes.This study suggests that interactions between several SNPs in key genes involved in effector T-cell pathways are

  17. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  18. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  19. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  20. Recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Jordan, Susan J; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adèle C; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-11-01

    It remains unclear whether physical activity is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk. We therefore examined the association between recreational physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer in a national population-based case-control study in Australia. We also systematically reviewed all the available evidence linking physical activity with ovarian cancer to provide the best summary estimate of the association. The case-control study included women ages 18 to 79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive (n=1,269) or borderline (n=311) epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a network of clinics, physicians, and state cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1,509) were randomly selected from the national electoral roll and were frequency matched to cases by age and state. For the systematic review, we identified eligible studies using Medline, the ISI Science Citation Index, and manual review of retrieved references, and included all case-control or cohort studies that permitted assessment of an association between physical activity (recreational/occupational/sedentary behavior) and histologically confirmed ovarian cancer. Meta-analysis was restricted to the subset of these studies that reported on recreational physical activity. In our case-control study, we observed weakly inverse or null associations between recreational physical activity and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer overall. There was no evidence that the effects varied by tumor behavior or histologic subtype. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, which gave summary estimates of 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.85) for case-control studies and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.17) for cohort studies for the risk of ovarian cancer associated with highest versus lowest levels of recreational physical activity. Thus, pooled results from observational studies suggest that a modest inverse association exists between level of recreational physical activity and

  1. Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes and cytochrome P-450 2D6 genotype : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillevoort, [No Value; de Boer, A; van der Weide, J; Steijns, LSW; Roos, RAC; Jansen, PAF; Leufkens, HGM

    2002-01-01

    To study the association between polymorphism of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6) and the risk of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes, as measured by the use of anti parkinsonian medication. Data for this case-control study were obtained from a psychiatric hospital where newly admit

  2. Head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Mortimer; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA re-analysis of the data from 11 case-control studies was performed to investigate the association between head trauma and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To increase comparability of studies, exposures were limited to head trauma with loss of consciousness (hereafter referred to as 'head tra

  3. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  4. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  5. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  6. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  7. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS IN RENO, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne disease outbreaks are a growing problem in the United States (1), and several recent outbreaks have been linked to the parasite Giardia lamblia (2-8). Previous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have often been associated with unfiltered or inadequately filtered surfac...

  8. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic...... salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case......-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating...

  9. Cardiovascular drugs and the risk of suicide: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callréus, Torbjörn; Agerskov Andersen, Ulla; Hallas, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During the past 30 years, various cardiovascular drugs have been implicated as causes of depression or suicide. Although the evidence for causal relationships has generally been conflicting, both beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) have been...... related to depression. Lipid-lowering therapies and calcium-channel blockers have also been linked to an increased risk of suicide. In this study, we investigated the possible association between the use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide using population-based register data. METHODS: We performed...... a nested case-control study in the county of Funen, Denmark, that consisted of 743 cases of completed suicide identified in a Death Registry for the period 1991-1998 and 14,860 age- and sex-matched controls. Information on previous drug use was retrieved from prescription data and the association between...

  10. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  11. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  12. Familial aggregation of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one

  13. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding mate

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.S.; Bosetti, C; Munoz, N.; Herrero, R; Bosch, F.X.; Eluf-Neto, J; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ; Franceschi, S; Peeling, RW

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7 countr

  15. Validation of a home safety questionnaire used in a series of case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Michael; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Clacy, Rose; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Deave, Toity; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the validity of safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards reported on a questionnaire by parents/carers with children aged under 5 years participating in a series of home safety case-control studies. Methods The questionnaire measured safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards being used as exposures in five case-control studies. Responses to questions were compared with observations made during a home visit. The researchers making observations were bli...

  16. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  17. Case-controlled study of nursing home residents referred for treatment of vocally disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, B; Snowdon, J; Meares, S; Turner, J; Gonski, P; McMinn, B; McIntosh, H; Latham, L; Draper, D; Luscombe, G

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with vocally disruptive behavior (VDB) in nursing home patients referred to aged care services for treatment, using a case-control methodology. Characteristics of the VDB, reasons for referral, perceived causal factors, and psychotropic use were noted. Twenty-five subjects and controls were examined with the Screaming Behavior Mapping Instrument, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale, and measures of cognition, functional capacity, social activities, and emotional reactions of nursing staff. VDB was associated with other disturbed behaviors, depression, anxiety, severe dementia, functional impairment, communication difficulties, use of psychotropic medication, social isolation, and emotional distress in the nursing staff. Reasons for referral may relate more to the stress experienced by nursing home staff in managing VDB than to specific attributes of the VDB itself. PMID:11081953

  18. First Trimester Bleeding and Pregnancy Outcomes: Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Betül Yakıştıran; Tuncay Yüce; Feride Söylemez

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the perinatal outcome and pregnancy complication (preterm delivery, preterm prelabour rupture of membrane [PPROM], preeclampsia, placental abruption and intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR]) of threatened miscarriage. Materials and Methods: A total of 963 patients attended the study. Of these, 493 women had threatened miscarriage. The control group included 470 pregnants without first trimester vaginal bleeding. We compared the two g...

  19. A case-control study of factors associated with primary angle-closure glaucoma%原发性闭角型青光眼相关因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄勋; 朱蓉嵘; 管怀进; 黄春华; 施文平; 姜声扬

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand the risk factors of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Methods One to one matched case-control study was conducted in this study. One hundred and ninety two PACG cases and 192 controls, matched by age and gender, were collected from Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. All of the participants were investigated for their demographic information,behavioral habits, disease history, glaucoma family history and received clinical ocular examinations. The difference between these two groups was analyzed. Results Several factors, including hypertension ( OR =2.004,P =0.009), glaucoma family history (OR = 6.726,P =0.003), presbyopia (OR =3.192,P =0.031 ), shallow anterior chamber ( OR = 12.804, P = 0. 000) and high cup-to-disc ratio ( OR = 9.401, P =0.007 ) were associated with PACG by multiply Logistic regression. The results did not support that smoking, drinking, myopia, diabetes mellitus and blood style were related to PACG. Conclusion Follow up the populations with glaucoma family history, shallow anterior chamber or high cup-to-disc ratio are the main procedures for the decrease of incidence of PACG.%目的 探讨原发性闭角型青光眼(PACG)的危险因素.方法 采用1:1配对病例对照研究设计.收集2004年2月至2005年6月在南通大学附属医院眼科诊治的192例原发性闭角型青光眼患者,以年龄、性别作为匹配条件,选择有其他眼部疾患的192例患者作为对照组,通过χ2检验比较PACG病例组与对照组在人群特征、生活行为习惯、既往病史、青光眼家族史及眼底、屈光、眼压、A超等方面的差异.结果 单因素分析提示,居住农村(OR=2.40,P=0.000)、高文化程度(OR=0.21,P=0.000)、高经济收入(OR=0.34,P=0.000)、高血压(OR=3.05,P=0.000)、青光眼阳性家族史(OR=5.59,P=0.001)、浅前房(OR=11.25,P:0.000)、大杯盘比(OR:8.81,P=0.000)、近视眼(OR=0.31,P=0.000)、近距离看电视(OR=0.47,P=0.001)是PACG

  20. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  1. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  2. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  3. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Alayed

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: When considered together, the traditional ‘red flags’ for NF may be sufficient to rule in or rule out the diagnosis. If future prospective studies validate these findings, there will be a potential opportunity to expedite NF diagnosis and improve patient outcomes.

  4. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrild Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361 were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083 were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05. A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99. Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  5. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected...... randomly for each patient from the Danish Central Population Register. Information on malignancies was obtained through the Danish Cancer Registry. Occurrence of malignancies before WG diagnosis among patients and before WG diagnosis of their matched case among controls (reference date) was compared...... by calculation of prevalence odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with cancer before WG, while 194 controls were diagnosed with cancer before the reference date (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9, 2.2). Among specific malignancies, a significantly increased prevalence was found for testis cancer (OR 6...

  6. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al Alayed; Charlie Tan; Nick Daneman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to examine the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ‘red flags’ for necrotizing fasciitis (NF) on history and physical examination. Methods: retrospective study of all cases of NF admitted to a large tertiary care hospital between January 1 2004 and December 31 2013, each matched to two control patients with cellulitis. We determined the diagnostic test characteristics of clinical features for distinguishing NF from cellulitis, with emphasis on positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) li...

  7. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  8. Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, B; Sinclair, M I; Forbes, A B; Veitch, M; Kirk, M; Cunliffe, D; Willis, J; Fairley, C K

    2002-06-01

    Few studies have assessed risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in industrialized countries, even though it may be numerically more common than outbreaks of disease. We carried out case-control studies assessing risk factors for sporadic disease in Melbourne and Adelaide, which have water supplies from different ends of the raw water spectrum. In addition to examining drinking water, we assessed several other exposures. 201 cases and 795 controls were recruited for Melbourne and 134 cases and 536 controls were recruited for Adelaide. Risk factors were similar for the two cities, with swimming in public pools and contact with a person with diarrhoea being most important. The consumption of plain tap water was not found to be associated with disease. This study emphasizes the need for regular public health messages to the public and swimming pool managers in an attempt to prevent sporadic cryptosporidiosis, as well as outbreaks of disease.

  9. First Trimester Bleeding and Pregnancy Outcomes: Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Yakıştıran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the perinatal outcome and pregnancy complication (preterm delivery, preterm prelabour rupture of membrane [PPROM], preeclampsia, placental abruption and intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR] of threatened miscarriage. Materials and Methods: A total of 963 patients attended the study. Of these, 493 women had threatened miscarriage. The control group included 470 pregnants without first trimester vaginal bleeding. We compared the two groups according to maternal age, gravida, parity, spontaneous or induced abortion history, pregnancy period, livebirth or pregnancy loss, newborn weight and Apgar values after 1 and 5 minutes, newborns’ gender for livebirth and preterm deliveries. Results: Incidence of preterm delivery, abortion, lower gestational fetal weight and preterm rupture of membrane was increased in threatened miscarriage group. Mean pregnancy period in threatened miscarriage group was 243 days; in control group was 263 days. There was adverse influence of maternal age and abortion history on outcomes in pregnancies with threatened miscarriage. However sex of the fetuses and Apgar values after 1 and 5 minutes were similar between two groups. Conclusion: Threatened miscarriage is an important situation to predict both the maternal and fetal outcomes in late pregnancy. Maternal obstetric history on previous pregnancies should be questioned. It is therefore essential to consider these pregnancies as high risk group and provide careful antenatal care

  10. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhakta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC was found to be increased in both sexes of alopecia areata(statistically significant increase in alopecia areata Female while atd angles were reduced in females. In male subjects of alopecia areata, true palmar pattern (TPP was increased in both hypothenar and left interdigital-2 (ID2 areas while in females, TPP were increased in both inter digital area-2 and 3 and left ID4 areas. TPP were reduced in left thenar (Lt. Th.,Lt. ID1, ID3, ID4, Rt. ID2, ID3 and ID4 areas of alopecia areata males and both right and left thenar and hypothenar and right ID4 areas of females. This study reveals deviation in the form of reduction of number of loops and increase in number of whorls and arches in alopecia subjects. Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. These can be considered as quite useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for alopecia areata.

  11. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  12. Outcome of liver transplantation in patients with diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P R; Thuluvath, P J

    2001-11-01

    The influence of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has not been well defined. The objective of our study was to compare the morbidity and mortality after OLT in 57 patients with preexisting DM (3 type I, 54 type II) with 114 age-, sex-, and race-matched patients without DM (case controls). The demographics were similar in both groups. Pretransplantation serum creatinine was significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with case controls. The incidence of the following complications was significantly higher in the diabetic group after OLT: cardiovascular (61.4% vs. 21.9%, P infections (29.8% vs. 7.9%, P respiratory (24.6% vs. 7.0%, P =.001), neurologic (31.6% vs. 7.0%, P diabetics compared with 25.4% in controls (P =.0009). One-year (87% vs. 77%) and 2-year (81.6% vs. 70.1%) patient survival was similar, but 5-year survival was lower in the DM group (34.4% vs. 67.7%, P =.002). In conclusion, preexisting diabetes is associated with a significant post-OLT morbidity and mortality, and our observations suggest that patients with DM warrant more rigorous pre- and post-OLT evaluation. PMID:11679959

  13. Preoperative embolization of primary bone tumors: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Roushan; Sharma, Raju; Rastogi, Shishir; Khan, Shah Alam; Jayaswal, Arvind; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety and effectiveness of preoperative embolization of primary bone tumors in relation to intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume and surgical time. METHODS: Thirty-three patients underwent preoperative embolization of primary tumors of extremities, hip or vertebrae before resection and stabilization. The primary osseous tumors included giant cell tumors, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and chondrosarcoma. Twenty-six patients were included for the statistical analysis (embolization group) as they were operated within 0-48 h within preoperative embolization. A control group (non-embolization group, n = 28) with bone tumor having similar histological diagnosis and operated without embolization was retrieved from hospital record for statistical comparison. RESULTS: The mean intraoperative blood loss was 1300 mL (250-2900 mL), the mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 700 mL (0-1400 mL) and the mean surgical time was 221 ± 76.7 min for embolization group (group I, n = 26). Non-embolization group (group II, n = 28), the mean intraoperative blood loss was 1800 mL (800-6000 mL), the mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 1400 mL (700-8400 mL) and the mean surgical time was 250 ± 69.7 min. On comparison, statistically significant (P < 0.001) difference was found between embolisation group and non-embolisation group for the amount of blood loss and requirement of blood transfusion. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the surgical time. No patients developed any angiography or embolization related complications. CONCLUSION: Preoperative embolization of bone tumors is a safe and effective adjunct to the surgical management of primary bone tumors that leads to reduction in intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion volume. PMID:27158424

  14. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A.; Britton, Julie A.; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1434 cases and 1440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included 11...

  15. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Thakur; Bhupender Gupta; Anmol Gupta; Raman Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated sig...

  16. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  17. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  18. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m-3, these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m-3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  19. A Shrinkage Method for Testing the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li (2008) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ2 test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23934751

  20. Tap or bottled water consumption and spontaneous abortion: a 1986 case-control study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, G C; Swan, S H; Fenster, L; Neutra, R R

    1992-03-01

    To investigate whether drinking tap or bottled water during pregnancy affects the risk of spontaneous abortion, we asked questions about water consumption in a large case-control study (626 cases, 1,300 controls). The study ascertained cases from hospital pathology laboratory reports of pregnancies that began in 1986 and obtained controls from birth certificates. The crude odds ratio for consumption of any vs no cold tapwater at home during the first trimester was 1.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.5), with no dose-response effect. The crude odds ratio for any bottled water consumption was 0.79 (95% confidence interval = 0.65-0.96), with a downward trend by amount consumed. Adjusting for many potential confounders did not alter these associations appreciably, although some variables appeared to be effect modifiers. The point estimates were stronger among women who were more difficult to contact, suggesting the possibility of bias. PMID:1576215

  1. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  2. 北京市平谷区恙虫病危险因素的病例对照研究%A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus in Pinggu District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立芹; 窦相峰; 田丽丽; 薛慧; 刘志强; 王全意

    2013-01-01

    To explore the risk factors of scrub typhus in Pinggu District of Beijing,provide the basis for making the prevention and control measures of scrub typhus.[Methods] By using the case-control study,the study group included 59 patients who have been diagnosed with the scrub typhus and had the antibody against oriental body,and 169 healthy controls were matched for age,gender and domicile with the study group.The exposure history of suspicious risk factors was collected.[Results] There were significant differences in exposure rates of vegetable fields,farmlands,plastic greenhouse and autumn harvest between the study group and the control group.The differences in living environment and animal contact history between two groups were significant.[Conclusion] Agricultural activity is the main risk factor of scrub typhus in Pinggu District,and autumn harvest is the independent risk factor.%目的 探讨北京市平谷区人群恙虫病感染的危险因素,为制定恙虫病预防控制措施提供依据.方法 采用病例对照研究的方法,既往诊断为恙虫病且东方体抗体阳性的59例患者为病例组,169例健康人为对照组,两组人群的性别、年龄和居住地相匹配,收集可疑危险因素暴露史等信息.结果 病例组和对照组在菜地、粮田、大棚和秋收的劳作方面,差异有统计学意义.病例组和对照组之间在居家环境和动物接触史方面,差异也有统计学意义.结论 农业生产活动是罹患恙虫病的主要危险因素,秋收活动是恙虫病的独立危险因素.

  3. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  4. XPG Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: A Two-Stage Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhuo, Zhen-Jian; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene polymorphisms may modulate colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. In this study, we performed a two-stage case-control study to comprehensively investigate the associations of five polymorphisms in the XPG gene with CRC risk in 1,901 cases and 1,976 controls from Southern China, including rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs1047768 T>C and rs873601 G>A. After combining data from two stages, we found that three of the studied polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, and rs873601 G>A) were significantly associated with CRC susceptibility. After adjustment for age and gender, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that carriers of the rs2094258 T alleles had an increased CRC risk [CT vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.36; TT vs. CC: adjusted OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.18-1.89; TT vs. CT/CC: adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.72]. Likely, rs873601 A allele also conferred increased CRC susceptibility. In contrast, a protective association was identified between rs751402 C>T polymorphism and the risk of CRC. In summary, our results indicated that these three polymorphisms were found to associate with CRC susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population.

  5. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

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    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  6. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  7. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals...... than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...

  8. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Simon; Sidani, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT). A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P PERT), and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO. PMID:27446865

  9. A case-control study of GST polymorphisms and arsenic related skin lesions

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    Mahiuddin Golam

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 impact detoxification of carcinogens by GSTs and have been reported to increase susceptibility to environmentally related health outcomes. Individual factors in arsenic biotransformation may influence disease susceptibility. GST activity is involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including catalyzing the formation of arsenic-GSH conjugates. Methods We investigated whether polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1 were associated with risk of skin lesions and whether these polymorphisms modify the relationship between drinking water arsenic exposure and skin lesions in a case control study of 1200 subjects frequency matched on age and gender in community clinics in Pabna, Bangladesh in 2001–2002. Results and discussion GSTT1 homozygous wildtype status was associated with increased odds of skin lesions compared to the null status (OR1.56 95% CI 1.10–2.19. The GSTP1 GG polymorphism was associated with greater odds of skin lesions compared to GSTP1 AA, (OR 1.86 (95%CI 1.15–3.00. No evidence of effect modification by GSTT1, GSTM1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms on the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesions was detected. Conclusion GSTT1 wildtype and GSTP1 GG are associated with increased risk of skin lesions.

  10. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

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    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  12. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  14. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. H