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Sample records for case-cohort study based

  1. Oral clefts and life style factors - a case-cohort study based on prospective Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Vach, Werner

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between oral clefts and first trimester maternal lifestyle factors based on prospective data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort includes approximately 100,000 pregnancies. In total 192 mothers gave birth to child with an oral cleft during 1997......-2003. Information on risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, tea, coffee, cola, and food supplements was obtained during pregnancy for these and 828 randomly selected controls. We found that first trimester maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95...

  2. Placental pathology in pregnancies with maternally perceived decreased fetal movement--a population-based nested case-cohort study.

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    Brita Askeland Winje

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreased fetal movements (DFM are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8-2.2, p = 0.249. However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.0, p = 0.023. This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2-1.4, p = 0.203. There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.1, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In our population-based study we were generally unable to link maternally

  3. Placental Pathology in Pregnancies with Maternally Perceived Decreased Fetal Movement - A Population-Based Nested Case-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winje, Brita Askeland; Roald, Borghild; Kristensen, Nina Petrov; Frøen, J. Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Background Decreased fetal movements (DFM) are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. Methods/Principal Findings Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8–2.2, p = 0.249). However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas) and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1–5.0, p = 0.023). This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2–1.4, p = 0.203). There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.1, p<0.001). Conclusions In our population-based study we were generally unable to link

  4. A review of published analyses of case-cohort studies and recommendations for future reporting.

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    Stephen J Sharp

    Full Text Available The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%. The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

  5. Stratification for smoking in case-cohort studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; López, Ana García; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2009-01-01

    The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification...... and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort design. We used an empirical and a statistical simulation approach. The stratification strategies were: no smoking stratification, stratification for smoking status and stratification...... with smoking. In the empirical approach the risk estimates of the investigated polymorphisms differed between the three different stratification strategies. Simulated data with neither stratification nor adjustment for smoking resulted in low biases and narrow confidence intervals (CI) in the absence...

  6. Economic status, smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer: a case-cohort study.

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    Li, Ke; Yu, Shunzhang

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economic status, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a case-cohort study using the data of 51 lung cancer deaths in 1973-1997 and a random sample (sub-cohort) of 188 from among 1598 subjects in a rubber factory in Shanghai, China. We computed the risks of lung cancer by economic status, smoking habit, coal fumes in home, and year of first employment. We assessed lung cancer risks for occupational exposures, unadjusted and adjusted for economic status and smoking. After confounding effects of smoking and economic status were controlled, we found that rate ratios were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-4.69), 1.79 (95% CI 0.64-5.03), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.44-9.86) for 1-14, 15-29, and 30-45 exposure-years in curing department, respectively. The data showed significant trends in increased risk of lung cancer with duration of exposure in tire-curing department (score test for trend:, P = 0.004). However, in front rubber processing (weighing and mixing, calendering, extruding, and milling), no significant excess risk of lung cancer was found. If it can be confirmed that nitrosamines are mainly generated in back rubber processing (curing and vulcanizing), it would be reasonable to conclude that excess risk of lung cancer in rubber industry is attributable, at least partially, to exposure to nitrosamines.

  7. A shared frailty model for case-cohort samples: parent and offspring relations in an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    of their biological and adoptive parents were collected with the purpose of studying the association of survival between the adoptee and his/her biological or adoptive parents. Motivated by this study, we explored how to make inference in a shared frailty model for case-cohort data. Our approach was to use inverse......The Danish adoption register contains data on the 12 301 Danish nonfamilial adoptions during 1924-1947. From that register a case-cohort sample was selected consisting of all case adoptees, that is those adoptees dying before age 70 years, and a random sample of 1683 adoptees. The survival data...... probability weighting to account for the sampling in a conditional, shared frailty Poisson model and to use the robust variance estimator proposed by Moger et al. (Statist. Med. 2008; 27:1062-1074).To explore the performance of the estimation procedure, a simulation study was conducted. We studied situations...

  8. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulich, M., E-mail: kulich@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Sokolovska 83, CZ-186 75 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Rericha, V. [Regional Hospital Pribram (Czech Republic); Rericha, R. [Center of Epidemiological Studies, Pribram (Czech Republic); Shore, D.L. [Westat, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, D.P. [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: {yields} Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. {yields} We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. {yields} No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. {yields} Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  9. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

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    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL1B and the Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Danish Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob Gerhard; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjonneland, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. However, the prospective associations between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL1B and incident acute coronary...... and 234 women). All cases were validated by review of medical records, and information on covariates was collected by study technicians. The study was conducted according to a case-cohort study design including ACS cases and a sex-stratified sub cohort of 1663 participants drawn randomly from the entire...... IL1B haplotypes and risk factors, respectively. Conclusions/Significance: Genetic variation in the promoter region of IL1B may not be associated with incident ACS in men or women above the age of 50 years....

  11. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

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    Geertruida J van Woudenbergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a European population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centers in 8 European countries and consists of a total of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,835 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. Country-specific Hazard Ratios (HR for incidence of type 2 diabetes were obtained after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors using a Cox regression adapted for a case-cohort design. Subsequently, country-specific HR were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Tea consumption was studied as categorical variable (0, >0-<1, 1-<4, ≥ 4 cups/day. The dose-response of the association was further explored by restricted cubic spline regression. Country specific medians of tea consumption ranged from 0 cups/day in Spain to 4 cups/day in United Kingdom. Tea consumption was associated inversely with incidence of type 2 diabetes; the HR was 0.84 [95%CI 0.71, 1.00] when participants who drank ≥ 4 cups of tea per day were compared with non-drinkers (p(linear trend = 0.04. Incidence of type 2 diabetes already tended to be lower with tea consumption of 1-<4 cups/day (HR = 0.93 [95%CI 0.81, 1.05]. Spline regression did not suggest a non-linear association (p(non-linearity = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A linear inverse association was observed between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes. People who drink at least 4 cups of tea per day may have a 16% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-tea drinkers.

  12. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B;

    2013-01-01

    in the 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. The cohort study included 29 875 women aged 50-64 years enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was provided by self-administrated questionnaires and blood was drawn from each participant. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used......-significant lower risk of endometrial cancer (IRR 0·93, 95 % CI 0·84, 1·04). When excluding women with low enterolactone concentrations (quartile 1) due to potential recent antibiotic use, the association became slightly stronger, but remained non-significant (IRR 0·90, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·02). Menopausal status...

  13. Gene-lifestyle interaction and type 2 diabetes: the EPIC interact case-cohort study.

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    Claudia Langenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D has progressed rapidly, but the interactions between common genetic variants and lifestyle risk factors have not been systematically investigated in studies with adequate statistical power. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined effects of genetic and lifestyle factors on risk of T2D in order to inform strategies for prevention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The InterAct study includes 12,403 incident T2D cases and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals from a cohort of 340,234 European participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We studied the combined effects of an additive genetic T2D risk score and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods. The effect of the genetic score was significantly greater in younger individuals (p for interaction  = 1.20×10-4. Relative genetic risk (per standard deviation [4.4 risk alleles] was also larger in participants who were leaner, both in terms of body mass index (p for interaction  = 1.50×10-3 and waist circumference (p for interaction  = 7.49×10-9. Examination of absolute risks by strata showed the importance of obesity for T2D risk. The 10-y cumulative incidence of T2D rose from 0.25% to 0.89% across extreme quartiles of the genetic score in normal weight individuals, compared to 4.22% to 7.99% in obese individuals. We detected no significant interactions between the genetic score and sex, diabetes family history, physical activity, or dietary habits assessed by a Mediterranean diet score. CONCLUSIONS: The relative effect of a T2D genetic risk score is greater in younger and leaner participants. However, this sub-group is at low absolute risk and would not be a logical target for preventive interventions. The high absolute risk associated with obesity at any level of genetic risk highlights the importance of universal

  14. Self-rated health and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct study: a case-cohort study

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    Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Feller, Silke; Bergmann, Manuela M; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Forouhi, Nita; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between self-rated health and risk of type 2 diabetes and whether the strength of this association is consistent across five European centres. Design Population-based prospective case-cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in five European centres (Bilthoven, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Potsdam and Umeå). Participants Self-rated health was assessed by a baseline questionnaire in 3399 incident type 2 diabetic case participants and a centre-stratified subcohort of 4619 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study which was drawn from a total cohort of 340 234 participants in the EPIC. Primary outcome measure Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate centre-specific HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes controlling for age, sex, centre, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, physical activity and hypertension. The centre-specific HRs were pooled across centres by random effects meta-analysis. Results Low self-rated health was associated with a higher hazard of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age and sex (pooled HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.88). After additional adjustment for health-related variables including BMI, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant (pooled HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53). I2 index for heterogeneity across centres was 13.3% (p=0.33). Conclusions Low self-rated health was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The association could be only partly explained by other health-related variables, of which obesity was the strongest. We found no indication of heterogeneity in the association between self-rated health and type 2 diabetes mellitus across the European centres. PMID:23471609

  15. Bootstrap for the case-cohort design.

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    Huang, Yijian

    2014-06-01

    The case-cohort design facilitates economical investigation of risk factors in a large survival study, with covariate data collected only from the cases and a simple random subset of the full cohort. Methods that accommodate the design have been developed for various semiparametric models, but most inference procedures are based on asymptotic distribution theory. Such inference can be cumbersome to derive and implement, and does not permit confidence band construction. While bootstrap is an obvious alternative, how to resample is unclear because of complications from the two-stage sampling design. We establish an equivalent sampling scheme, and propose a novel and versatile nonparametric bootstrap for robust inference with an appealingly simple single-stage resampling. Theoretical justification and numerical assessment are provided for a number of procedures under the proportional hazards model.

  16. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and Interaction with Dietary and Life Style Factors in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in a Danish Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjoøneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation...... and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants...

  17. Genetic variants in loci 1p13 and 9p21 and fatal coronary heart disease in a Norwegian case-cohort study.

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    Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Myhre, Ronny; Høiseth, Gudrun; Mørland, Jørg; Næss, Øyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Magnus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in loci 1p13 and 9p21 have previously been found to be associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to investigate whether these SNPs show associations with fatal CHD in a population-based cohort study after adjustment for socioeconomic- and lifestyle-related CHD risk factors not commonly included in genetic association studies. Using the population-based Cohort of Norway (CONOR), a nested case-cohort study was set up and DNA from 2,953 subjects (829 cases and 2,124 non-cases) were genotyped. The association with fatal CHD was estimated for four SNPs, three from locus 1p13 and one from locus 9p21. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate unstratified and gender-stratified hazard ratios while adjusting for major CHD risk factors. The associations between three SNPs from locus 1p13 and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also estimated. Men homozygous for the risk alleles on rs1333049 (9p21) and rs14000 (1p13) were found to have significantly increased hazard ratios in crude and adjusted models, and the hazard ratios remained statistically significant when both genders were analyzed together. Adjustment for additional socioeconomic- and lifestyle-related CHD risk factors influenced the association estimates only slightly. No significant associations were observed between the other two SNPs in loci 1p13 (rs599839 and rs646776) and CHD mortality in either gender. Both rs599839 and rs646776 showed significant, gradual increases in non-HDL cholesterol levels with increasing number of risk alleles. This study confirms the association between 9p21 (rs1333049) and fatal CHD in a Norwegian population-based cohort. The effect was not influenced by several socioeconomic- and lifestyle-related risk factors. Our results show that 1p13 (rs14000) may also be associated with fatal CHD. SNPs at 1p13 (rs599839 and rs646776) were associated with non-HDL cholesterol levels.

  18. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

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    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  19. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.

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    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies. Baseline RANTES serum levels were measured in 363 individuals with incident coronary events and 1,908 non-cases (mean follow-up: 10.2±4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, metabolic factors and lifestyle factors revealed no significant association between RANTES and incident coronary events (HR [95% CI] for increasing RANTES tertiles 1.0, 1.03 [0.75-1.42] and 1.11 [0.81-1.54]. None of six CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and no common haplotype showed significant associations with coronary events. Also in the CARDIoGRAM study (>22,000 cases, >60,000 controls, none of these CCL5 SNPs was significantly associated with coronary artery disease. In the prospective Athero-Express biobank study, RANTES plaque levels were measured in 606 atherosclerotic lesions from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. RANTES content in atherosclerotic plaques was positively associated with macrophage infiltration and inversely associated with plaque calcification. However, there was no significant association between RANTES content in plaques and risk for coronary events (mean follow-up 2.8±0.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: High RANTES plaque levels were associated with an unstable plaque phenotype. However, the absence of associations between (i RANTES serum levels, (ii CCL5 genotypes and (iii RANTES content in carotid plaques and either coronary artery disease or incident coronary events in

  20. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 genotypes in type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycaemia requiring emergency treatment: a case cohort study

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    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Nielsen, Søren L; Akram, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    ratio: 1.9 (1.0-3.6)] together with male sex, impaired symptomatic awareness of hypoglycaemia and presence of nephropathy. CONCLUSION: The D-allele of the ACE gene is associated with severe hypoglycaemia requiring emergency treatment in type 1 diabetic patients with preserved spontaneous ACE activity....... METHODS: The case cohort study consisted of 108 cases of type 1 diabetic patients with severe hypoglycaemia requiring medical emergency treatment during a 1-year period and 262 consecutive controls without such events. ACE I/D and AT2R 1675G>A genotype distributions were compared between cases......AIMS: In type 1 diabetes, individual susceptibility to severe hypoglycaemia is likely to be influenced by genetic factors. We have previously reported an association of the deletion (D-) allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and the A...

  1. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10 polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study

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    Andersen Vibeke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872 and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88. Incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI were calculated. Results No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction = 0.01. IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10 g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88 whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction = 0.02. Among those eating IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or between IL10 rs3024505 and smoking or NSAID use were found. Conclusions In this northern Caucasian cohort we found interaction between IL10 and dietary fibre in CRC carcinogenesis. High intake of fibre seems to protect against CRC among individuals with IL10 related genetic susceptibility to CRC. This finding should be evaluated in other prospective and population-based cohorts with different ethnic groups.

  2. Pre-cART Elevation of CRP and CD4+ T-cell Immune Activation Associated with HIV Clinical Progression in a Multinational Case-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Ashwin; Asmuth, David M.; Yang, Wei-Teng; Campbell, Thomas B.; Gupte, Nikhil; Smeaton, Laura; Kanyama, Cecilia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Santos, Breno; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Lama, Javier R.; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Zulu, Fatima; Pawar, Jyoti S; Riviere, Cynthia; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James; Li, Xiao-Dong; Pollard, Richard B.; Semba, Richard D.; Thomas, David L.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Gupta, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a subset of HIV-infected patients who initiate cART develop early clinical progression to AIDS; therefore some cART initiators are not fully benefitted by cART. Immune activation pre-cART may predict clinical progression in cART initiators. Methods A case-cohort study (n=470) within the multinational Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS) clinical trial (1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults who initiated cART; CD4+ T cell count <300 cells/mm3; nine countries) was conducted. A subcohort of 30 participants/country was randomly selected; additional cases were added from the main cohort. Cases (n=236 [random subcohort–36; main cohort–200]) had clinical progression (incident WHO Stage 3/4 event or death) within 96 weeks following cART initiation. Immune activation biomarkers were quantified pre-cART. Associations between biomarkers and clinical progression were examined using weighted multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models. Results Median age was 35 years, 45% were women, 49% black, 31% Asian, and 9% white. Median CD4+ T-cell count was 167 cells/mm3. In multivariate analysis, highest quartile CRP concentration (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 2.53, 95%CI 1.02-6.28) and CD4+ T-cell activation (aHR 5.18, 95CI 1.09-24.47) were associated with primary outcomes, compared to lowest quartiles. sCD14 had a trend towards association with clinical failure (aHR 2.24, 95%CI 0.96–5.21). Conclusions Measuring CRP and CD4+ T-cell activation may identify patients with CD4+ T cell counts < 300 cells/mm3 at risk for early clinical progression when initiating cART. Additional vigilance and symptom-based screening may be required in this subset of patients even after beginning cART. PMID:26017661

  3. Perinatal vitamin D levels are not associated with later risk of developing pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a Danish case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Jakobsen, Christian; Cohen, Arieh; Lundqvist, Marika; Thygesen, Lau C; Pipper, Christian; Ascherio, Alberto; Svensson, Jannet

    2016-08-01

    Objective Basic and epidemiologic studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have suggested an association between vitamin D and IBD risk. Though, the literature on IBD - especially pediatric-onset IBD - and vitamin D is still in its cradle. We therefore wanted to examine if levels of 25(OH)D at birth were associated with increased risk of developing pediatric-onset IBD. Material and methods A case-cohort study composed of cases diagnosed with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or indeterminate/unclassified colitis and healthy controls. Cases and controls were matched on date of birth and were born in the period 1981-2004. Cases were diagnosed before the age of 18 years. The concentration of 25(OH)D was assessed from neonatal dried blood spots using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and two-way ANOVA were used to test for season and birth year 25(OH)D variations. A total of 384 matched pairs were included in the statistical analyses. Results No significant association were found between levels of 25(OH)D and IBD risk in the adjusted model (OR [95% CI] (per 25 nmol/L increase), 1.12 [0.88; 1.42], p = 0.35). 25(OH)D levels were found to fluctuate significantly with season (p D were 27.1/16.5-39.5 nmol/L for cases and 25.7/16.1-39.4 nmol/L for controls. Conclusion Our study do not suggest that a window of vulnerability exist around time of birth in regards to 25(OH)D levels and later pediatric-onset IBD risk.

  4. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -164 T > C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study

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    di Giuseppe Romina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP is encoded by the MTTP gene that is regulated by cholesterol in humans. Previous studies investigating the effect of MTTP on ischemic heart disease have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that the rare allele of the -164T > C polymorphism in MTTP alters the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, depending on the cholesterol levels. Methods The -164T > C polymorphism was genotyped in a case-cohort study (193 incident myocardial infarction (MI and 131 incident ischemic stroke (IS cases and 1 978 non-cases nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC–Potsdam study, comprising 27 548 middle-aged subjects. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (30 CVD cases and 1 188 controls was used to replicate our findings. Results Genotype frequencies were not different between CVD and CVD free subjects (P = 0.79. We observed an interaction between the -164T > C polymorphism and total cholesterol levels in relation to future CVD. Corresponding stratified analyses showed a significant increased risk of CVD (HRadditve = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.78 for individuals with cholesterol levels additive was 1.06, 95% CI: 0.33 to 3.40 for individuals in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. A borderline significant decrease in CVD risk was observed in subjects with cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL (HRadditve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03 in the EPIC-Potsdam study. A similar trend was observed in the independent cohort (HRadditve = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.25. Conclusions Our study suggests an interaction between MTTP -164T > C functional polymorphism with total cholesterol levels. Thereby risk allele carriers with low cholesterol levels may be predisposed to an increased risk of developing CVD, which seems to be abolished among risk allele carriers with high cholesterol levels.

  5. Long-term risk of incident type 2 diabetes and measures of overall and regional obesity: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

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    Claudia Langenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is a simple and reliable measure of fat distribution that may add to the prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but previous studies have been too small to reliably quantify the relative and absolute risk of future diabetes by WC at different levels of body mass index (BMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The prospective InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centres in eight European countries and consists of 12,403 incident T2D cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We used Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods to estimate hazard ratios for T2D. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of T2D were calculated. BMI and WC were each independently associated with T2D, with WC being a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Risk increased across groups defined by BMI and WC; compared to low normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5-22.4 kg/m(2 with a low WC (102/88 cm. Among the large group of overweight individuals, WC measurement was highly informative and facilitated the identification of a subgroup of overweight people with high WC whose 10-y T2D cumulative incidence (men, 70 per 1,000 person-years; women, 44 per 1,000 person-years was comparable to that of the obese group (50-103 per 1,000 person-years in men and 28-74 per 1,000 person-years in women. CONCLUSIONS: WC is independently and strongly associated with T2D, particularly in women, and should be more widely measured for risk stratification. If targeted measurement is necessary for reasons of resource scarcity, measuring WC in overweight individuals may be an effective strategy, since it identifies a high-risk subgroup of individuals who could benefit from individualised preventive action.

  6. Conditional likelihood inference in a case- cohort design: an application to haplotype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Olli; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2007-01-01

    Under the setting of a case-cohort design, covariate values are ascertained for a smaller subgroup of the original study cohort which typically is a representative sample from a population. Individuals with a specific event outcome are selected to the second stage study group as cases and an additional subsample is selected to act as a control group. We carry out analysis of such a design using conditional likelihood where the likelihood expression is conditioned on the ascertainment to the second stage study group. Such likelihood expression involves the probability of ascertainment which need to be expressed in terms of the model parameters. We present examples of conditional likelihoods for models for categorical response and time-to-event response. We show that the conditional likelihood inference leads to valid estimation of population parameters. Our application considers joint estimation of haplotype-event association parameters and population haplotype frequencies based on SNP genotype data collected under a case-cohort design.

  7. Risk of lymphoma and leukaemia after bacille Calmette-Guérin and smallpox vaccination: a Danish case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe; Jess, Tine

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines may have non-specific effects as suggested mainly in mortality studies from low-income countries. The objective was to examine the effects of BCG and smallpox vaccinations on subsequent risk of lymphoma and leukaemia in a Danish population experiencing rapid out-phasing of these vaccines.......31-2.16); smallpox vaccination HR=1.32 (0.49-3.53)). The present study with very reliable vaccine history information indicates a beneficial effect of BCG vaccination on the risk of lymphomas.......Vaccines may have non-specific effects as suggested mainly in mortality studies from low-income countries. The objective was to examine the effects of BCG and smallpox vaccinations on subsequent risk of lymphoma and leukaemia in a Danish population experiencing rapid out-phasing of these vaccines....... In a background cohort (N=47,622) from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, cases of leukaemia (N=20) and lymphoma (N=51) were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry. The vaccination status of the cases was compared with the vaccination status of a 5% random sample (N=2073) of the background...

  8. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  9. No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Prospective Danish Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    Red meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to evaluate whether a functional polymorphism in the HMOX1 gene encoding heme oxygenase modifies risk of CRC or interacts with diet or lifestyle factors because this would identify heme or heme iron as a risk factor of CRC. The HMOX1...... and a comparison group of 1726 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. No association between HMOX1 A-413T and CRC risk was found (TT vs. AA + TA; IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.98-1.36, p = 0.10 for the adjusted estimate). No interactions were found between diet or lifestyle and HMOX1 A...

  10. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1 and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

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    Overvad Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1 and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2 may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. Methods The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642 in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142, the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466 and G-765C (rs20417 in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275 polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Results Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.12-2.06. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00. There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16 whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02. COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T

  11. Interactions between diet, lifestyle and IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2/COX-2 gene polymorphisms in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective Danish case-cohort study.

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    Vibeke Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diet contributes to colorectal cancer development and may be potentially modified. We wanted to identify the biological mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis by assessment of diet-gene interactions. METHODS: The polymorphisms IL10 C-592A (rs1800872, C-rs3024505-T, IL1b C-3737T (rs4848306, G-1464C (rs1143623, T-31C (rs1143627 and PTGS2 (encoding COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466, G-765C (rs20417, and T8473C (rs5275 were assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and interaction with diet (red meat, fish, fibre, cereals, fruit and vegetables and lifestyle (non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug use and smoking status was assessed in a nested case-cohort study of nine hundred and seventy CRC cases and 1789 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. RESULTS: IL1b C-3737T, G-1464C and PTGS2 T8473C variant genotypes were associated with risk of CRC compared to the homozygous wildtype genotype (IRR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97, p=0.02, and IRR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.44, p=0.02, IRR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, p=0.04, respectively. Interactions were found between diet and IL10 rs3024505 (P-value for interaction (P(int; meat=0.04, fish=0.007, fibre=0.0008, vegetables=0.0005, C-592A (P(int; fibre=0.025, IL1b C-3737T (Pint; vegetables=0.030, NSAID use=0.040 and PTGS2 genotypes G-765C (P(int; meat=0.006, fibre=0.0003, fruit 0.004, and T8473C (P(int; meat 0.049, fruit=0.03 and A-1195G (P(int; meat 0.038, fibre 0.040, fruit=0.059, vegetables=0.025, and current smoking=0.046. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically determined low COX-2 and high IL-1β activity were associated with increased risk of CRC in this northern Caucasian cohort. Furthermore, interactions were found between IL10, IL1b, and PTGS2 and diet and lifestyle factors in relation to CRC. The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  12. Polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter genes and interaction with diet and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family transports various molecules across the enterocytes in the gut protecting the intestine against potentially harmful substances. Moreover, ABC transporters are involved in mucosal immune defence through interaction with cytokines. The study aimed...

  13. Leishmaniose cutânea no Norte da Argentina: fatores de risco identificados num estudo caso-coorte em três municípios de Salta Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Argentina: identification of risk factors in a case-cohort study of three municipalities in Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar fatores considerados de risco para adquirir leishmaniose cutânea em Salta, área de maior transmissão da Argentina. Aplicou-se um estudo de caso-coorte com observações entre junho de 1989 e dezembro de 1992. Aos casos e aos controles selecionados se realizou: a um questionário sócio-demográfico; b descrição das características da vivenda e peridomicílio; c um exame físico de pele e mucosa nasal e bucal; d intradermorreação de Montenegro. A análise multivariada mostrou um risco significativo para fatores extradomiciliares (realizar atividades de vaqueira, dormir no lugar de trabalho, ir caçar e domiciliares (dormir fora do quarto, presença de três ou mais suínos no quintal da casa e existência de janelas sem fechaduras. Esta associação permitiu pela primeira vez em Salta (Argentina, identificar fatores de risco vinculados com a transmissão de leishmaniose na unidade domiciliária.The objective of this work was evaluate risk factors for acquiring cutaneous leishmaniasis in Salta, the region with the greatest indices of transmission in Argentina. A Case-cohort study was realized from June 1989 to December 1992. The procedures performed on cases and controls included: a socio-demographic questionnaire; b domestic and peridomestic environment description; c physical exam of skin and nasal and oral mucosal; d Montenegro Skin Test. Multivariate analysis showed a significant risk for factors outside the home (cattle management, hunting, sleeping at the work place and while at home (sleeping outside of the bedroom, presence of three or more pigs in the yard and windows that cannot be locked in the closed position. This association allowed the identification of risk factors linked to the transmission of leishmaniasis in the home for the first time in Salta (Argentina.

  14. Colorectal cancer incidence among female textile workers in Shanghai, China: a case-cohort analysis of occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, A J; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Ziding, F; Astrakianakis, G; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested increased risks of colorectal cancers among textile industry workers, potentially related to synthetic fibers. To investigate risks of colon and rectum cancers in relation to these and other textile industry exposures, we conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort study of female employees from the Shanghai Textile Industry Bureau (STIB). Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for colon and rectum cancers associated with duration of employment (e.g., 0, >0 to or =20 years) in various jobs classified according to process type and exposures to specific agents. Our findings indicate that certain long term exposures may pose increased risk of colorectal cancers, especially dyes and dye intermediates with colon cancer (> or =20 years exposure versus never, HR=3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-10.6), and maintenance occupation (HR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) and metals exposure (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6) with rectum cancer. A decreased risk of rectum cancer was associated with exposure to natural fibers such as cotton (HR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and a trend of decreasing rectum cancer incidence was observed by category of cumulative quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures, when exposures were lagged by 20 years.

  15. Colorectal cancer risk and dyslipidemia: a case-cohort study nested in an Italian multicentre cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnoli, C.; Grioni, S.; Sieri, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Giurdanella, M.C.; Pala, V.; Mattiello, A.; Chiodini, P.; Iacoviello, L.; Curtis, de A.; Cattaneo, L.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for many diseases, but its effect on colorectal cancer risk is less clear. We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk with plasma triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol in four Italian EPIC centers. Methods: We conducted a

  16. Endogenous estradiol and risk of dementia in women and men : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, MI; Launer, LJ; de Jong, FH; Ruitenberg, A; Stijnen, T; van Swieten, JC; Hofman, A; Witteman, JCM; Pols, HAP; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    We determined whether higher endogenous estradiol levels were associated with lower risk of dementia in older men and women not using hormonal replacement therapy, using a case-cohort design within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based follow-up study on chronic diseases, including dementia, in 7,

  17. Literature-based genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease : the Cardiovascular Registry Maastricht (CAREMA) Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaathorst, A.A.; Lu Yingchang (Kevin), Y.; Heijmans, B.T.; Dolle, M.E.; Bohringer, S.; Putter, de H.; Imholz, S.; Merry, A.H.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Gorgels, A.P.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Muller, M.R.; Schouten, L.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Slagboom, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background-Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk factors (RF). Using a case-cohort study within the prospective Cardiovascular Registry Maastricht (CAREMA) cohort, we tested if genet

  18. Dietary protein intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, van M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Sluijs, van der I.; Molina, E.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Balkau, B.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Boeing, H.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The long-term association between dietary protein and type 2 diabetes incidence is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The prospective European Prospective Inves

  19. Multicentre evaluation of multidisciplinary team meeting agreement on diagnosis in diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Simon L F; Wells, Athol U; Desai, Sujal R;

    2016-01-01

    . This difference is of particular importance, because accurate and consistent diagnoses of IPF are needed if clinical outcomes are to be optimised. Inter-multidisciplinary team agreement for a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is low, highlighting an urgent need for standardised diagnostic guidelines......-multidisciplinary team agreement for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. METHODS: We did a multicentre evaluation of clinical data of patients who presented to the interstitial lung disease unit of the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust (London, UK; host institution) and required...... multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM) characterisation between March 1, 2010, and Aug 31, 2010. Only patients whose baseline clinical, radiological, and, if biopsy was taken, pathological data were undertaken at the host institution were included. Seven MDTMs, consisting of at least one clinician, radiologist...

  20. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Kuijsten, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabet

  1. Tea Consumption and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Europe : The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Drogan, Dagmar; van der A, Daphne L.; Romaguera, Dora; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Dahm, Christina C.; Chirlaque, M-Doleres; Clavel, Fran-coise; Crowe, Francesca L.; Eomois, Piia-Piret; Fagher-azzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Halkjaer, Jytte; Khaw, Kay T.; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Quiros, J. Ramon; Rolandsson, Olov; Romieu, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Schulze, Matthias B.; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabe

  2. Long-Term Outcomes of Systemic Lupus Erythematous Patients after Pregnancy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ting-Fang; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Chung, Mu-Chi; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Jung; Ho, Wen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on long-term maternal outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking. The study aimed to explore the relationships among SLE, pregnancy, outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and overall mortality. Methods We established a retrospective cohort study consisting of four cohorts: pregnant (case cohort) and nonpregnant SLE patients, as well as pregnant and nonpregnant non-SLE patients. One case cohort and three comparison cohorts were matched by age at first pregnancy and index date of pregnancy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. All study subjects were selected based on the index date to the occurrence of ESRD or overall death. Cox proportional hazard regression models and Kaplan–Meier curves were used in the analysis. Results SLE pregnant patients exhibited significantly increased risk of ESRD after adjusting for other important confounders, including immunosuppressant and parity (HR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.35–7.52 for pregnant non-SLE; and HR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.24–6.15 for nonpregnant non-SLE patients). No significant differences in ESRD incidence were observed in pregnant and nonpregnant SLE patients. Pregnant SLE patients exhibited better clinical condition at the baseline and a significantly lower risk of overall mortality than nonpregnant SLE patients. Conclusions Our data support current recommendations for SLE patients to avoid pregnancy until disease activity is quiescent. Multicenter recruitment and clinical information can be used to further examine the association of SLE and ESRD (or mortality) after pregnancy. PMID:27992461

  3. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However......Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been...... evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins...

  4. Data base management study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  5. Practical experience of ustekinumab in the treatment of psoriasis: experience from a multicentre, retrospective case cohort study across the U.K. and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background There are limited data on the use of ustekinumab outside of clinical trials. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab in patients with severe psoriasis attending 10 dermatology centres in the U.K. and Ireland. Methods A retrospective case-note review of 129 patients with psoriasis treated with ustekinumab. Results Baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was 22.9 +\\/- 10.1 (mean +\\/- SD). After 16 weeks of treatment with ustekinumab PASI 75 (75% reduction in PASI) was observed in 63.0% (n = 80\\/127) of patients, although four patients required concomitant therapy at the 16-week time point. Previous biologic use did show a small, non-significant trend towards treatment failure. A PASI 75 response was seen in 29.4% (n = 5\\/17) of individuals weighing 90-100 kg and treated with the standard 45 mg ustekinumab dose compared with PASI 75 of 70.3%, 71.4%, 75.0% and 55.6% for weight groups < 80, 80-90, 100-110 and > 110 kg, respectively (P = 0.024). Ustekinumab therapy was well tolerated; serious adverse events were observed in 2.3% (n = 3\\/129) of patients. Conclusions Ustekinumab is a novel biologic agent for psoriasis. When used in everyday clinical practice it demonstrates high levels of short-term therapeutic efficacy with an acceptable short-term safety profile.

  6. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-express and CARDIoGRAM studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kathiresan (Sekar); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); F.L. Moll (Frans); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Hall (Anne); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); I.R. König (Inke); R. Laaksonen (Reijo); R. McPherson (Ruth); J.R. Thompson (John); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A. Ziegler (Andreas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); L. Chen (Li); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); E. Halperin (Eran); X. Li (Xiaohui); K. Musunuru (Kiran); M. Preuss (Michael); A. Schillert (Arne); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.A. Wells (George); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); H. Holm (Hilma); R. Roberts (Robert); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); A. Go (Attie); M.A. Hlatky (Mark); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); R.H. Myers (Richard); T. Quertermous (Thomas); S. Sidney (Steven); N. Risch; H. Tang (Hui); S. Blankenberg (Stefan); T. Zeller (Tanja); P.S. Wild (Philipp); R.B. Schnabel (Renate); C. Sinning (Christoph); K.J. Lackner (Karl); L. Tiret (Laurence); V. Nicaud; F. Cambien (François); H. Bickel (Horst); H.J. Rupprecht; C. Perret (Claire); C. Proust (Carole); T. Munzel (Thomas); M. Barbalic (maja); J.C. Bis (Joshua); I.Y.-D. Chen (Ida Yii-Der); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Demissie-Banjaw (Serkalem); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); D. Levy (Daniel); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. Rice (Kenneth); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; K.D. Taylor (Kent); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); K.A. Volcik (Kelly); J. Whitteman (Jaqueline); V.S. Ramachandran (Vasan); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); A. Kong (Augustine); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); G. Thorgeirsson (Gudmundur); K. Andersen (Karl); M. Fischer (Marcus); A. Großhennig (Anika); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); P. Linsel-Nitschke (Patrick); K. Stark (Klaus); S. Schreiber (Stefan); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Z. Aherrahrou (Zouhair); P. Bruse (Petra); A. Doering (Angela); T. Illig (Thomas); N. Klopp (Norman); C. Loley (Christina); A. Medack (Anja); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); J. Nahrstedt (Janja); A. Peters (Annette); A.K. Wagner (Arnika); C. Willenborg (Christina); B. Böhm; H. Dobnig (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); M.M. Hoffmann (Michael); M. Kleber (Martina); W. März (Winfried); A. Meinitzer (Andreas); B. Winkelmann; D.T. Pilz (Daniela); W. Renner (Wilfried); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); T. Stojakovic (Tatjana); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); K. Winkler (Karl); C. Guiducci (Candace); N.P. Burtt (Noël); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); R. Elosua (Roberto); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); O. Melander (Olle); D. Altshuler (David); S. Dandona (Sonny); O. Jarinova (Olga); L. Qu (Liming); A. Wilensky (Asaf); W. Matthai (William); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); J. Devaney (Joseph); M.S. Burnett; A.D. Pichard; K.M. Kent (Kenneth); L.F. Satler; J.M. Lindsay (Joseph); R. Waksman (Ron); C.W. Knouff (Christopher); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M.C. Walker (Max); V. Mooser (Vincent); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); D.J. Rader (Daniel); P.S. Braund (Peter); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); S.G. Ball (Stephen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associat

  7. Studying Sensing-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2013-01-01

    Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies....

  8. Operational Energy Base Camp Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report summarizes the Engineer’s role in Afghanistan in 2010. ———. 5 March 2009. NetZero Plus (NZ+) Joint Capability Technology...Demonstration (JCTD). PowerPoint presentation. This PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of the technologies and timeline with the NetZero Plus JCTD...Engineering Laboratory (ERDC/CRREL). This study conducted an infrared (IR) assessment of the main administration building located at Summit Station

  9. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important for the int...

  10. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    are presented in Section 5. 2. Materials and methods The composition of the cobalt -base alloy (CBA) is presented in Table 1. The production of this... Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials

  11. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  12. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divide...... a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs....

  13. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered quest

  14. Flocculation control study based on fractal theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A study on flocculation control based on fractal theory was carried out. Optimization test of chemical coagulant dosage confirmed that the fractal dimension could reflect the flocculation degree and settling characteristics of aggregates and the good correlation with the turbidity of settled effluent. So that the fractal dimension can be used as the major parameter for flocculation system control and achieve self-acting adjustment of chemical coagulant dosage. The fractal dimension flocculation control system was used for further study carried out on the effects of various flocculation parameters, among which are the dependency relationship among aggregates fractal dimension, chemical coagulant dosage, and turbidity of settled effluent under the conditions of variable water quality and quantity. And basic experimental data were obtained for establishing the chemical coagulant dosage control model mainly based on aggregates fractal dimension.

  15. Photoemission study of iron-based superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhong-Hao; Cai Yi-Peng; Zhao Yan-Ge; Jia Lei-Lei; Wang Shan-Cai

    2013-01-01

    The iron-based superconductivity (IBSC) is a great challenge in correlated system.Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) provides electronic structure of the IBSCs,the pairing strength,and the order parameter symmetry.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in IBSCs and focus on the results from ARPES.The ARPES study shows the electronic structure of “122”,“111”,“11”,and “122*” families of IBSCs.It has been agreed that the IBSCs are unconventional superconductors in strong coupling region.The order parameter symmetry basically follows s± form with considerable out-of-plane contribution.

  16. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnaes, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls...... to intensive care (N = 237), susceptibility and the likelihood of long-term death was influenced by the FVL mutation. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, FVL carriers had an increased risk of ICU admission compared to non-carriers (OR 1.62; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.42). In adjusted Cox regression analysis, FVL...... not appear to increase the risk of admission due to severe invasive infections. Nevertheless, in the subgroup of patients admitted to intensive care an increased risk and a poorer long-term outcome for individuals with critical illness were observed for FVL mutation carriers....

  17. Biodegradation studies of rosin-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satturwar, P M; Mandaogade, P M; Darwhekar, G N; Fulzele, S V; Joshi, S B; Dorle, A K

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate two rosin-based polymers (R-1 and R-2) for their in vitro and in vivo biodegradation behavior. The in vitro hydrolytic degradation was carried out in buffer solutions of pH 4.4, 7.4, and 10.4 at 37 degrees C. Enzymatic degradation was studied using enzymes lipase, pancreatine, and pectinase. Free films of the two polymers were subcutaneously implanted in rabbits for the in vivo biodegradation. The extent of degradation was determined quantitatively by weight loss and was followed qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy. The extent and the rate of degradation was better in vivo than in vitro. The polymers showed poor enzymatic degradation and a highly pH-dependent hydrolytic degradation.

  18. Si-based Nanoparticles: a biocompatibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, I.; Lettiero, B.; Panariti, A.; D'Amato, R.; Maurice, V.; Falconieri, M.; Herlein, N.; Borsella, E.; Miserocchi, G.

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) may occur in professional working conditions or for people undergoing a diagnostic screening test. Despite the fact that silicon is known as a non-toxic material, in the first case the risk is mostly related to the inhalation of nanoparticles, thus the most likely route of entry is across the lung alveolar epithelium. In the case of diagnostic imaging, nanoparticles are usually injected intravenously and Si-NPs could impact on the endothelial wall. In our study we investigated the interaction between selected Si-based NPs and an epithelial lung cell line. Our data showed that, despite the overall silicon biocompatibility, however accurate studies of the potential toxicity induced by the nanostructure and engineered surface characteristics need to be accurately investigated before Si nanoparticles can be safely used for in vivo applications as bio-imaging, cell staining and drug delivery.

  19. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbae Park

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented briefly here including 1 Quality of Life of liver cancer patients after 8 Constitutional acupuncture; 2 Developing a Korean version of Measuring yourself Medical Outcome profile (MYMOP; and 3 Survey on 5 Shu points: a pilot In the first study, we have included 4 primary or secondary liver cancer patients collecting their diagnostic X-ray film and clinical data f개m their hospital, and asked them to fill in the European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire before the commencement of the treatment. The acupuncture treatment is set up format but not disclosed yet. The translation and developing a Korean version of outcome measures that is Korean clinician friendly has been sought for MYMOP is one of the most appropriate one. The permission was granted, the translation into Korean was done, then back translated into English only based on the Korean translation by the researcher who is bilingual in both languages. The back translation was compared by the original developer of MYMOP and confirmed usable. In order to test the existence of acupoints and meridians through popular forms of Korean acupuncture regimes, we aim at collecting opinions from 101 Korean clinicians that have used those forms. The questions asked include most effective symptoms, 5 Shu points, points those are least likely to use due to either adverse events or the lack of effectiveness, theoretical reasons for the above proposals, proposing outcome measures

  20. Gout and subsequent increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetics aged 50 and above: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Victor C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data are available on the risk ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD outcome from gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD in non-diabetic individuals. Methods Nationwide population-based retrospective prospective study with a 5-year follow-up to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gout and CKD in non-diabetics aged 50 and above who had no pre-existing serious CVD and the subsequent risk of death from CVD. Hazard ratios (HR of CVD mortality were adjusted for gender, age, smoking- and alcoholism-related diagnoses, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and Charlson’s comorbidity index score. Results A case cohort (n=164,463 having gout and a control cohort (n= 3,694,377 having no gout were formed. The prevalence of gout in this study was 4.26% whereas that of gout plus CKD was 8.17%. Male to female ratio among the individuals with gout was 3.2:1. The relative risk (RR of subsequent cardiovascular mortality between the case and control cohort was 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.66-1.75. The presence of CKD in nondiabetic subjects with no gout (control group has a RR of CVD mortality at 3.05 (95% CI, 2.94-3.15. The presence of gout has protective effect on subjects with CKD with a RR of 1.84 (95% CI, 1.71-1.98. As compared with individuals with no gout, the adjusted HR (aHR for CVD mortality among the individuals with gout was 1.10 (95% CI 1.07-1.13. In a Cox model, when compared with subjects having neither gout nor CKD, the aHR in subjects with no gout but with CKD is 1.76 (95% CI, 1.70-1.82; in subjects with gout but without CKD, 1.10 (1.07-1.13; interestingly, the aHR is attenuated in subjects with concomitant gout plus CKD which is 1.38 (1.29-1.48. Conclusions Among non-diabetic individuals aged 50 years or above who had no preceding serious CVD, those with gout were 1.1 times more likely to die from CVD as were individuals without gout. The presence of gout appears to

  1. Studies of anisotropy of iron based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jason A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To study the electronic anisotropy in iron based superconductors, the temperature dependent London penetration depth, Δλ(T), have been measured in several compounds, along with the angular dependent upper critical field, Hc2(T). Study was undertaken on single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 with x=0.108 and x=0.127, in the overdoped range of the doping phase diagram, characterized by notable modulation of the superconducting gap. Heavy ion irradiation with matching field doses of 6 T and 6.5 T respectively, were used to create columnar defects and to study their effect on the temperature Δλ(T). The variation of the low-temperature penetration depth in both pristine and irradiated samples was fitted with a power-law function Δλ(T) = ATn. Irradiation increases the magnitude of the pre-factor A and decreases the exponent n, similar to the effect on the optimally doped samples. This finding supports the universal s ± scenario for the whole doping range.

  2. Tinnitus: A hospital-based retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifa Akhtar Laskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To find out age, sex, laterality distribution of patients with tinnitus, to investigate the type and characteristics of associated hearing loss and to find different etiology causing tinnitus. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital-based study. Data collected for 154 patients who attended tinnitus clinic of Department of ENT of our institute during the year 2013. Patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study. Results: Among 154 patients included for study, 73 were male and 81 were female. The highest percentage of patients were in the middle age group of 41-50 years (27.9% followed by 31-40 years (18.83% and 51-60 years (16.2% with decreasing number of patients in both younger and elderly age group. Conclusion: Tinnitus can affect any age group but its prevalence increases with age without any gender predilection. Left ear involvement is slightly more common among unilateral tinnitus. Sensorineural hearing loss is most common factor associated but in one-sixth of the cases no cause has been found for tinnitus.

  3. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Renis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology Departments. The first goal of our study was the definition and optimization of an immobilization protocol capable of bonding the biological sensing element on a Si-based surface via covalent chemical bonds. We chose SiO2 as the anchoring surface due to its biocompatibility and extensive presence in microelectronic devices. The immobilization protocol was tested and optimized, introducing a new step, oxide activation, using techniques compatible with microelectronic processing. The importance of the added step is described by the experimental results. We also tested different biological molecule concentrations in the immobilization solutions and the effects on the immobilized layer. Finally a MOS-like structure was designed and fabricated to test an electrical transduction mechanism. The results obtained so far and the possible evolution of the research field are described in this review paper.

  4. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane;

    2009-01-01

    Background The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived...

  5. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne

    2008-01-01

    cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Associations between the three...... of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified...... haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-null...

  6. Risk alleles of USF1 gene predict cardiovascular disease of women in two prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor controlling several critical genes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Of some 40 genes regulated by USF1, several are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the USF1 gene has been shown to have a critical role in the etiology of familial combined hyperlipidemia, which predisposes to early CVD, the gene's potential role as a risk factor for CVD events at the population level has not been established. Here we report the results from a prospective genetic-epidemiological study of the association between the USF1 variants, CVD, and mortality in two large Finnish cohorts. Haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms exposing all common allelic variants of USF1 were genotyped in a prospective case-cohort design with two distinct cohorts followed up during 1992-2001 and 1997-2003. The total number of follow-up years was 112,435 in 14,140 individuals, of which 2,225 were selected for genotyping based on the case-cohort study strategy. After adjustment for conventional risk factors, we observed an association of USF1 with CVD and mortality among females. In combined analysis of the two cohorts, female carriers of a USF1 risk haplotype had a 2-fold risk of a CVD event (hazard ratio [HR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.53; p = 0.01 and an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.46-4.35; p = 0.0009. A putative protective haplotype of USF1 was also identified. Our study shows how a gene identified in exceptional families proves to be important also at the population level, implying that allelic variants of USF1 significantly influence the prospective risk of CVD and even all-cause mortality in females.

  7. Comparative Study of Triangulation based and Feature based Image Morphing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Bhumika G. Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Image Morphing is one of the most powerful Digital Image processing technique, which is used to enhancemany multimedia projects, presentations, education and computer based training. It is also used inmedical imaging field to recover features not visible in images by establishing correspondence of featuresamong successive pair of scanned images. This paper discuss what morphing is and implementation ofTriangulation based morphing Technique and Feature based Image Morphing. IT analyze both morphingtechniques in terms of different attributes such as computational complexity, Visual quality of morphobtained and complexity involved in selection of features.

  8. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  9. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted inci

  10. Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified s

  11. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While animal studies found vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, human data are limited. Using a case-cohort design, we determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Serum phylloquinone (v...

  12. Studies of anisotropy of iron based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To study the electronic anisotropy in iron based superconductors, the temperature dependent London penetration depth, Δλ (T), have been measured in several compounds, along with the angular dependent upper critical field, Hc2(T). Study was undertaken on single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 with x=0.108 and x=0.127, in the overdoped range of the doping phase diagram, characterized by notable modulation of the superconducting gap. Heavy ion irradiation with matching field doses of 6 T and 6.5 T respectively, were used to create columnar defects and to study their effect on the temperature Δλ (T). The variation of the low-temperature penetration depth in both pristine and irradiated samples was fitted with a power-law function Δλ (T) = ATn. Irradiation increases the magnitude of the pre-factor A and decreases the exponent n, similar to the effect on the optimally doped samples. This finding supports the universal s± scenario for the whole doping range. Knowing that the s± gap symmetry exists across the superconducting dome for the electron doped systems, we next looked at λ (T), in optimally - doped, SrFe2(As1-xPx)2, x =0.35. Both, as-grown (Tc ~ 25 K) and annealed (Tc ~ 35 K) single crystals of SrFe2(As1-xPx)2 were measured. Annealing decreases the absolute value of the London penetration depth from λ(0) = 300 ± 10 nm in as-grown samples to λ (0) = 275±10 nm. At low temperatures, λ (T) ~ T indicates a superconducting gap with line nodes. Analysis of the full-temperature range superfluid density is consistent with the line nodes, but differs from the simple single-gap d-wave. The observed behavior is very similar to that of BaFe2(As1-xPx)2, showing that isovalently substituted pnictides are inherently different from

  13. A Study on SSVEP-Based BCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hua Wu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) can help the deformity person finish some basic activities.In this paper,we concern some critical aspects of SSVEP based BCI,including stimulator selection,method of SSVEP extracting in a short time,stimulating frequency selection,and signal electrode selection.The conclusion is that the stimulator type should be based on the complexity of the BCI system,the method based on wavelet analysis is more valid than the power spectrum method in extracting the SSVEP in a short period,and the selections of stimulating frequency and electrode are important in designing a BCI system.These contents are meaningful for implementing a real SSVEP-based BCI.

  14. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  15. Intensive Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Infection-Related Hospitalization in Hemodialysis Population: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Wu, Ming-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-08-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is prevalent and correlated with malnutrition and inflammation in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Periodontal therapy improves systemic inflammatory and nutritional markers in HD population. The relationship between intensive PD therapy and clinical infectious outcomes in patients on HD remains unclear.In total, 4451 patients who underwent HD and intensive PD treatment between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the case cohort. The comparison cohort was selected by matching a patient without PD with each PD treated patient at a 1:1 ratio according to a propensity score. The rates of hospitalizations for infectious diseases for both cohorts were analyzed and compared.Compared with the comparison cohort, the hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization for overall infectious diseases was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.78, P intensive PD treatment cohort. The intensive PD treated cohort had a significantly lower risk of acute and subacute infective endocarditis (HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.84, P intensive PD treatment of patients with HD was associated with reduced risks of overall infectious diseases, acute and subacute infective endocarditis, pneumonia, and osteomyelitis. Our study concurs the role of a conventional intervention in enhancing infectious diseases outcomes.

  16. Long-term dietary sodium, potassium and fluid intake; Exploring potential novel risk factors for renal cell cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, I.A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Engeland, M. van; Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Baldewijns, M.M.L.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background:As sodium, potassium and fluid intake are related to hypertension, an established risk factor for renal cell cancer (RCC), they may be independent risk factors for RCC.Methods:The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) with case-cohort design included 120 852 participants aged 55-69 years. At ba

  17. The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries : EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Pinal S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Schulze, Matthias B.; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillan, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Halkjaer, Jytte; Maria Huerta, Jose; Key, Timothy J.; Kuehn, Tilman; Masala, Giovanna; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Schmidt, Erik B.; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. Design: This was a case-cohort study, nest

  18. Studies based on the Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The genetic and familial environmental influences making up familial correlations in traits and familial aggregation of diseases may be disentangled by adoption studies. Thus, resemblance between the adoptee and the biological relatives indicates a contribution of the segregating gene....... RESEARCH TOPICS: To illustrate the adoption study approach in research, we present results achieved in schizophrenia, body fatness, smoking, and mortality. Significantly higher prevalence of schizophrenia and related conditions were found in biological relatives to adoptees with schizophrenia than among...

  19. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  20. Study of tungsten based positron moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucio, O.G. de; Pérez, M.; Mendoza, U.; Morales, J.G.; Cruz, J.C. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México DF (Mexico); DuBois, R.D. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Positrons and how they interact with matter has a growing interest in many fields. Most of their uses require the production of slow positron beams with a well-defined energy, but since these particles are usually generated by means of a radioactive source, they are fast and with a broad distribution of energies. For this reason it is necessary to moderate them to lower energies via inelastic collisions. Then, they can be accelerated to the desired energies. This requires the use of a moderator. Tungsten is one of the most commonly used moderator materials because of its reasonable efficiency and relatively low cost. In this work we present different methods of producing transmission tungsten-based moderators, with particular interest in a combination of tungsten thin foils and grids. We also show results about the characterization of these moderators by ion beam analysis and microscopy techniques along with their relative moderation efficiencies.

  1. Thrombocytopenia during pregnancy: an institutional based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Dayanand Katke

    2014-08-01

    Methods: The study was conducted in this tertiary institute over a period of two years and three months. 103 pregnant patients with a platelet count of or less than 100000/mL were included. The course of pregnancy was studied and the investigation profile was monitored. Results: Out of 103 cases of thrombocytopenia, 73 (70.9% patients had moderate, 30 (29.1% patients had severe thrombocytopenia. In this study 35% cases were primigravidas, 32% cases were gravida 2, 33% cases were gravida 3 to 5. Gestational thrombocytopenia was the most common etiological factor with 30.1% cases, 27.2% cases due to hypertensive disorders, 18.4% cases due to malaria followed by 12.6% cases due to dengue. In the study group the mean gestational age was 33 +/- 5.139, maximum cases belonged to gestational age 30 to and #8805;40. 14 patients (14.1% had still births. 9 patients (8.7% had Neonatal deaths (NNDs. Conclusions: The challenge to the clinician is to weigh the risks of maternal and fetal bleeding complications against the benefits of diagnostic tests and interventions. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 947-951

  2. DNA-Based Vaccine Protects Against Zika in Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161959.html DNA-Based Vaccine Protects Against Zika in Animal Study ... In animals infected with Zika virus, the synthetic DNA-based vaccine was 100 percent effective in protecting ...

  3. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  4. Studying Quantum Phase-Based Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-15

    variety of different III-V material configurations, (4) and treat transient transport in silicon and germanium heterostructures. It is capable of studying...nonuniform field distribution may prevent the appearance of NDR . TRANSPORT IN ULTRA-SUBMICRON DEVICES The entire discussion of transport has been predicated...differential resistance. Indeed, the calculations .ugpt that it is the significantly reduced velocity at resonance that is resjponsible for NDR . The low

  5. Distribution Network Design--literature study based

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ang

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is companies' outbound distribution network design in supply chain management. Within the present competitive market, it is a fundamental importance for companies to achieve high level business performance with an effective supply chain. Outbound distribution network design as an important part in supply chain management, to a large extent decides whether companies can fulfill customers' requirement or not. Therefore, such a study is important for manufacturers and ...

  6. Perinatal mortality: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswaran, C; Bhatia, B D; Bhat, B V; Oumachigui, A

    1993-08-01

    Three thousand seven hundred and two deliveries between January and December, 1990 were the study subjects. The perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), stillbirth rate (SBR) and early neonatal death rates (ENDR) were found to be 57/1000, 35.1/1000 and 22.7/1000, respectively. The preterms had much higher PNMR, SBR and ENDR as compared to term babies. Term babies weighing > or = 2500 g had a PNMR of 18/1000. In preterm and term babies the mortality was reduced considerably with increase in birth weight (BW). The unbooked deliveries had significantly higher PNMR, SBR and ENDR compared to booked deliveries. The fall in PNMR compared to observations of a decade ago was due to a fall primarily in ENDR, with SBR remaining unchanged signifying failure of existing MCH set up. Nearly, 92% of ENDR were in first 72 hours which signifies the need for developing and strengthening the intensive care facilities along with timely referral of high risk mothers.

  7. Study of cluster headache: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bhargava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cluster headache (CH is uncommon and most painful of all primary headaches, and continues to be managed suboptimally because of wrong diagnosis. It needs to be diagnosed correctly and specifically treated. There are few studies and none from this region on CH. Materials and Methods: To study the detailed clinical profile of CH patients and to compare them among both the genders. Study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi hospital, Jodhpur (from January 2011to December 2013. Study comprises 30 CH patients diagnosed according to International Headache Society guidelines (ICHD-II. Routine investigations and MRI brain was done in all patients. All measurements were reported as mean ± SD. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test, and continuous variables were compared using Student′s t-test. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0, was used for statistical analyses with the significance level set at P = 0.05. Results: M: F ratio was 9:1. Age at presentation was from 22-60 years (mean - 38 years. Latency before diagnosis was 3 months-12 years (mean - 3.5 years. All suffered from episodic CH and aura was found in none. Pain was strictly unilateral (right-19, left-11, predominantly over temporal region-18 (60%. Pain intensity was severe in 27 (90% and moderate in 3 (10%. Pain quality was throbbing in 12 (40%. Peak intensity was reached in 5 minutes-30 minutes and attack duration varied from 30 minutes to 3 hours (mean - 2.45 hours. Among autonomic features, conjunctival injection-23 (76.6% and lacrimation-25 (83.3% were most common. Restlessness during episode was found in 80%. CH duration varied from 10 days to 12 weeks. Circadian periodicity for attacks was noted in 24 (80%. Conclusion: Results are consistent with other studies on many accounts, but is different from Western studies with respect to low frequency of family history, chronic CH, restlessness and aura preceeding the attack. Detailed elicitation of history is

  8. ANALISIS KESIAPAN PROGRAM STUDI DALAM PRODUCTION BASED EDUCATION: STUDI PADA PROGRAM STUDI D3 AKUNTANSI POLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Noor Ardiansah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clear studies to identify, verify and analyze readiness program resources in order to study the implementation of PBE resulted in initial position (existing point is not clear that the priority programs and activities that are carried out per year tend to be responsive and not directed priorities. These conditions resulted in analysis of resource readiness courses in the management of production-based learning pattern PBE draw conducted This study aims to identify and verify and analyze readiness resources management courses in the pattern of production based learning, particularly in the Accounting Studies Program. This research is expected to be used to increase the effectiveness of learning and vocational education to improve the quality and relevance of polytechnic graduates. Total score was 33 the existence of resources from the scale of 12-60. The average score is 2.75. The average score was shown the position of Prodi's resources have been used, but its role is unclear (repeatable tend to have clearly defined functions, communicated and documented (defined. Resources have been managed, monitored and evaluated well (managed are: curriculum resources, networking courses, lab facilities, ISO-based management. Resources have been used but not optimal role: resources module practice, the formulation of an internship, practice material / TA, the performance of IC-based lecturer

  9. STUDY& ANALYSIS OF CLOUD BASED ERP SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper is to explore the knowledge of the existing studies related to cloud computing current trend. The outcome of my work will be demonstrated in the form of diagram which will exemplify the ERP integration process for in-house and cloud eco-system. It will provide a conceptual view to the new client or entrepreneurs using ERP services and explain them how to deal with two stages of ERP systems (cloud and in-house. Also suggest how to improve knowledge about ERP services and implementation process for both stages. The work recommends which ERP services can be outsourced over the cloud. Cloud ERP is a mix of standard ERP services along with cloud flexibility and low cost to afford these services. This is a recent phenomenon in enterprise service offering. For most of non IT background entrepreneurs it is unclear and broad concept, since all the research work related to it are done in couple of years. Most of cloud ERP vendors describe their products as straight forward tasks. The process and selection of Cloud ERP Services and vendors is not clear. This research work draws a framework for selecting non-core business process from preferred ERP service partners. It also recommends which ERP services outsourced first over the cloud, and the security issues related to data or information moved out from company premises to the cloud eco-system.

  10. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on

  11. Corpus-based Study on English Synonym Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺倩静

    2014-01-01

    Corpus is widely used with the rapid development of corpus technology.This paper mainly introduces cor-pus-based study on English synonym discrimination which is effective in grasping English near synonyms. This cor-pus-based study may also give some implications on English learning.

  12. Arts-Based Self-Study: Documenting the Ripple Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Like all forms of inquiry, arts-based self-study research can have unexpected consequences. Although we may start out with a fairly clear objective, the data we generate through arts-based methods might address other questions that are even more important than the ones we thought to ask initially, and our study might have an impact that extends…

  13. Mendelian randomization study of B-type natriuretic peptide and type 2 diabetes: evidence of causal association from population studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pfister

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic and epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in blood and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but the prospective association of BNP with T2D is uncertain, and it is unclear whether the association is confounded. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed the association between levels of the N-terminal fragment of pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP in blood and risk of incident T2D in a prospective case-cohort study and genotyped the variant rs198389 within the BNP locus in three T2D case-control studies. We combined our results with existing data in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we compared the observed association between rs198389 and T2D to that expected from the NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association and the NT-pro-BNP difference per C allele of rs198389. In participants of our case-cohort study who were free of T2D and cardiovascular disease at baseline, we observed a 21% (95% CI 3%-36% decreased risk of incident T2D per one standard deviation (SD higher log-transformed NT-pro-BNP levels in analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of T2D, history of hypertension, and levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The association between rs198389 and T2D observed in case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.94 per C allele, 95% CI 0.91-0.97 was similar to that expected (0.96, 0.93-0.98 based on the pooled estimate for the log-NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association derived from a meta-analysis of our study and published data (hazard ratio = 0.82 per SD, 0.74-0.90 and the difference in NT-pro-BNP levels (0.22 SD, 0.15-0.29 per C allele of rs198389. No significant associations were observed between the rs198389 genotype and potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for a potential causal role of the BNP

  14. Suicide in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a population-based study of 36 788 Swedish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, L; Rydell, M; Runeson, B; D'Onofrio, B M; Brander, G; Rück, C; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H; Mataix-Cols, D

    2016-07-19

    The risk of death by suicide in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is largely unknown. Previous studies have been small and methodologically flawed. We analyzed data from the Swedish national registers to estimate the risk of suicide in OCD and identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behavior in this group. We used a matched case-cohort design to estimate the risk of deaths by suicide and attempted suicide in individuals diagnosed with OCD, compared with matched general population controls (1:10). Cox regression models were used to study predictors of suicidal behavior. We identified 36 788 OCD patients in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1969 and 2013. Of these, 545 had died by suicide and 4297 had attempted suicide. In unadjusted models, individuals with OCD had an increased risk of both dying by suicide (odds ratio (OR)=9.83 (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.72-11.08)) and attempting suicide (OR=5.45 (95% CI, 5.24-5.67)), compared with matched controls. After adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, the risk was reduced but remained substantial for both death by suicide and attempted suicide. Within the OCD cohort, a previous suicide attempt was the strongest predictor of death by suicide. Having a comorbid personality or substance use disorder also increased the risk of suicide. Being a woman, higher parental education and having a comorbid anxiety disorder were protective factors. We conclude that patients with OCD are at a substantial risk of suicide. Importantly, this risk remains substantial after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. Suicide risk should be carefully monitored in patients with OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 July 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.115.

  15. A Study on Task-based Language Teaching Syllabus Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振庆

    2013-01-01

      Task-based teaching syllabus becomes more and more popular in modern English teaching. It is widely used in the Eng⁃lish teaching from junior to senior high school and even to collage and university education. This paper is mainly studies the rele⁃vant research on task-based teaching syllabus and offers some tips on task-based syllabus design.

  16. Social Studies Teachers' Use of Classroom-Based and Web-Based Historical Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, David; Doolittle, Peter; Lee, John K.

    2004-01-01

    A limited body of research examines the extent to which social studies teachers are actually utilizing primary sources that are accessible in traditional classroom-based formats versus web-based formats. This paper initiates an exploration of this gap in the literature by reporting on the result of a survey of secondary social studies teachers,…

  17. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper assesses the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in articles published during the past 13 years, based on a synthesis of indicators for the quality criteria truth-value, transferability, and traceability. Design/methodology/approach – Content...

  18. Study on Knowledge -based Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Hydraulic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A general framework of hydraulic fault diagnosis system was studied. It consisted of equipment knowledge bases, real-time databases, fusion reasoning module, knowledge acquisition module and so on. A tree-structure model of fault knowledge was established. Fault nodes knowledge was encapsulated by object-oriented technique. Complete knowledge bases were made including fault bases and diagnosis bases. It could describe the fault positions, the structure of fault, cause-symptom relationships, diagnosis principles and other knowledge. Taking the fault of left and right lifting oil cylinder out of sync for example, the diagnostic results show that the methods were effective.

  19. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  20. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIEDJE, JAMES M; KONSTANTINIDIS, KOSTAS; WORDEN, MARK

    2014-01-08

    The aim of the work reported is to study Shewanella population genomics, and to understand the evolution, ecophysiology, and speciation of Shewanella. The tasks supporting this aim are: to study genetic and ecophysiological bases defining the core and diversification of Shewanella species; to determine gene content patterns along redox gradients; and to Investigate the evolutionary processes, patterns and mechanisms of Shewanella.

  1. Preface: Recent progress from networked studies based around MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Wayne K.; Lehmann, Volker; Singer, Werner; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere by radar, application of networks, and multi-instrument studies have grown significantly in recent years, and have covered a wide range of areas in technology, fundamental research, and application. This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics on "Recent progress from networked studies based around MST radar" focuses primarily on selected papers presented at the 13th International Workshops on Scientific and Technical Aspects of MST Radar (MST13).

  2. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies of novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi M. Marwani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines. Results of the newly synthesized compounds established by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and GC–MS spectroscopic experiments were consistent with their chemical structures. Resulted heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were found to be pure from data obtained by the elemental analysis. In addition, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies showed that these dyes were good absorbent and fluorescent. Fluorescence polarity study data revealed that some of these compounds were sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents. Time-based fluorescence steady-state measurements also showed that these heterocyclic Schiff base dyes have high photostability against photobleaching.

  3. Study and Implementation of MUX Based FPGA in QCA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N.Ganesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple Multiplexer based Field programmable gate arrays with interconnectsbased on quantum cellular automata technology. Quantum cellular automata (QCA technology is apromising nanotechnology of the future. QCA based 4:1 Multiplexer are designed and constructed as amodule in a FPGA. Multiplexer based designs are used to implement complex Boolean functions andeach module can act as a logic element or simple Multiplexer. We have studied here, NOR based logic toimplement Sum function of an adder in a QCA FPGA. Finally we have designed and simulated the MUXbased logic elements to construct QCA FPGA. This study can be useful for building complexConfigurable logic blocks to design a complete FPGA.

  4. Web-based versus lab-based studies: A response to Kendall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Reips, U.-D.

    2008-01-01

    While in an earlier commentary (Honing & Ladinig, 2008) we stressed the potential of Web-delivered experiments for music perception research, the ongoing discussion on Web-based versus lab-based studies seems to circle around issues of method and control (Mehler, 1999; Kendall, 2008). We agree with

  5. Syntheses and Structural Studies of Schiff Bases Involving Hydrogen Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    José Elguero; Rosa M. Claramunt; Dionisia Sanz; Almudena Perona

    2006-01-01

    New Schiff bases have been prepared by reacting 3-hydroxy-4-pyridine- carboxaldehyde with various amines. NMR spectroscopic methods provided clear evidence that the Schiff bases exist in the solid state and in solution as hydroxyimino tautomers with the E-configuration. A study of the stabilities of the tautomeric forms and the different conformers has been carried out using density functional calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. © 2006 by MDPI.

  6. Study of Emergency Power Based on Solar Battery Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lei; Zhu Mengfu; Chen Ping; Deng Cheng; Liu Zhimeng; Wang Yanan

    2016-01-01

    To study an emergency power based on solar battery charging. Based on the electric-generation principle of solar panel, solar energy is changed into electrical energy. Through voltage conversion circuit and filter circuit, electrical energy is stored in the energy storage battery. The emergency power realizes the conversion from solar energy to electrical energy. The battery control unit has the function of PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) charging, overcharging protection, over-discharging prote...

  7. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies of novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines. Results of the newly synthesized compounds established by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and GC–MS spectroscopic experiments were consistent with their chemical structures. Resulted heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were found to be pure from data obtained by the elemental analysis. In addition, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies showed that t...

  8. Study of systems and techniques for data base management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Data management areas were studied to identify pertinent problems and issues that will affect future NASA data users in terms of performance and cost. Specific topics discussed include the identifications of potential NASA data users other than those normally discussed, consideration affecting the clustering of minicomputers, low cost computer system for information retrieval and analysis, the testing of minicomputer based data base management systems, ongoing work related to the use of dedicated systems for data base management, and the problems of data interchange among a community of NASA data users.

  9. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false......-positive results and overdiagnosis. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that registers have proven to be a valuable tool in evaluating the effects of ongoing screening activities. As they cannot be systematically used to test new screening technologies, register-based studies should not be seen as an alternative...

  10. Mobile Phone Base Station Radiation Study for Addressing Public Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The proliferation of mobile phone base stations had increased concerns from the public on the radio frequency radiation hazards that might come from them. The world wide public concern involved health risk due to radio frequency radiation. In Malaysia also public interest has increased, although it is not as intense as probably in other parts of the world, but had also resulted in tearing down of a few base stations. Due to this growing concern, a study was conducted to evaluate the radio frequency radiation levels near several mobile phone base stations in two major cities in Malaysia. Approach: Measurements in terms of electric field strength, power density and specific absorption rate were made to check the exposure level at public locations. Broadband meter were first used to survey the sites near the base stations. From the survey, spots with relatively higher readings will be further investigated using narrow band measurements. The measured values were then compared with the recommended international maximum permissible exposure limit. Results: The study showed that the measured values were found to be less than 1% of the maximum permissible exposure. Conclusion: The amount of radio frequency radiation from the selected base stations in the two major cities are adhering to the international limits although the physical radio base station infrastructures spawning out everywhere in these areas may give the reverse impression.

  11. A STUDY ON IMPROVING INFORMATION PROCESSING ABILITIES BASED ON PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Gyu KIM,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing abilities. This research proposes a method for teaching information processing abilities based on a problem-based learning model, and was tested with elementary students. The students developed an improved ability to create new knowledge and to present relationships with information through the process of problem solving. This study performed experimental research by comparing pre- and post-tests with twenty-three fifth grade elementary students over the course of eight months. This study produced a remarkable improvement in information selection, information reliability, information classification, information analysis, information comparison, and information internalization. This study presents an improved methodology for the teaching of information processing abilities.

  12. Ab initio Study of Naptho-Homologated DNA Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro [ORNL; Huertas, Oscar [Universitat de Barcelona; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Orozco, Modesto [Institut de Recerca Biomedica, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Luque, Javier [Universitat de Barcelona

    2008-01-01

    Naptho-homologated DNA bases have been recently used to build a new type of size expanded DNA known as yyDNA. We have used theoretical techniques to investigate the structure, tautomeric preferences, base-pairing ability, stacking interactions, and HOMO-LUMO gaps of the naptho-bases. The structure of these bases is found to be similar to that of the benzo-fused predecessors (y-bases) with respect to the planarity of the aromatic rings and amino groups. Tautomeric studies reveal that the canonical-like form of naptho-thymine (yyT) and naptho-adenine (yyA) are the most stable tautomers, leading to hydrogen-bonded dimers with the corresponding natural nucleobases that mimic the Watson-Crick pairing. However, the canonical-like species of naptho-guanine (yyG) and naptho-cytosine (yyC) are not the most stable tautomers, and the most favorable hydrogen-bonded dimers involve wobble-like pairings. The expanded size of the naphto-bases leads to stacking interactions notably larger than those found for the natural bases, and they should presumably play a dominant contribution in modulating the structure of yyDNA duplexes. Finally, the HOMO-LUMO gap of the naptho-bases is smaller than that of their benzo-base counterparts, indicating that size-expansion of DNA bases is an efficient way of reducing their HOMO-LUMO gap. These results are examined in light of the available experimental evidence reported for yyT and yyC.

  13. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  14. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  15. The Study of Telecommunication Industry Based on the Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ning; LIANG Xiong-jian

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the telecommunication industry from the view points of the ecosystem ecology, in order to gain the beneficial revelation, such as the more effective management method and the approach to enhance the competitive advantage. On the basis of analyzing the comparability and the difference between the telecommunication industry and the natural ecosystem, the approach, principle and content of the study of telecommunication industry based on the ecosystem are discussed.

  16. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using analytic

  17. A Usability Study of Interactive Web-Based Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2011-01-01

    This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the…

  18. Studying the User Experience of a Tablet Based Math Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri; Koivisto, Antti; Finn, Enda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first findings from Math Elements user experience (UX) studies. Math Elements is a game that makes the whole Finnish maths K-2 curriculum (kindergarten and primary school grades 1 and 2) available for players all over the world. The game is based on teachable agent approach, which means that in the game players can teach…

  19. Project-Based Learning in Electronic Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    A case study of project-based learning (PBL) implemented in Tianjin University of Technology and Education is presented. This multidiscipline project is innovated to meet the novel requirements of industry while keeping its traditional effectiveness in driving students to apply knowledge to practice and problem-solving. The implementation of PBL…

  20. Computer-Based Information Services in Medicine: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, P. H.; And Others

    The objectives of this study were to examine the need and potential demand for computer-based information services in the University of Otago medical libraries, to evaluate the various databases of interest, and to recommend the best means of access to such services. Data were collected through user and library surveys, an extensive literature…

  1. [The study of noninvasive ventilator impeller based on ANSYS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Pan; Xie, Haiming; Zhou, Yaxu

    2011-06-01

    An impeller plays a significant role in the non-invasive ventilator. This paper shows a model of impeller for noninvasive ventilator established with the software Solidworks. The model was studied for feasibility based on ANSYS. Then stress and strain of the impeller were discussed under the external loads. The results of the analysis provided verification for the reliable design of impellers.

  2. Explorations in Using Arts-Based Self-Study Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2010-01-01

    Research methods courses typically require students to conceptualize, describe, and present their research ideas in writing. In this article, the author describes her exploration in using arts-based techniques for teaching research to support the development of students' self-study research projects. The pedagogical approach emerged from the…

  3. Construction Material-Based Methodology for Military Contingency Base Construction: Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Nigerians believe that the initial feasibility work was improperly conducted. One of the main feasibility studies was conducted with the in- tent to import...Military Contingency Base Construction Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry...Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Patrick J. Guertin, George W. Calfas, Michael K. Valentino, and Ghassan K. Al-Chaar Construction Engineering

  4. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  5. Recent developments in microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiandong; Wu, Xun; Lin, Francis

    2013-07-07

    Microfluidic devices can better control cellular microenvironments compared to conventional cell migration assays. Over the past few years, microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies showed a rapid growth. New strategies were developed to explore cell migration in manipulated chemical gradients. In addition to expanding the use of microfluidic devices for a broader range of cell types, microfluidic devices were used to study cell migration and chemotaxis in complex environments. Furthermore, high-throughput microfluidic chemotaxis devices and integrated microfluidic chemotaxis systems were developed for medical and commercial applications. In this article, we review recent developments in microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies and discuss the new trends in this field observed over the past few years.

  6. Similarity and Difference in Corpus-based Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies has grown considerably over the past fifteen years or so. This paper appraises the uniformity and diversity of descriptive corpus studies of translation in terms of divergent similarity, as intended by Andrew Chesterman (1996, 2004a, 2006). The analysis focuses on the state of the art of research into translation universals, highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of current investigations and their contribution to the progress of the discipline as a whole. The general framework proposed by Chesterman is also used to introduce an envisaged study of Anglicisms whose aim is twofold: to unveil the translation-specific lexical primings of English loan genre.

  7. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  8. Study of chaos based on a hierarchical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2001-12-01

    Study of chaos based on a hierarchical model is briefly reviewed. Here we categorize hierarchical model equations, i.e., (1) a model with a few degrees of freedom, e.g., the Lorenz model, (2) a model with intermediate degrees of freedom like a shell model, and (3) a model with many degrees of freedom such as a Navier-Stokes equation. We discuss the nature of chaos and turbulence described by these models via Lyapunov exponents. The interpretation of results observed in fundamental plasma experiments is also shown based on a shell model. (author)

  9. Study on spinel-based inert anode for aluminium electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hot press-sintering was adopted to fabricate inert cermets anodes based on the nickel aluminate and nickel ferrite for use in aluminum electrolysis research. The density of samples, fabricated by hot pressing, is close to the theoretic density. At 900℃, the electrical conductivity of the periments. Effect of anode current on nickel ferrite-based and the reason for it were studied. A theory is that a more uniform metal distribution by improving the hot pressing process gives increased corrosion resistance of the anode.

  10. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  11. Evidence-based practice: reflections from five European case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Juan I; Fraser, Alec; Boaz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the accepted orthodoxy in clinical practice and developed from evidence-based medicine. EBP is based on a specific type of evidence that is derived from studies based on randomised controlled trials (RCT). This type of evidence is suited to acute medical care and is more problematic for other clinicians such as nurses and therapists, particularly when they are situated within community or primary care settings. Setting Five stroke care services in England (2), Sweden (2) and Poland (1). Aims To reflect on the evidence gained from these case studies to shed light on various aspects of EBP. This paper focuses on three key issues: (1) the importance of context for evidence, (2) the nature of knowledge, and (3) professional hierarchies. Methods Five qualitative case studies into stroke care were carried out in England, Sweden and Poland. One hundred and twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of healthcare staff who provided specialised and non-specialised stroke care in acute, community and primary care between October 2010 and September 2011. Medical doctors, nurses and different therapists were included in the samples in all five case studies. For this paper, we reflect on some aspects of this work to illuminate the different interprofessional perspectives relating to EBP in stroke care. Results The lack of RCT-based evidence in the community and primary care sectors can lead to the clinicians working in these sectors being perceived as having a lower status. Clinicians use both tacit and encoded knowledge to guide their practice and there existed both intraand interprofessional tensions in these two types of knowledge. The professional hierarchy of stroke teams varies with national context and the role of the non-specialists is less valued in stroke care.

  12. Content-based versus semantic-based retrieval: an LIDC case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabon, Sarah A.; Raicu, Daniela S.; Furst, Jacob D.

    2009-02-01

    Content based image retrieval is an active area of medical imaging research. One use of content based image retrieval (CBIR) is presentation of known, reference images similar to an unknown case. These comparison images may reduce the radiologist's uncertainty in interpreting that case. It is, therefore, important to present radiologists with systems whose computed-similarity results correspond to human perceived-similarity. In our previous work, we developed an open-source CBIR system that inputs a computed tomography (CT) image of a lung nodule as a query and retrieves similar lung nodule images based on content-based image features. In this paper, we extend our previous work by studying the relationships between the two types of retrieval, content-based and semantic-based, with the final goal of integrating them into a system that will take advantage of both retrieval approaches. Our preliminary results on the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset using four types of image features, seven radiologists' rated semantic characteristics and two simple similarity measures show that a substantial number of nodules identified as similar based on image features are also identified as similar based on semantic characteristics. Furthermore, by integrating the two types of features, the similarity retrieval improves with respect to certain nodule characteristics.

  13. AUV-Based Plume Tracking: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awantha Jayasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation study of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV navigation system operating in a GPS-denied environment. The AUV navigation method makes use of underwater transponder positioning and requires only one transponder. A multirate unscented Kalman filter is used to determine the AUV orientation and position by fusing high-rate sensor data and low-rate information. The paper also proposes a gradient-based, efficient, and adaptive novel algorithm for plume boundary tracking missions. The algorithm follows a centralized approach and it includes path optimization features based on gradient information. The proposed algorithm is implemented in simulation on the AUV-based navigation system and successful boundary tracking results are obtained.

  14. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach.

  15. Problem-based learning in optical engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the most prospective educational technologies. PBL is based on evaluation of learning outcomes of a student, both professional and personal, instead of traditional evaluation of theoretical knowledge and selective practical skills. Such an approach requires changes in the curricula development. There should be introduced projects (cases) imitating real tasks from the professional life. These cases should include a problem summary with necessary theoretic description, charts, graphs, information sources etc, task to implement and evaluation indicators and criteria. Often these cases are evaluated with the assessment-center method. To motivate students for the given task they could be divided into groups and have a contest. Whilst it looks easy to implement in social, economic or teaching fields PBL is pretty complicated in engineering studies. Examples of cases in the first-cycle optical engineering studies are shown in this paper. Procedures of the PBL implementation and evaluation are described.

  16. Optical studies of shock generated transient supersonic base flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, P.-Y.; Bershader, D.; Wray, A.

    1982-01-01

    A shock tube employing interferometric and schlieren techniques is used to study transient base flow phenomena following shock wave passage over two plane bluff bodies: a hemicircular cylinder and a cylinder with the Galileo Jovian probe profile. An attempt is made to understand the physics of transition from transient to steady state flow, and to provide code verification for a study employing the Illiac IV computer. Transient base flow interactions include a series of shock diffraction, regular, and Mach reflections, coupled with boundary layer development, separation, and recompression. Vorticity generation and transport underlie these features. The quantitative verification of the computer code includes comparisons of transient pressure and density fields, near wake geometries, and bow shock standoff distances.

  17. Case Studies in Agnotology-Based Learning (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Bedford, D. P.; Mandia, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Agnotology is the study of how and why ignorance or misconceptions exist. While misconceptions are a challenge for educators, they also present an opportunity to improve climate literacy through agnotology-based learning. This involves refutational lessons that challenge misconceptions while teaching scientific concepts. I will summarize two decades of research that find refutational texts are among the most effective forms of reducing misconceptions. I will present case studies in improving climate literacy through agnotology-based learning, both in the college classroom and in public outreach promoted through mainstream and social media. I will also explore how content from the SkepticalScience.com website is being used by educators as a teaching resource. These real-world examples demonstrate effective ways to reduce misperceptions and improve climate literacy.

  18. Fuzzy-based HAZOP study for process industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junkeon; Chang, Daejun

    2016-11-05

    This study proposed a fuzzy-based HAZOP for analyzing process hazards. Fuzzy theory was used to express uncertain states. This theory was found to be a useful approach to overcome the inherent uncertainty in HAZOP analyses. Fuzzy logic sharply contrasted with classical logic and provided diverse risk values according to its membership degree. Appropriate process parameters and guidewords were selected to describe the frequency and consequence of an accident. Fuzzy modeling calculated risks based on the relationship between the variables of an accident. The modeling was based on the mean expected value, trapezoidal fuzzy number, IF-THEN rules, and the center of gravity method. A cryogenic LNG (liquefied natural gas) testing facility was the objective process for the fuzzy-based and conventional HAZOPs. The most significant index is the frequency to determine risks. The comparison results showed that the fuzzy-based HAZOP provides better sophisticated risks than the conventional HAZOP. The fuzzy risk matrix presents the significance of risks, negligible risks, and necessity of risk reduction.

  19. Burning Rate Studies of Energetic Double Base Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out on the combustion characteristics of CMDB propellants containing ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, RDX and PETN. While ammonium and potassium perchlorates increased burning rates, other additives maintained either the same burning rate or reduced burning rates marginally. Propellants containing these additives showed marginally higher peak temperatures, indicating interaction among the species of double base propellant decomposition and those of additives.

  20. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  1. Optical and magnetization studies on europium based iron pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapf, Sina Maria Ute

    2015-07-01

    The investigations carried out in the framework of this thesis mainly concentrate on europium based iron pnictides. These are a peculiar member of the 122 family as they develop at low temperatures (∝20K) an additional magnetic order of the local rare earth moments. Therefore, europium based iron pnictides provide a unique platform to study the interplay of structural, magnetic and electronic effects in high-temperature superconductors. For this challenging purpose, we have employed SQUID magnetometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy on EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} single crystals. By systematic studies of the in- and out-of-plane magnetic properties of a series of single crystals, we derived the complex magnetic phase diagram of europium based iron pnictides, which contains an A-type antiferromagnetic and a re-entrant spin glass phase. Furthermore, we have investigated the magneto-optical properties of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, revealing a much more complex magnetic detwinning process than expected. These studies demonstrate a remarkable interdependence between magnetic, electronic and structural effects that might be very important to understand the unconventional superconductivity in these fascinating materials.

  2. A study on the effect of performance based budgeting using activity based cost method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Mohammadipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, management of funds in different governmental organizations plays essential role in accessing desirable objectives and in controlling operations efficiently and effectively. Performance-based budgeting (PBB is the practice of developing budgets based on the relationship between planned funding levels and anticipated results from the plan. The performance-based budgeting process is a technique where the administrators can apply to manage more cost-efficient and effective budgeting programs. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find out whether it is possible to apply PBB in various Iranian municipalities or not. The proposed study detects different barriers in terms of strategy, execution and monitoring through a questionnaire and investigations whether removing the important trouble making issues could help management team apply PBB with an adaptation of activity based cost method or net. The results indicate that management of some Iranian municipalities could successfully implement PBB within organization when major barriers are removed.

  3. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  4. Simulation Based Studies in Software Engineering: A Matter of Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bernard Nicolau de França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible lack of validity when compared with other science areas, Simulation-Based Studies (SBS in Software Engineering (SE have supported the achievement of some results in the field. However, as it happens with any other sort of experimental study, it is important to identify and deal with threats to validity aiming at increasing their strength and reinforcing results confidence. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential threats to SBS validity in SE and suggest ways to mitigate them. METHOD: To apply qualitative analysis in a dataset resulted from the aggregation of data from a quasi-systematic literature review combined with ad-hoc surveyed information regarding other science areas. RESULTS: The analysis of data extracted from 15 technical papers allowed the identification and classification of 28 different threats to validity concerned with SBS in SE according Cook and Campbell’s categories. Besides, 12 verification and validation procedures applicable to SBS were also analyzed and organized due to their ability to detect these threats to validity. These results were used to make available an improved set of guidelines regarding the planning and reporting of SBS in SE. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation based studies add different threats to validity when compared with traditional studies. They are not well observed and therefore, it is not easy to identify and mitigate all of them without explicit guidance, as the one depicted in this paper.

  5. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHabekost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: The visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a neglect and simultanagnosia, (b reading disturbances, (c aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  6. Discrete Surface Modeling Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong

    2012-01-01

    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological, geophysical and geographical modeling; yet GE can be accepted to acquire elevation data of terrain. In this paper, we present a real study case of building the discrete surface model (DSM) at Haut-Barr Castle in France based on the elevation data of terrain points extracted from GE using the COM API. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr Castle and determine the region of the study area, then extract elevation data of terrain at Haut-Barr, and thirdly create a planar triangular mesh that covers the study area and finally generate the desired DSM by calculating the elevation of vertices in the planar mesh via interpolating with Universal Kriging (UK) and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW). The generated DSM can reflect the features of the ground surface at Haut-Barr well, and can be used for constructingthe Sealed Engineering Geological Model (SEGM) in further step.

  7. A simulation based engineering method to support HAZOP studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Cameron, David; Angelo, Per Bagge

    2012-01-01

    the conventional HAZOP procedure. The method systematically generates failure scenarios by considering process equipment deviations with pre-defined failure modes. The effect of failure scenarios is then evaluated using dynamic simulations -in this study the K-Spice® software used. The consequences of each failure......HAZOP is the most commonly used process hazard analysis tool in industry, a systematic yet tedious and time consuming method. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of process dynamic simulations to facilitate the HAZOP studies. We propose a simulation-based methodology to complement...... scenario are summarized using a sensitivity measure, which forms the basis for ranking the significance of failure scenarios. The ranking then reveals the most critical process parameters as well as equipment in a system. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of gasreinjection process...

  8. Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunoh; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated findings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this field.

  9. Study on Performance of Remanufactured Engine Based on EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ying-feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the non-stationary property of vibration signal, the vibration signal is decomposed by empirical mode decomposition (EMD. And this method is applied to study the remanufacturing level of engine. Based on the decomposition of vibration signal, correlation coefficient is introduced to study the correlation between IMF (Intrinsic Mode Function components and original signal, and dynamic structure of IMF components is analyzed by correlation dimension. In order to study the remanufacturing level of engine, correlation coefficient and correlation dimension are considered in the function of IMF, and an index of vibration intensity is proposed. A corresponding relationship is established between remanufacturing level and vibration intensity. This method has been proved that the running state of engine can be reflected by vibration intensity, and this index can be used to evaluate the remanufacturing level of engine.

  10. An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72 months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244

  11. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  12. Redefining delusion based on studies of subjective paranormal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houran, James; Lange, Rense

    2004-04-01

    The DSM-IV definition of delusion is argued to be unsatisfactory because it does not explain the mechanism for delusion formation and maintenance, it implies that such beliefs are necessarily dysfunctional (pathological), it underestimates the social component to some delusions, and it is inconsistent with research indicating that delusions can be modified through techniques such as contradiction, confrontation, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, a well-replicated mathematical model of magical/delusional thinking based on a study of paranormal beliefs and experiences is consistent with the hypothesis that attributional processes play a central role in delusion formation and maintenance. The model suggests attributional processes serve the adaptive function of reducing fear associated with ambiguous stimuli and delusional thinking is on a continuum with nonpathological forms. Based on this collective research an amendment to the definition of delusion is proposed and its clinical implications are addressed.

  13. Studies of oceanic tectonics based on GEOS-3 satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehls, K. A.; Kaula, W. M.; Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1979-01-01

    Using statistical analysis, geoidal admittance (the relationship between the ocean geoid and seafloor topography) obtained from GEOS-3 altimetry was compared to various model admittances. Analysis of several altimetry tracks in the Pacific Ocean demonstrated a low coherence between altimetry and seafloor topography except where the track crosses active or recent tectonic features. However, global statistical studies using the much larger data base of all available gravimetry showed a positive correlation of oceanic gravity with topography. The oceanic lithosphere was modeled by simultaneously inverting surface wave dispersion, topography, and gravity data. Efforts to incorporate geoid data into the inversion showed that the base of the subchannel can be better resolved with geoid rather than gravity data. Thermomechanical models of seafloor spreading taking into account differing plate velocities, heat source distributions, and rock rheologies were discussed.

  14. Study of Emergency Power Based on Solar Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study an emergency power based on solar battery charging. Based on the electric-generation principle of solar panel, solar energy is changed into electrical energy. Through voltage conversion circuit and filter circuit, electrical energy is stored in the energy storage battery. The emergency power realizes the conversion from solar energy to electrical energy. The battery control unit has the function of PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation charging, overcharging protection, over-discharging protection and over-current protection. It also realizes the fast and safe charging of energy storage battery. The emergency power could provide both 12V AC power for emergency equipment such as miniature PSA oxygen concentrator and 5V USB for electronic equipment (mobile phone, GPS device, rechargeable light, etc..

  15. Study on Singularity of Chaotic Signal Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Rong-yi

    2006-01-01

    Based on the variations of wavelet transform modulus maxima at multi-scales,the singularity of chaotic signals are studied,and the singularity of these signals are measured by the Lipschitz exponent.In the meantime,a nonlinear method is proposed based on the higher order statistics,on the other aspect,which characterizes the higher order singular spectrum (HOSS) of chaotic signals.All computations are done with Lorenz attractor,Rossler attractor and EEG (electroencephalogram) time series and the comparisions among these results are made.The experimental results show that the Lipschitz exponents and the higher order singular spectra of these signals are significantly different from each other,which indicates these methods are effective for studing the singularity of chaotic signals.

  16. Metallomics insights for in vivo studies of metal based nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    With the rapid development of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and wide biomedical applications for new types of multifunctional NMs, an understanding of the behavior patterns of NMs in vivo and clarification of their potential health impact as a result of their novel physicochemical properties is essential for ensuring safety in biomedical applications of nanotechnology. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics in that they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and present phase transformation, dissolution, oxidation/reduction as well as nano-bio interface reactions in biological milieu, which affect their in vivo behaviors and biological effects. The accurate study of identification, quantification, transformation state of NMs and their biological effects in vivo remains a challenge. This review aims to provide a "metallomics" (an integrated metal-assisted function bioscience) insight into the in vivo behavior and biological effects of NMs, particularly for metal-based nanomaterials (MNMs) and is based mainly on our own research and other previous works.

  17. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Approaches to Study GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute one of the most studied proteins leading to important discoveries and perspectives in terms of their biology and implication in physiology and pathophysiology. This is mostly linked to the remarkable advances in the development and application of the biophysical resonance energy transfer (RET)-based approaches, including bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BRET and FRET, respectively). Indeed, BRET and FRET have been extensively applied to study different aspects of GPCR functioning such as their activation and regulation either statically or dynamically, in real-time and intact cells. Consequently, our view on GPCRs has considerably changed opening new challenges for the study of GPCRs in their native tissues in the aim to get more knowledge on how these receptors control the biological responses. Moreover, the technological aspect of this field of research promises further developments for robust and reliable new RET-based assays that may be compatible with high-throughput screening as well as drug discovery programs.

  18. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Christensen, Jane; Wallin, Håkan;

    2008-01-01

    polymorphism and factors, which modify an inflammatory response, such as smoking status, duration, and intensity, and use of NSAID. The functional SNPs IL-1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A, IL10 C-592T, COX2 C8473T, COX2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala were included. A case-cohort study including 428 lung...

  19. STUDY OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS ON MICROCHIP BASED ON MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangMing; LiWei; 等

    2002-01-01

    Using a standard photolithographical procedure,chenmical wet etching and thermal diffusion bonding technology,a chemical analysis device for Capillary Electrophoresis(CE) has been microfabricated on a planar glass substrate with a cross-column geometry.The channels on the microchip substrate are about 50um deep and 150um wide.By employing amino acids derived from 2,4-DiNitroFluoroBenzen(DNFB) on CE chip channels,the sample manipulating system is studied based on the principle of electrodynamics.

  20. Game Mechanic based E-Learning: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a case study of Game Mechanic based E-Learning. This is put forward as a new approach to E-Learning that tries to mimic games to harness some of their motivational properties. A prototype system was developed as a web application, using an Agile and Lean development approach.The system was evaluated with a class at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.This was done to give an indication of the system's ability to make work with exercises more engaging a...

  1. Study on Building Lifecycle Information Management Platform Based on BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM and building lifecycle management (BLM, proposed for the realization of building lifecycle information exchange and sharing, play a crucial role in the research and development fields of construction information integration and interoperability. This study, from an information technology point of view, based on BLM and BIM technology and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC standard, proposes the concept, frame and realization method of Building Lifecycle Management Platform (BLMP. This BLMP presents a practical and effective way to realize information creating, exchange, sharing and integration management of all participants of the construction project.

  2. Study of ionization losses in He-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, E; Dal Corso, F; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Buccheri, A; Ferroni, F; Lacava, F; Lamanna, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pastore, F C; Piredda, G; Pontecorvo, L

    1999-01-01

    Helium based gas mixtures are particularly interesting since they have a good tracking resolution because of the reduced multiple scattering. We have studied the differential energy loss dE/dx in several mixtures, He-isobutane and He-ethane. We present results from measurements performed with electrons, pions and protons in the momentum range between 1 and 5 GeV/c obtained in a prototype drift chamber with a 3 cm cell. The results show that helium performs well in measuring energy losses for charged particles.

  3. Leptomeningeal disease in oligodendroglial tumors: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this population-based study, we determined the frequency and clinical characteristics of leptomeningeal disease (LMD) developing in the context of oligodendroglial tumors (oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas). LMD occurred in only 3.9% (8/204) of oligodendroglial tumors and in patients with more recurrences [mean 2.88 vs. 1.27 in LMD and non-LMD, respectively (p = 0.001)]. In contrast to LMD from systemic solid tumors, the median survival following the diagnosis of LMD in oligodendrog...

  4. STUDY OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS ON MICROCHIP BASED ON MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ming; Li Wei; Han Jinghong; Cui Dafu

    2002-01-01

    Using a standard photolithographical procedure, chemical wet etching and thermal diffusion bonding technology, a chemical analysis device for Capillary Electrophoresis(CE) has been microfabricated on a planar glass substrate with a cross-column geometry. The channels on the microchip substrate are about 50μm deep and 150μm wide. By employing amino acids derived from 2,4-DiNitroFluoroBenzen (DNFB) on CE chip channels, the sample manipulating system is studied based on the principle of electrodynamics.

  5. A Specification—Based Case Study from Test Class Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULing; MIAOHuai-kou

    2001-01-01

    Testing is a standard method for verification of software performance.Producing efficinet and appropriate test case is an important aspect in testing.Specification-based testing presents a method to derive test data from software specification.Because of the precision and concision of specification.the test data derived from specification can test the software efficiently and entirely.This paper demonstrates a test class framework(TCF) on a file reading case study,specifiec using Z notation,This class framework defines test case sets,providing structure to the testing process.Flexbility is preserved so that many testing strategies can be used.

  6. Lack of association between the tagging SNP A+930-->G of SOCS3 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of four independent study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Fischer-Rosinsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3 provides a link between cytokine action and their negative consequences on insulin signalling. Thus SOCS3 is a potential candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on HapMap we identified the polymorphism A+930-->G (rs4969168 as a haplotype tagging SNP (htSNP sufficiently covering the genetic variation of the whole gene. We therefore examined the association between rs4969168 within SOCS3 and T2DM in three independent study populations; one prospective case-cohort study and two cross-sectional study populations. Due to the low frequency of individuals being homozygous for the polymorphism a dominant model of inheritance was assumed. The case-cohort study with 2,957 individuals (764 of them with incident T2DM showed no effect of the polymorphism on diabetes risk (hazard ratio (95%CI: 0.86 (0.66-1.13; p = 0.3. Within the MeSyBePo-study population 325 subjects had T2DM from a total of 1,897 individuals, while the second cross-sectional cohort included 851 cases of T2DM within a total of 1653 subjects. According to the results in the prospective study, no association with T2DM was found (odds ratio (95%CI: 0.78 (0.54-1.12 for MesyBepo and 1.13 (0.90-1.42 for the Leipzig study population. There was also no association with metabolic subtraits such as insulin sensitivity (p = 0.7, insulin secretion (p = 0.8 or the hyperbolic relation of both, the disposition index (p = 0.7. In addition, no evidence for interaction with BMI or sex was found. We subsequently performed a meta-analysis, additionally including the publicly available data from the T2DM-subcohort of the WTCCC (n = 4,855. The overall odds ratio within that meta-analysis was 0.96 (0.88-1.06. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is no strong effect of the common genetic variation within the SOCS3 gene on the development of T2DM.

  7. Feasibility study of a soil-based rubberized CLSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Y; Tsai, Mufan

    2009-02-01

    The development of beneficial uses of recycled scrap tires is always in great demand around the world. The disposal of on-site surplus excavated soil and the production of standard engineering aggregates have also been facing increasing environmental and ecological challenges in congested islands, such as Taiwan. This paper presents an experimental study using recycled crumb rubber and native silty sand to produce a lightweight, soil-based, rubberized controlled low strength material (CLSM) for a bridge approach repair. To assess the technical feasibility of this material, the effects of weight ratios of cement-to-water (C/W) and water-to-solid (W/S), and of rubber content on the engineering properties for different mixtures were investigated. The presented test results include flowability, unit weight, strength, settlement potential, and bearing capacity. Based on the findings, we conclude that a soil-based rubberized CLSM with 40% sand by weight and an optimal design ratio of 0.7 for C/W and 0.35 for W/S can be used for the proposed bridge approach repair. Such a mixture has demonstrated acceptable flowability, strength, and bearing capacity. Its lower unit weight, negligible compressibility, and hydrocollapse potential also help ensure that detrimental settlement is unlikely to occur. The results illustrate a novel scheme of CLSM production, and suggest a beneficial alternative for the reduction of scrap tires as well as conservation of resources and environment.

  8. Sitewide feasibility study Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Lanigan, D.C.; Josephson, G.B.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    The Sitewide Feasibility Study (FS) is required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB). It is based on findings presented in the Sitewide Remedial Investigation (RI) Report (USAF 1995a), and the Sitewide Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) Report (USAF 1995b). Under the FFA, 64 potential source areas were placed in one of six operable units, based on similar contaminant and environmental characteristics, or were included for evaluation under a Source Evaluation Report (SER). The sitewide RI was directed at contamination that was not confined to an operable unit (OU) or SER source area. The objectives of the sitewide RI were to: Provide information about site characteristics to support individual OU RI/FS efforts and the sitewide RI/FS, including site hydrogeology and determination of background soil and groundwater characteristics; identify and characterize contamination that is not confined or attributable to a specific source area through sitewide monitoring of groundwater and surface water; evaluate cumulative risks to human health and the environment from contamination on a sitewide basis; and provide a mechanism for continued cohesive sitewide monitoring.

  9. Biodegradation study of some food packaging biopolymers based on PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Elisabeta Tanase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymers are a common choice as protective materials since they combine flexibility, variable sizes and shapes, relatively light weight, stability, resistance to breaking, barrier properties and perceived high-quality image with cost-effectiveness. Currently, mainly non-biodegradable petroleum-based synthetic polymers are used as packaging materials for foods, because of their availability, low cost and functionality. However, biopolymers can be made from renewable resources without the environmental issues of petroleum-based polymers and with the additional advantage of being available from renewable sources or as by-products or waste-products from the food and agriculture industries. The aim of this study was to test some food packaging biopolymers based on PVA. In this respect, some biopolymers for food packaging applications were subjected to biodegradation tests by covering the tested samples with soil. The samples were incubated in known temperature and humidity conditions. The experiment lasted 45 days, after that the samples were washed, weighed and the biodegradation degree was calculated. The obtained results shows that PVA is a promising material for food packaging usage, as it is made from renewable resources and it is environmentally friendly.

  10. Rorschach measures of aggression: a laboratory-based validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Swan, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's ( 2003 ) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's ( 1992 ) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35 undergraduate males with an average age of 19.38 (SD = 2.11), this study found that only AgC was positively associated with in vivo aggression (r = .40, p = .02). None of the Rorschach measures of aggression were significantly associated with self-reported violence history, although there were several trends approaching significance. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  11. Study of Coal Mine Ventilation System Optimization based on Ventsim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the situation of too large coal mine ventilation resistance in the Majiagou coal mine. According to Majiagou coal mine late production plans, it measures resistance comprehensively, analyses the resistance distributions and the problems exist in the ventilation systems and comes up with targeted optimization programs. By studying the ventilation system model, as well as adjusting the system parameters, Ventsim software is applied to study ventilation system in Majiagou coal mine. Design of mine ventilation is proved practical in the mine ventilation system optimizations, thus Ventsim software can not only be used in the ventilation network calculation and merry-demand simulation and dynamic of wind flow, but also can be used to assist in the short-term and long-term planning for ventilation system, it is of a certain significance of guidance to find the problems in the mine management and optimizations of the ventilation network.

  12. A STUDY OF THE INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR BASED ON BEHAVIORAL FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  13. Frame semantics-based study of verbs across medical genres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandji Tchami, Ornella; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The field of medicine gathers actors with different levels of expertise. These actors must interact, although their mutual understanding is not always completely successful. We propose to study corpora (with high and low levels of expertise) in order to observe their specificities. More specifically, we perform a contrastive analysis of verbs, and of the syntactic and semantic features of their participants, based on the Frame Semantics framework and the methodology implemented in FrameNet. In order to achieve this, we use an existing medical terminology to automatically annotate the semantics classes of participants of verbs, which we assume are indicative of semantics roles. Our results indicate that verbs show similar or very close semantics in some contexts, while in other contexts they behave differently. These results are important for studying the understanding of medical information by patients and for improving the communication between patients and medical doctors.

  14. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  15. Feasibility study of multipoint based laser alignment system for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Mainaud-Durand, H; Piedigrossi, D; Geiger, A

    2012-01-01

    CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is a study for a future electron-positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities oftoday’s particle accelerators. Alignment is one of the major challenges within the CLIC study in order to achieve the high requirement of a multi-TeV center of mass colliding beam energy range (nominal 3 TeV). To reach this energy in a realistic and cost efficient scenario all accelerator components have to be aligned with an accuracy of 10 μm over a sliding window of 200 m. The demand for a straight line reference is so far based on stretched wires coupled with Wire Positioning Sensors (WPS). These solutions are currently further developed inorder to reduce the drawbacks which are mainly given by their costs and difficult implementation. However, it should be validated through inter-comparison with a solution ideally based on a different physical principle. Therefore, a new metrological approach is proposed using a laser beam as straight lin...

  16. Amidated pectin based hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and cytocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R K; Singhal, J P; Datt, M; Banthia, A K

    2007-01-01

    The design and development of pectin-based hydrogels were attempted through the chemical modification of pectin with diethanolamine (DA). Diethanolamine modified pectin (DAMP) was synthesized by the chemical modification of pectin with varying concentrations of DA (1:1,1:2,1:3 and 1:4) at 5 oC in methanol. The modified product was used for the preparation of the hydrogel with glutaraldehyde (GA) reagent. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; organic elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and swelling, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility studies of the prepared hydrogels were also done. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands. The XRD pattern of the DAMP hydrogel clearly indicated that there was a considerable increase in crystallinity as compared to parent pectin. The degree of amidation (DA) and molar and mass reaction yields (Ym and Yn) was calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis. Drug release studies from the hydrogel membranes were also evaluated in a Franz's diffusion cell. The hydrogels demonstrated good water holding properties and were found to be compatible with B-16 melanoma cells and human blood.

  17. PREVALENCE OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES: A COMMUNITY BASED LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  18. Graphene base heterojunction transistor: An explorative study on device potential, optimization, and base parasitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lecce, Valerio; Grassi, Roberto; Gnudi, Antonio; Gnani, Elena; Reggiani, Susanna; Baccarani, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    The Graphene-Base Heterojunction Transistor (GBHT) is a novel device concept with a high potential for analog high-frequency RF operation, in which the current is due to both thermionic emission and tunneling. In this paper we study through numerical simulations the influence of previously uninvestigated aspects of Si- and Ge-based GBHTs-namely, crystallographic orientation and doping density values-on the device performance; a comparison with an aggressively scaled HBT structure is then reported. The simulations are carried out with an in-house developed code based on a 1-D quantum transport model within the effective mass approximation and the assumptions of ballistic transport with non-parabolic corrections and ideal semiconductor-graphene interface. We show that crystallographic orientation has a negligible effect on the GBHT performance. The doping density values in the GBHT emitter and collector regions can be tailored to maximize the device performance: the Si device shows better overall performance than the Ge one, yielding a peak cut-off frequency fT higher than 4 THz together with an intrinsic voltage gain above 10, or even higher fT at the cost of a lower gain. The Si-based GBHT can potentially outperform the SiGe HBT by a 2.8 higher fT . For a Si-based GBHT with a circular active region of diameter 50-100 nm, a theoretical balanced value for fT and fmax above 2 THz can be achieved, provided the base parasitics are carefully minimized.

  19. Graduate Studies in Computer-Based Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, Irvin

    This overview of the programs, activities, and facilities relating to computer-based education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) includes, (1) a brief account of the history and mission of OISE; (2) a description of the OISE Computer Applications Department and its merger with the Department of Measurement and Evaluation in…

  20. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns.

  1. A population-based study of the stratum corneum moisture

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    Pires TF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiago de Farias Pires,1 Ana Paula Azambuja,2 Andrea Roseli Vançan Russo Horimoto,1 Mary Sanae Nakamura,2 Rafael de Oliveira Alvim,1 José Eduardo Krieger,1 Alexandre Costa Pereira1 1Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, 2Natura Innovation and Product Technology Ltd., Cajamar, SP, Brazil Background: The stratum corneum (SC has important functions as a bound-water modulator and a primary barrier of the human skin from the external environment. However, no large epidemiological study has quantified the relative importance of different exposures with regard to these functional properties. In this study, we have studied a large sample of individuals from the Brazilian population in order to understand the different relationships between the properties of SC and a number of demographic and self-perceived variables. Methods: One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine individuals from a rural Brazilian population, who were participants of a family-based study, were submitted to a cross-sectional examination of the SC moisture by capacitance using the Corneometer® CM820 and investigated regarding environmental exposures, cosmetic use, and other physiological and epidemiological measurements. Self-perception-scaled questions about skin conditions were also applied. Results: We found significant associations between SC moisture and sex, age, high sun exposure, and sunscreen use frequency (P<0.025. In specific studied sites, self-reported race and obesity were also found to show significant effects. Dry skin self-perception was also found to be highly correlated with the objective measurement of the skin. Other environmental effects on SC moisture are also reported. Keywords: investigative dermatology, stratum corneum moisture, Corneometer, sun exposure, familial data modeling

  2. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

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    Baker Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR (with minor modifications as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56% achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial.

  3. Study of solar active regions based on BOAO vector magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Y J; Yun, H S; Cho, E A

    1999-01-01

    In this study we present the study of solar active regions based on BOAO vector magnetograms and $H\\alpha$ filtergrams. With the new calibration method we analyzed BOAO vector magnetograms taken from the SOFT observational system to compare with those of other observing systems. In this study it has been demonstrated that (1) our longitudinal magnetogram matches very well the corresponding Mitaka's magnetogram to the extent that the maximum correlation yields r=0.962 between our re-scaled longitudinal magnetogram and the Mitaka's magnetogram; (2) according to a comparison of our magnetograms of AR 8422 with those taken at Mitaka solar observatory their longitudinal fields are very similar to each other while transverse fields are a little different possibly due to large noise level; (3) main features seen by our longitudinal magnetograms of AR 8422 and AR 8419 and the corresponding Kitt Peak magnetograms are very similar to each other; (4) time series of our vector magnetograms and H-alpha observations of AR ...

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of Schiff base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Hina; Ahmad, Anis; Khan, Asad U.; Khan, Tahir Ali

    2015-10-01

    The Schiff base complexes, MLCl2 [M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] have been synthesized by the template reaction of respective metal ions with 2-acetylpyrrole and 1,3-diaminopropane in 1:2:1 M ratio. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, ESI - mass, NMR (1H and 13C), IR, XRD, electronic and EPR spectral studies, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance measurements. These studies show that all the complexes have octahedral arrangement around the metal ions. The molar conductance measurements of all the complexes in DMSO indicate their non-electrolytic nature. The complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. Among the metal complexes studied the copper complex [CuLCl2], showed highest antibacterial activity nearly equal to standard drug ciprofloxacin. Other complexes also showed considerable antibacterial activity. The relative order of activity against S. Pyogenes is as Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) = Fe(II) > Ni(II) and with K. Pneumonia is as Cu(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Fe(II) > Ni(II).

  5. An Evaluation of Web-Based Case Studies in Microscopy

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    Susan M. Merkel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult to provide students in introductory science courses with opportunities that mimic the investigative learning experience of doing research. This is particularly true in microbiology courses where advanced microscopy techniques are expensive and difficult to do. To that end, we developed three computer-based case studies around real-life scenarios. Our goals were to: (i improve students’ understanding of advanced microscopic techniques, (ii give students practice analyzing and interpreting data, and (iii model a scientific approach to how these techniques are applied to current issues in microbiology. Each case requires students to use references and interpret actual microscopic images, thus giving them a more realistic experience than we could previously provide. We analyzed student learning and perceptions to these case studies. After doing the case studies, students were more able to apply microscopic methods to a realistic problem, thus demonstrating an understanding of how the methods are used. Students appreciated the intellectual challenges presented by having to interpret and analyze actual microscopic images. This approach has allowed us to introduce new areas of content to our course and to stimulate critical thinking skills, a difficult task in a large introductory microbiology course.

  6. Clinicians adopting evidence based guidelines: a case study with thromboprophylaxis

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    Fry Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints.

  7. A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams

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    Björn Gottfried

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.

  8. CYTOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF THYROID LESIONS: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY

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    Dharmakanta Kumbhakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diverse cytological patterns of thyroid lesions may occur in the thyroid gland for its various diseases. The thyroid lesions may be nonneoplastic lesions or neoplastic lesions. Most of the thyroid lesions clinically present as thyroid swellings either as thyroid nodules or as diffuse enlargement of the gland itself. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC is a rapid, easy to perform, minimally invasive and cost-effective first line high diagnostic accuracy test for cytological evaluation of thyroid lesions with minimum complications. The thyroid gland is easily accessible for Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA procedure due to its superficial location. The accurate cytological diagnosis of the thyroid lesions can direct the treatment modalities of the lesions and reduce unnecessary thyroid surgeries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES A hospital-based study to determine the cytological patterns of thyroid lesions by FNAC and to correlate the cytological and histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was based on “FNAC analysis of 100 thyroid lesions presented as thyroid swellings” (study group in the period of two (02 years from June 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016, in the cytopathology section of the Pathology Department of Tezpur Medical College and Hospital, Tezpur, Assam. Histopathological correlation was done in the surgically treated thyroid lesions of the study group. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS Female patients (87 comprised majority of thyroid lesions (87.00%, while male patients (13 were only 13.00% of thyroid lesions with a male and female patients’ ratio of 6.69:1 in the study group. Maximum patients with thyroid lesions, irrespective of sex in the study group were in the age group of 31-40 years. The youngest patient in the study group was a 7 years old girl diagnosed as lymphocytic thyroiditis and the oldest patient in the study group was a 73 years old female diagnosed as colloid goitre. Out of 100 thyroid

  9. Trust-based or performance-based management: a study of employment contracting in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Inger Johanne

    2011-01-01

    Hospitals are frequently changing managerial practices due to numerous public sector reforms taking place. In general, these reforms include the making and monitoring of contracts that regulate relations between the hospitals and their professional staffs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some main characteristics of the contracts that regulate the perceived relations between physicians as employees and the public hospital as employer. The theoretical framework is based on a contract theory approach. The empirical data is based on survey data from full-time employed physicians in the medical and surgical divisions in one of the largest university hospitals in Norway. This study shows that perceived obligations and psychological contracts indicate high degree of relational contracts between the hospital and the physicians. These socio-cultural elements should be recognized as important mechanisms of coordination and communication when policy makers and hospital managers are designing hospital management control systems.

  10. The Empirical Study on Chinese Style Dual System Basing on Foxconn Training Base Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Nan

    2012-01-01

      So far many existing papers have made study on dual system.While most scholars take the opinion that dual system can give obviously positive effect to skilled talent training, some theorists argue that the precondition of dual system performs excellently is dual system should be localized according to the reality of a country or a district.This paper analyzes dual system practice in China from an example of Foxconn Training Base,the conclusion is that in Foxconn Training Base Program,dual system has been localized successfully and evolved into trian-gle system,and this program management pattern can be used in other areas of China as a mature,standard Chinese dual system pattern for skil ed talent training.

  11. Smart Travel Based on Space-Time Behavior Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai; Yanwei; Shen; Yue; Ta; Na; Qian; Fang

    2015-01-01

    In view of the significant demands and development trends of urbanization during the 12 th Five-Year Plan period, "smart city" has attracted wide attention as an advanced city development concept in China. Under the circumstance of rapid urbanization, traffic congestion and accessibility defi ciency become major challenges to many Chinese cities, as transportation and travel are closely related to the effi ciency of a city’s operation and the quality of people’s life. As essential part of smart city planning and management, smart travel offers an effective behavior planning countermeasure to reduce the amount of urban traffi c and optimize the space-time distribution of travels and provides an effective technology to enrich the theories and methodologies of urban and transportation planning. Orienting at the practical demand of citizens and focusing on their travel behavior, this paper carries out a discussion on the smart travel framework based on space-time behavior study and analyzes smart travel planning and its policy route from multiple perspectives, including a prediction on travel demand, transportation planning, public policy-making, and urban planning. What’s more, the paper suggests travel services for citizens based on space-time behavior analysis, such as providing personalized information, smart decision-making support, and individual behavior planning.

  12. Study of novel rosin-based biomaterials for pharmaceutical coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, Suniket V; Satturwar, Prashant M; Dorle, Avinash K

    2002-01-01

    The film forming and coating properties of Glycerol ester of maleic rosin (GMR) and Pentaerythritol ester of maleic rosin (PMR) were investigated. The 2 rosin-based biomaterials were initially characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, molecular weight (Mw), and glass transition temperature (Tg). Films were produced by solvent evaporation technique on a mercury substrate. Dibutyl sebacate plasticized and nonplasticized films were characterized by mechanical (tensile zzzz strength, percentage elongation, and Young's modulus), water vapor transmission (WVT), and moisture absorption parameters. Plasticization was found to increase film elongation and decrease the Young's modulus, making the films more flexible and thereby reducing the brittleness. Poor rates of WVT and percentage moisture absorption were demonstrated by various film formulations. Diclofenac sodium-layered pellets coated with GMR and PMR film formulations showed sustained drug release for up to 10 hours. The release rate was influenced by the extent of plasticization and coating level. The results obtained in the study demonstrate the utility of novel rosin-based biomaterials for pharmaceutical coating and sustained-release drug delivery systems.

  13. Numerical study on the perception-based network formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation, we numerically study a perception-based network formation model. Here each individual is assumed to have his/her own perception of the actual network, and use it to decide whether to create a link to other individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating his/her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. The initial actual network and initial perceptions are modeled by Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random networks but with different linking probabilities. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. The effect of initial conditions on the complexity o...

  14. Chromatographic Studies of Protein-Based Chiral Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Azaria, Shiden; Beeram, Sandya; Li, Zhao; Hage, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of separation methods for the analysis and resolution of chiral drugs and solutes has been an area of ongoing interest in pharmaceutical research. The use of proteins as chiral binding agents in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been an approach that has received particular attention in such work. This report provides an overview of proteins that have been used as binding agents to create chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and in the use of chromatographic methods to study these materials and protein-based chiral separations. The supports and methods that have been employed to prepare protein-based CSPs will also be discussed and compared. Specific types of CSPs that are considered include those that employ serum transport proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein), enzymes (e.g., penicillin G acylase, cellobiohydrolases, and α-chymotrypsin) or other types of proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, antibodies, and avidin or streptavidin). The properties and applications for each type of protein and CSP will also be discussed in terms of their use in chromatography and chiral separations.

  15. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  16. Comparative study, based on metamodels, of methods for controlling performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitouche Samia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing evolution of technology and human behavior puts the company in an uncertain and evolving environment. The company must be responsive and even proactive; therefore, control performance becomes increasingly difficult. Choosing the best method of ensuring control by the management policy of the company and its strategy is also a decision problem. The aim of this paper is the comparative study of three methods: the Balanced Scorecard, GIMSI and SKANDIAs NAVIGATOR for choosing the best method for ensuring the orderly following the policy of the company while maintaining its durability. Our work is divided into three parts. We firstly proposed original structural and kinetic metamodels for the three methods that allow an overall view of a method. Secondly, based on the three metamodels, we have drawn a generic comparison to analyze completeness of the method. Thirdly, we performed a restrictive comparison based on a restrictive set of criteria related to the same aspect example organizational learning, which is one of the bricks of knowledge management for a reconciliation to a proactive organization in an environment disturbed and uncertain, and the urgent needs. We note that we applied the three methods are applied in our precedent works. [1][23

  17. Dynamics of IGBT based PWM Converter A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Shukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the efficiency and dynamics of power converters is a critical tradeoff in power electronics. The increase of switching frequency can improve the dynamics of power converters, but theefficiency may be degraded as well as the switching losses. As power semiconductor devices like diodes, MOSFETS, IGBTs, Thyristors, BJTs have their own characterstics and dynamic responses. It is desired toanalyze and observe the dynamics of different semiconductor devices before they actually employed in the model. Inclusion of different PWM techniques help in the removal of power line interferences like harmonic losses, unwanted ripples, chopped frequencies, spikes. In this paper, we have studied and analyzed the dynamics of IGBT based PWM converter with subjected to different conditions like transient state, steady state feeding the RLC load. Snubber circuits are used to reduce the switching losses. The IGBT based PWM converter reflects the better dynamics with improved efficiency and reduced harmonics as compared to some other power semiconductor devices when FFT is performed and subjected to standard parameterized RLC load understeady state and transient analysis.

  18. Cognitive heterogeneity in genetically based prosopagnosia: a family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Palermo, Romina; Coltheart, Max

    2008-03-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a selective difficulty in recognizing familiar faces that is present from birth. There is mounting evidence for a familial factor in CP, possibly due to a simple autosomal inheritance pattern. However, potential candidate genes remain to be established, and the question whether genetically based CP is a single trait, or a cluster of related subtypes differing in the pattern of impairments to specific components of the face-processing system, remains unanswered. In addition, since the great majority of so far described cases with CP were adult at the time of investigation, it remains unknown which specific aspects of face processing are impaired in small children with CP. Here we present the first study that specifically addresses these questions by elucidating the specific mechanisms underlying face-recognition impairments in seven individuals with CP (aged 4-87 years) belonging to four generations of the same family. Our results indicate that genetically based CP is not a single trait but a cluster of related subtypes, since the pattern of impairments to specific components of the face-processing system varies in individuals belonging to the same family. In addition, we show that the heterogeneity of the cognitive profile in CP with respect to specific aspects of face processing is apparent from early childhood.

  19. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  20. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-06-24

    Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.

  1. Study of Idioms Based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-yuan

    2016-01-01

    On the production and understanding of the idioms, cognitive linguists put forward totally different opinions from the traditional linguistic theory. One enduring belief about the arbitrariness of English idioms is that they are non-componential, be-cause their idiomatic meanings are not deducible from the meaning of their individual parts. According to“conceptual meta-phor”theory, which are proposed by cognitive linguists Lakoff and Johnson:Metaphor is a mapping that from one more famil-iar, more easily understanding source domain to a less familiar , more difficult target domain. The paper studies on the idiomatic-ity and the motivation of the idioms based on the“conceptual metaphor”theory from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.

  2. Computational Study of Monosubstituted Azo(tetrazolepentazolium)-Based Ionic Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Ian S O

    2015-06-04

    The structures of monosubstituted azo(tetrazolepentazolium) cations (N11CHR(+)), oxygen-rich anions such as N(NO2)2(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-), and the corresponding ion pairs are investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. The substituents (R) used are H, F, CH3, CN, NH2, OH, OCH3, N3, NF2, and C2H3. The stability of the protonated cation is explored by examining the decomposition pathway of the protonated cation (N11CH2(+)) to yield molecular N2 fragments. The heats of formation of these cations, which are based on isodesmic (bond type conserving) reactions, are dependent on the nature of the substituents. Ionic dimer structures are obtained, but side reactions including proton transfer, binding, and hydrogen bonding are observed in the gas phase. Implicit solvation studies are performed to determine the solution properties of the ion pairs.

  3. Leptomeningeal disease in oligodendroglial tumors: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Gloria; Chan, Jennifer; Eliasziw, Misha; Cairncross, J Gregory; Forsyth, Peter A

    2011-09-01

    In this population-based study, we determined the frequency and clinical characteristics of leptomeningeal disease (LMD) developing in the context of oligodendroglial tumors (oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas). LMD occurred in only 3.9% (8/204) of oligodendroglial tumors and in patients with more recurrences [mean 2.88 vs. 1.27 in LMD and non-LMD, respectively (p = 0.001)]. In contrast to LMD from systemic solid tumors, the median survival following the diagnosis of LMD in oligodendroglial tumors was surprisingly long at 22 months (95% CI 11-33 months). Treatment with oral chemotherapy seemed as effective as more aggressive treatments (e.g. repeat RT or intrathecal chemotherapy) in these patients.

  4. Heredity In Sarcoidosis - A Registry-Based Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    of sarcoidosis in order to assess the overall contribution of genetic factors to the disease susceptibility. METHODS: Monozygotic and dizygotic twins enrolled in either the Danish or the Finnish population-based, national Twin Cohorts (61,662 pairs in total) were linked to diagnostic information on sarcoidosis...... obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry or the Social Insurance Institution, Finland, registry of re-imbursed medication using the 8th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases. Fisher's exact test was used to compare probandwise concordance rates in different zygosity.......45-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that genetic factors play an important role in the susceptibility to sarcoidosis. This result should encourage the search for molecular genetic markers of the susceptibility to disease....

  5. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I.; Shapkin, Alexey A.; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R.; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu.; Kazakov, Alexander P.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-10-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the "iron-polymer" interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  6. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Shapkin, Alexey A., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kazakov, Alexander P., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-27

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  7. Study of a gold-foil-based multisphere neutron spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Hutchinson, J D; Hertel, N E; Burgett, E; Howell, R M

    2008-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometers with active thermal neutron detectors cannot be used in high-intensity radiation fields due to pulse pile-up and dead-time effects. Thus, a multisphere spectrometer using a passive detection system, specifically gold foils, has been investigated in this work. The responses of a gold-foil-based Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer were studied for two different gold-foil holder designs; an aluminium-polyethylene holder and a polyethylene holder. The responses of the two designs were calculated for four incident neutron beam directions, namely, parallel, perpendicular and at +/-45 degrees relative to the flat surface of the foil. It was found that the use of polyethylene holder resulted in a more isotropic response to neutrons for the four incident directions considered. The computed responses were verified by measuring the neutron spectrum of a 252Cf source with known strength.

  8. Hirschsprung's disease prevalence in Europe. A register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital gut motility disorder, characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglion cells along the distal gut. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Hirschsprung's disease, including additional congenital anomalies, total prevalence......, trends, and association with maternal age. METHODS: Cases of Hirschsprung's disease delivered during 1980 to 2009 notified to 31 European Surveillance of Congenital Anomaly registers formed the population-based case-series. Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as the number...... of cases per 10,000 births. Multilevel Poisson regression was performed to investigate trends in prevalence, geographical variation and the association with maternal age. RESULTS: There were 1,322 cases of Hirschsprung's disease among 12,146,210 births. The total prevalence was 1.09 (95% confidence...

  9. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2012-07-01

    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz simulation results reveal better performance for H plane bending as compared to E plane bending. A 100 um thick substrate is used for the design which is best suited for flexible antenna applications. Gain variations of 1.1 dB and 1.4 dB are observed for the two orientations while a significantly increased impedance bandwidth of 3 % is obtained with H plane wrapping. The design is highly suitable for broadband micro-cellular backhaul applications. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in Polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1 % over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  11. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1% over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  12. Ablation study of tungsten-based nuclear thermal rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tabitha Elizabeth Rose

    The research described in this thesis has been performed in order to support the materials research and development efforts of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), of Tungsten-based Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) fuel. The NTR was developed to a point of flight readiness nearly six decades ago and has been undergoing gradual modification and upgrading since then. Due to the simplicity in design of the NTR, and also in the modernization of the materials fabrication processes of nuclear fuel since the 1960's, the fuel of the NTR has been upgraded continuously. Tungsten-based fuel is of great interest to the NTR community, seeking to determine its advantages over the Carbide-based fuel of the previous NTR programs. The materials development and fabrication process contains failure testing, which is currently being conducted at MSFC in the form of heating the material externally and internally to replicate operation within the nuclear reactor of the NTR, such as with hot gas and RF coils. In order to expand on these efforts, experiments and computational studies of Tungsten and a Tungsten Zirconium Oxide sample provided by NASA have been conducted for this dissertation within a plasma arc-jet, meant to induce ablation on the material. Mathematical analysis was also conducted, for purposes of verifying experiments and making predictions. The computational method utilizes Anisimov's kinetic method of plasma ablation, including a thermal conduction parameter from the Chapman Enskog expansion of the Maxwell Boltzmann equations, and has been modified to include a tangential velocity component. Experimental data matches that of the computational data, in which plasma ablation at an angle shows nearly half the ablation of plasma ablation at no angle. Fuel failure analysis of two NASA samples post-testing was conducted, and suggestions have been made for future materials fabrication processes. These studies, including the computational kinetic model at an angle and the

  13. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Energy (Badger et al. 2016) using GFS winds as input. Wind direction can be checked from the various other observations. Sensitivity to possible deviations in wind directions in the near-shore area will be investigated. Furthermore, oceanic features not related to winds but to e.g. surface current......, breaking waves, etc. will be investigated. The plan is to establish high-quality coastal wind speed cases based on Sentinel-1 for quantification of the coastal winds, for verification of wind resource modelling best practices in the coastal zone. The study is supported by RUNE and New European Wind Atlas...

  14. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  15. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nogueira Haas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  16. THE SEISMICITY MIGRATION STUDY BASED ON SPACE-TIME DIAGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Levina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismicity migration is studied by a new method based on space-time diagrams and a combination of cluster and regression analyses. Data from the global and Baikal regional earthquake catalogues are analysed with the application of the specially designed geographic information system (GIS in order to establish parameters and mechanisms of seismicity migration in space and time. We study the migration of seismic events in the following geostructural systems: the Baikal rift zone (BRZ, the area between BRZ and the Indo-Eurasian interplate collision zone, the area between BRZ and the West-Pacific seismic foci Benoiff zone, and two segments of the Middle Atlantic ridge.As evidenced by the obtained results, studying regimes of seismic migration provides for analyses of space-time distribution of seismic energy in the fault-block structure of the lithosphere and facilitates more detailed studies of the origin of deformation waves and mechanisms of the seismotectonic regime of the Earth. Forward (from the equator and backward (towards the equator migration of seismic events are established in all the regions under study. It is assumed that this phenomenon may result from regular changes of the polar compression of the Earth due to variations of its rotation regime. Besides, it is revealed that energy clusters of migration are regularly generated, and the regularity may be related to the 11-year cycle of the solar activity which impacts the seismic regime. We discuss the need to study the interference of wave deformations in the lithosphere which are initiated by several external energy sources. It is proposed to consider the regimes of planetary seismicity migration as a reflection of redistribution of endogenic (primarily heat energy of the Earth during the destruction of its lithospheric shell under the impacts of cosmogenic factors via triggering mechansms. With reference to our positive experiences of applying the proposed concept to BRZ, we

  17. A case study of the residual-based cointegration procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Biondini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of long-run equilibrium processes is a significant component of economic and finance theory. The Johansen technique for identifying the existence of such long-run stationary equilibrium conditions among financial time series allows the identification of all potential linearly independent cointegrating vectors within a given system of eligible financial time series. The practical application of the technique may be restricted, however, by the pre-condition that the underlying data generating process fits a finite-order vector autoregression (VAR model with white noise. This paper studies an alternative method for determining cointegrating relationships without such a pre-condition. The method is simple to implement through commonly available statistical packages. This ‘residual-based cointegration’ (RBC technique uses the relationship between cointegration and univariate Box-Jenkins ARIMA models to identify cointegrating vectors through the rank of the covariance matrix of the residual processes which result from the fitting of univariate ARIMA models. The RBC approach for identifying multivariate cointegrating vectors is explained and then demonstrated through simulated examples. The RBC and Johansen techniques are then both implemented using several real-life financial time series.

  18. Synthesis, structural and fungicidal studies of hydrazone based coordination compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2013-02-15

    The coordination compounds of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal ions derived from imine based ligand, benzil bis(carbohydarzone) were structurally and pharmaceutically studied. The compounds have the general stoichiometry [M(L)]X(2) and [Co(L)X(2)], where M=Ni(II) and Cu(II), and X=NO(3)(-) and Cl(-) ions. The analytical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV/Visible, NMR, ESI mass and EPR were used to study the compounds. The key IR bands, i.e., amide I, amide II and amide III stretching vibrations accounts for the tetradentate metal binding nature of the ligand. The electronic and EPR spectral results suggest the square planar Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes (g(iso)=2.11-2.22) and tetragonal geometry Co(II) complexes (g(iso)=2.10-2.17). To explore the compounds in the biological field, they were examined against the opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The partial covalent character of metal-ligand bond is supported by the orbital reduction factor k (0.62-0.92) and nephalauxetic parameter β (0.55-0.57).

  19. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L

    2007-05-01

    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  20. Source mask optimization study based on latest Nikon immersion scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fang; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Chenming; Zhang, Wei; Nishinaga, Hisashi; El-Sewefy, Omar; Gao, Gen-Sheng; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Zhang, Recoo; Zhu, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    The 2x nm logic foundry node has many challenges since critical levels are pushed close to the limits of low k1 ArF water immersion lithography. For these levels, improvements in lithographic performance can translate to decreased rework and increased yield. Source Mask Optimization (SMO) is one such route to realize these image fidelity improvements. During SMO, critical layout constructs are intensively optimized in both the mask and source domain, resulting in a solution for maximum lithographic entitlement. From the hardware side, advances in source technology have enabled free-form illumination. The approach allows highly customized illumination, enabling the practical application of SMO sources. The customized illumination sources can be adjusted for maximum versatility. In this paper, we present a study on a critical layer of an advanced foundry logic node using the latest ILT based SMO software, paired with state-of-the-art scanner hardware and intelligent illuminator. Performance of the layer's existing POR source is compared with the ideal SMO result and the installed source as realized on the intelligent illuminator of an NSR-S630D scanner. Both simulation and on-silicon measurements are used to confirm that the performance of the studied layer meets established specifications.

  1. Urban Metabolism Based on Emergy and Slack Based Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; CAI Jianming; XU Hui; DENG Yu; NIU Fangqu; YANG Zhenshan; DU Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The key to studying urban sustainable development depends on quantifying stores,efficiencies of urban metabolisms and capturing urban metabolisms' mechanisms.This paper builds up the metabolic emergy account and quantifies some important concepts of emergy stores.Emphasis is placed on the urban metabolic model based on the slack based model (SBM) method to measure urban metabolic efficiencies.Urban metabolic mechanisms are discussed by using the regression method.By integrating these models,this paper analyzes the urban metabolic development in Beijing from 2001 to 2010.We conclude that the metabolic emergy stores of Beijing increased significantly from 2001 to 2010,with the emergy imported accotmting for most of the increase.The metabolic efficiencies in Beijing have improved since the 2008 Olympic Games.The population,economic growth,industrial structures,and environmental governance positively affect the overall urban metabolism,while the land expansion,urbanization and environmentally technical levels hinder the improving of urban metabolic efficiencies.The SBM metabolic method and the regression model based on the emergy analysis provide insights into the urban metabolic efficiencies and the mechanism.They can promote to integrate such concepts into their sustainability analyses and policy decisions.

  2. Study of Mechanical Product Rapid Design Based on Knowledge Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Li-gang; ZHONG Ting-xiu

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a mechanical product intelligent rapid design approach based on integrated technologies. Adopting knowledge based engineering to reuse and manage product design knowledge, and combining feature modeling and parametric design based on existing CAD/CAE/CAM system and technology of product family modeling and engineering database, the system establishes a product family knowledge base, which mainly including product family case base and rule base. The system also utilizes WEB technology to let customers to individually customize products remotely through internet. And an applicable example is given in the end.

  3. Field-based study of connectivity in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexartza-Artza, I.; Wainwright, J.

    2009-12-01

    Field-based studies of hydrological connectivity can provide context-specific knowledge that might both help understand dynamic complex systems and contribute to other synthetic or modelling approaches. The importance of such an understanding of catchment processes and also of the knowledge of catchment connections with water bodies and the changes of concentration with scale for Integrated Catchment Management has been increasingly emphasized. To provide a holistic understanding, approaches to the study of connectivity need to include both structural and functional aspects of the system and must consider the processes taking place within and across different temporal and spatial scales. A semi-quantitative nested approach has been used to investigate connectivity and study the interactions and feedbacks between the factors influencing transfer processes in the Ingbirchworth Catchment, in the uplands of the River Don, England. A series of reconnaissance techniques have been combined with monitoring of aspects such as rainfall, runoff, sediment transfer and soil-moisture distribution from plot to catchment scale and with consideration of linkages between land and water bodies. The temporal aspect has also been considered, with a special focus on the temporal distribution of events and the influence of longer term catchment changes such as those in land use and management practices. A variability of responses has been observed in relation to the characteristics of events, land use and scale of observation, with elements traditionally considered as limiting or enhancing connectivity responding differently under changing conditions. Sediment redistribution, reshaping of structure and consequent reinforcing loops can be observed across all land uses and landscape units, but the relevance it terms of effective connectivity of highly connected patches varies as the scale is increased. The knowledge acquired can contribute to recognise emerging processes significant for

  4. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  5. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEALSON, KENNETH H.

    2013-10-15

    laboratories. Applications: 1. Corrosion: Electron flow is often part of the corrosive process, and several studies were done in concert with this proposal with regard to the ability of EET-capable bacteria to enhance, inhibit, or detect corrosion. These included using EET-capable bacteria to detect corrosion in its earliest stages [5], to use corrosion-causing bacteria for the study of the microbe/mineral interface during corrosion [1], and to study the groups of microbes involved with corrosion of natural systems [19]. 2. Bioenergy and microbial fuel cells: The production of electricity by Shewanella was shown early in this program (several years ago) to be dependent on the genes for extracellular electron transport (EET), and applied work involved the testing of various strains and conditions for the optimization of current production by the shewanellae [11,14,16]. 3. Identification of shewanellae strains: Based on similarities seen in genomic comparisons, a rapid method was employed for distinguishing between shewanellae strains [17]. Interactions with other laboratories: This grant was an extension of a grant involving the so-called ?Shewanella Federation?, and as such, a number of our publications were joint with other members of this group. The groups included: 1. Pacific Northwest Laboratories ? 2. Oak Ridge National Labs 3. Michigan State University 4. University of Oklahoma 5. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 6. Burnham Medical Research Institute, San Diego 7. J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego Education: Graduate Students: Michael Waters, Ph.D. ? at NIST, Washington D.C. Lewis Hsu, Ph.D. ? at NRL, San Diego Howard Harris, Ph.D. ? Postdoc at University, France Everett Salas, Ph.D. ? Scientist at Chevron McLean, Jeffrey, Ph.D. ? Scientist at J. Craig Venter Institute McCrow, John, Ph.D. ? Scientist at J. Craig Venter Institute Postdocs: Mohamed El-Naggar ? Professor of Physics, USC Jinjun Kan ? Senior Researcher at Undergraduatges: During this year, we had

  6. Gender-based education during clerkships: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leerdam L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lotte van Leerdam, Lianne Rietveld, Doreth Teunissen, Antoine Lagro-JanssenDepartment of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsObjectives: One of the goals of the medical master's degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship.Methods: A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis.Results: Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors.Conclusion: Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues.Keywords: medical education, clerkship, gender, hidden curriculum, clinical teachers

  7. Gravity wave reflection: Case study based on rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Since gravity waves significantly influence the atmosphere by transporting energy and momentum, it is important to study their wave spectrum and their energy dissipation rates. Besides that, knowledge about gravity wave sources and the propagation of the generated waves is essential. Originating in the lower atmosphere, gravity waves can move upwards; when the background wind field is equal to their phase speed a so-called critical layer is reached. Their breakdown and deposition of energy and momentum is possible. Another mechanism which can take place at critical layers is gravity wave reflection. In this paper, gravity waves which were observed by foil chaff measurements during the DYANA (DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) campaign in 1990 in Biscarrosse (44°N, 1°W)--as reported by Wüst and Bittner [2006. Non-linear wave-wave interaction: case studies based on rocket data and first application to satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68, 959-976]--are investigated to look for gravity wave reflection processes. Following nonlinear theory, energy dissipation rates according to Weinstock [1980. Energy dissipation rates of turbulence in the stable free atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38, 880-883] are calculated from foil chaff cloud and falling sphere data and compared with the critical layer heights. Enhanced energy dissipation rates are found at those altitudes where the waves' phase speed matches the zonal background wind speeds. Indication of gravity wave trapping is found between two altitudes of around 95 and 86 km.

  8. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, Dave

    2012-01-01

    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  9. Outpatient- and inpatient-based buckling surgery: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jin Cheol Lee,* Yu Cheol Kim*Department of Ophthalmology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, Korea *Both authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of ambulatory buckling surgery, comparing outpatient- with inpatient-based surgery.Methods: The authors performed a retrospective study of 80 consecutive cases of rhegmato genous retinal detachment from January 2009 to December 2011 treated by scleral buckling surgery. Two groups of patients were defined according to inpatient (group 1 or outpatient (group 2 surgery, and a comparison of several parameters between these two groups was performed.Results: Of the 80 subjects in this study, the average age of group 1 (50 patients was 49.7 years, and that of group 2 (30 patients was 47.5 years. There were no statistically significant differences in the average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution-visual acuity, the condition of the lens, or the presence of retinal lattice degeneration prior to the surgery between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the patterns of tear or retinal detachment or in surgical procedure between the groups. Comparing the best-corrected visual acuity after 6 months with that prior to the surgery, the changes in group 1 and group 2 were 0.26 and 0.31, respectively. The functional success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 90% and 93%, respectively, and the anatomical success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 94% and 96%, respectively, but these were also statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Hospitalization is not essential for buckling surgery in uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.Keywords: ambulatory, scleral buckling, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

  10. Performance Study of optical Modulator based on electrooptic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, V.; Raghuwanshi, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied and derive performance parameter of highly integrated Lithium Niobate optical modulator. This is a chirp free modulator having low switching voltage and large bandwidth. For an external modulator in which travelling-wave electrodes length L imposed the modulating switching voltage, the product of Vπ and L is fixed for a given electro optic material Lithium Niobate. We investigate to achieve a low Vπ by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient for a wide variety of electro-optic materials. A Sellmeier equation for the extraordinary index of congruent lithium niobate is derived. For phase-matching, predictions are accmate for temperature between room temperature 250°C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5µm. The Sellmeier equations predict more accmately refractive indices at long wavelengths. Theoretical result is confirmed by simulated results. We have analysed the various parameters such as switching voltage, device performance index, time constant, transmittance, cut-off frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, power absorption coefficient and transmission bit rate of Lithium Niobate optical Modulator based on electro -optic effect.

  11. Structural studies of enzyme-based microfluidic biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Makoto; Takamura, Akimasa; Asai, Tatsuya; Kaji, Hirokazu; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    An enzyme-based glucose/O 2 biofuel cell was constructed within a microfluidic channel to study the influence of electrode configuration and fluidic channel height on cell performance. The cell was composed of a bilirubin oxidase (BOD)-adsorbed O 2 cathode and a glucose anode prepared by co-immobilization of glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), diaphorase (Dp) and VK 3-pendant poly- L-lysine. The consumption of O 2 at the upstream cathode protected the downstream anode from interfering O 2 molecules, and consequently improved the cell performance (maximum cell current) ca. 10% for the present cell. The cell performance was also affected by the channel height. The output current and power of a 0.1 mm-height cell was significantly less than those of a 1 mm-height cell because of the depletion of O 2, as determined by the shape of the E- I curve at the cathode. On the other hand, the volume density of current and power was several times higher for the narrower cell.

  12. Study on Braking Sensation Based on Urban Working Conditions

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    Abi Lanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we researched the vehicle braking sense in three aspects of human, vehicle and environment and analysed their impacts on brake feeling. Through the real vehicle test we analysed the relationship among pedal force, pedal travel and deceleration. We used dynamometer test method to study the brake noise question. We designed a fixture which could imitate the suspension and made the test more close to the true level. Moreover we discussed how to establish the evaluation system of vehicle braking condition. Through real vehicle test of braking, we can test and record the brake system parameters in the braking process under urban working conditions. We recorded the brake frequency, the change of brake speed and brake disc temperature. Meanwhile, based on the analysis of braking condition, we put forward the index of brake load to reflect the city’s traffic conditions. Experiment show that the braking condition and brake feel are related, braking condition also provides theoretical support for the design of brake system.

  13. Study of emotion-based neurocardiology through wearable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Neurocardiology is the exploration of neurophysiological, neurological and neuroanatomical facets of neuroscience's influence in cardiology. The paraphernalia of emotions on the heart and brain are premeditated because of the interaction between the central and peripheral nervous system. This is an investigative attempt to study emotion based neurocardiology and the factors that influence this phenomena. The factors include: interaction between sleep EEG (electroencephalogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram), relationship between emotion and music, psychophysiological coherence between the heart and brain, emotion recognition techniques, and biofeedback mechanisms. Emotions contribute vitally to the mundane life and are quintessential to a numerous biological and everyday-functional modalities of a human being. Emotions are best represented through EEG signals, and to a certain extent, can be observed through ECG and body temperature. Confluence of medical and engineering science has enabled the monitoring and discrimination of emotions influenced by happiness, anxiety, distress, excitement and several other factors that influence the thinking patterns and the electrical activity of the brain. Similarly, HRV (Heart Rate Variability) widely investigated for its provision and discerning characteristics towards EEG and the perception in neurocardiology.

  14. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  15. TRIBOLOGICAL STUDIES ON GRAPHENE/TMP BASED NANOLUBRICANT

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    RASHMI W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies on density, dynamic viscosity and tribological behaviour of nano graphene platelets (NGPs dispersed in Palm Oil Trimethlolpropane (TMP ester base lubricant. NGPs with concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 wt% are dispersed in the TMP ester via water bath sonication for 4 hours to form stable NGP nanolubricants. Physical properties such as density and viscosity was measured using Portable density meter and Brookfield viscosmeter (DV II+. No significant enhancement in density was observed, while a maximum enhancement on viscosity was 168% at 0.1 wt % NGPs concentration. The evaluation of frictional coefficient was performed using a four ball test at varying loads, from 40 kg to 80 kg, respectively. Results showed that the introduction of NGPs as an additive in the TMP lubricant reduced the coefficient of friction (COF in NGP-Palm oil TMP Ester, achieving a maximum reduction of 7%, and 16.2% in the wear scar diameter at 0.05wt% NGP and 80 kg load. It was observed that addition of NGP has prevented oxidative attacks on the surface of the steel balls through the development of a sturdier lubricating film barrier between nanolubricant and the solid surfaces.

  16. Success Factors in Offset Deals: A Case Study Based Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Kirchwehm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The requests for offset obligations occurs primarily in the area of arms imports and covers the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that companies provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services. Increasingly, all major contracts ask for offset obligations. They are now key differentiators in major contracts and it is a fast growing market. For the suppliers, offsets are a key differentiator in earning new business and therefore should be accepted that much accurateness is put on the successful execution of the offset projects. Nevertheless, it comes to problems during the project phase and sometimes we’ve the situation that a offset project failed. The aim of this paper is to exam which success- giving factors are exists in the offset related interaction between buyer, seller and participating industry. The data for this investigation were obtained from secondary sources which were mainly accessible via internet. After data collection, an analysis was performed which was based on the context of this paper and also in connection with the chosen case study: Saudi Arabia. As a result of this analysis can be derived several success factors, which could be also seen as the foundation for an optimized execution of offset obligations. The paper concludes with a reflection of the investigation approach and as well with a classification of the subject offset. Furthermore the results of the analyzes are summarized and an outlook for further researches is given.

  17. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-20

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future.

  18. Impedance Spectroscopy and FTIR Studies of PEG - Based Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anji Reddy Polu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG - ammonium chloride (NH4Cl based polymer electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating ceramic filler TiO2 into PEG-NH4Cl matrix. The electrolyte samples were prepared by solution casting technique. FTIR studies indicates that the complex formation between the polymer, salt and ceramic filler. The ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy technique. It was observed that the conductivity of the electrolyte varies with TiO2 concentration and temperature. The highest room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte of 7.72×10−6 S cm-1 was obtained at 15% by weight of TiO2 and that without TiO2 filler was found to be 9.58×10−7 S cm−1. The conductivity has been improved by 8 times when the TiO2 filler was introduced into the PEG–NH4Cl electrolyte system. The conductance spectra shows two distinct regions: a dc plateau and a dispersive region. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer electrolytes seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values of the polymer electrolytes were reported and the results were discussed. The imaginary part of dielectric constant (εi decreases with increase in frequency in the low frequency region whereas frequency independent behavior is observed in the high frequency region.

  19. Rehabilitation regimes based upon psychophysical studies of prosthetic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. C.; Suaning, G. J.; Morley, J. W.; Lovell, N. H.

    2009-06-01

    Human trials of prototype visual prostheses have successfully elicited visual percepts (phosphenes) in the visual field of implant recipients blinded through retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Researchers are progressing rapidly towards a device that utilizes individual phosphenes as the elementary building blocks to compose a visual scene. This form of prosthetic vision is expected, in the near term, to have low resolution, large inter-phosphene gaps, distorted spatial distribution of phosphenes, restricted field of view, an eccentrically located phosphene field and limited number of expressible luminance levels. In order to fully realize the potential of these devices, there needs to be a training and rehabilitation program which aims to assist the prosthesis recipients to understand what they are seeing, and also to adapt their viewing habits to optimize the performance of the device. Based on the literature of psychophysical studies in simulated and real prosthetic vision, this paper proposes a comprehensive, theoretical training regime for a prosthesis recipient: visual search, visual acuity, reading, face/object recognition, hand-eye coordination and navigation. The aim of these tasks is to train the recipients to conduct visual scanning, eccentric viewing and reading, discerning low-contrast visual information, and coordinating bodily actions for visual-guided tasks under prosthetic vision. These skills have been identified as playing an important role in making prosthetic vision functional for the daily activities of their recipients.

  20. Neutrino-nucleus reactions based on recent structure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshio [Department of Physics and Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions are studied with the use of new shell model Hamiltonians, which have proper tensor components in the interactions and prove to be successful in the description of Gamow-Teller (GT) strengths in nuclei. The new Hamiltonians are applied to obtain new neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections in {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 56}Ni induced by solar and supernova neutrinos. The element synthesis by neutrino processes in supernova explosions is discussed with the new cross sections. The enhancement of the production yields of {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B and {sup 55}Mn is obtained while fragmented GT strength in {sup 56}Ni with two-peak structure is found to result in smaller e-capture rates at stellar environments. The monopole-based universal interaction with tensor force of π+ρ meson exchanges is used to evaluate GT strength in {sup 40}Ar and ν-induced reactions on {sup 40}Ar. It is found to reproduce well the experimental GT strength in {sup 40}Ar.

  1. A study of combined evaluation of suppliers based on correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heting Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Selection of logistics service providers is an important issue in supply chain management. But different evaluation methods may lead to different results, which could cause inconsistent conclusions. This paper makes use of a new perspective to combine with a variety of methods to eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. Design/methodology/approach: This paper expounds the application of the combined evaluation method based on correlation. Entropy method, factor analysis, grey colligation evaluation and AHP have been used for research. Findings: According to the evaluate result, the ranking of suppliers obtained by each method have obvious differences. The result shows that combined evaluation method can eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. Originality/value: The combined evaluation method makes up for the defects of single evaluation methods and obtains a result that is more stable and creditable with smaller deviation. This study can provide the enterprise leaders with more scientific method to select their cooperative companies. 

  2. Central poststroke pain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klit, Henriette; Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Andersen, Grethe; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2011-04-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is a specific pain condition arising as a direct consequence of a cerebrovascular lesion. There is limited knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of this often neglected but important consequence of stroke. In this population-based study, a questionnaire was sent out to all (n=964) stroke patients identified through the Danish National Indicator Project Stroke Database in Aarhus County, Denmark, between March 2004 and February 2005. All surviving patients who fulfilled 4 questionnaire criteria for possible CPSP (n=51) were selected for further clinical examination, and their pain was classified by using stringent and well-defined criteria and a detailed, standardized clinical examination. The minimum prevalence of definite or probable CPSP in this population is 7.3% and the prevalence of CPSP-like dysesthesia or pain is 8.6%. Pinprick hyperalgesia was present in 57%, cold allodynia in 40%, and brush-evoked dysesthesia in 51% of patients with CPSP. Because of its negative impact on quality of life and rehabilitation, pain is an important symptom to assess in stroke survivors.

  3. Study on upper limb rehabilitation system based on surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Li, Hailong; Wang, Zhengyu; Meng, Fandong

    2015-01-01

    During the rehabilitation process, it is essential to accurately judge a patient's recovery in a timely manner. A reasonable and matched training program is significant in the development of rehabilitation system. This paper presents a new upper limb rehabilitation training system, which consists of an upper limb rehabilitation training device, a current detection circuit, a motor speed test circuit, a surface EMG (sEMG) sensor, and a dSPACE HIL simulation platform. The real-time output torque of the servo motor is calculated by using the motor's real-time current and speed, in order to monitor the patient's training situation. The signal of sEMG is collected in real time and is processed with root mean square (RMS) to characterize the degree of muscle activation. Based on this rehabilitation system, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) experiments, passive training experiments under different speeds, and active training experiments under different damping are studied. The results show that this new system performs real-time and accurate monitoring of a patient's training situation. It can also assess a patient's recovery through muscle activation. To a certain extent, this system provides a platform for research and development of rehabilitation medical engineering.

  4. A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultay, Neslihan; Calik, Muammer

    2012-01-01

    Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords "context-based", "contextual learning" and "chemistry…

  5. Exploring Global Change In Place-Based Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of global climate change makes the subject challenging for the average student, particularly given the nuanced feedbacks and exceptions to the general "warming" or "drying" trend that may be experienced at the local and regional level at which most people experience geologic processes. Geoscience educators can reduce these barriers and draw in student learners by adopting a place-based approach to teaching and researching geologic principles that relate to global change. Assisting students in recognizing and understanding the geologic environment in which they live and study has the side benefit of making the potential effect of climate change tangible. This presentation will review several approaches for using place-based case studies to explore global climate change issues in large lecture, small seminar, field research and service learning environments. The special place project used in large introductory physical geology courses requires each student to select a place familiar and unique to them for an in depth study of the common course content as the semester progresses. Students are specifically tasked with identifying how their site came to be, the geologic processes that act upon it today, how the site may have been different during the last glacial advance and how global climate change (specifically warming of 3OC over 50 years) might impact the site. The concept that change has occurred at the student's site in the past, even far from glacial environments, opens students to the scale of potential anthropogenic climate change. A freshman seminar Global Warming & Climate Change - Service in Preparation for Climate Change: The Second Battle of New Orleans focused on the environmental threats to New Orleans and southeastern Louisiana resulting from regional land use decisions in the centuries before Hurricane Katrina, and the threat that global change relating to sea level rise, acceleration of the hydrologic cycle and intensification of

  6. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  7. Retinal detachment in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedeke Asaminew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5% had retinal detachment (RD and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5. Fourteen patients (17.5% had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9% were blind from RD and 11 (13.8% patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5% and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%. The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%, myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%, posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8% and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%. Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1% were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%. Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9% and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011, and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040. CONCLUSIONS: A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.

  8. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  9. Solvatochromism of isatin based Schiff bases: An LSER and LFER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Dominik R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The derivatives of isatin have already been reported to show a variety of biological activities. However, there has been no report on solvatochromic effect of isatin derivatives so far, and that could be of interest to study and relate to their electronic structure, as a part of the characterisation of these compounds. Linear solvation energy relationships (LSER were used to analyze solvent influence on the UV absorption maxima shifts of investigated isatin derivatives, i.e. isatin based Schiff bases, by using Kamlet-Taft model. Linear free energy relationships (LFER were applied to the substituent-induced NMR chemical shifts (SCS using SSP (single substituent parameter. The obtained correlations together with theoretical calculations gave insight into the influence of the molecular conformation on the transmission of substituent effects, as well as on solute/solvent interactions. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface map was plotted over the optimized geometry of the molecules in order to visualize electron density distribution and explain origin of solvent/solute interactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  10. Implementing evidence-based medicine in general practice: a focus group based study

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    Aertgeerts Bert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice, commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community. Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.

  11. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs, instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available.

  12. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena-Humanes, Jose-Luis; Gómez-Hoyo, Pedro-José; Jarabo-Amores, Maria-Pilar; Mata-Moya, David; Del-Rey-Maestre, Nerea

    2015-11-17

    Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs), instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR) systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available.

  13. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena-Humanes, Jose-Luis; Gómez-Hoyo, Pedro-José; Jarabo-Amores, Maria-Pilar; Mata-Moya, David; De-Rey-Maestre, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs), instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR) systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available. PMID:26593921

  14. Studies of Electronic Conduction in Some Small Gallium Arsenic Based.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Geoffrey

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes experimental investigations of the physics involved with low temperature electronic conduction in three different semiconductor systems. The research relies upon technological advances in fabrication of such semiconductor samples. The first work deals with the effects of quantum interference of electrons in some submicron size, heavily doped Gallium Arsenide wire samples. The interesting effect of aperiodic fluctuations in the magnetoresistance of these samples is studied, making use of recently formulated theory on the subject, and with experimental data taken over the magnetic field range 0 to 10 tesla. The results verify the connection between the mean amplitude of the fluctuations and the field correlation period, in terms of the correlation function introduced in the theory. The second work is on the impurity-assisted tunnelling conduction in a magnetic field of three thin rm n^{+}/n^{-}/n^ {+} GaAs sandwich layer structures. The conduction of the system is shown to be determined by impurities lying in the centre of the middle layer. This allows the connection to be made between the conductivity of the system in a magnetic field, and the field-dependent shape of the donor electron wavefunction. The relative variation in resistance with angle to an applied magnetic field was measured, and is shown to be in agreement with predictions based on calculations of the shape of a normalised hydrogenic state wavefunction in high magnetic fields. The third work concerns the tunnelling conduction of a symmetrical GaAs/(AlGa)As/GaAs hetero-barrier system. The current-voltage characteristics at low temperature are fully modelled for applied voltages up to 180mV, using conventional theory of tunnelling and a position-dependent effective mass in the barrier. Low current oscillations in the Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling regime, corresponding to quantum reflection at the

  15. Stratification of ALS patients' survival: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Couratier, Philippe; Arcuti, Simona; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Nicol, Marie; Raymondeau, Marie; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Preux, Pierre Marie

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and patient risk stratification are areas of considerable research interest. We aimed (1) to describe the survival of a representative cohort of French ALS patients, and (2) to identify covariates associated with various patterns of survival using a risk classification analysis. ALS patients recruited in the FRALim register (2000-2013) were included. Time-to-death analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox model. A recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RECPAM) algorithm analysis identified subgroups of patients with different patterns of survival. Among 322 patients, median survival times were 26.2 and 15.6 months from time of onset and of diagnosis, respectively. Four groups of patients were identified, depending on their baseline characteristics and survival (1) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (median survival time (MST) 10.6 months); (2) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 18.1 months); (3) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (MST: 22.5 months), and (4) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 37.6 months). Median survival time is among the shortest ever reported by a worldwide population-based study. This is probably related to the age structure of the patients (the oldest identified to date), driven by the underlying population (30 % of subjects older than 60 years). Further research in the field of risk stratification could help physicians better anticipate prognosis of ALS patients, and help improve the design of randomized controlled trials.

  16. SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA IN RURAL POPULATION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhutuja A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To estimate the prevalence of blindness due to glaucoma in patients aged 40 years and above attending Tertiary Care Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Visual acuity, anterior segment examination and anterior chamber depth assessment by slit lamp, digital tension, non-contact tonometry, confrontation field test, fundus examination, direct ophthalmoscopy and fundus imaging was done. Gonioscopy and automated perimetry was done in glaucoma suspects. RESULTS 7600 eyes of 3800 patients were examined, 108 eyes were diagnosed to have glaucoma. Based on the best corrected visual acuity, 15(13.8% eyes and 8(0.22% persons had visual impairment and 33(30.5% eyes and 20(31.7% persons were blind. The prevalence of glaucoma in eyes was 1.42%. The prevalence of blindness due to glaucoma in eyes was 0.43% and person was 0.52%. The prevalence of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in eyes was 1%, Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in eyes was 0.15%, Neovascular glaucoma in eyes was 0.07%, Lens Induced Glaucoma in eyes was 0.17% and Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma in eyes was 0.03%. IOP>20mmHg was present in 50(36.1% glaucomatous eyes, majority of the eyes being in Open Angle Glaucoma 24(31.5% eyes; 58(53.7% glaucomatous eyes had IOP in the range 11-20mmHg, among them 38 eyes were on treatment and 20 eyes were operated. CONCLUSION Being an irreversible disease if diagnosed early, blindness can be avoided. So screening is very important for early diagnosis and their proper management thereon.

  17. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies of New Schiff Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, W.; Saeed Ahmad; Amjid Iqbal; Hamid Latif Siddiqui

    2006-01-01

    Five novel Schiff bases have been prepared from o-formylphenoxyacetic acidand a series of aminothiazoles to form a number of potentially biologically activecompounds. The structures of these Schiff bases have been characterized using IR and 1H-and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

  18. A Comparative Study of Three Vibration Based Damage Assessment Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    Three different vibration based damage assessment techniques have been compared. One of the techniques uses the ratios between changes in experimentally and theoretically estimated natural frequencies, respectively, to locate a damage. The second technique relies on updating of an FEM based...

  19. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  20. Obstacles to implementing evidence-based dentistry: a focus group-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Karin; Norré, David; Goedhuys, Jo; Naert, Ignace; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2008-06-01

    In many countries, questions have been raised about the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in oral health care. The call for an increase in EBP seems to face many obstacles. Only limited empirical studies address these obstacles. We present a qualitative study that explores the obstacles that Flemish (Belgian, Dutch-speaking) dentists experience in the implementation of EBP in routine clinical work. We collected data from discussions in focus groups. Seventy-nine dentists participated. The data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Three major categories of obstacles were identified. These categories relate to obstacles in 1) evidence, 2) partners in health care (medical doctors, patients, and government), and 3) the field of dentistry. Our findings suggest that educators should provide communication skills to aid decision making, address the technical dimensions of dentistry, promote lifelong learning, and close the gap between academics and general practitioners (dentists) in order to create mutual understanding. The obstacles identified are considered useful to support future quantitative research that can be generalized to a broader group.

  1. Multimodal navigated skull base tumor resection using image-based vascular and cranial nerve segmentation: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Dolati

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and could increase the vigilance of neurosurgeons for preventing neurovascular injury during skull base surgeries. Additionally, the accuracy found in this study is superior to previously reported measurements. This novel preliminary study is encouraging for future validation with larger numbers of patients.

  2. Study on Visualization of Virtual City Model Based on Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Baoxuan; BIAN Fuling; ZUO Xiaoqing; WANG Fangxiong

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer graphics, distributed-computing and Internet, it is possible to achieve Internet-based virtual city.This paper dwells on the method of the terrain and its feature modeling and complex entity modeling in the virtual city.Then, discusses the method for Internet-based virtual city 3D visualization and the design of the Browser/Server architecture of the system of virtual city in the network environment.Finally, Java and Java 3D are used to show an experiment example, and the related conclusion about Internet-based virtual city 3D displaying and the client-side interactive operation is given.

  3. Infrared thermography based magnetic hyperthermia study in Fe3O4 based magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2016-09-01

    Owing to the immense clinical benefits, magnetic hyperthermia is likely to emerge as an alternate cancer therapeutic procedure in the near future. Presently, radio frequency immune fiber optic based sensors are being used to monitor temperature changes during magnetic hyperthermia measurements, which have inherent limitations due to the requirement of physical contact of the sensor with the sample, contamination and temperature monitoring at a single point. Here, we investigate the field induced heating of oil based oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanofluid, synthesized using co-precipitation method, using infrared thermal imaging (IRT) camera and compare the results with those of fiber optic temperature sensor. Experiments were performed on nanofluid samples of four different concentrations and under five different external field amplitudes. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the samples were determined from the initial rate of temperature rise measured using both the techniques. The SAR values determined from both the techniques were in very good agreement with each other, with in an accuracy of 5%, after incorporating convection loss correction on the infrared thermal imaging data. The consecutive thermal cycling on the samples showed good thermal stability and thermal recovery. The maximum SAR obtained was 95.9 W/gFe for a sample concentration and field amplitude of 23 wt.% and 57.3 kA m-1, respectively. This study showed the efficacy and accuracy of temperature measurement using IRT during field induced heating of magnetic nanofluid and its advantages over conventional point measurements techniques for real-time, non-contact and wide area temperature mapping without sample contamination.

  4. Study on Chart Based on Short Production Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High intellectual, high flexible automatic manufacturing system based on low volume production is the trend in the future, but the traditional control charts whose control limits are based on at least 20~25 subgroups of five observations each are not suitable in this environment. The paper presents variance control chart used in small batch production in which there are not sufficient observations. The control limits are set reliably without restriction of the number of samples.

  5. A Study on Subject-based English for College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BuYukun

    2004-01-01

    Subject-Based English is an effective way to help college students to complete the transition from language learning to its practical application. According to the requirement of SubjectBased English for college students from Educational Ministry Of China, this paper approaches the development of teaching material, content of the courses, teaching model and teaching method by using the advanced EAP teaching theories of other countries for reference.

  6. Study on visualization simulation soybean leaf based on growth equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jicheng; SU Zhongbin; XING Lichao

    2007-01-01

    According to the virtual crops model research's need, the paper emphasized on the modeling theory and dynamic modeling methods, and took the soybean leaf as the example, introduced the establishment of leaf growth model based on growth equation, finally realized the visualization result based on OpenGL in VC++ platform. The paper has great significance on establishing the whole growth model and researching the crops growth principles.

  7. Study of Internet-based Open Remote Diagnostic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the wide application of information technologi es , Internet-based remote diagnosis (IRD) of plant will surely become the main se rvice mode of corporations in the future. Therefore, it has received a great dea l recognition from academia and the industry. The IRD technology, which is based upon database, computer, and network technologies is the focus of correlative r esearch all over the world. Although some scientific institutions have developed primary IRD systems, their functions are quite narro...

  8. Performance study on Gossip-based group key distribution protocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yan; Ma Jiaqing; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong

    2006-01-01

    Group key distribution is faced with two important problems, i.e. reliability and scalability, to support security multicast for large and dynamic groups. With group member increasing, traditional reliable multicast protocol can not deal with them fully. Gossip-based group key distribution idea for wide-area dissemination was provided. It is based on an gossip-based loss recovery control mechanism. It can provide a probabilistic reliable guarantee for a information dissemination to reach every group member, which can achieve scalability and reliability. To achieve full reliability, three layers protocol model in group key distribution was provided. One is best effect layer, which provides unreliable dissemination. Other is gossip-based loss recovery layer, which provides probabilistic reliable guarantee. Last is vsync-based layer, which provide deterministic loss recovery. We integrate probabilistic loss recovery method with deterministic one. The model possess scalability that probabilistic method has and full reliability prosthesis by vsync-based. To evaluate the effectiveness of gossip technique in scalable and reliable multicast protocols. We have compared gossip protocol with other reliable multicast protocols. Experimental result shows that gossip protocol has better scalability than other.

  9. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien E K; Wellesley, Diana; Wiesel, Awi; Dolk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). Design Questionnaire and population based observational study. Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (PZika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in

  10. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Christensen, Jane; Wallin, Håkan;

    2007-01-01

    polymorphism and factors, which modify an inflammatory response, such as smoking status, duration, and intensity, and use of NSAID. The functional SNPs IL-1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A, IL10 C-592T, COX2 C8473T, COX2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala were included. A case-cohort study including 428 lung...... cancer cases and a sub-cohort of 800 persons was nested within a population-based prospective study of 57,053 individuals. Variant allele carriers of IL-1B T-31C were at increased risk of lung cancer (IRR=1.51, 95% CI=1.08-2.12). There was interaction between the polymorphism COX-2 T8473C and smoking...... cases. There was interaction between IL-1B T-31C, COX-2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala and NSAID use in relation to lung cancer risk. For the two latter, NSAID use was only associated with a lower cancer risk among homozygous wild type allele carriers. p for interaction was 3x10(-6) for COX-2 A-1195G...

  11. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  12. Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: the ENTRED study 2007, a French Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tiv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence to prescribed medications is a key dimension of healthcare quality. The aim of this large population-based study was to evaluate self-reported medication adherence and to identify factors linked with poor adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in France. METHODOLOGY: The ENTRED study 2007, a French national survey of people treated for diabetes, was based on a representative sample of patients who claimed reimbursement for oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or insulin at least three times between August 2006 and July 2007, and who were randomly selected from the database of the two main National Health Insurance Systems. Medication adherence was determined using a six-item self-administered questionnaire. A multinomial polychotomous logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with medication adherence in the 3,637 persons with type 2 diabetes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty nine percent of patients reported good medication adherence, 49% medium adherence and 12% poor adherence. The factors significantly associated with poor adherence in multivariate analysis were socio-demographic factors: age 8% and existing diabetes complications; and health care-related factors: difficulties for taking medication alone, decision making by the patient only, poor acceptability of medical recommendations, lack of family or social support, need for information on treatment, reporting no confidence in the future, need for medical support and follow-up by a specialist physician. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with a high level of access to healthcare, our study demonstrated a substantial low level of medication adherence in type 2 diabetic patients. Better identification of those with poor adherence and individualised suitable recommendations remain essential for better healthcare management.

  13. Synthesis and study of novel silicon-based unsaturated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jibing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Novel unsaturated polymers have been synthesized and studied as precursors to silicon carbide and third order nonlinear optical materials. X ray structures were obtained. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the unique thermal isomerization of dimethylenedisilacyclobutane to a carbene were conducted.

  14. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  15. An experiment-based comparative study of fuzzy logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lee, Chuen-Chein; Murugesan, S.; Jang, Jyh-Shing

    1989-01-01

    An approach is presented to the control of a dynamic physical system through the use of approximate reasoning. The approach has been implemented in a program named POLE, and the authors have successfully built a prototype hardware system to solve the cartpole balancing problem in real-time. The approach provides a complementary alternative to the conventional analytical control methodology and is of substantial use when a precise mathematical model of the process being controlled is not available. A set of criteria for comparing controllers based on approximate reasoning and those based on conventional control schemes is furnished.

  16. Studies based on the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reviews the most important articles using data from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) published in the past 25 years. Research topics: These articles include: descriptive epidemiological studies, indicating that the female incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS......) in Denmark has increased considerably; follow-up studies on social events, showing that patients at a high rate lose their working ability and their spouses/partners; mortality studies, demonstrating a considerable excess mortality; cause-of-death studies; comorbidity studies; and, most importantly...

  17. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEALSON, KENNETH H.

    2013-10-15

    laboratories. Applications: 1. Corrosion: Electron flow is often part of the corrosive process, and several studies were done in concert with this proposal with regard to the ability of EET-capable bacteria to enhance, inhibit, or detect corrosion. These included using EET-capable bacteria to detect corrosion in its earliest stages [5], to use corrosion-causing bacteria for the study of the microbe/mineral interface during corrosion [1], and to study the groups of microbes involved with corrosion of natural systems [19]. 2. Bioenergy and microbial fuel cells: The production of electricity by Shewanella was shown early in this program (several years ago) to be dependent on the genes for extracellular electron transport (EET), and applied work involved the testing of various strains and conditions for the optimization of current production by the shewanellae [11,14,16]. 3. Identification of shewanellae strains: Based on similarities seen in genomic comparisons, a rapid method was employed for distinguishing between shewanellae strains [17]. Interactions with other laboratories: This grant was an extension of a grant involving the so-called ?Shewanella Federation?, and as such, a number of our publications were joint with other members of this group. The groups included: 1. Pacific Northwest Laboratories ? 2. Oak Ridge National Labs 3. Michigan State University 4. University of Oklahoma 5. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 6. Burnham Medical Research Institute, San Diego 7. J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego Education: Graduate Students: Michael Waters, Ph.D. ? at NIST, Washington D.C. Lewis Hsu, Ph.D. ? at NRL, San Diego Howard Harris, Ph.D. ? Postdoc at University, France Everett Salas, Ph.D. ? Scientist at Chevron McLean, Jeffrey, Ph.D. ? Scientist at J. Craig Venter Institute McCrow, John, Ph.D. ? Scientist at J. Craig Venter Institute Postdocs: Mohamed El-Naggar ? Professor of Physics, USC Jinjun Kan ? Senior Researcher at Undergraduatges: During this year, we had

  18. Research on Hygiene Based on Fieldwork and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Several experimental studies on hygiene have recently been performed and fieldwork studies are also important and essential tools. However, the implementation of experimental studies is insufficient compared with that of fieldwork studies on hygiene. Here, we show our well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies of toxic-element-mediated diseases including skin cancer and hearing loss. Since the pollution of drinking well water by toxic elements induces various diseases including skin cancer, we performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to determine the levels of toxic elements and the mechanisms behind the development of toxic-element-related diseases and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork studies in several countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water was polluted with high concentrations of several toxic elements including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies using the data from our fieldwork studies demonstrated that these toxic elements caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system that adsorbs toxic elements from polluted drinking water. A well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for the prediction, prevention and therapy of toxic-element-mediated diseases.

  19. Plant-based antimicrobial studies--methods and approaches to study the interaction between natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Sandy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    The therapeutic value of synergistic interactions has been known since antiquity, and many different cultural healing systems still rely on this principle in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy. This paper intends to provide an overview, from an antimicrobial perspective, on the research undertaken and interactive principles involved in pharmacognosy studies. Methods used to determine antimicrobial interactions include basic combination studies, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC), isobole interpretations, and death kinetic (time-kill) assays. The various interactions are discussed with reference to molecules, different plant parts or fractions, different plant species, and combinations with nonbotanical antimicrobial agents. It is recommended for future development in the field of phytosynergy that consideration should be given to the selection criteria for the two inhibitors. A more conservative approach should be adopted when classifying synergy. When examining interactions in plant-based studies, antagonistic interactions should not be ignored. Combinations involving more than two test samples should be examined where applicable, and very importantly, the mechanism of action of synergistic interactions should be given precedence. It is encouraging to observe the upsurge in papers exploring the complex interactions of medicinal plants, and undoubtedly this will become increasingly important in our continued quest to understand the mechanism of action of phytotherapy. The scientific validation of efficacious antimicrobial combinations could lead to patentable entities making research in the field of phytosynergy not only academically rewarding but also commercially relevant.

  20. Integrated genome-based studies of Shewanella ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre Daniel; Beg Qasim

    2012-02-14

    This project was a component of the Shewanella Federation and, as such, contributed to the overall goal of applying the genomic tools to better understand eco-physiology and speciation of respiratory-versatile members of Shewanella genus. Our role at Boston University was to perform bioreactor and high throughput gene expression microarrays, and combine dynamic flux balance modeling with experimentally obtained transcriptional and gene expression datasets from different growth conditions. In the first part of project, we designed the S. oneidensis microarray probes for Affymetrix Inc. (based in California), then we identified the pathways of carbon utilization in the metal-reducing marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, using our newly designed high-density oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray on Shewanella cells grown with various carbon sources. Next, using a combination of experimental and computational approaches, we built algorithm and methods to integrate the transcriptional and metabolic regulatory networks of S. oneidensis. Specifically, we combined mRNA microarray and metabolite measurements with statistical inference and dynamic flux balance analysis (dFBA) to study the transcriptional response of S. oneidensis MR-1 as it passes through exponential, stationary, and transition phases. By measuring time-dependent mRNA expression levels during batch growth of S. oneidensis MR-1 under two radically different nutrient compositions (minimal lactate and nutritionally rich LB medium), we obtain detailed snapshots of the regulatory strategies used by this bacterium to cope with gradually changing nutrient availability. In addition to traditional clustering, which provides a first indication of major regulatory trends and transcription factors activities, we developed and implemented a new computational approach for Dynamic Detection of Transcriptional Triggers (D2T2). This new method allows us to infer a putative topology of transcriptional dependencies

  1. Dichotomous decisions based on dichotomously scored items: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Koppelaar, H.; Linden, van der W.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a course in elementary statistics for psychology students using criterion-referenced achievement tests, the total test score, based on dichotomously scored items, was used for classifying students into those who passed and those who failed. The score on a test is considered as depending on a late

  2. Studies on GaN-based laser devices make progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research team led by YANG Hui and CHEN Lianghui with the CAS Institute of Semiconductors (ISCAS) has made breakthrough progress in addressing key technological problems for the GaN-based laser diodes development. The research results were spoken highly at a panel meeting of experts held on 26 November, 2007 in Beijing.

  3. Study of the Service Reliability of Machines Based on Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From the point of safety being the basic requirement of machine operation, equivalent failure number, which is employed to replace the actual statistical failure number, is introduced. Calculating theory of service reliability indexes of machines based on safety is developed. The method proposed in this paper can reflect the damage degree of failure.

  4. Evaluation of Inventory Reduction Strategies: Balad Air Base Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the USAF supply system amounts to basic ABC inventory management methods in that backorders are managed in a fashion where certain parts are given...M., & North, M. J. (2008). Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation: ABMS Examples. Proceedings of the 2008 Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 101-112

  5. A Corpus-Based Study of Idioms in Academic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rita; Mendis, Dushyanthi

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7 million words of academic discourse, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Argues that evidence from such a corpus can be informative for language teachers when the primary…

  6. [Study for phagaquosonogram acquisition module based on DSP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Guo, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Guang-Yu; Cui, Dong; Wang, Shi-Gang; Jiao, Qing

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a phagaquosonogram acquisition, a module with TMS320C6713 as a core, and USB as communicating pattern is introduced based on VC++6.0. The structure of the module, hardware configuration, software design and the experiment of the real phagaquosonogram signal collection are presented. It is shown that the module can extract human phagaquosonogram signal reliably and availably.

  7. Study on Equipment Selective Maintenance Strategy Based on Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an equipment selective maintenance strategy based on performance is brought forward according to the situation in China, in which reliability, computer technology,condition monitoring and management theory is applied. The theory points of the strategy are put forward. The maintenance strategy has been applied in.mine hoist system.

  8. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  9. Simulation Based Performance Assessment : Methodology and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Noordkamp, H.W.; Fitski, H.J.; Barros, A.I

    2009-01-01

    During the various phases of the Defense acquisition process, and in the early design phases, many decisions must be made concerning the performance and cost of the new equipment. Often many of these decisions are made while having only a limited view of their consequences or based on subjective inf

  10. Noninvasive microbubble-based pressure measurements: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Michiel; Bouakaz, Ayache; Jong, de Nico

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a noninvasive method to measure local hydrostatic pressures in fluid filled cavities. The method is based on the disappearance time of a gas bubble, as the disappearance time is related to the hydrostatic pressure. When a bubble shrinks, its response to ultrasound changes. From

  11. Test Prioritization based on Change Sensitivity: an Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Cu; Tonella, Paolo; Vos, Tanja; Condori, Nelly; Mendelson, Bilha; Citron, Daniel; Shehory, Onn

    2014-01-01

    In the context of service-based systems, applications access software services, either home-built or third-party, to orchestrate their functionality. Since such services evolve independently from the applications, the latter need to be tested to make sure that they work properly with the updated or

  12. Teaching Representations of Competency-Based Education. A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Papahiu, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know how the Competency-Based Education (CBE) approach is represented by professors who are part of the professional education of psychologists, and the challenges and implications of, in their opinion, incorporating it in the classroom practice. Therefore, a research was conducted to know the type of…

  13. Study on Support Vector Machine Based on 1-Norm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Mei-qin; HE Guo-ping; HAN Cong-ying; XUE Xin; SHI You-qun

    2006-01-01

    The model of optimization problem for Support Vector Machine(SVM) is provided, which based on the definitions of the dual norm and the distance between a point and its projection onto a given plane. The model of improved Support Vector Machine based on 1-norm (1 - SVM) is provided from the optimization problem, yet it is a discrete programming. With the smoothing technique and optimality knowledge, the discrete programming is changed into a continuous programming. Experimental results show that the algorithm is easy to implement and this method can select and suppress the problem features more efficiently.Illustrative examples show that the 1 - SVM deal with the linear or nonlinear classification well.

  14. Study on the Electrospun CNTs/Polyacrylonitrile-Based Nanofiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CNTs/PAN nanofibers were electrospun from PAN-based solution for the preparation of carbon nanofiber composites. The as-spun polyacrylonitrile-based nanofibers were hot-stretched by weighing metal in a temperature controlled oven. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to characterize the morphology of the nanofibers, which indicated that carbon nanotubes were dispersed well in the composites and were completely wrapped by PAN matrix. Because of the strong interfacial interaction between CNTs and PAN, the CNTs/PAN application performance will be enhanced correspondingly, such as the mechanical properties and the electrical conductivity. It was concluded that the hot-stretched CNTs/PAN nanofibers can be used as a potential precursor to produce high-performance carbon composites.

  15. Study of New Materials Design based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technology, the scientific research shows that the data mining and other information technology could be used in the design of new materials. It is explicit that Intelligent Materials research focuses on using physical and chemical principles combined with computer techniques such as Big Data, Cloud computing and Intelligent modeling and simulation to solve chemical problems. In this paper, based on the cluster based outlier algorithm as the main body, this paper discusses the definition New Materials research In the Hadoop cloud platform, and the parallel processing of Map-Reduce model. The performance this model of new material was established by using the method of Map-Reduction provided the basis for the performance optimization.

  16. STUDY ON IMAGE EDGE PROPERTY LOCATION BASED ON FRACTAL THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel approach of printed circuit board(PCB)image locating is presentedBased on the rectangle mark image edge of PCB,the featur es is used to describe the image edge and the fractal properby of image edge is analyzedIt is proved that the rectangle mark image edge of PCB has some fracta l featuresA method of deleting unordinary curve noise and compensating the l ength of the fractal curve is put forward,which can get the fractal dimension value from one complex edge fractal property curveThe relation between the dim ension of the fractal curve and the turning angle of image can be acquired from an equation,as a result,the angle value of the PCB image is got exactlyA real image edge analysis result confirms that the method based on the fractal theory is a new powerful tool for angle locating on PCB and related image area

  17. Space-Based Thermal Infrared Studies of Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Trilling, D

    2015-01-01

    Large-area surveys operating at mid-infrared wavelengths have proven to be a valuable means of discovering and characterizing minor planets. Through the use of radiometric models, it is possible to derive physical properties such as diameters, albedos, and thermal inertia for large numbers of objects. Modern detector array technology has resulted in a significant improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with previous generations of space-based infrared telescopes, giving rise to a commensurate increase in the number of objects that have been observed at these wavelengths. Space-based infrared surveys of asteroids therefore offer an effective means of rapidly gathering information about small body populations' orbital and physical properties. The AKARI, WISE/NEOWISE, Spitzer, and Herschel missions have significantly increased the number of minor planets with well-determined diameters and albedos.

  18. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  19. Finite Countermodel Based Verification for Program Transformation (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei P. Lisitsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Both automatic program verification and program transformation are based on program analysis. In the past decade a number of approaches using various automatic general-purpose program transformation techniques (partial deduction, specialization, supercompilation for verification of unreachability properties of computing systems were introduced and demonstrated. On the other hand, the semantics based unfold-fold program transformation methods pose themselves diverse kinds of reachability tasks and try to solve them, aiming at improving the semantics tree of the program being transformed. That means some general-purpose verification methods may be used for strengthening program transformation techniques. This paper considers the question how finite countermodels for safety verification method might be used in Turchin's supercompilation method. We extract a number of supercompilation sub-algorithms trying to solve reachability problems and demonstrate use of an external countermodel finder for solving some of the problems.

  20. Base-line study - Elba Callao, Spring 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, Juan; Quispe, Jorge; Ledesma, Jesús; León, Violeta; Sarmiento, Miguel; Robles, Carlos; Bernales, Avy; Villanueva, Patricia; Sánchez, Sonia; Velazco, Federico; Solís, Juana; Quipúzcoa, Luis; Yupanqui, Williams; Marquina, Robert; Henostroza, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Estudio Línea Base – ELBA Callao, primavera 2011. Inf Inst Mar Perú. 39(3-4): 149-198.- El ELBA se efectuó en el área delimitada por las islas San Lorenzo y El Frontón y la Península de La Punta, del 21 al 30 de noviembre 2011, para a) caracterizar biológica y oceanográficamente el área de estudio y b) obtener bases técnicas para el ordenamiento pesquero y acuícola. En el área predominaron sedimentos arenosos y grava de origen terrígeno. Presentó características térmicas frías al interior y c...

  1. Study of a Quantum Framework for Search Based Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Song, Fangmin; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-06-01

    The Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is widely used in the software engineering to identify optimal solutions. The traditional methods and algorithms used in SBSE are criticized due to their high costs. In this paper, we propose a rapid modified-Grover quantum searching method for SBSE, and theoretically this method can be applied to any search-space structure and any type of searching problems.

  2. Study of engine noise based on independent component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-yong; JIN Yan; YANG Chen

    2007-01-01

    Independent component analysis was applied to analyze the acoustic signals from diesel engine. First the basic principle of independent component analysis (ICA) was reviewed. Diesel engine acoustic signal was decomposed into several independent components (Ics); Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were applied to analyze the independent components. Different noise sources of the diesel engine were separated, based on the characteristics of different component in time-frequency domain.

  3. Comparative Study of Base Community Relations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    of tension surrounding a given base is determined less by major crimes that get the most academic and media attention, but rather by pacifist ...while there are certainly sincere pacifists on the islands, there is a group of activists and politicians who have grown extremely adept at using the...However, in these two cases as well, while they certainly provide ammunition to the pacifist left in general, the crimes have fallen short of

  4. Study on Segmented Reflector Lamp Design Based on Error Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic principle and design m ethod for light distribution of car lamp, introduces an important development: h igh efficient and flexible car lamp with reflecting light distribution-segmente d reflector (multi-patch) car lamp, and puts out a design method for segmented reflector based on error analysis. Unlike classical car lamp with refractive lig ht distribution, the method of reflecting light distribution gives car lamp desi gn more flexibility. In the case of guarantying the li...

  5. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....

  6. Videogames, Tools for Change: A Study Based on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Laura; Lacasa, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for analysis from which to interpret the transformations that take place, as perceived by the participants, when commercial video games are used in the classroom. We will show how Activity Theory (AT) is able to explain and interpret these changes. Method: Case studies are…

  7. Passive output feedback and observer based autopilots: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Paulsen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for course-keeping of a ship are studied where no measurements of the yaw rate are available. The two methods are a passive output feedback controller and a controller-observer structure. A comparison with special attention to stability and wave filtering properties, is provided. Finally, a case study of a ship autopilot is included.

  8. ISPE: A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical engineers use mathematical simulators to design, model, optimize and refine various engineering plants/processes. This procedure requires the following steps: (1) preparation of an input data file according to the format required by the target simulator; (2) excecuting the simulation; and (3) analyzing the results of the simulation to determine if all specified goals'' are satisfied. If the goals are not met, the input data file must be modified and the simulation repeated. This multistep process is continued until satisfactory results are obtained. This research was undertaken to develop a knowledge based system, IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment), that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant to perform a variety tasks related to process simulation. ASPEN, a widely used simulator by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) was selected as the target process simulator in the project. IPSE, written in the C language, was developed using a number of knowledge-based programming paradigms: object-oriented knowledge representation that uses inheritance and methods, rulebased inferencing (includes processing and propagation of probabilistic information) and data-driven programming using demons. It was implemented using the knowledge based environment LASER. The relationship of IPSE with the user, ASPEN, LASER and the C language is shown in Figure 1.

  9. Study of Aerosol Chemical Composition Based on Aerosol Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Austin; Aryal, Rudra

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the variation of aerosol absorption optical properties obtained from the CIMEL Sun-Photometer measurements over three years (2012-2014) at three AERONET sites GSFC; MD Science_Center and Tudor Hill, Bermuda. These sites were chosen based on the availability of data and locations that can receive different types of aerosols from land and ocean. These absorption properties, mainly the aerosol absorption angstrom exponent, were analyzed to examine the corresponding aerosol chemical composition. We observed that the retrieved absorption angstrom exponents over the two sites, GSFC and MD Science Center, are near 1 (the theoretical value for black carbon) and with low single scattering albedo values during summer seasons indicating presence of black carbon. Strong variability of aerosol absorption properties were observed over Tudor Hill and will be analyzed based on the air mass embedded from ocean side and land side. We will also present the seasonal variability of these properties based on long-range air mass sources at these three sites. Brent Holben, NASA GSFC, AERONET, Jon Rodriguez.

  10. Studies of the unsteady supersonic base flows around three afterbodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiang Xiao; Song Fu

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady supersonic base flows around three afterbodies, cylindrical (Cy), boattailed (BT) and three-step (MS), are investigated in this paper. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and two RANS/LES (large-eddy simulation) hybrid methods, detached eddy simulation (DES) and delayed-DES (DDES), are used to predict the base flow characteristics around the baseline Cy afterbody. All the RANS and hybrid methods are based on the two-equation SST (shear-stress transport) model with compressible corrections (CC). According to the comparison of measurements, both DES and DDES can produce more satisfactory results than RANS. RANS can only present the "stable" flow patterns, while the hybrid methods can demonstrate unsteady flow structures. DDES and DES results are little different from one another although the latter exhibits better agreement with the experiment. DES is taken to investigate the 5 BT and three-step afterbodies. The mean flow data and the instantaneous turbulent coherent structures are compared against available measurements.

  11. Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass.We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass.The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation.It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected,which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux.Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory.For larger thermal perturbation,however,the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model,i.e.the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition,is eliminated by the general heat conduction law,which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.

  12. Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU RuiFeng; CAO BingYang

    2009-01-01

    The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass. We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass. The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation. It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected, which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux. Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory. For larger thermal perturbation, however, the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model, i.e. the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition, is eliminated by the general heat conduction law, which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.

  13. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

    2014-04-08

    As a part of the Shewanella Federation project, we have used integrated genomic, proteomic and computational technologies to study various aspects of energy metabolism of two Shewanella strains from a systems-level perspective.

  14. Evidence-based review of clinical studies on pulpotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Although pulpotomy procedures have a long history of clinical application, comparatively few dental clinical trials have evaluated this treatment approach. In this section, we provide an analysis of recent clinical studies evaluating pulpotomy procedures in dental patients.

  15. Lunar base scenario cost estimates: Lunar base systems study task 6.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The projected development and production costs of each of the Lunar Base's systems are described and unit costs are estimated for transporting the systems to the lunar surface and for setting up the system.

  16. Study on Isomerous CAD Model Exchange Based on Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xiaodong; CHEN Feng; XU Chenguang

    2006-01-01

    A model-exchange method based on feature between isomerous CAD systems is put forward in this paper. In this method, CAD model information is accessed at both feature and geometry levels and converted according to standard feature operation. The feature information including feature tree, dimensions and constraints, which will be lost in traditional data conversion, as well as geometry are converted completely from source CAD system to destination one. So the transferred model can be edited through feature operation, which cannot be implemented by general model-exchange interface.

  17. [Study of Terahertz Amplitude Imaging Based on the Mean Absorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeng-yan; Ji, Te; Xiao, Ti-qiao; Zhao, Hong-wei; Chen, Min; Yu, Xiao-han; Tong, Ya-jun; Zhu, Hua-chun; Peng, Wei-wei

    2015-12-01

    A new method of terahertz (THz) imaging based on the mean absorption is proposed. Terahertz radiation is an electromagnetic radiation in the range between millimeter waves and far infrared. THz pulse imaging emerges as a novel tool in many fields because of its low energy and non-ionizing character, such as material, chemical, biological medicine and food safety. A character of THz imaging technique is it can get large amount of information. How to extract the useful parameter from the large amount of information and reconstruct sample's image is a key technology in THz imaging. Some efforts have been done for advanced visualization methods to extract the information of interest from the raw data. Both time domain and frequency domain visualization methods can be applied to extract information on the physical properties of samples from THz imaging raw data. The process of extracting useful parameter from raw data of the new method based on the mean absorption was given in this article. This method relates to the sample absorption and thickness, it delivers good signal to noise ratio in the images, and the dispersion effects are cancelled. A paper with a "THz" shape hole was taken as the sample to do the experiment. Traditional THz amplitude imaging methods in time domain and frequency domain are used to achieve the sample's image, such as relative reduction of pulse maximum imaging method, relative power loss imaging method, and relative power loss at specific frequency imaging method. The sample's information that reflected by these methods and the characteristics of these methods are discussed. The method base on the mean absorption within a certain frequency is also used to reconstruct sample's image. The experimental results show that this new method can well reflect the true information of the sample. And it can achieve a clearer image than the other traditional THz amplitude imaging methods. All the experimental results and theoretical analyses indicate that

  18. Pentazole-based energetic ionic liquids: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Ian S O; Elzey, Sherrie; Boatz, Jerry A; Gordon, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    The structures of protonated pentazole cations (RN5H+), oxygen-containing anions such as N(NO2)2-, NO3-, and ClO4- and the corresponding ion pairs are investigated by ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. The stability of the pentazole cation is explored by examining the decomposition pathways of several monosubstituted cations (RN5H+) to yield N2 and the corresponding azidinium cation. The heats of formation of these cations, which are based on isodesmic (bond-type conserving) reactions, are calculated. The proton-transfer reaction from the cation to the anion is investigated.

  19. Cooperative Game Study of Airlines Based on Flight Frequency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the game theory, the relationship between airline ticket price and optimal flight frequency is analyzed. The paper establishes the payoff matrix of the flight frequency in noncooperation scenario and flight frequency optimization model in cooperation scenario. The airline alliance profit distribution is converted into profit distribution game based on the cooperation game theory. The profit distribution game is proved to be convex, and there exists an optimal distribution strategy. The results show that joining the airline alliance can increase airline whole profit, the change of negotiated prices and cost is beneficial to profit distribution of large airlines, and the distribution result is in accordance with aviation development.

  20. A Satellite Based Fog Study of the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    total number of fog and fog likely days detected from the two MODIS satellites, Aqua and Tera , respectively. Results from all nine areas of...trends in fog detection based on the satellite differences. 46 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 N um be r o f D ay s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Areas Four Month Tera vs...Aqua Fog Totals Tera Fog Tera Fog Likely Aqua Fog Aqua Fog Likely Figure 29. Comparisons of the four month total number of fog and fog likely days

  1. Study on gene sensor based on primer extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈誉华; 宋今丹; 李大为

    1997-01-01

    Based on the fact that the resonant frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is the function of its surface deposit, and that the primer extends after it hybridizes with the template, the primer extension gene sensor technique was developed. The prominent feature of the technique is that fast and sensitive frequency signals are used as the monitoring system of gene hybridization and primer strand extension. Results show that this technique may be used in homologous analysis of nucleic acid, trace DNA detection, and determining the integration of DNA. It may also be used for isolation of target gene, gene mutation analysis, and predicting the location of a gene in its genome.

  2. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  3. Study on autonomous navigation based on pulsar timing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JianXun; KE XiZheng

    2009-01-01

    The basic principle of pulsar timing model was introduced, and the general relativistic corrections were analyzed when pulse time of arrival (TOA) was transferred to coordinate TOA at the Solar System Barycentre. Based on the shifting, an iterative method of autonomous position determination for spacecraft was developed. Accordingly, the linear form of the position offset equation was evolved. Using the initial estimated value of spacecraft's position as the input of pulsar timing equation, through calculation of the offset between measured or transferred and predicted TOA, the position offset can be solved by Least Squares. At last, the main error sources including modeling error and parameters error were discussed.

  4. Study on autonomous navigation based on pulsar timing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The basic principle of pulsar timing model was introduced, and the general relativistic corrections were analyzed when pulse time of arrival (TOA) was transferred to coordinate TOA at the Solar System Barycentre. Based on the shifting, an iterative method of autonomous position determination for spacecraft was developed. Accordingly, the linear form of the position offset equation was evolved. Using the initial estimated value of spacecraft’s position as the input of pulsar timing equation, through calculation of the offset between measured or transferred and predicted TOA, the position offset can be solved by Least Squares. At last, the main error sources including modeling error and parameters error were discussed.

  5. A Corpus-based Study on the Synonyms of Famous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yan-wei; LUO Ying

    2016-01-01

    English is rich in synonyms. According to previous statistics, English synonyms constitute over 60%of the total English vocabulary. To have a good mastery of English lexis is to have a good mastery of English synonyms. Thus, it is significant to know how to distinguish synonyms in learning English. In traditional ways, people get information about synonyms from printed dictionaries. However, it is not enough for learners to understand the real differences of synonyms. This paper adopts a corpus-based approach to analyze the synonyms of "famous" as an example.

  6. CLINICO PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF BENIGN BREAST LUMP – A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite the fact that in majority of cases the initial symptom of benign breast disease is a lump, which can be easily detected by the patient herself by self-examination they generally present at a very late stage and this poses a great difficulty in their management. Early and appropriate diagnosis of breast disease is of utmost importance. AIM The aim of the study was to find out the relative frequency and commonest site of occurrence of benign breast disorder and their relationship with age, parity, menstrual cycle, and socio-economic status and also to find out the accuracy of investigative procedures in their diagnosis. DESIGN This is a cross sectional, interventional. Hospital based study. MATERIALS AND METHOD This study was done in 58 female patients in the age group 10 yrs. to 55 yrs. presenting with clinically benign breast lumps randomly chosen from outpatient department and indoor wards of The Calcutta Medical Research Institute, Kolkata. After taking an accurate history and proper clinical examination these patients were sequentially studied by radiological methods (Ultrasonography and mammography, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and histopathology of removed specimen. Patients were enquired about their age, chief complaints, menstrual history, and use of oral pill, marital status, parity, lactation and socioeconomic status. RESULTS 79% of the benign breast lumps were found to be between 10–35 years, Fibro adenoma being the commonest one (41.38% and fibrocystic disease the second most common (29.31%. Breast lump were more common among unmarried and nulliparous females (48.27%, commonest site being upper and outer quadrant (38.8%. 69% patients were associated with an abnormal menstrual status. 76% of the cases were accurately diagnosed by clinical examination, 70% by mammography, 88% by FNAC and 84% by ultrasonography. CONCLUSION This clinicopathological study of benign breast lump is a small endeavour on our part

  7. Image preprocessing study on KPCA-based face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition as an important biometric identification method, with its friendly, natural, convenient advantages, has obtained more and more attention. This paper intends to research a face recognition system including face detection, feature extraction and face recognition, mainly through researching on related theory and the key technology of various preprocessing methods in face detection process, using KPCA method, focuses on the different recognition results in different preprocessing methods. In this paper, we choose YCbCr color space for skin segmentation and choose integral projection for face location. We use erosion and dilation of the opening and closing operation and illumination compensation method to preprocess face images, and then use the face recognition method based on kernel principal component analysis method for analysis and research, and the experiments were carried out using the typical face database. The algorithms experiment on MATLAB platform. Experimental results show that integration of the kernel method based on PCA algorithm under certain conditions make the extracted features represent the original image information better for using nonlinear feature extraction method, which can obtain higher recognition rate. In the image preprocessing stage, we found that images under various operations may appear different results, so as to obtain different recognition rate in recognition stage. At the same time, in the process of the kernel principal component analysis, the value of the power of the polynomial function can affect the recognition result.

  8. Preliminary study on mechanics-based rainfall kinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiuqin Ms.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A raindrop impact power observation system was employed to observe the real-time raindrop impact power during a rainfall event and to analyze the corresponding rainfall characteristics. The experiments were conducted at different simulated rainfall intensities. As rainfall intensity increased, the observed impact power increased linearly indicating the power observation system would be satisfactory for characterizing rainfall erosivity. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity (Momentum=MV, which is related to the observed impact power value. Since there is no significant difference between momentum and impact power, observed impact power can represent momentum for different rainfall intensities. The relationship between momentum and the observed impact power provides a convenient way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy. The value of rainfall kinetic energy based on the observed impact power was higher than the classic rainfall kinetic energy. The rainfall impact power based kinetic energy and the classic rainfall kinetic energy showed linear correlation, which indicates that the raindrop impact power observation system can characterize rainfall kinetic energy. The article establishes a preliminary way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy by using the real-time observed momentum, providing a foundation for replacing the traditional methods for estimating kinetic energy of rainstorms.

  9. Comprehensive Study on Lexicon-based Ensemble Classification Sentiment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Augustyniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method for counting sentiment orientation that outperforms supervised learning approaches in time and memory complexity and is not statistically significantly different from them in accuracy. Our method consists of a novel approach to generating unigram, bigram and trigram lexicons. The proposed method, called frequentiment, is based on calculating the frequency of features (words in the document and averaging their impact on the sentiment score as opposed to documents that do not contain these features. Afterwards, we use ensemble classification to improve the overall accuracy of the method. What is important is that the frequentiment-based lexicons with sentiment threshold selection outperform other popular lexicons and some supervised learners, while being 3–5 times faster than the supervised approach. We compare 37 methods (lexicons, ensembles with lexicon’s predictions as input and supervised learners applied to 10 Amazon review data sets and provide the first statistical comparison of the sentiment annotation methods that include ensemble approaches. It is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of domain sentiment analysis in the literature.

  10. Hypertension in pregnancy: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy occur in women with preexisting primary or secondary chronic hypertension, and in women who develop new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy. The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in pregnancy in a rural block of Haryana. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the all 20 subcenters under Community Health Center (CHC Chiri, Block Lakhanmajra. All the pregnant women registered at the particular subcenter at a point of time of visit were included in the study. Appropriate statistical tests were used for analysis. Results: A total of 931 pregnant women were included in the present study. Prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was found to be 6.9%. Maternal age ΃25 years, gestational period ͳ20 weeks, history of cesarean section, history of preterm delivery, and history of hypertension in previous pregnancy were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy. Conclusion: Nearly one in 14 pregnant women in rural areas of Haryana suffers from a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Early diagnosis and treatment through regular antenatal checkup is a key factor to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and its complications.

  11. Myasthenia Gravis: a population-based epidemiological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rutledge, S

    2016-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.

  12. Feature Based Correspondence: A Comparative Study on Image Matching Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim Tanvir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Image matching and recognition are the crux of computer vision and have a major part to play in everyday lives. From industrial robots to surveillance cameras, from autonomous vehicles to medical imaging and from missile guidance to space exploration vehicles computer vision and hence image matching is embedded in our lives. This communication presents a comparative study on the prevalent matching algorithms, addressing their restrictions and providing a criterion to define the level of efficiency likely to be expected from an algorithm. The study includes the feature detection and matching techniques used by these prevalent algorithms to allow a deeper insight. The chief aim of the study is to deliver a source of comprehensive reference for the researchers involved in image matching, regardless of specific applications.

  13. Alkali based slagging: a case study from Leigh Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Creelman; J. Bamberry; L.A. Juniper; C. Ward [University of Western Sydney, Penrith South, NSW (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    A systematic study was undertaken at NRG Port Augusta Power station in South Australia to determine the cause of ash deposition (slagging) in the boilers. Conventional wisdom suggests that iron in the ash is generally a major player in furnace ash deposition; however, mineralogical and chemical analyses of the deposits showed that the binding phase was plagioclase feldspar, dominated by the sodic feldspar albite. The study resulted in recognition that the cause of the formation of ash deposits in the North Flinders furnaces was the result of the ingestion of sodium and calcium into the melt that bound the deposits. This finding was a breakthrough in understanding the deposition process within these furnaces, and emphasises that not all slagging is iron related and that systematic studies of deposits, coal and ash make fundamental contributions to understanding the ash deposition mechanisms. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Register-based studies on migration, ethnicity, and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Kastrup, Marianne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    to highlight the process of how migrant study populations have been established and studied in relation to different registers: The Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Danish National Patient Register, the Danish National Health Service Register, the Danish Injury...... the person is an immigrant or not, and on ethnic background. Data on migration background (i.e. refugee status vs. family reunification, etc.) is more difficult to obtain and therefore less used. It has been debated if ethnicity should be registered upon using health services; however, some consider...

  15. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Echophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrethe H. Serres

    2012-06-29

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a motile, facultative {gamma}-Proteobacterium with remarkable respiratory versatility; it can utilize a range of organic and inorganic compounds as terminal electronacceptors for anaerobic metabolism. The ability to effectively reduce nitrate, S0, polyvalent metals andradionuclides has established MR-1 as an important model dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism for genome-based investigations of biogeochemical transformation of metals and radionuclides that are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites nationwide. Metal-reducing bacteria such as Shewanella also have a highly developed capacity for extracellular transfer of respiratory electrons to solid phase Fe and Mn oxides as well as directly to anode surfaces in microbial fuel cells. More broadly, Shewanellae are recognized free-living microorganisms and members of microbial communities involved in the decomposition of organic matter and the cycling of elements in aquatic and sedimentary systems. To function and compete in environments that are subject to spatial and temporal environmental change, Shewanella must be able to sense and respond to such changes and therefore require relatively robust sensing and regulation systems. The overall goal of this project is to apply the tools of genomics, leveraging the availability of genome sequence for 18 additional strains of Shewanella, to better understand the ecophysiology and speciation of respiratory-versatile members of this important genus. To understand these systems we propose to use genome-based approaches to investigate Shewanella as a system of integrated networks; first describing key cellular subsystems - those involved in signal transduction, regulation, and metabolism - then building towards understanding the function of whole cells and, eventually, cells within populations. As a general approach, this project will employ complimentary "top-down" - bioinformatics-based genome functional predictions, high

  16. Power comparison between population-based case–control studies and family-based transmission–disequilibrium tests: An empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Tanushree; Ghosh, Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are two major classes of genetic association analyses: population based and family based. Population-based case–control studies have been the method of choice due to the ease of data collection. However, population stratification is one of the major limitations of case–control studies, while family-based studies are protected against stratification. In this study, we carry out extensive simulations under different disease models (both Mendelian as well as complex) to evaluate the relative powers of the two approaches in detecting association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The power comparisons are based on a case–control design comprising 200 cases and 200 controls versus a Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) or Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (PDT) design with 200 informative trios. We perform the allele-level test for case–control studies, which is based on the difference of allele frequencies at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between unrelated cases and controls. The TDT and the PDT are based on preferential allelic transmissions at a SNP from heterozygous parents to the affected offspring. We considered five disease modes of inheritance: (i) recessive with complete penetrance (ii) dominant with complete penetrance and (iii), (iv) and (v) complex diseases with varying levels of penetrances and phenocopies. RESULTS: We find that while the TDT/PDT design with 200 informative trios is in general more powerful than a case–control design with 200 cases and 200 controls (except when the heterozygosity at the marker locus is high), it may be necessary to sample a very large number of trios to obtain the requisite number of informative families. CONCLUSION: The current study provides insights into power comparisons between population-based and family-based association studies. PMID:21747584

  17. Evaluation Model for Experts Social Networks (Based on Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saghafi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Every Social network is considered as a structured Society constitute of individual or organizational group which are associated together within different type of dependency. The most important elements influence the success of such social network is the level of interest for sharing the information. This article addresses the important factors on assessment of Intellectual National Internet Network(ININ. For assessment we propose Enhanced technology acceptance model which we deployed by extending Davis TAM(technology acceptance model.ININ is a web base sites for think thanking of researchers which is acting within a four month at RICT(Research institute of ICT and the number of 214 ICT researchers distribute and delivered their experience. The result shows that in intellectual society, Intelligence has higher values to be disseminated and higher inspiration is needed for its successful sharing in new generation of Information technology.

  18. A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, Gururaj V; 10.1016/j.metmat.2010.11.001

    2011-01-01

    Recent metamaterial (MM) research faces several problems when using metal-based plasmonic components as building blocks for MMs. The use of conventional metals for MMs is limited by several factors: metals such as gold and silver have high losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) ranges and very large negative real permittivity values, and in addition, their optical properties cannot be tuned. These issues that put severe constraints on the device applications of MMs could be overcome if semiconductors are used as plasmonic materials instead of metals. Heavily doped, wide bandgap oxide semiconductors could exhibit both a small negative real permittivity and relatively small losses in the NIR. Heavily doped oxides of zinc and indium were already reported to be good, low loss alternatives to metals in the NIR range. Here, we consider these transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) as alternative plasmonic materials for many specific applications ranging from surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides to MMs with hype...

  19. Experimental Study on Neutron Radiography Device Based on Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Jin; PENG; Dan; HAO; Qian; YU; Bo-xiang; LI; Yi-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>Neutron radiography is a non-destructive testing developing fast recently, which requires stable and proper neutron source with low γ background. Neutrons from In-hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI) could meet this requirement. Based on the neutron beams of IHNI, a collimator is designed and built for neutron radiography. The experiment results show that in the case of IHNI working at normal rated power, the neutron flux at the end of the collimator is 1.43×106 cm-2·s-1; The max collimation ratio (L/D) is 58; the γ dose rate is 6.3×106 mSv/s. In a word, the collimator could be used for neutron radiography.

  20. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  1. A Study of Electromyogram Based on Human-Computer Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Ru Ren; Tie-Jun Liu; Yu Huang; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,a new control system based on forearm electromyogram (EMG) is proposed for computer peripheral control and artificial prosthesis control.This control system intends to realize the commands of six pre-defined hand poses:up,down,left,right,yes,and no.In order to research the possibility of using a unified amplifier for both electro-encephalogram (EEG) and EMG,the surface forearm EMG data is acquired by a 4-channel EEG measure-ment system.The Bayesian classifier is used to classify the power spectral density (PSD) of the signal.The experiment result verifies that this control system can supply a high command recognition rate (average 48%) even the EMG data is collected with an EEG system just with single electrode measurement.

  2. Study of a thiophene-based polymer for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheylan, S. [ICFO, Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Edificio NEXUS II, c. Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Stephanie.cheylan@icfo.es; Fraleoni-Morgera, A. [Department of Industrial and Materials Chemistry, University of Bologna, V. Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Puigdollers, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, UPC, Campus Nord Edifici C4, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Voz, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, UPC, Campus Nord Edifici C4, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Setti, L. [Department of Industrial and Materials Chemistry, University of Bologna, V. Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Alcubilla, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, UPC, Campus Nord Edifici C4, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Badenes, G. [ICFO, Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Edificio NEXUS II, c. Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Costa-Bizzarri, P. [Department of Industrial and Materials Chemistry, University of Bologna, V. Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Lanzi, M. [Department of Industrial and Materials Chemistry, University of Bologna, V. Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-02-21

    A thiophene-based conjugated polymer bearing a cyano group (-CN) as a side chain substituent was successfully synthesized. The polymer evidences an excellent film ability from various organic solvents as well as an enhanced photoluminescence. The polymer has been characterized optically (Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy, absorption and photoluminescence) in solution and in film, while X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) of thin films were performed to investigate its bulk morphological features. From the absorption edge of the spectrum of a thin polymer film, the optical band gap of the polymer is estimated to be 2.0 eV, which corresponds to orange emission. Furthermore, a single layer light emitting diode (LED) was fabricated. The device produced bright stable electroluminescence at room temperature. All of the results indicate that this polymer is a promising emissive material for application in polymeric LEDs.

  3. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the available commercial servo gear oil. Experimentation has been performed on four ball tester set up.Material used is carbon steel balls. Refined castor and mahua oils are blended in fixed ratios and subjected to friction and wear tests. Experimentation reveals that castor mahua oil blend possess immense potential in contrast to servo gear oil due to good wear reducing traits apart from environmental benefits.

  4. Study on the agile supply chain management based on agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The most important task of the agile supply chain management (ASCM) is to reconfigure a supply chain based on the customers' requirement. Without more sophisticated cooperation and dynamic formation in an agile supply chain, it cannot be achieved for mass customization, rapid response and high quality services. Because of its great potential in supporting cooperation for the supply chain management, agent technology can carry out the cooperative work by inter-operation across networked human, organization and machines at the abstractive level in a computational system. A major challenge in building such a system is to coordinate the behavior of individual agent or a group of agents to achieve the individual and shared goals of the participants. In this paper, the agent technology is used to support modeling and coordinating of supply chain management.

  5. Smartphone-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heewon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) that utilizes only a smartphone, with no external devices. As an efficient guide for cardiac rehabilitation exercise, we developed an application to automatically indicate the exercise intensity by comparing the estimated heart rate (HR) with the target heart rate zone (THZ). The HR is estimated using video images of a fingertip taken by the smartphone’s built-in camera. The introduced CRP app includes pre-exercise, exercise with intensity guidance, and post-exercise. In the pre-exercise period, information such as THZ, exercise type, exercise stage order, and duration of each stage are set up. In the exercise with intensity guidance, the app estimates HR from the pulse obtained using the smartphone’s built-in camera and compares the estimated HR with the THZ. Based on this comparison, the app adjusts the exercise intensity to shift the patient’s HR to the THZ during exercise. In the post-exercise period, the app manages the ratio of the estimated HR to the THZ and provides a questionnaire on factors such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and leg pain during exercise, as objective and subjective evaluation indicators. As a key issue, HR estimation upon signal corruption due to motion artifacts is also considered. Through the smartphone-based CRP, we estimated the HR accuracy as mean absolute error and root mean squared error of 6.16 and 4.30bpm, respectively, with signal corruption due to motion artifacts being detected by combining the turning point ratio and kurtosis. PMID:27551969

  6. A Physics-Based Modeling Framework for Prognostic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) methodologies have emerged as one of the key enablers for achieving efficient system level maintenance as part of a busy operations schedule, and lowering overall life cycle costs. PHM is also emerging as a high-priority issue in critical applications, where the focus is on conducting fundamental research in the field of integrated systems health management. The term diagnostics relates to the ability to detect and isolate faults or failures in a system. Prognostics on the other hand is the process of predicting health condition and remaining useful life based on current state, previous conditions and future operating conditions. PHM methods combine sensing, data collection, interpretation of environmental, operational, and performance related parameters to indicate systems health under its actual application conditions. The development of prognostics methodologies for the electronics field has become more important as more electrical systems are being used to replace traditional systems in several applications in the aeronautics, maritime, and automotive fields. The development of prognostics methods for electronics presents several challenges due to the great variety of components used in a system, a continuous development of new electronics technologies, and a general lack of understanding of how electronics fail. Similarly with electric unmanned aerial vehicles, electrichybrid cars, and commercial passenger aircraft, we are witnessing a drastic increase in the usage of batteries to power vehicles. However, for battery-powered vehicles to operate at maximum efficiency and reliability, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. We develop an electrochemistry-based model of Li-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable

  7. TOURISM FUTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON SOCIO-STATISTICAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring the global economy is the main factor of which depends the future of sustainable development, major changes being needed in the human behavior, in the system of values and life style. In order to raise people’s sensitivity regarding the importance of constructing ties between natures and cultures, between different world cultures, cultural and natural heritage must be used as efficiently as possible. The second part of this paper refers to a study made on tourism in Bucovina region. This case study may be considered a useful instrument for identifying malfunction in the touristic sector in the south of Bucovina region, in order to supply all necessary information for further development strategies and policies in the field. The statistics in tourism is used in the study of the most stable features of touristic activity behaviour. This study will allow the configuration of a general outlook, which is necessary in order to take the best decisions when it comes to elaborating forecasts in the field.

  8. An Intervention Study in Grade 3 Based Upon Reciprocal Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Reichenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a twelve-week intervention study in which 30 students in the third grade in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood received training in a reciprocal teaching reading programme twice a week. Previously, (a no study of the effects of reciprocal teaching had been conducted in a Swedish context under the conditions of larger groups in grade 3 or (b in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood. In the present study, the students were instructed in ‘text talk’ in large groups, with 15 participants in each group. Each session lasted 15 to 20 minutes. Some text talks were video recorded. The video recordings were analysed qualitatively. The students’ reading comprehension was tested before the intervention, immediately after completing the intervention, and three months after completing the intervention. The results presented suggest that the students’ reading comprehension significantly increased. In the conclusion, the study indicates that reciprocal teaching had a positive effect on students in grade 3 in a Swedish context; however, uncontrolled intervening variables cannot be ruled out.

  9. A Study of Multimedia Application-Based Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has created the opportunity for exploring the effects of the multimedia application on foreign language vocabulary acquisition in recent years. This study provides an overview the computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and detailed a developing result of CALL--multimedia. With the…

  10. A Study on Translation Process Based on Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞

    2015-01-01

    Relevance theory belongs to the field of pragmatics. Translation is a kind of communicative activity in nature. In the frame of relevance theory, translation is the process of cognition and inference. This paper focuses on the study of trans-lation process on the basis of relevance theory in order to improve the practice of translation.

  11. Voyages in Primary Social Studies: A Story-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gerry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Inspired by Brendan's fantastic sea adventures, this article describes a cooperative university-faculty project to redesign the elementary social studies curriculum in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The new plan employs literature (biography, historical novels, travel accounts, myths and legends, religious stories, poetry, and drama) to enliven study…

  12. Telecommunication: Economic studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    Research on economic evaluations of the telecommunications industry is cited. Communication satellites, common carriers, cable television, telephone systems, and television systems are all covered in the bibliography. Economic studies of the foreign telecommunications industry are included. This updated bibliography contains 60 abstracts, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  13. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giusseppe A.; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; Beusink, Bianca; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.; more, more

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users o

  14. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertak...

  15. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to eval...

  16. Demonstrative pronouns in Spanish : a discourse-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulaica Hernández, Iker

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation constitutes an exploration into the discourse anaphoric properties of Spanish demonstrative anaphors esto eso and aquello (cf. this/that). This basic issue, largely ignored in the studies of Spanish linguistics so far, is fully addressed here from a semantic and pragmatic perspecti

  17. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  18. Insect-Based Vision for Autonomous Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the project were to use a high-speed digital video camera to pursue two questions: (1) To explore the influence of temporal imaging constraints on the performance of vision systems for autonomous mobile robots; (2) To study the fine structure of insect flight trajectories in order to better understand the characteristics of flight control, orientation and navigation.

  19. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  20. Gathering practice-based knowledge in educational contexts – some case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Verjans, S. (2016, 20 September). Gathering practice-based knowledge in educational contexts – some case studies. Presentation at Welten Conference ‘Practice-based research methods to guide desining for networked learning’, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  1. A Web-Based Video Digitizing System for the Study of Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W.; Carlton, Les G.; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Hay, James G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses advantages of a video-based, digitized image system for the study and analysis of projectile motion in the physics laboratory. Describes the implementation of a web-based digitized video system. (WRM)

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY II OF A MUON BASED NEUTRINO SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GALLARDO,J.C.; OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.

    2001-06-30

    The concept of using a muon storage ring to provide a well characterized beam of muon and electron neutrinos (a Neutrino Factory) has been under study for a number of years now at various laboratories throughout the world. The physics program of a Neutrino Factoryis focused on the relatively unexplored neutrino sector. In conjunction with a detector located a suitable distance from the neutrino source, the facility would make valuable contributions to the study of neutrino masses and lepton mixing. A Neutrino Factory is expected to improve the measurement accuracy of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} and provide measurements of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and the sign of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. It may also be able to measure CP violation in the lepton sector.

  3. Estimating heritability for cause specific mortality based on twin studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus Kähler; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in studying the magnitude and type of inheritance of specific diseases. This is typically derived from family or twin studies, where the basic idea is to compare the correlation for different pairs that share different amount of genes. We here consider data from...... the Danish twin registry and discuss how to define heritability for cancer occurrence. The key point is that this should be done taking censoring as well as competing risks due to e.g.  death into account. We describe the dependence between twins on the probability scale and show that various models can...... be used to achieve sensible estimates of the dependence within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs that may vary over time. These dependence measures can subsequently be decomposed into a genetic and environmental component using random effects models. We here present several novel models that in essence...

  4. Stimulator Selection in SSVEP-Based Spatial Selective Attention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songyun; Liu, Chang; Obermayer, Klaus; Zhu, Fangshi; Wang, Linan; Xie, Xinzhou; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) are widely used in spatial selective attention. In this process the two kinds of visual simulators, Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), are commonly used to evoke SSVEP. In this paper, the differences of SSVEP caused by these two stimulators in the study of spatial selective attention were investigated. Results indicated that LED could stimulate strong SSVEP component on occipital lobe, and the frequency of evoked SSVEP had high precision and wide range as compared to LCD. Moreover a significant difference between noticed and unnoticed frequencies in spectrum was observed whereas in LCD mode this difference was limited and selectable frequencies were also limited. Our experimental finding suggested that average classification accuracies among all the test subjects in our experiments were 0.938 and 0.853 in LED and LCD mode, respectively. These results indicate that LED simulator is appropriate for evoking the SSVEP for the study of spatial selective attention.

  5. Finite element based optimization study on hydroformed stepped tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisankar, K. R.; Omar, A.; Narasimhan, K.

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming process is an advanced manufacturing process in which tube is placed in between the dies and deformed with the help of hydraulic pressure. A sound tube hydroformed part depends upon die conditions, material properties and process conditions. In this work, a finite element study, along with response surface methodology (RSM) for designing the simulation, has been used to construct models with loading path, friction, anisotropic index, strain hardening exponent and tube thickness. The responses studied are the die corner radius filling and strain non-uniformity index (SNI) chosen in each step of the tube with maximum 30% thinning as stopping criteria. The factors effect and their interactions on each response were determined and analysed.

  6. Post stroke rehabilitation based on SMART goals: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post stroke rehabilitation has been consistently reported in physiotherapy as being difficult to manage and limiting to rehabilitation outcome. It is reported that the first few months post stroke are crucial for rehabilitation to reach a maximum potential. However, after this period further recovery is unlikely. Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-framed (SMART goals are used for goal setting for rehabilitation. They can provide coordination between a multidisciplinary team to develop a plan for the individual needs of patients. This case study explored the use of SMART goals, which are often not used in a rehabilitation setting due to being time-consuming and difficult to create. This case report provides the first evidence that SMART goals may serve as a powerful tool for rehabilitation following stroke. The case study illustrates the clinical role of physiotherapists in the management of a patient with stroke. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 71-73

  7. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  8. Buckled graphene: A model study based on density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad A.

    2010-09-01

    We make use of ab initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the influence of buckling on the electronic structure of single layer graphene. Our systematic study addresses a wide range of bond length and bond angle variations in order to obtain insights into the energy scale associated with the formation of ripples in a graphene sheet. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecological study requirements for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, R.C. Jr. (Air Force Weapons Lab., Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, G.F.; Sigler, J.W.; Scott, C.L.

    1975-01-23

    The impact of the Space Transportation System on the ecology of Vandenberg and the need and direction of future land management are determined. Vandenberg has a variety of vegetative communities which support various species of animal and bird life. The coastal areas may support a rich abundance of marine life. Recommendations include a systematic approach and multidiscipline study to determine the significance and associativity of the various forms of biota.

  10. Study on Teaching Strategies in Mathematics Education based on CAI

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yan Feng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of information technology and the popularization of internet, mobile phone, new media represented is gradually influencing and changing people’s study and life, become the centre and social consensus of cultural information, according to the China Internet Network Information centre, the youth is the main use of CAI(Computer Assisted Instruction), which is the most active group of customers, fully understand the impact of the new media environment for students, higher mat...

  11. Oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes - A laboratory-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding habitat of sandflies is a little studied and poorly understood phenomenon. More importantly, oviposition behaviour is a largely neglected aspect of sandfly biology and this knowledge gap further undermines our understanding of the biology of sandflies. Pheromones released by the eggs play an important role in identifying good sites for oviposition by female insects. Several recent studies have examined the oviposition pheromone. The present study provides a preliminary report on the oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes, the only vector of kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian sub-continent. Sandflies prefer to oviposit their eggs on surfaces that contain organic substances, especially substances with an odour of decaying animal products and the remains of conspecific eggs. The results presented here suggest that the odour released by the organic substances of old sandfly colony remains that contain dead flies, old unhatched eggs, larval food containing vertebrate faeces, frass and other organic matter serves as an attractant for the ovipositing females of P. argentipes and hence greatly increases the number of oviposited eggs compared to eggs deposited in controlled oviposition pots. This result will be helpful in maintaining an efficient colony of P. argentipes and may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the target insect as part of a synergistic approach.

  12. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.

  13. Learning based on patient case reviews: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søndergaard Jens

    2008-09-01

    the transition from individual competence to personal capability. According to the physicians, they were not only able to identify needed changes, some reported that they were able to transform these ideas into action and do things more effectively. According to our data this transition takes place, because the learning processes initiated were based on real life experiences which equally initiated reflections on what to improve, as well as how to improve their work. Conclusion Patient case reviews initiate reflective processes providing feedback about performance in real life situations. Family physicians are in favour of patient case reviews as a learning method, because it embraces the complexities they encounter in their daily practice and is based on personal experiences.

  14. A National Science Standards-Based Study of Web-Based Inquiry in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Louise; Bodzin, Alec M.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching and learning and technology integration are integral parts of the National Science Education Standards ad AAAA Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy. It is found that there are very few chemistry WBIs in the public domain, and the WBIs found are with a limited scope and content coverage and so the need for extensive…

  15. A comparative study of Image Region-Based Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahouaoui LALAOUI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation has recently become an essential step in image processing as it mainly conditions the interpretation which is done afterwards. It is still difficult to justify the accuracy of a segmentation algorithm, regardless of the nature of the treated image. In this paper we perform an objective comparison of region-based segmentation techniques such as supervised and unsupervised deterministic classification, non-parametric and parametric probabilistic classification. Eight methods among the well-known and used in the scientific community have been selected and compared. The Martin’s(GCE, LCE, probabilistic Rand Index (RI, Variation of Information (VI and Boundary Displacement Error (BDE criteria are used to evaluate the performance of these algorithms on Magnetic Resonance (MR brain images, synthetic MR image, and synthetic images. MR brain image are composed of the gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and others, and the synthetic MR image composed of the same for real image and the plus edema, and the tumor. Results show that segmentation is an image dependent process and that some of the evaluated methods are well suited for a better segmentation.

  16. Study of vertical breakwater reliability based on copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Li, Jingjing; Li, Xue; Wei, Yong

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of a vertical breakwater is calculated using direct integration methods based on joint density functions. The horizontal and uplifting wave forces on the vertical breakwater can be well fitted by the lognormal and the Gumbel distributions, respectively. The joint distribution of the horizontal and uplifting wave forces is analyzed using different probabilistic distributions, including the bivariate logistic Gumbel distribution, the bivariate lognormal distribution, and three bivariate Archimedean copulas functions constructed with different marginal distributions simultaneously. We use the fully nested copulas to construct multivariate distributions taking into account related variables. Different goodness fitting tests are carried out to determine the best bivariate copula model for wave forces on a vertical breakwater. We show that a bivariate model constructed by Frank copula gives the best reliability analysis, using marginal distributions of Gumbel and lognormal to account for uplifting pressure and horizontal wave force on a vertical breakwater, respectively. The results show that failure probability of the vertical breakwater calculated by multivariate density function is comparable to those by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety methods. As copulas are suitable for constructing a bivariate or multivariate joint distribution, they have great potential in reliability analysis for other coastal structures.

  17. Implementation of anaphylaxis management guidelines: a register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines. METHODS: Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data. RESULTS: 2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time. CONCLUSION: There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted.

  18. Concordance studies of a web based system in teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ruiz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implementation of teledermatology in primary care offers the possibility of treating patients using specific dermatologic knowledge in far away places with infrequent availability to these services. It is a priority to implement teledermatology services which demonstrate diagnostic reliability and satisfaction among users.Objectives and methods: To measure the diagnostic reliability of an asynchronous teledermatology web based application by means of intraobserver and interobserver concordance during teleconsultation and traditional presential («face to face» consultation. Furthermore, to evaluate user satisfaction regarding the teleconsultation and the web application.Results: A sample of 82 patients with 172 dermatologic diagnoses was obtained, in which an intraobserver concordance between 80.8% and 86.6%, and an interobserver concordance between 77.3% and 79.6% were found. Satisfaction was evaluated to be on an average of 92.5%.Conclusions: The teleconsultation reliability in teledermatology is evidenced to be high, and is susceptible of improvement through the implementation of health information standards and digital dermatologic photography protocols.

  19. Concordance studies of a web based system in teledermatology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implementation of teledermatology in primary care offers the possibility of treating patients using specific dermatologic knowledge in far away places with infrequent availability to these services. It is a priority to implement teledermatology services which demonstrate diagnostic reliability and satisfaction among users. Objectives and methods: To measure the diagnostic reliability of an asynchronous teledermatology web based application by means of intraobserver and interobserver concordance during teleconsultation and traditional presential («face to face» consultation. Furthermore, to evaluate user satisfaction regarding the teleconsultation and the web application.Results: A sample of 82 patients with 172 dermatologic diagnoses was obtained, in which an intraobserver concordance between 80.8% and 86.6%, and an interobserver concordance between 77.3% and 79.6% were found. Satisfaction was evaluated to be on an average of 92.5%.Conclusions: The teleconsultation reliability in teledermatology is evidenced to be high, and is susceptible of improvement through the implementation of health information standards and digital dermatologic photography protocols.

  20. Study on GIS-based sport-games information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongzhi; Yang, Lingbin; Deng, Meirong; Han, Yongshun

    2008-10-01

    With the development of internet and such info-technologies as, Information Superhighway, Computer Technology, Remote Sensing(RS), Global Positioning System(GPS), Digital Communication and National Information Network(NIN),etc. Geographic Information System (GIS) becomes more and more popular in fields of science and industries. It is not only feasible but also necessary to apply GIS to large-scale sport games. This paper firstly discussed GIS technology and its application, then elaborated on the frame and content of Sport-Games Geography Information System(SG-GIS) with the function of gathering, storing, processing, sharing, exchanging and utilizing all kind of spatial-temporal information about sport games, and lastly designed and developed a public service GIS for the 6th Asian Winter Games in Changchun, China(CAWGIS). The application of CAWGIS showed that the established SG-GIS was feasible and GIS-based sport games information system was able to effectively process a large amount of sport-games information and provide the real-time sport games service for governors, athletes and the public.

  1. Cathodoluminescence Emission Studies for Selected Phosphor-Based Sensor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedeke, Shawn [ORNL; Hollerman, William Andrew [ORNL; Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Gray, P A [Integrated Concepts and Research Corporation - Huntsville, AL; Lewis, Linda A [ORNL; Smithwick III, Robert W [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Glasgow, David C [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Wise, H. [Integrated Concepts and Research Corporation - Huntsville, AL

    2005-01-01

    The current interest in returning to the Moon and Mars by 2030 makes cost effective and low mass health monitoring sensors essential for spacecraft development. In space, there are many surface measurements that are required to monitor the condition of the spacecraft including: surface temperature, radiation dose, and impact. Through the use of phosphors, these conditions can be monitored. Practical space-based phosphor sensors will depend heavily upon research investigating the resistance of phosphors to ionizing radiation and the ability to anneal or self-heal from damage caused by ionizing radiation. The cathodoluminescence (CL) testing was performed using the low energy electron system located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. For the materials tested, several interesting results were observed. For most materials, increases in both beam energy and current density improved the CL fluorescence yield. It was also noted that YAG:Nd,Ce has the greatest near infrared intensity for any of the tested materials. The evaluation of dopant concentration in YPO{sub 4}:Nd showed minimal differences in spectral shape and intensity. While the total electron dose was small, the intention was to maximize the number of irradiated materials.

  2. Compatibility studies of metallic materials with lithium-based oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, P.; Dienst, W.

    1988-07-01

    The compatibility of Li 2O, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3 with the cladding materials AISI 316, 1.4914, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625 was investigated at 800-1000°C for annealing times up to 1000 h. A controlled oxygen reactivity was established by adding 1 mol% NiO per mole Li 2O to the Li-based oxides. In addition, some compatibility tests were performed at 600-900°C on Be, which is of interest as a neutron multiplier material, with Li 2SiO 3 as well as AISI 316. Li 2O accounted for the strongest cladding attack, followed by Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3. In the absence of NiO, Li 2SiO 3 caused no chemical interactions at all. With respect to the cladding materials, there was no considerable difference in the reaction rates of AISI 316, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625. However, the steel 1.4914 was clearly more heavily attacked at and above 800°C. The compatibility of Be with Li 2SiO 3 or AISI 316 seems to be tolerable up to about 650°C. At higher temperatures a liquid Li suicide phase is formed which results in strong local attack and penetration into Li 2SiO 3.

  3. [Progress of anti-tumor study based on BRAF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gui-Rui; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Wang, He-Yao; Zhu, Wei-Liang

    2012-12-01

    BRAF is one of the most important pro-oncogenes, which is mutated in approximately 8% of human tumors. The most common BRAF mutation is a valine-to-glutamate transition (V600E) that is expressed primarily in melanoma, colorectal cancer and thyroid carcinoma. MEK/ERK is constitutively activated in the cells expressing BRAFV600E, leading to tumor development, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, BRAFV600E is a therapeutic target for melanoma and some other BRAFV600E tumors. Vemurafenib, a BRAFV600E inhibitor, which was approved by FDA for the treatment of late-stage melanoma in 2011, produces improved rates of overall and progression-free survival in patients with the BRAFV600E mutation, making a dramatic breakthrough in melanoma treatment. Vemurafenib is also an individual target drug based on genetic diagnosis. However, its therapeutic success is limited by the emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanisms underlying the resistance for developing new inhibitor drugs and for preventing or delaying the resistance evolution to BRAF inhibitor drugs. In this review, we described the role of BRAFV600E as an anti-tumor drug target and the development of BRAF inhibitors. We also discussed the mechanisms leading to resistance of BRAFV600E inhibitors. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that might be employed to overcome acquired resistance were proposed.

  4. A method for MREIT-based source imaging: simulation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yizhuang; Jeong, Woo Chul; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to provide a method for using magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) to visualize local conductivity changes associated with evoked neuronal activities in the brain. MREIT is an MRI-based technique for conductivity mapping by probing the magnetic flux density induced by an externally injected current through surface electrodes. Since local conductivity changes resulting from evoked neural activities are very small (less than a few %), a major challenge is to acquire exogenous magnetic flux density data exceeding a certain noise level. Noting that the signal-to-noise ratio is proportional to the square root of the number of averages, it is important to reduce the data acquisition time to get more averages within a given total data collection time. The proposed method uses a sub-sampled k-space data set in the phase-encoding direction to significantly reduce the data acquisition time. Since the sub-sampled data violates the Nyquist criteria, we only get a nonlinearly wrapped version of the exogenous magnetic flux density data, which is insufficient for conductivity imaging. Taking advantage of the sparseness of the conductivity change, the proposed method detects local conductivity changes by estimating the time-change of the Laplacian of the nonlinearly wrapped data.

  5. Study of Slope Reinforcement Force Based on FLAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xian-wu; MAO xian-biao; MIAO Xie-xing; CHEN Zhan-qing

    2006-01-01

    A slope will slide if the unbalanced force does not tend to zero when the stability of the slope is analyzed with the help of FLAC. Thus the ultimate reason of slope sliding is the unbalanced force determined by FLAC. The slope will remain stable if the unbalanced force is counterbalanced by a reinforcement force which is produced by a suitable reinforcement method. In this paper, the stability of the slope was analyzed by using FLAC, and the unbalanced force of the slope was obtained through the FISH function in FLAC. According to the equilibrium conditions, the relationship between the reinforcement force and unbalanced force was derived and accordingly the reinforcement force was determined. The reinforcement design was adopted by using pre-stressed anchor bars on the basis of the reinforcement force. An example is used to show that the effect of slope reinforcement based on the reinforcement force is safe and economical. The method doesn't need to suppose a sliding surface to obtain the reinforcement force, and it is also clear in physical meaning. So this method realized the organic unification of the stability analysis and the slope reinforcement

  6. Extremity fractures in children: a hospital based study in Tehran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Khaji; Mousa Zargar; Mojgan Karbakhsh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although long bone fracture in children is not life-threatening, it may cause major disability, loss of working days and severe psychological distress. We conducted this study to determine the pattern of extremity fracture due to trauma in children.Methods: During one year in six general hospitals in Tehran, trauma patients who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours and sustained injuries within seven days before admission were included in the study. The records of children (≤16 years old) hospitalized in six general hospitals in Tehran due to trauma were reviewed prospectively.Results: During the study period, 1274 children had sustained extremity fractures. Male to female ratio was 3.6/1, with the mean age of (10.3±4.2) years. Falls and traffic crashes were the main causes of injuries, with the percentages of 57.3% and 37.1%, respectively. Simple fall (falling on the ground) consisted 60% of patients that sustained fall-related injuries. Pedestrians and bicycle riders comprised most of the cases that were injured due to traffic crashes. Of our cases, 56.8% sustained fractures in the upper extremities and 43.2% in the lower extremities. Forearm was the most common fracture site (34.1%). Comparing our results in preschool and school-age children, falls were the main cause of injuries in both groups, but fractures of lower extremities were significantly more common in preschool children.Conclusions:Improvement of physical condition of sidewalks and crossings in roads will be necessary for prevention of injuries. More attention to safety of home environment should be paid for control of preschools' injury at home. Education of children and adults is necessary to reduce injuries resulting from road traffic crashes.

  7. Stochastic optimization-based study of dimerization kinetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srijeeta Talukder; Shrabani Sen; Ralf Metzler; Suman K Banik; Pinaki Chaudhury

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the potential of numerical algorithms to decipher the kinetic parameters involved in multi-step chemical reactions. To this end, we study dimerization kinetics of protein as a model system. We follow the dimerization kinetics using a stochastic simulation algorithm and combine it with three different optimization techniques (genetic algorithm, simulated annealing and parallel tempering) to obtain the rate constants involved in each reaction step. We find good convergence of the numerical scheme to the rate constants of the process. We also perform a sensitivity test on the reaction kinetic parameters to see the relative effects of the parameters for the associated profile of the monomer/dimer distribution.

  8. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Flynn, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users...... the remaining panel of participants was 620 pM with a standard deviation of 980 pM. These results demonstrate that when this biosensor assay was designed and executed appropriately, the reported rate constants were consistent, and independent of which protein was immobilized and which biosensor was used....

  9. Study on Teaching Strategies in Mathematics Education based on CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology and the popularization of internet, mobile phone, new media represented is gradually influencing and changing people’s study and life, become the centre and social consensus of cultural information, according to the China Internet Network Information centre, the youth is the main use of CAI(Computer Assisted Instruction, which is the most active group of customers, fully understand the impact of the new media environment for students, higher mathematics education of college students in CAI. In this paper, the CAI is proposed for mathematics education of college students.

  10. Study on Magnesium based Pyrotechnic Composition as a Priming Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Redkar

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A new pyrotechnic composition containing Mg/KNO3/phenolic resin has been formulated and studied in detail for its sensitivity, mechanical and thermal properties, moisture and environmental effects and performance in a closed vessel. The data generated reveal that this composition shows superior performance, better mechanical properties and less susceptibility to moisture as compared to gunpowder. In addition, performance of the composition under extreme hot (45 degree centigrade and cold (-26 degree centigrade environmental conditions is not affected at all. Differential thermal analyser results indicate that phenolic resin plays a vital role in reducing the ignition temperature of Mg/KNO/sub 3/ system.

  11. A corpus-based study on images of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative computer technology has sparked a revolutionary change in the area of languageanalysis. Individual researchers are increasingly likely to access huge corpora containingseveral hundred million words and to analyze the data using highly developed languageanalyzers via the Internet. Sketch Engine is one of such online language analyzers, whichregards the Internet as a data source for linguistic studies. The online system allows us toanalyze a wide range of Japanese texts with more than 400 million words, as well as texts inother languages. In this paper, we will examine the use of the words for family members inJapanese texts and reveal images of each member role hidden in the same.

  12. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    : 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact...

  13. A Study of MPLS Hybrid Switch Based on ATM Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    MPLS is the most successful integrating model of IP over ATM. The paper discusses some problems and their possible solutions when MPLS is supported by ATM switch. How to design the hardware, software and network management systems of such a switch device that has only one switching platform and one NMS but two sets of control planes at the same time, ATM and MPLS, is studied in details. The application of such a hybrid switch is presented in the last part of the paper.

  14. A comparative study on lecture based versus case based education on teaching general surgery to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazeni Bistegani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : various methods of teaching have different learning outcomes. Using a combination of teaching and training methods of training may boost education. This study compared lecture based and case based teaching as a combined approach in learning general surgery by medical students. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental performed on two consecutive groups of 33 and 36 students who were studying general surgery course. The two styles of teaching were lecture-based and real case teaching methods. The final exam included twenty multiple choice questions. The mean scores of each group of students were collected and analyzed accordingly with descriptive tests, Fisher’s test and T-test. Results: The mean final mark of students' who received real case based education was 16.8/20 ± 1.8 and for the lecture group was 12.7± 1.7. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P <0.0001. In both groups, there were significant differences in the mean scores of questions with taxonomy two and three, but not in the questions with taxonomy one. Students' evaluation score of the teacher of the real case group increased by 1.7/20 (8.7% in the case based group compared to the lecture group. Conclusions: Case based teaching of general surgery led to a better outcome and students were more satisfied. It is recommended that case based education of surgery be encouraged.

  15. Home-Based Hospice Care Reduces End-of-Life Expenditure in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Fu; Chang, Chun-Ming; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Inpatient hospice care can reduce futile treatment and medical costs. However, the cost trimming effect of home-based hospice care in hospital has yet not been explored. This study evaluates the impact of home-based hospice care on end-of-life expenditure in hospitals with different spending intensity. This is a population-based retrospective study in Taiwan. Cancer decedents were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2009 to 2011. They are categorized by hospital spending intensity. A hierarchical linear regression model with a random-intercept model was used to analyze the relationship between end-of-life expenditure (dependent variable) with and without home-based hospice, and both patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. A total of 78,613 cancer decedents were identified in the NHIRD from 2009 to 2011. Of these decedents, 17,638, 43,286, and 17,689 were categorized by hospital spending intensity as high, moderate, and low, respectively. Decedents with home-based hospice care were associated with US$2452 less in expenditure per patient compared with those without home-based hospice care. The majority of savings occurred in the last 3 months of life. These savings with home-based hospice care were consistent in hospitals with different levels of spending intensity. Home-based hospice reduced one-fifth expenditure at the end of life of cancer decedents treated in hospitals with different spending intensity.

  16. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei L. Osterman, Ph.D.

    2012-12-17

    Integration of bioinformatics and experimental techniques was applied to mapping and characterization of the key components (pathways, enzymes, transporters, regulators) of the core metabolic machinery in Shewanella oneidensis and related species with main focus was on metabolic and regulatory pathways involved in utilization of various carbon and energy sources. Among the main accomplishments reflected in ten joint publications with other participants of Shewanella Federation are: (i) A systems-level reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization pathways in the genus of Shewanella (19 species). This analysis yielded reconstruction of 18 sugar utilization pathways including 10 novel pathway variants and prediction of > 60 novel protein families of enzymes, transporters and regulators involved in these pathways. Selected functional predictions were verified by focused biochemical and genetic experiments. Observed growth phenotypes were consistent with bioinformatic predictions providing strong validation of the technology and (ii) Global genomic reconstruction of transcriptional regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Of those, 45 regulons were inferred directly from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in other species. Selected regulatory predictions were experimentally tested. Integration of this analysis with microarray data revealed overall consistency and provided additional layer of interactions between regulons. All the results were captured in the new database RegPrecise, which is a joint development with the LBNL team. A more detailed analysis of the individual subsystems, pathways and regulons in Shewanella spp included bioinfiormatics-based prediction and experimental characterization of: (i) N-Acetylglucosamine catabolic pathway; (ii)Lactate utilization machinery; (iii) Novel Nrt

  17. Study of magnetization switching for MRAM based memory technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huy

    Amphibian alkaloids are attractive targets for synthesis due to their biological activity. An important class of amphibian alkaloids is the 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine-based family of compounds. There are many synthetic approaches for the preparation of the trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, but methods for the construction of the cis-2,5-pyrrolidines are limited. Therefore, it was desired to develop an enantioselective approach for the preparation of cis-2,5-disubsituted pyrrolidines. (+)-Tropin-2-one derived from cocaine was used as starting material to exploit the inherent stereochemistry for construction of the cis-pyrrolidine ring. This permitted the unequivocal assignment of the absolute configuration of the target pyrrolidine. The structurally simple pyrrolidine alkaloid, 225H, was selected as a target to develop a general synthetic approach. The enantioselective synthesis of 225H was achieved in nine steps and good overall yield. The search for potent cannabinoid receptor partial agonist ligands as potential marijuana addiction therapeutic agents has led to an investigation of the synthesis of diaryl ether hybrid analogues of BAY 59-3074. A series of 2-(3-alkyl-5-hydroxyphenoxy)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitriles, 3-(2-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)phenylalkanoates, and (3-(benzyloxy)phenoxy)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitriles were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for CB1 affinity. The olivetol diaryl ether analogue was the most potent ligand of the alkyl series, but the diaryl ester analogues exhibited modest affinity for CB1 receptors. The most potent compound of the series was the 2-(3-(benzyloxy)phenoxy)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile. Keywords. amphibian alkaloids, enantioselective synthesis, pyrrolidine, cannabinoid receptor, marijuana.

  18. NMR spectroscopy study of agar-based polymers electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, R.I.; Tambelli, C.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Raphael, E. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rey (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Silva, I.D.A.; Magon, C.J.; Donoso, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This communication presents the results of preparation and characterization of transparent films obtained from agar and acetic acid. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The film formed by agar (Sigma Aldrich) was dispersed in water and kept under stirring and heating at 100 deg C. Next, glycerol, formaldehyde and different quantities of acetic acid (25 and 50 wt%) were added to this solution. The obtained solution was placed on a glass plate and left to dry for 48 hours in oven at 50 deg C to obtain the films, which were kept under vacuum before characterization. The ionic conductivity of the films display an Arrhenius behavior with activation energy E{sub a} = 78 (25 wt% of acetic acid) and E{sub a} = 87 kJ/mol (50 wt% of acetic acid). The conductivity values were 3:0 X 10{sup -6} and 1:2 X 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature and 4:4 X 10{sup -4} and 1:5 X 10{sup -3}S/cm at 70 deg C, for the 25 and 50 wt% of acetic acid respectively. To investigate the mechanism of protonic conduction in the polymer proton conductor proton NMR measurements were performed in the temperature range 200-370 K. The {sup 1}H-NMR results exhibit the qualitative feature associated with the proton mobility, namely the presence of well defined {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation maxima at 300 K. Activation energy of the order of 40 kJ/mol was obtained from the {sup 1}H-NMR line narrowing data. The ionic conductivity of the film combined with their transparency, flexibility, homogeneity and good adhesion to the glasses or metals indicate that agar-based SPEs are promising materials for used on optoelectronic applications. (author)

  19. Community based study of sleep bruxism during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Gozal, David; McNeil, Daniel W.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims for this study were to determine the prevalence of sleep-bruxism among young children, explore child behavior problems that may be associated with sleep-bruxism, and identify relations among sleep-bruxism, health problems, and neurocognitive performance. Methods The current study was a retrospective analysis of parent report surveys, and behavioral and neurocognitive assessments. Parents of 1953 preschool and 2888 first grade children indicated their child’s frequency of bruxism during sleep. A subsample of preschool children (n = 249) had additional behavioral, as well as neurocognitive assessments. Among the subsample, parents also reported on their child’s health, and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist; children were administered the Differential Ability Scales, and Pre-Reading Abilities subtests of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Results 36.8% of preschoolers and 49.6% of first graders were reported to brux ≥ 1 time per week. Among the preschool subsample, bruxing was independently associated with increased internalizing behaviors (β = .17). Bruxism was also associated with increased health problems (β = .19), and increased health problems were associated with decreased neurocognitive performance (β = .22). Conclusions The prevalence of sleep-bruxism was high. A dynamic and potentially clinically relevant relation exists among sleep-bruxism, internalizing behaviors, health, and neurocognition. Pediatric sleep-bruxism may serve as a sentinel marker for possible adverse health conditions, and signal a need for early intervention. These results support the need for an interdisciplinary approach to pediatric sleep medicine, dentistry, and psychology. PMID:23219144

  20. HEALTH STATUS OF ELDERLY A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People at or over the age of 60, constitute above 7.7% of total population. Traditionally this segment of population depends on their children for their health and social welfare, However owing to the social and cultural changes that are taking place within the Indian society, this support may not be as readily available, as it is believed. With the changing demography of India, there is urgent need to look at the health status of elderly for planning appropriate health facilities for them. Objectives: To study biosocial, nutritional and chronic disease risk factor profile of elderly population. Methods: Cross-sectional Study was conducted in Doiwala block of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. 122 elderly persons of age 60 years and above were interviewed on predesigned questionnaire by house to house visit in the selected village. Results: Overall prevalence of risk factors found to be higher amongst elderly females. Unutrition was higher amongst elderly males. In all, 48.6% elderly were underweight ,10.3% were overweight and 5.6% cases were in obese category. As per the Waist and hip ratio 47.2% elderly belonged to the moderate to high risk category. 30.8% people were hypertensive. Conclusions: Prevalence of high-risk factors for chronic diseases is quite high amongst elderly population, especially amongst elderly females.

  1. Durability Study on High Calcium Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation into the durability of geopolymer concrete prepared using high calcium fly ash along with alkaline activators when exposed to 2% solution of sulfuric acid and 5% magnesium sulphate for up to 45 days. The durability was also assessed by measuring water absorption and sorptivity. Ordinary Portland cement concrete was also prepared as control concrete. The grades chosen for the investigation were M20, M40, and M60. The alkaline solution used for present study is the combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution with the ratio of 2.50. The molarity of sodium hydroxide was fixed as 12. The test specimens were 150×150×150 mm cubes, 100×200 mm cylinders, and 100×50 mm discs cured at ambient temperature. Surface deterioration, density, and strength over a period of 14, 28, and 45 days were observed. The results of geopolymer and ordinary Portland cement concrete were compared and discussed. After 45 days of exposure to the magnesium sulfate solution, the reduction in strength was up to 12% for geopolymer concrete and up to 25% for ordinary Portland cement concrete. After the same period of exposure to the sulphuric acid solution, the compressive strength decrease was up to 20% for geopolymer concrete and up to 28% for ordinary Portland cement concrete.

  2. Quantitative Study on Polymer Flocculation Mechanism Based on Mathematical Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ling-xiang; WANG Chen-yi

    2006-01-01

    Until now, understanding of polymer flocculation has remained restricted within the qualitative explanations of the bridge unite theory and the electricity neutralization theory, because people not only lacked the systemic knowledge of the polymer flocculation mechanism, the flocculation dynamic process study and the flocculation effect estimate, but also could not penetrate within the flocculation process microscopic field to obtain the structural character parameters such as floccule structure, the frame bridge models and so on. In this paper, not only coal slurry flocculation images were photographed by using the transmission electron microscope, but also the basic theory of the mathematical morphology was applied to the coal slurry flocculation image processing. The steps and methods of the mathematical morphology were expounded in detail. The micro-structural parameters such as the flocculate size and the bridge length were obtained, which combined the microscopic flocculation grain configuration observations with the macroscopic flocculation effect, so as to get the maximum amount of veracious information to describe and explain the whole flocculation course by rule and line. On this basis, not only the flocculation models of polymers in the coal slurry are suggested, but the quantitative study on flocculation mechanism has been achieved.

  3. Female employment and fertility: a study based on Chilean data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, P

    1975-01-01

    Conflicting studies bring into question the hypothesis that increased employment opportunities for women in the modern sector would reduce the population growth rate. To help clarify the situation, data from about 4000 families in central Chile, obtained from interviews in 1965, are used to test 3 hypotheses: 1) that in the traditional sector of the economy, young children do not adversely affect the mother's labor force participation; 2) that in the modern sector, child care reduces labor force participation unless there are relatives or older children to look after the young children; and 3) that young children also have a positive influence on female employment in that they increase the need for added income. This would be particularly true in the traditional sector where average household income is lower. All hypotheses were proved true by the data. Furthermore, the positive effect on the mother's employment of a larger family size proved to be true in the modern sector as well as the traditional sector. The study indicates that if a country's objective is to lower the population growth rate, a population planning program relying on higher rates of fe male employment will have to be accompanied by other socioeconomic policies intended to achieve a higher level of economic development.

  4. Stimulator Selection in SSVEP-Based Spatial Selective Attention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyun Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs are widely used in spatial selective attention. In this process the two kinds of visual simulators, Light Emitting Diode (LED and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD, are commonly used to evoke SSVEP. In this paper, the differences of SSVEP caused by these two stimulators in the study of spatial selective attention were investigated. Results indicated that LED could stimulate strong SSVEP component on occipital lobe, and the frequency of evoked SSVEP had high precision and wide range as compared to LCD. Moreover a significant difference between noticed and unnoticed frequencies in spectrum was observed whereas in LCD mode this difference was limited and selectable frequencies were also limited. Our experimental finding suggested that average classification accuracies among all the test subjects in our experiments were 0.938 and 0.853 in LED and LCD mode, respectively. These results indicate that LED simulator is appropriate for evoking the SSVEP for the study of spatial selective attention.

  5. Web User Categorization and Behavior Study Based on Refreshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnesh Kumar Jain

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As the information available on World Wide Web is growing the usage of the web sites is also growing. Since each access to the web pages are recorded in the web logs it is becoming a huge data repository which when mined properly can provide useful information for decision making. The designer of the web site, analyst and management executives are interested in extracting this hidden information from web logs for decision making. In this research paper we proposed a method to categorize the users into faithful, Partially Impatient and Completely Impatient user, page wise so that study of user behavior can be easier. To categorize the user we proposed one new information in the web log that represent each instance of refreshing. We used the markov chain model in which we treated the clicking of Refresh button as another state i.e. Refresh State. We derive some theorem to study each type of user behavior and show that how do users behavior differ.

  6. A Study on Translation Process Based on Relevance TheoryA Study on Translation Process Based on Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞

    2015-01-01

    Relevance theory belongs to the field of pragmatics. Translation is a kind of communicative activity in nature. In the frame of relevance theory, translation is the process of cognition and inference. This paper focuses on the study of translation process on the basis of relevance theory in order to improve the practice of translation.

  7. Study on residual stresses of Ni-based WC coating by laser remelting based on XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Kong, Dejun; Wang, Ling; Zhu, Xiaoron; Zhao, Xiaobing

    2007-12-01

    The morphologies of Ni-based WC coating by flame spraying and laser cladding respectively were observed with scanning electric microscope (SEM), respectively, and residual stresses were measured with XRD (X-ray diffraction). At the same time, the spectra of WC coating were analyzed by XRD, and the forming mechanisms of residual stress were analyzed. Experimental results are shown that residual stresses of Ni-based WC coating by flame spraying are all tensile while those by laser cladding are compressive, chemical-physical reaction of the coating is the cause to result in material volume change, which makes residual stress into compressive from tensile; when residual stress is changed into compressive from tensile, micro-cracks on the coating surface greatly decrease, which is illustrated that the effect of residual stress on micro-crack is obvious; XRD spectra peak of WC coating is only contained Ni and W, and has no impurity and other reaction productions.

  8. Hodgkin lymphoma in Tyrol-a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Dominic; Steurer, Michael; Greil, Richard; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Spizzo, Gilbert; Gastl, Guenther; Tzankov, Alexandar

    2009-05-01

    We aimed to analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosed in Tyrol. All patients with newly diagnosed HL between 1993 and 2005 were included in this study. Among the 158 cases included, nodular lymphocytic predominant HL (nodular paragranuloma) was identified in ten cases (6%) whereas the majority of patients had classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Age (p Tyrol is comparable to other Western countries. Modern risk-adapted treatment results in excellent long-term prognosis but may be complicated by serious nonhematological side effects, in particular, infections and bleomycin-induced lung toxicity. Furthermore, 3% of HL patients had an antecedent malignant hematological disease before occurrence of HL.

  9. Studies of base catalyzed transesterification of karanja oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun, Naveenji; Sampath, Muthukumaran; Siddharth, S.; Prasaanth, R.A [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Pennalur, Chennai-602105 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Karanja oil methyl ester was synthesized by the transesterification of karanja oil with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The reaction was carried out at 55 C for 1 hour. The reactants were continuously stirred with speed ranging from 250-650 rpm. The acid value of oil was found to be 18.62 mg KOH/g of oil. Influence of parameters like water content (%), oil flow rate (ml/min) and effect of stirring speed (rpm) were investigated by varying these parameters in 5 levels and a design for performing the experiments was developed using Minitab and Design-Expert. An approach has been made to study the pressure and velocity changes when the reactants flow through the inlet and outlet pipes. Glycerol being insoluble remained in the reactor and the conversion was found by testing the ester using Gas Chromatography and also by analyzing the acidity of the samples.

  10. Studies of base catalyzed transesterification of karanja oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveenji Arun, Muthukumaran Sampath, S.Siddharth, Prasaanth R.A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Karanja oil methyl ester was synthesized by the transesterification of karanja oil with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The reaction was carried out at 55°C for 1 hour. The reactants were continuously stirred with speed ranging from 250-650 rpm. The acid value of oil was found to be 18.62 mg KOH/g of oil. Influence of parameters like water content (%, oil flow rate (ml/min and effect of stirring speed (rpm were investigated by varying these parameters in 5 levels and a design for performing the experiments was developed using Minitab and Design-Expert. An approach has been made to study the pressure and velocity changes when the reactants flow through the inlet and outlet pipes. Glycerol being insoluble remained in the reactor and the conversion was found by testing the ester using Gas Chromatography and also by analyzing the acidity of the samples.

  11. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  12. Pathological and Molecular Based Study of Naturally Occurring Lentivirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Mahmood*, Ahrar Khan, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Riaz Hussain1, Shafia Tehseen Gul and Abu Baker Siddique2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the multicentric lymphosarcoma associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Pakistan. Serum samples from sheep (n=93 and goats (n=129 were screened for ovine lentivirus using agar gel immunodiffusion test. Overall, 7.52 and 3.87% seroprevalence was recorded in sheep and goat, respectively. During necropsy of sheep (n=3 and goats (n=4, gross lesions including dark color liver with multifocal whitish areas, unilaterally lungs consolidation with granular appearance of cut surface were observed. Mediastinal lymph nodes were swollen and arranged in chain like fashion. Histopathologically, liver parenchyma exhibited extensive proliferation of neoplastic cells of lymphocytic series. Metastatic cells in the form of follicular pattern in the lungs, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes were also observed. Brain tissue exhibited degenerative changes in the neuron and perivascular cuffing. The PCR product size approximately 300 bp from lung tissue confirmed viral infection.

  13. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  14. Embedding epistemic modals in English: A corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Hacquard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether epistemic modals contribute to the truth conditions of the sentences they appear in is a matter of active debate in the literature. Fueling this debate is the lack of consensus about the extent to which epistemics can appear in the scope of other operators. This corpus study investigates the distribution of epistemics in naturalistic data. Our results indicate that they do embed, supporting the view that they contribute semantic content. However, their distribution is limited, compared to that of other modals. This limited distribution seems to call for a nuanced account: while epistemics are semantically contentful, they may require special licensing conditions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.4 BibTeX info

  15. Study on Microstructure of Alumina Based Rare Earth Ceramic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Analysis techniques such as SEM, TEM and EDAX were used to investigate the microstructure of rare earth reinforced Al2O3/(W, Ti)C ceramic composite. Chemical and physical compatibility of the composite was analyzed and interfacial microstructure was studied in detail. It is found that both Al2O3 and (W, Ti)C phases are interlaced with each other to form the skeleton structure in the composite. A small amount of pores and glass phases are observed inside the material which will inevitably influence the physical and mechanical property of the composite. Thermal residual stresses resulted from thermal expansion mismatch can then lead to the emergence of dislocations and microcracks. Interfaces and boundaries of different types are found to exist inside the Al2O3/(W, Ti)C rare earth ceramic composite, which is concerned with the addition of rare earth element and the extent of solid solution of ceramic phases.

  16. Experimental study of blast mitigating devices based on combined construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    A robust blast inhibiting bin is the most often used device for damage blast effects suppression. In particular, a top open cylindrical bin significantly reduces a fragmentation effect resulted from a detonation of an explosive device placed inside the bin. However, reduction of blast wave overpressure and impulse by such cylindrical bins is not sufficient [1]. A reasonable alternative to endless increase of height and thickness of robust blast inhibiting bins is a development of destructible inhibitors having no solid elements in their structure and, therefore, excluding secondary fragmentation. So, the family of "Fountain" inhibitors [2,3] localizes and suppresses damaging blast effects due to multiphase working system. The present study is analyzing data obtained in testing of prototypes of new combined inhibitors. Their structure combines robust elements (bottoms, side surfaces) with elements responsible for blast loads reduction due to multi-phase working system (top and low transverse embeddings) and fairings impeding wave propagation in undesirable directions.

  17. Development and study of iron-based nanoadsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliyanni E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of an innovative, simple and low cost method was tested for the preparation of nanocrystalline iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides; different iron precursors have been earlier used and combined to different volatile precipitating agents. The examined in the present product, akaganéite [â-FeO(OH], had high surface area and definite pore size distribution. The produced materials were examined in detail (i.e. by powder X-ray diffraction, TEM and nitrogen sorption measurement. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the prepared material in the removal of heavy and toxic metal cations, like Cd(II, from aqueous solutions; cadmium constitutes a priority pollutant. Sorption was found to depended on the solution pH and its ionic strength. Typical isotherm models were applied and calculated the values of maximum adsorbent capacity for the metal as well as that of the enthalpy change during the removal process.

  18. Student classroom misbehavior: an exploratory study based on teachers' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the conceptions of junior secondary school student misbehaviors in classroom, and to identify the most common, disruptive, and unacceptable student problem behaviors from teachers' perspective. Twelve individual interviews with teachers were conducted. A list of 17 student problem behaviors was generated. Results showed that the most common and disruptive problem behavior was talking out of turn, followed by nonattentiveness, daydreaming, and idleness. The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn and verbal aggression. The findings revealed that teachers perceived student problem behaviors as those behaviors involving rule-breaking, violating the implicit norms or expectations, being inappropriate in the classroom settings and upsetting teaching and learning, which mainly required intervention from teachers.

  19. Student Classroom Misbehavior: An Exploratory Study Based on Teachers' Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the conceptions of junior secondary school student misbehaviors in classroom, and to identify the most common, disruptive, and unacceptable student problem behaviors from teachers' perspective. Twelve individual interviews with teachers were conducted. A list of 17 student problem behaviors was generated. Results showed that the most common and disruptive problem behavior was talking out of turn, followed by nonattentiveness, daydreaming, and idleness. The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn and verbal aggression. The findings revealed that teachers perceived student problem behaviors as those behaviors involving rule-breaking, violating the implicit norms or expectations, being inappropriate in the classroom settings and upsetting teaching and learning, which mainly required intervention from teachers.

  20. Genetic diversity studies of Kherigarh cattle based on microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. K. Pandey; Rekha Sharma; Yatender Singh; B. B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat

    2006-08-01

    We report a genetic diversity study of Kherigarh cattle, a utility draught-purpose breed of India, currently declining at a startling rate, by use of microsatellite markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Microsatellite genotypes were derived, and allelic and genotypic frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. A total of 131 alleles were distinguished by the 21 microsatellite markers used. All the microsatellites were highly polymorphic, with mean (± s.e.) allelic number of 6.24 ± 1.7, ranging 4–10 per locus. The observed heterozygosity in the population ranged between 0.261 and 0.809, with mean (± s.e.) of 0.574 ± 0.131, indicating considerable genetic variation in this population. Genetic bottleneck hypotheses were also explored. Our data suggest that the Kherigarh breed has not experienced a genetic bottleneck in the recent past.

  1. Study on optimization control method based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hua; SUN Shao-guang; XU Zhen-Iiang

    2005-01-01

    In the goal optimization and control optimization process the problems with common artificial neural network algorithm are unsure convergence, insufficient post-training network precision, and slow training speed, in which partial minimum value question tends to occur. This paper conducted an in-depth study on the causes of the limitations of the algorithm, presented a rapid artificial neural network algorithm, which is characterized by integrating multiple algorithms and by using their complementary advantages. The salient feature of the method is self-organization, which can effectively prevent the optimized results from tending to be partial minimum values. Overall optimization can be achieved with this method, goal function can be searched for in overall scope. With optimization control of coal mine ventilator as a practical application, the paper proves that by integrating multiple artificial neural network algorithms, best control optimization and goal optimized can be achieved.

  2. Probabilistic thinking and death anxiety: a terror management based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Schuler, Eric R; Page, Kyle S; Carver, Kellye S

    2014-01-01

    Terror Management Theory has been utilized to understand how death can change behavioral outcomes and social dynamics. One area that is not well researched is why individuals willingly engage in risky behavior that could accelerate their mortality. One method of distancing a potential life threatening outcome when engaging in risky behaviors is through stacking probability in favor of the event not occurring, termed probabilistic thinking. The present study examines the creation and psychometric properties of the Probabilistic Thinking scale in a sample of young, middle aged, and older adults (n = 472). The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability for each of the four subscales, excellent overall internal consistency, and good construct validity regarding relationships with measures of death anxiety. Reliable age and gender effects in probabilistic thinking were also observed. The relationship of probabilistic thinking as part of a cultural buffer against death anxiety is discussed, as well as its implications for Terror Management research.

  3. Poliomyelitis, measles and neonatal tetanus: a hospital based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, M K; Atta, H Y; Kishk, N A

    1997-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases constitute a major health problem contributing to the morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Egypt. WHO adopted resolutions to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, eliminate neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, and reduce measles mortality by 95% and morbidity by 90%, compared to the pre-immunization levels by 1995. Evaluation of preventive programs for these diseases necessitates availability of up to date information on their occurrence. The present study was undertaken to determine the current epidemiological features of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles, to identify the trends of these diseases as well as to determine their outcomes and hospital loads. Data about the admitted cases of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles were collected from the hospital register of Alexandria fever hospital for five successive years (1992-96). Available information on age, sex, residence, diagnosis, outcome of treatment, dates of admission and discharge were collected. The total number of cases of the three diseases admitted to the hospital during the period 1992-96 were 1406, measles represented 85.4%, neonatal tetanus 13.9% and poliomyelitis 0.7%. The results revealed that in the year 1994 only one case of poliomyelitis was admitted and since then no other cases were reported. The number of measles cases increased gradually in the latter years and about 78% of them were older than five years of age. A significant increase in the age of measles occurrence was observed. A gradual decline in the number of neonatal tetanus cases was observed. These cases were more apt to occur among early neonates but still clustered in certain geographical areas. The results of the study pinpoint the long term impact of the well run program aiming at eradicating poliomyelitis in Alexandria. However, for elimination of neonatal tetanus and controlling measles morbidity, further activities are required including strengthening

  4. Resampling-based approaches to study variation in morphological modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Fruciano

    Full Text Available Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1, using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2 propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3 show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4 suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5 propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application--that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface--has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/.

  5. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shue; Li, Junjuan; Shearer, Gregory C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuntao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited.Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort.Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study. Alcohol intake was assessed via a questionnaire in 2006 (baseline), and participants were classified into the following categories of alcohol consumption: never, past, light (women: 0-0.4 servings/d; men: 0-0.9 servings/d), moderate (women: 0.5-1.0 servings/d; men: 1-2 servings/d), and heavy (women: >1.0 servings/d; men: >2 servings/d). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the associations between baseline alcohol intake and the change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, liver function, and C-reactive protein concentrations.Results: An umbrella-shaped association was observed between total alcohol consumption and changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Compared with never drinkers, past, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers experienced slower decreases in HDL cholesterol of 0.012 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.008, 0.016 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), 0.013 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.010, 0.016 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), 0.017 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.009, 0.025 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), and 0.008 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.005, 0.011 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), respectively (P HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride

  6. HIV awareness in Pakistan:A survey-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AftabAhmad; SadiaAshraf; Abraisham Fatima; Aamina Shah; Samia Saleem; Sheharbano; AneelaYasmeen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To know the awareness level of Pakistani population about AIDS. Methods: An online survey was conducted in Pakistan with the help of a questionnaire formulated by experts to record the awareness level of common people about HIV infection. The responses were collected and screened by the team of National Academy of Young Scientists, Pakistan. Results: Among the 580 participants of the survey, majorities were male, in the age group of 20–30 years and were living in urban areas. More than 80% of responders did not ever screen themselves for HIV and close to 40% were not aware that where to go for screening. Although, majority of the respondents knew about the nature of disease, they were not fully aware about different tests, treatment, duration of infection and vaccination. According to participants, television and internet were major source of information about AIDS and this disease can be prevented in Pakistan through public awareness. Conclusions: Since majority of the respondents were not fully aware about the disease and its mode of transmission, there should be print and electronic media campaigns as well as workshops and seminars to educate the common public. In addition, a national level prevalence study will be very helpful to know the exact prevalence of HIV in Pakistan and its major routes of transmission.

  7. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery.

  8. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giuseppe A.; Flynn, Peter J.; Furneisen, Jamie; Quinn, John; Klein, Joshua S.; Katsamba, Phini S.; Waddell, M. Brent; Scott, Michael; Thompson, Joshua; Berlier, Judie; Corry, Schuyler; Baltzinger, Mireille; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Schoenemann, Andreas; Clabbers, Anca; Wieckowski, Sebastien; Murphy, Mary M.; Page, Phillip; Ryan, Thomas E.; Duffner, Jay; Ganguly, Tanmoy; Corbin, John; Gautam, Satyen; Anderluh, Gregor; Bavdek, Andrej; Reichmann, Dana; Yadav, Satya P.; Hommema, Eric; Pol, Ewa; Drake, Andrew; Klakamp, Scott; Chapman, Trevor; Kernaghan, Dawn; Miller, Ken; Schuman, Jason; Lindquist, Kevin; Herlihy, Kara; Murphy, Michael B.; Bohnsack, Richard; Andrien, Bruce; Brandani, Pietro; Terwey, Danny; Millican, Rohn; Darling, Ryan J.; Wang, Liann; Carter, Quincy; Dotzlaf, Joe; Lopez-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Campbell, Islay; Torreri, Paola; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Liu, Yang; Abdiche, Yasmina; Malashock, Daniel; Pinkerton, Alanna; Wong, Melanie; Lafer, Eileen; Hinck, Cynthia; Thompson, Kevin; Primo, Carmelo Di; Joyce, Alison; Brooks, Jonathan; Torta, Federico; Bagge Hagel, Anne Birgitte; Krarup, Janus; Pass, Jesper; Ferreira, Monica; Shikov, Sergei; Mikolajczyk, Malgorzata; Abe, Yuki; Barbato, Gaetano; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; Beusink, Bianca; Satpaev, Daulet; Tsang, Tiffany; Fang, Eric; Partridge, James; Brohawn, Stephen; Horn, James; Pritsch, Otto; Obal, Gonzalo; Nilapwar, Sanjay; Busby, Ben; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Canepa, Sylvie; Witte, Krista; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Cho, Yun Hee; D’Agata, Roberta; Schlick, Kristian; Calvert, Rosy; Munoz, Eva M.; Hernaiz, Maria Jose; Bravman, Tsafir; Dines, Monica; Yang, Min-Hsiang; Puskas, Agnes; Boni, Erica; Li, Jiejin; Wear, Martin; Grinberg, Asya; Baardsnes, Jason; Dolezal, Olan; Gainey, Melicia; Anderson, Henrik; Peng, Jinlin; Lewis, Mark; Spies, Peter; Trinh, Quyhn; Bibikov, Sergei; Raymond, Jill; Yousef, Mohammed; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Feng, Yuguo; Emerick, Anne; Mundodo, Suparna; Guimaraes, Rejane; McGirr, Katy; Li, Yue-Ji; Hughes, Heather; Mantz, Hubert; Skrabana, Rostislav; Witmer, Mark; Ballard, Joshua; Martin, Loic; Skladal, Petr; Korza, George; Laird-Offringa, Ite; Lee, Charlene S.; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Podlaski, Frank; Neuner, Phillippe; Rothacker, Julie; Rafique, Ashique; Dankbar, Nico; Kainz, Peter; Gedig, Erk; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Boozer, Christina; Ly, Nguyen; Toews, Mark; Uren, Aykut; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Lewis, Kenneth; Chomey, Eugene; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users of different expertise levels. The two proteins (a 50-kDa Fab and a 60-kDa glutathione S-transferase [GST] antigen) form a relatively high-affinity complex, so participants needed to optimize several experimental parameters, including ligand immobilization and regeneration conditions as well as analyte concentrations and injection/dissociation times. Although most participants collected binding responses that could be fit to yield kinetic parameters, the quality of a few data sets could have been improved by optimizing the assay design. Once these outliers were removed, the average reported affinity across the remaining panel of participants was 620 pM with a standard deviation of 980 pM. These results demonstrate that when this biosensor assay was designed and executed appropriately, the reported rate constants were consistent, and independent of which protein was immobilized and which biosensor was used. PMID:19133223

  9. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred

    2011-07-12

    We have constructed in-frame deletions of 7 of the 10 PAS-GGDEF-EAL proteins in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We are currently in the process of characterizing the deletion mutants under a wide range of growth conditions. In addition to characterizing growth, we will also examine the biofilm formation of the deletion mutants. In addition to the genetic analyses of the mutants, we are also interested in comparing the activities of the various PAS-GGDEF-EAL proteins. Proteins containing PAS, GGDEF and EAL amino acid sequence motifs may play an important role in regulating c-di-GMP signaling in response to environmental conditions. A genetic and biochemical analysis into the roles of these proteins is underway. PDE activity was observed for several PAS-GGDEF-EAL proteins. One of these proteins, SO0427, also demonstrates possible DGC activity in vitro. Currently, we are studying the growth, motility and biofilm formation characteristics of deletion mutants, as well as the activity of the purified proteins.

  10. Electrochemical studies on zirconium phosphoborate based heterogeneous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDEEP KAUSHAL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrode potential measurements have been applied to study electrical characteristics like transport numbers, permselectivity & fixed charged density of zirconium phosphoborate ion exchange membranes. The potential measurements were made across the cation exchange membrane maintained at 27±0.1 °C, using halide and nitrate salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals as electrolytes. The membrane potentials, transport numbers and permselectivity values increase with increase in average concentration from 0.0055 M to 0.0495 M for 1:1 and 1:2 electrolytes. With the increase in concentration of the electrolyte, the number of counter ions interacting with the membrane surface increases leading to enhanced Donnan exclusion responsible for the increase of transport numbers. Fixed charge density of the membrane (X for 1:2 electrolytes is higher in magnitude than for 1:1 electrolytes indicating that the cation exchange is taking place as hydrated species. This hypothesis is supported by higher transport numbers for alkaline earth metal ions than alkali metal ions throughout the range of concentration.

  11. A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalık, Muammer

    2012-12-01

    Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords `context-based', `contextual learning' and `chemistry education' in well-known databases (i.e. Academic Search Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, Springer LINK Contemporary). Further, in case the computer search by key words may have missed a rather substantial part of the important literature in the area, the authors also conducted a hand search of the related journals. To present a detailed thematic review of context-based chemistry studies, a matrix was used to summarize the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methodologies, general knowledge claims, and implications for teaching and learning, implications for curriculum development and suggestions for future research. The general knowledge claims investigated in this paper were: (a) positive effects of the context-based chemistry studies; (b) caveats, both are examined in terms of students' attitudes and students' understanding/cognition. Implications were investigated for practice in context- based chemistry studies, for future research in context- based chemistry studies, and for curriculum developers in context- based chemistry studies. Teachers of context-based courses claimed that the application of the context-based learning approach in chemistry education improved students' motivation and interest in the subject. This seems to have generated an increase in the number of the students who wish to continue chemistry education at higher levels. However, despite the fact that the majority of the studies have reported advantages of context-based chemistry studies, some of them have also referred to pitfalls, i.e. dominant

  12. Community-based study of circumcision practices in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Olajide Abdur-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circumcision practice around the world has various implications and has generated a lot of debate about the pros and cons of the practice. Nigeria is one of the countries where male and female circumcision practice still occurs however, there has been claim of reduction in female genital cutting. Congregational or ′group′ circumcision prevails in some communities as a means of upholding traditions and commemoration of festive period. Objective: To determine the pattern of circumcision practice and identify factors affecting the practice in Ilorin community. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive, cross sectional study conducted among parents of under-5 children of both the sexes using pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires, which were administered to the respondents by trained research assistants over a six-week period. Clinical examination of genital area in index child of each respondent was done by a pediatric surgeon, who was the principal investigator. Results: Three hundred and ninety three (93% respondents completed the questionnaire and the same number of index children′s external genitalia was examined by the pediatric surgeon. The mean age of respondents was 33.2±9.3 years, and the main source of family income was private enterprises and civil services. The circumcision status of fathers was 100%, mothers, 65.6%, and overall female-child circumcision rate was 46.7%. Though, most of the index children were delivered at health centers (72.3%, the circumcisions were performed at almost equal frequencies by traditional circumcisionists (39.8% and doctors (39.2%, with more than half of the circumcision being done outside the hospital. The mean age at circumcision was 22 ±0.69 months, with 73.9% of girls as against 91.7% boys being circumcised by the age of five years. Family choice was the main determinant of the age at circumcision and the circumcisionist. Female circumcision was done by traditional

  13. Study of new conductive oxyfluorides based on bismuth, vanadium, zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsoone, V. [ENSCL, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France). Lab. de Cristallochimie et Physico-Chimie du Solide; Follet-Houttemane, C. [Lab. de Materiaux Avances Ceramiques (LAMAC), UVHC ISTV, Valenciennes (France)

    2002-07-01

    Syntheses in quartz crucibles realised in the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-ZnF{sub 2} diagram at 700 C have allowed to isolate a glass domain, named G, and a crystallized phase, named C, located near the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnF{sub 2} line. Structural determination by X-ray powder diffraction showed that the C phase is related to Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. Fluorine ions are mainly located in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} sheets in order to form Bi{sub 2}F{sub 4}{sup 4+} layers, the other F{sup -} ions are located in the perovskite layers. However, the compounds formula in this part of the diagram leads to a ZnO excess in comparison with Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} formula. Study achieved by Raman diffusion spectroscopy allowed to confirm the existence of a vitreous network within the perovskite layer in which the ZnO excess could be inserted. The vitreous compounds corresponding to G phase, recristallized into a isomorphous to C phase and evidenced by conductivity measurements, present glass-ceramic type properties. The glass ceramic {sigma} values are 50 times higher than vitreous compounds ({sigma} = 4.10{sup -4} Scm{sup -1} at 260 C for Bi{sub 0.65}Zn{sub 1.215}V{sub 0.135}O{sub 1.313}F{sub 2.43}). (orig.)

  14. Formulation & Storage Studies on Hydrazine-Based Gelled Propellants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Verma

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The current trend in the area of high energy storable liquid rocket propellant research is to develop gelled/metallized systems and to explore the feasibility of their application in rocket motors. The idea stems from the fact that the conversion of a conventional liquid propellant to a gelled state and its subsequent metallization has the potential to significantly enhance the performance and density specific impulse. However, it is mandatory that the gelation of the liquid propellant be brought about with a minimum concentration of gellant and the gel formed should show a shear-thinning behaviour and good storage life. Keeping this in view, an experimental program to prepare thixotropic gels of hydrazine and its methyl substitutedderivatives like monomethyl hydrazineand unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazinewas conducted under ambient conditions. The gellants investigated included particulate, chemical and synthetic materials. The gelation of the liquid fuels ..ould be brought about with gellant concentration as low as I wt per cent in some cases. Metallized gels using up to 40 wt per cent of AlIMg metal powders could be formulated. These heterogeneous systems showed a reduction in critical gellant concentration with degree of metallization. Further, less gelation time is observed if the gellant concentration is kept fixed and metal content is increased. The storage studies on gelled systems conducted over a period of three months showed good stability. The metallized systems, however, showed the settling of metal powders in meagre concentration which does not pose a major problem as these gels could be re-homogenized with stirring.

  15. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six par

  16. The study of electrical conductivity and diffusion behavior of water-based and ferro/ferricyanide-electrolyte-based alumina nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Lee, Hyeonseok; Chang, Ya-Huei; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Nanofluids are liquids containing suspensions of solid nanoparticles and have attracted considerable attention because they undergo substantial mass transfer and have many potential applications in energy technologies. Most studies on nanofluids have used low-ionic-strength solutions, such as water and ethanol. However, very few studies have used high-ionic-strength solutions because the aggregation and sedimentation of nanoparticles cause a stability problem. In this study, a stable water-based alumina nanofluid was prepared using stirred bead milling and exhibits a high electrical conductivity of 2420 μS/cm at 23 °C and excellent stability after five severe freezing-melting cycles. We then developed a process for mixing the water-based nanofluid with a high-ionic-strength potassium ferro/ferricyanide electrolyte and sodium dodecyl sulfate by using stirred bead milling and ultrasonication, thus forming a stable electrolyte-based nanofluid. According to the rotating disk electrode study, the electrolyte-based alumina nanofluid exhibits an unusual increase in the limiting current at high angular velocities, resulting from a combination of local percolation behavior and shear-induced diffusion. The electrolyte-based alumina nanofluid was demonstrated in a possible thermogalvanic application, since it is considered to be an alternative electrolyte for thermal energy harvesters because of the increased electrical conductivity and confined value of thermal conductivity.

  17. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa...... receptor (PXR, NR1I2) A-24381C (rs1523127), C8055T (rs2276707), A7635G (rs6785049), liver X receptor (LXR-β, NR1H3) C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer...

  18. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  19. Is the Prevalence of Overactive Bladder Overestimated? A Population-Based Study in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the study was to assess the age-standardized prevalence of overactive bla...

  20. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  1. Applications of the theory of Gr?bner bases to the study of linear recurring arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This is a small survey of applications of the theory of Gr?bner bases to the study of linear recurring arrays. It applies some properties of Gr?bner bases to studying linear recurring arrays and contains recent new results on linear recurring arrays.

  2. Designing Web-Based Educative Curriculum Materials for the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Cory; Saye, John; Brush, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a design experiment of web-based curriculum materials explicitly created to help social studies teachers develop their professional teaching knowledge. Web-based social studies curriculum reform efforts, human-centered interface design, and investigations into educative curriculum materials are reviewed, as well as…

  3. Sensibility of Teeth Having Based versus Non-Based Amalgam Restorations: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    blood supply was diminished. Stenvik and Mjor(109) orthodontically intruded human premolars on children whose teeth were to be extracted for orthodontic ...techniques were performed on contralateral pairs of teeth which were to be extracted for orthodontic reasons. The patient, unaware of the purpose of...predentin and dentin described previously are supportive of the hydrodynamic theory. (48,50,52) Several in vitro studies on freshly extracted human teeth

  4. A Corpus-based Study on Keywords in The Glass Menagerie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-mei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Corpus-based approach has been an important method. Based on the analysis about some Papers on corpus and corpus-based approach in literary texts, this thesis takes the work of American famous writer Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie as the research object. Guided by the stylistic theoretical framework put forward by Leech and Short, the study con⁃ducts text analysis with Wordsmith and Antconc3.3.1 for studying the keywords of the novel.

  5. Study on institutionalization of risk-informed performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. G.; Hong, S. Y.; Seo, M. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    In this study, for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation in Korea, the latest technical movements of overseas countries are examined and reviewed. And the issues that was found when license change petition using risk information was submitted in Korean regulatory body are reviewed. Based on these review, the applicable areas to domestic situation will be found and proposed. This study can contribute to setting up the proper direction for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation.

  6. Consultation in university-based and community-based infectious disease practices: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, D J; Corey, G R; Ingram, C W; Morris, V M; Haywood, H B

    1995-02-01

    Infectious disease physicians in university and community practices completed a standard data form following each of 1,366 inpatient consultations during a 7-month period. The rate of consultation was higher in the university practice than in the community practice (3.4 vs. 1.8 per 100 discharges, respectively). Known or suspected bacterial pathogens accounted for more than half of all consultations in both practice groups. The three organ systems most commonly affected by infection were pulmonary (20% in university practice vs. 19% in community practice), skin and soft tissue (13% in university practice vs. 20% in community practice), and musculoskeletal (12% in university practice vs. 16% in community practice). Bloodstream infection, pneumonia, unexplained fever, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infection, and cellulitis were the six most common disease processes that led to consultation in both practice groups. The percentage of patients with noninfectious diseases and the percentage for whom a change in antimicrobial therapy was advised was nearly identical in both practice settings. Physicians in private practice performed more consultations on weekends (20% vs. 11% in university practices, P consultants in community practices are nearly identical to those of their colleagues in university-based practices.

  7. Geometry-based vs. intensity-based medical image registration: A comparative study on 3D CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Antonis D; Economopoulos, Theodore L; Matsopoulos, George K

    2016-02-01

    Spatial alignment of Computed Tomography (CT) data sets is often required in numerous medical applications and it is usually achieved by applying conventional exhaustive registration techniques, which are mainly based on the intensity of the subject data sets. Those techniques consider the full range of data points composing the data, thus negatively affecting the required processing time. Alternatively, alignment can be performed using the correspondence of extracted data points from both sets. Moreover, various geometrical characteristics of those data points can be used, instead of their chromatic properties, for uniquely characterizing each point, by forming a specific geometrical descriptor. This paper presents a comparative study reviewing variations of geometry-based, descriptor-oriented registration techniques, as well as conventional, exhaustive, intensity-based methods for aligning three-dimensional (3D) CT data pairs. In this context, three general image registration frameworks were examined: a geometry-based methodology featuring three distinct geometrical descriptors, an intensity-based methodology using three different similarity metrics, as well as the commonly used Iterative Closest Point algorithm. All techniques were applied on a total of thirty 3D CT data pairs with both known and unknown initial spatial differences. After an extensive qualitative and quantitative assessment, it was concluded that the proposed geometry-based registration framework performed similarly to the examined exhaustive registration techniques. In addition, geometry-based methods dramatically improved processing time over conventional exhaustive registration.

  8. A Corpus-based Study of English Synonym Differentiation:A Case Study of Announce, Declare, Proclaim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦弦

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the differentiation in English synonym and a corpus-based case study of colligation, collocation and semantic prosody on announce, declare and proclaim is conducted. It is hoped that this study could give some hints on the pedagogical practice and more attention can be paid to this area so more teacher and learners can benefit from the various corpora.

  9. Risk estimates of dementia by apolipoprotein E genotypes from a population-based incidence study: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. Slooter (Arjen); M. Cruts (Marc); S. Kalmijn (Sandra); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To provide risk estimates of dementia and Alzheimer disease as a function of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and to assess the proportion of dementia that is attributable to the APOE genotypes. DESIGN: Case-control study nested in a population-based cohort study with a

  10. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  11. A Computer Game-Based Method for Studying Bullying and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Caceres, Juan F.; Espelage, Dorothy; Amir, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Even though previous studies have addressed the relation between face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying, none have studied both phenomena simultaneously. In this article, we present a computer game-based method to study both types of peer aggression among youth. Study participants included fifth graders (N = 93) in two U.S. Midwestern middle…

  12. Study of methane solubility in oil base used in oil base drilling fluid; Estudo da solubilidade de metano em base oleo utilizada em fluido de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Teixeira da; Mariolani, Jose Ricardo Lenzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Lomba, Rosana Fatima Teixeira; Bonet, Euclides Jose

    2004-07-01

    During drilling a well, it is necessary to prevent and control high pressurized zones because while drilling on those zones, could occur a kick if the formation pressure were higher then downhole pressure, allowing the entering of undesirables fluids from the formation to the wellbore. If the well is not controlled this kick could became a blowout, generating damages to the environment, to the equipment and the human life. When drilling using oil-based mud, the concern related to the well control would be higher due the gas solubility in the mud, which could make it hard to detect the kick, especially in deep and ultra deep waters. In this work we have studied the interaction between methane and organic liquids used in drilling fluids, and the measurement and analysis of the thermodynamic properties of those gas liquid mixtures. There have been measured parameters like the oil formation volume factor (FVF{sub o}), bubble pressure, solubility (Rs) and the density of the saturated liquid in function of methane mole fraction and temperature. The results have shown that the gas solubility, at downhole conditions and during kick circulation, is a factor very important to the safety during well drilling in deep and ultra deep waters. (author)

  13. New cleaning strategies based on carbon nanomaterials applied to the deteriorated marble surfaces: A comparative study with enzyme based treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Federica, E-mail: federica.valentini@uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Diamanti, Alessia; Carbone, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Bauer, E.M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISM-CNR), RM 1, Via Salaria km 29.3, 00015 Monterotondo (Italy); Palleschi, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Pentelic marbles from Basilica Neptuni in Rome-Italy (27-25 B.C.) show the signs of deterioration phenomena, which can be identified as black crust as well as black and grey patina. The present study has the twofold objective of assessing the entity of the deterioration and proposing new cleaning strategies based on nanotechnologies. The former is achieved by performing optical microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC), stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The second objective of this study, involves different treatments based on a new cleaning strategy with carbon nanomaterials and bio-cleaning (used here for comparison) performed with enzymes, as glucose oxidase (GOD) and lipase. Nanomicelles assembled with functionalised carbon nano-fibres (CNF-COOH) and dispersed in Tween 20 medium show the highest cleaning performances in terms of removal of the black crust, compared with the pristine single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and the enzyme-based cleaning treatments. In particular, in these last two cases, the GOD-based biocleaning is efficient in removing the grey and dark patina, but works slow on the black crust. Finally, the lipase based cleaning approach is efficient in the black patina removal, though at the working temperature of 38 Degree-Sign C.

  14. A Comparative Study of Paper-based and Computer-based Contextualization in Vocabulary Learning of EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary acquisition is one of the largest and most important tasks in language classes. New technologies, such as computers, have helped a lot in this way. The importance of the issue led the researchers to do the present study which concerns the comparison of contextualized vocabulary learning on paper and through Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL. To this end, 52 Pre-university EFL learners were randomly assigned in two groups: a paper-based group (PB and a computer-based (CB group each with 26 learners. The PB group received PB contextualization of vocabulary items, while the CB group received CB contextualization of the vocabulary items thorough PowerPoint (PP software. One pretest, posttest, along with an immediate and a delayed posttest were given to the learners. Paired samples t-test of pretest and posttest and independent samples t-test of the delayed and immediate posttest were executed by SPSS software. The results revealed that computer-based contextualization had more effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners than paper-based contextualization of the words. Keywords: Computer-based contextualization, Paper-based contextualization, Vocabulary learning, CALL

  15. Donor-specific cell-based assays in studying sensitivity to low-dose radiation: a population-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora eIl'yasova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a linear no-threshold model is used to estimate health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation, a prevalent exposure in the general population, because the direct estimation from epidemiological studies suffers from uncertainty. This model has been criticized based on unique biology of low-dose radiation. Whether the departure from linearity is toward increased or decreased risk is intensely debated. We present an approach based on individual radiosensitivity testing and discuss how individual radiosensitivity can be assessed with the goal to develop a quantifiable measure of cellular response that can be conducted via high-throughput population testing.

  16. Randomized double blind placebo control studies, the "Gold Standard" in intervention based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Misra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies follow a hierarchy in terms of the quality of evidence that they can provide. Randomized double blind placebo control (RDBPC studies are considered the "gold standard" of epidemiologic studies. And the same is discussed at length in this paper taking example of a real journal article employing this study design to answer the research question; "Does once daily dose of Valacyclovir reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes in a susceptible partner?" RDBPC studies remain the most convincing research design in which randomly assigning the intervention can eliminate the influence of unknown or immeasurable confounding variables that may otherwise lead to biased and incorrect estimate of treatment effect. Also, randomization eliminates confounding by baseline variables and blinding eliminates confounding by co-interventions, thus eliminating the possibility that the observed effects of intervention are due to differential use of other treatments. The best comparison is placebo control that allows participants, investigators and study staff to be blinded. The advantage of trial over an observational study is the ability to demonstrate causality. Hope, this will be useful to neophyte researchers to understand causal hierarchy when critically evaluating epidemiologic literature.

  17. Randomized double blind placebo control studies, the "Gold Standard" in intervention based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shobha

    2012-07-01

    Studies follow a hierarchy in terms of the quality of evidence that they can provide. Randomized double blind placebo control (RDBPC) studies are considered the "gold standard" of epidemiologic studies. And the same is discussed at length in this paper taking example of a real journal article employing this study design to answer the research question; "Does once daily dose of Valacyclovir reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes in a susceptible partner?" RDBPC studies remain the most convincing research design in which randomly assigning the intervention can eliminate the influence of unknown or immeasurable confounding variables that may otherwise lead to biased and incorrect estimate of treatment effect. Also, randomization eliminates confounding by baseline variables and blinding eliminates confounding by co-interventions, thus eliminating the possibility that the observed effects of intervention are due to differential use of other treatments. The best comparison is placebo control that allows participants, investigators and study staff to be blinded. The advantage of trial over an observational study is the ability to demonstrate causality. Hope, this will be useful to neophyte researchers to understand causal hierarchy when critically evaluating epidemiologic literature.

  18. Longitudinal Study of a Novel, Performance-based Measure of Daily Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Page 3 of 18 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0084 TITLE: "Longitudinal Study of a Novel Performance- based Measure of Daily Function." PRINCIPAL...14Mar2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Longitudinal Study of a Novel, Performance- based Measure of Daily Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0084 5b...it contrasts with more typical informant based measures . In a preliminary study we compared patients with MCI, patients with mild AD who by diagnosis

  19. Problem-based case study to enhance critical thinking in student nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Mogale

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional teaching methods, for example the lecture method, does not stimulate critical thinking in student nurses. This problem can be solved by the utilisation of problem-based case study in the classroom/clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study in a clinical setting among first year, comprehensive course students at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus. The research design of this study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual and was conducted in the following phases: Phase 1: The development and implementation of a program for problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase II: The experiences of student nurses who were exposed to problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase III: The perceptions of tutors regarding the implementation of problem-based case study in the clinical setting (focus group, and; ase IV: Guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The data from Phases I, II and III were used to formulate guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The sample group consisted of all 69 first year student nurses at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus and ten tutors teaching clinical courses at the same campus. The Tesch (1990 approach is used for data analysis. Nine guidelines for the implementation of a problem-based case study approach were formulated and recommendations for development of an instrument to measure critical thinking in nursing were recommended.

  20. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  1. Mortality in myasthenia gravis: A nationwide population-based follow-up study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie S; Danielsen, Ditte H; Somnier, Finn E;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In previous studies of myasthenia gravis (MG), increased mortality has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR-Ab-seropositive) MG in a nationwide population-based, long-term follow-up study...

  2. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.610 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a... feasible and ethical. Such postmarketing studies would not be feasible until an exigency arises. When...

  3. 21 CFR 601.91 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.91 Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a biological product for which safety has... and ethical. Such postmarketing studies would not be feasible until an exigency arises. When...

  4. Experimental Study on Damage Detection in Timber Specimens Based on an Electromechanical Impedance Technique and RMSD-Based Mahalanobis Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dansheng; Wang, Qinghua; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-10-22

    In the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens. In addition, the conventional damage index, namely root mean square deviation (RMSD) is employed to evaluate the level of damage. On that basis, a new damage index, Mahalanobis distance based on RMSD, is proposed to evaluate the damage severity of timber specimens. Experimental studies are implemented to detect notch and hole damage in the timber specimens. Experimental results verify the availability and robustness of the proposed damage index and its superiority over the RMSD indexes.

  5. Experimental Study on Damage Detection in Timber Specimens Based on an Electromechanical Impedance Technique and RMSD-Based Mahalanobis Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansheng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the electromechanical impedance (EMI method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens. In addition, the conventional damage index, namely root mean square deviation (RMSD is employed to evaluate the level of damage. On that basis, a new damage index, Mahalanobis distance based on RMSD, is proposed to evaluate the damage severity of timber specimens. Experimental studies are implemented to detect notch and hole damage in the timber specimens. Experimental results verify the availability and robustness of the proposed damage index and its superiority over the RMSD indexes.

  6. Electrochemical Impedance Study of Schiff Base by Means of Self-assembled Monolayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the self-assembled monolayer of Schiff base was first investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS). The complexation of Cu2+ with the Schiff base was also detected with EIS method. The approximate linear relationship between Cu2+ and the reaction resistance (Rr) was observed. All the results suggest that the electrochemical property of Schiff base could be studied conveniently by means of forming self-assembled monolayer.

  7. Neural correlates of text‐based emoticons: a preliminary fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ko Woon; Lee, Sang Won; Choi, Jeewook; Kim, Tae Min; Jeong, Bumseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Like nonverbal cues in oral interactions, text‐based emoticons, which are textual portrayals of a writer's facial expressions, are commonly used in electronic device–mediated communication. Little is known, however, about how text‐based emoticons are processed in the human brain. With this study, we investigated whether the text‐based emoticons are processed as face expressions using fMRI. Methods During fMRI scan, subjects were asked to respond by pressing a button, ind...

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  9. Study of intelligent building system based on the internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liyong; Xu, Renbo

    2017-03-01

    In accordance with the problem such as isolated subsystems, weak system linkage and expansibility of the bus type buildings management system, this paper based on the modern intelligent buildings has studied some related technologies of the intelligent buildings and internet of things, and designed system architecture of the intelligent buildings based on the Internet of Things. Meanwhile, this paper has also analyzed wireless networking modes, wireless communication protocol and wireless routing protocol of the intelligent buildings based on the Internet of Things.

  10. The Reporting of Observational Research Studies in Dermatology Journals A Literature-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langan, Sinead; Schmitt, Jochen; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Svensson, Ake; von Elm, Erik; Williams, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of reporting in observational studies in dermatology. Data Sources: Five dermatology journals-the Archives of Dermatology, the British Journal of Dermatology, the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and Acta Derma

  11. A study of incidence of congenital anomalies in newborn: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Prashar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study stresses upon incidence of congenital anomalies as they are an important cause of perinatal mortality. To decrease the incidence of various congenital anomalies and their prevalence in the particular region, it is important that the distribution and prevalence are identified in that region and country as a whole. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2050-2053

  12. The Effects of Team-Based Learning on Social Studies Knowledge Acquisition in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Haynes, Martha; Fall, Anna-Mária; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Solis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of team-based learning implemented within 11th-grade social studies classes. A randomized blocked design was implemented with 26 classes randomly assigned to treatment or comparison. In the treatment classes teachers implemented team-based learning practices to support students in engaging in…

  13. An Empirical Study of Instructor Adoption of Web-Based Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Tsong; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    For years, web-based learning systems have been widely employed in both educational and non-educational institutions. Although web-based learning systems are emerging as a useful tool for facilitating teaching and learning activities, the number of users is not increasing as fast as expected. This study develops an integrated model of instructor…

  14. The Turkish Version of Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Funda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the language equivalence and the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the "Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale" ("Web Tabanli Ögrenme Ortami Degerlendirme Ölçegi" [WTÖODÖ]) used in the selection and evaluation of web-based learning environments. Within this scope,…

  15. Model of Values-Based Management Process in Schools: A Mixed Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the school administrators' values-based management behaviours according to the teachers' perceptions and opinions and, accordingly, to build a model of values-based management process in schools. The study was conducted using explanatory design which is inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  16. Can Interactive Web-Based CAD Tools Improve the Learning of Engineering Drawing? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Cerra, Pablo; Suárez González, Jesús M.; Busto Parra, Bernardo; Rodríguez Ortiz, Diana; Álvarez Peñín, Pedro I.

    2014-01-01

    Many current Web-based learning environments facilitate the theoretical teaching of a subject but this may not be sufficient for those disciplines that require a significant use of graphic mechanisms to resolve problems. This research study looks at the use of an environment that can help students learn engineering drawing with Web-based CAD…

  17. Assessment Criteria for Competency-Based Education: A Study in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastré, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Amsing-Smit, Pauline; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of type of assessment criteria (performance-based vs. competency-based), the relevance of assessment criteria (relevant criteria vs. all criteria), and their interaction on secondary vocational education students' performance and assessment skills. Students on three programmes in the domain of nursing and care…

  18. Enhancing Reading Comprehension through Task-Based Writing Activities: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilfarlioglu, Filiz Yalcin; Basaran, Suleyman

    2007-01-01

    Task-based learning is a popular topic in ELT/EFL circles nowadays. It is accepted by its proponents as a flourishing method that may replace Communicative Language Learning. However, it can also be seen as an adventure just because there are almost no experimental studies to tackle questions concerning applicability of Task-based Learning. In…

  19. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  20. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penalvo, Francicso Jose

    2013-01-01

    Our differences in language, cultures, and history around the world play a vital role in the way we learn. As technology-based education continues to be used worldwide, there is an ever growing interest in how multiculturalism comes into effect. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches explores the…

  1. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) utilized primarily voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigated mostly patients with moderate- to late-stage disease. We now use deformation-based morphometry (DBM), a method...

  2. HISTORY OF PLACE-BASED EDUCATION IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin KILINÇ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Place-based education is a phrase that historically is relatively new; as a concept is has been around for sometime longer. Place-based education has been defined as experience [outside the school] has its geographical aspect, its artistic and its literary, its scientific and its historical sides. Place-based education is useful for bringing community features into all classroom subject areas but it plays a vital part in the social studies classroom. This style of teaching social studies not only, engages students and increases citizenship but it also, fit(s into a social studies curriculum [with its]…references to citizenship and community. The paper will be divided into sections covering different aspects of place-based education. In part one, place-based education is defined to offer a glimpse of what it can offer to education. Part two, discusses the framework of place set into historical context. Part three, will connect place-based education to other educational theories, such as those of John Dewey. Part four, aims to connect place-based education to social studies curriculum. Part six will conclude by discussing the future of place-based education, where it currently stands and its ability to keep students engaged.

  3. A Descriptive Study of a Building-Based Team Problem-Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate Building-Based Teams for General Education Intervention or BBT for GEI. BBT for GEI is a team problem-solving process designed to assist schools in conducting research-based interventions in the general education setting. Problem-solving teams are part of general education and provide support…

  4. Conducting Rigorous Survey Research in the Study of School-Based Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Cynthia E.; Newman, Daniel S.; Barrett, Courtenay A.

    2016-01-01

    The evidence base for school-based consultation practice and training is limited by a small number of studies, possibly due to unique challenges in researching consultation. For example, there are myriad variables to measure and idiosyncratic cultural and contextual factors to account for when investigating what works, for whom, and in what…

  5. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and mechanisms are identified. Based on this analysis, baselines sensor technologies are determined to prognosticate these types failure causes early...Current/voltage sensor measured at sensor terminals; Fluid level sensor Excessive slippage and clutch chatter Internal transmission failure ... TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in

  6. Assessing the Impact of a Race-Based Course on Counseling Students: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Barr, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine changes in 121 White counseling students following their participation in an experiential, race-based course taught in a group format. Pre- and postoutcomes were reported based on instruments that measured White racial identity development, White privilege, color blindness, and the costs of racism. Findings indicated…

  7. Frontotemporal dementia in The Netherlands: patient characteristics and prevalence estimates from a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); L. Donker Kaat (Laura); T. Baks (Timo); M. Joosse (Marijke); I. de Koning (Inge); Y. Pijnenburg (Yolande); D. de Jong (Danielle); D. Dooijes (Dennis); W. Kamphorst (Wouter); R. Ravid (Rivka); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); F. Verheij (Fop); H.P. Kremer; P. Scheltens (Philip); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P. Heutink (Peter); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSince 1994, a population-based study of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in The Netherlands has aimed to ascertain all patients with FTD, and first prevalence estimates based on 74 patients were reported in 1998. Here, we present new prevalence estimates after expansion of our FTD populatio

  8. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  9. Task Complexity, Focus on L2 Constructions, and Individual Differences: A Classroom-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by cognitive-interactionist frameworks for task-based learning, this study explores whether task complexity affects the extent to which learners focus on form-meaning connections during task-based work in a classroom setting, and whether this relationship is modulated by 3 individual difference factors--linguistic self-confidence,…

  10. High Interlaboratory Reprocucibility of DNA Sequence-based Typing of Bacteria in a Multicenter Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, MA de; Boye, Kit; Lencastre, H de;

    2006-01-01

    Current DNA amplification-based typing methods for bacterial pathogens often lack interlaboratory reproducibility. In this international study, DNA sequence-based typing of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa, 110 to 422 bp) showed 100% intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility without...

  11. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the databa

  12. Evidence for shared susceptibility to epilepsy and psychosis: a population-based family study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-05-01

    There is emerging evidence of an etiological overlap between a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. Here we investigate shared familial vulnerability to psychotic illness and epilepsy in a family-based study.

  13. Problem-based learning in dentistry and interfiled comparison: a citation analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Hazrati

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion ― These findings indicate gap Problem-based learning in the fields of medical sciences and future studies need to establish differences other fields and suggest appropriate solutions to resolve the dispute.

  14. When to be skeptical of negative studies: pitfalls in evaluating occupational risks using population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S W; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Siemiatycki, J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated arsenic and lung cancer incidence in a community setting in the Montreal area. Job histories and sociodemographic factors were collected by interview from 857 lung cancer cases, 533 general population controls, and 1,360 controls with other cancers. Chemist-hygienists assessed each subject's life-time occupational exposure to 294 substances. Logistic regressions yielded arsenic/lung cancer odds ratios of 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.7) based on cancer controls, and 0.82 (95% confidence interval = 0.41, 1.6) based on population controls. Risk did not rise with increasing level or probability of exposure. Worksite studies consistently show lung carcinogenicity from arsenic. Since confounding from other chemicals was well controlled, the most likely explanation is substantially lower exposures than in previous studies. The lack of association in this study demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting negative findings from population-based case-control studies, particularly when exposures are low or rare, as well as the difficulty in generating hypotheses from such studies.

  15. The course of tardive dystonia in Afro Caribbean patients, a population-based study - The Curacao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study : VII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, P. N.; Matroos, G. E.; Van Os, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tardive dystonia (TDt) is a severe side effect of long-term use of antipsychotics. Previous publications suggested that TDt persist but the results are distorted by referral bias. In a population-based nine-year follow-up study (one baseline, six follow-ups) of chronic psychiatric patients (N=194) o

  16. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anil Sinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases.

  17. Consensus on the Definition of Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Neurologists-Based Delphi Study (CEPA Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisevsky, Jaime; Tolosa, Eduardo S.

    2017-01-01

    To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD). To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study). An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition. PMID:28239501

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour among young Swedish women : a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are based on patients seeking help or advice at various health care settings. Because many STD:s are subclinical, epidemiologic surveys can be strengthened by a population-based approach. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and incidence of STDs in a population of young women, and to assess associations between STDs and social background, education, previous genital infections, sexual behaviour, con...

  19. A Study to Improve the Method of Ascertaining Attribute Weight Based on Rough Sets Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng; ZHANG Jian-bin; BAO Xin-zhong

    2009-01-01

    There are some shortages to ascertain attribute weight based on rough set in current studies. In this paper, attrib- ute importance represented by rough set is studied deeply. Aiming at the existing problems, algebra presentation of rough sets is proved to be more comprehensive than its information presentation, then a new method of ascertaining attribute weigh is put forward based on rough set conditional entropy. Finally, it is shown that the new method is more reasonable than the old one by an example.

  20. Study designs may influence results: the problems with questionnaire-based case-control studies on the epidemiology of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-03-07

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed results. When reviewing the association between three exposures, medical radiation, exogenous hormone use and allergy, we critically appraised the evidence from both case-control and cohort studies. For medical radiation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), questionnaire-based case-control studies appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise, such studies cannot be regarded as 'hypothesis testing' but only 'hypothesis generating'. We consider that this holds true for all questionnaire-based case-control studies on cancer and other chronic diseases, although perhaps not to the same extent for each exposure-outcome combination.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 March 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.46 www.bjcancer.com.