WorldWideScience

Sample records for case western reserve

  1. Case Western Reserve U. Builds Virtual Campus to Woo Prospective Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a virtual world program that Case Western University administrators built using Second Life. It is designed for use by prospective students, who can tour the campus online. The program shows campus buildings, athletic facilities, a diner, and a virtual dormitory with window views of the athletics fields, a feature of the…

  2. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  3. Cultural perspectives of land and livelihoods: A case study of Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in far-Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming Lam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on human displacement caused by conservation have increasingly questioned: firstly, its justification in the name of biodiversity conservation; and secondly, the effectiveness of compensation in preventing impoverishment. Land compensation is widely practiced and it is a crucial part of contemporary people-centred conservation resettlement strategies. In this article, using the case of the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, I argue that policy-makers′ belief that the social impacts of dislocation can be properly mitigated by economic-focused resettlement programmes alone is a myth. They have ignored the close relationships between place, social networks and livelihoods. A study of a displaced indigenous community known as Rana Tharus in far-western Nepal shows that a strong sense of nostalgia and homesickness is evident in this community. Displaced Ranas continue to idealise their old abode as ′paradise on Earth′ while experiencing their new home as only promoting poverty, helplessness and danger. Their anger is due to the fact that they no longer have the mutual help or support from their neighbours as they once did in their old abode. From the Ranas′ point of view, the old land had both high economic and social value. The study demonstrates that the act of displacement is a violent disruption of a community′s daily social contacts. The destruction of the Ranas′ social networks has not only led to their dispossession and threatened their livelihoods, but has also made them vulnerable, because these traditional social webs provided important alternative livelihoods in a rural economy. As a consequence, it has further reinforced their sense of nostalgia. The cultural and social meanings of land must be obtained prior to implementing any resettlement policies. The study indicates that if displacement is truly unavoidable for conserving biodiversity, more comprehensive rehabilitation resettlement policies than those

  4. Nitridation of silicon. M.S. Thesis Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon powders with three levels of impurities, principally Fe, were sintered in He or H2. Non-densifying mechanisms of material transport were dominant in all cases. High purity Si showed coarsening in He while particle growth was suppressed in H2. Lower purity powder coarsened in both He and H2. The same three Si powders and Si /111/ single crystal wafers were nitrided in both N2 and N2/H2 atmospheres. Hydrogen increased the degree of nitridation of all three powders and the alpha/beta ratio of the lower purity powder. Some Si3N4 whiskers and open channels through the surface nitride layer were observed in the presence of Fe, correlating with the nitridation-enhancing effects of Fe. Thermodynamic calculations showed that when SiO2 is present on the Si, addition of H2 to the nitriding atmosphere decreases the amount of SiO2 and increases the partial pressure of Si-containing vapor species, that is, Si and SiO. Large amounts of NH3 and SiH4 were also predicted to form.

  5. 75 FR 14459 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural items. The National... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Western Reserve Historical Society... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Western Reserve Historical Society,...

  6. Potential for Community and Conservation Reserves in the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kanagavel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas represent the world’s economic and political commitment towards the conservation of biodiversity. The Western Ghats (WG in peninsular India, part of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Hotspot has the highest human population density and population pressure in the world and is in need of urgent conservation attention. Community Reserves and Conservation Reserves are protected area systems in India which integrate local communities as well as private organisations into protected area management. The potential for Community and Conservation Reserves was evaluated at 25 reserve forests and privately owned/leased forest fragments at Kodaikanal, Theni and Valparai, which are limited-access areas in the human-dominated landscape of the southern WG. Data collection at each site, on a range of issues, was based upon the characteristics of local communities which would be central to the integration of resource-use, community participation and biodiversity conservation. The sites where local communities preferred to participate in protected area management were further prioritized through ranking them for the variables and index calculated. Sixteen potential, community and conservation reserves were subsequently identified and prioritised. An analysis of the perceptions, of forest department officials and conservation researchers, towards the establishment of such reserves revealed that they were unsure whether these reserve systems would be beneficial for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Approximate western limit of glaciation within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains information about the western limit of glaciation within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County,...

  8. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'. PMID:25480880

  10. Evaluation of blood reservation and use for caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshodi Yussuf A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemorrhage from obstetric causes is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the developing world. Prevention of mortality from haemorrhage will necessarily involve prompt blood transfusions among other life saving measures. There are however limited stocks of fresh or stored blood in many health care facilities in Sub Saharan Africa. Caesarean section has been identified as a common indication for blood transfusion in obstetrics practice and its performance is often delayed by non availability of blood in our centre. An evaluation of blood reservation and use at caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in Lagos, south western Nigeria should therefore assist in formulating the most rational blood transfusion policies. Methods Case records of 327 patients who had elective and emergency caesarian sections at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital between 1st October and 31st December 2007 were reviewed. Data pertaining to age, parity, booking status, type and indication for Caesarean section, pre- and post-operative packed cell volume, blood loss at surgery, units of blood reserved in the blood bank, unit(s of blood transfused and duration of hospital stay was extracted and the data analysed. Results There were 1056 deliveries out of which 327 (31% were by Caesarean section. During the study period, a total of 654 units of blood were reserved in the blood bank and subsequently made available in theatre. Out of this number, only 89 (13.6% were transfused to 41 patients. Amongst those transfused, twenty-six (54% were booked and 31 (75.6% had primary caesarian section. About 81% of those transfused had emergency caesarean section. The most common indication for surgery among those transfused were placenta praevia (9 patients with 21 units of blood and cephalo-pelvic disproportion (8 patients with 13 units. Conclusion Even though a large number of units of blood was reserved and made available in the theatre at

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nishadh, K. A.; K.S.A. Das

    2012-01-01

    In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8%) belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), Heteroptera (bugs), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles) and T...

  12. Vegetation and vegetation-environment relationships at Grootbos Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mergili

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The private Grootbos Nature Reserve is located at the Western edge of the Agulhas Plain in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, an area characterized by high habitat and floristic diversity. The Reserve is covered in near-natural fynbos shrublands with a few patches of forest and wetland. The main objective of this study was to classify the vegetation into discrete units and relate them to the prevailing environmental conditions. The vegetation was analysed by numerical means (TWINSPAN, DC A, CCA and mapped on GIS. At the vegetation type level. Forest & Thicket and Fynbos formed distinctive clusters, whereas the wetland releves were intermixed, but without relationships to one of these units. Fire incidence served as the major determinant of the forest-fynbos boundary. The Forest & Thicket grouping was separated into Thicket (as transitional to fynbos, Afromontane Forest and Milkwood Scrub Forest. Two broad complexes were distinguished within the Fynbos grouping, the Alkaline Sand Fynbos Complex corresponding to Coastal Fynbos. and the Acid Sand Fynbos Complex corresponding to Mountain Fynbos. They discriminated along gradients of pH. soil depth and rock cover. The complexes were further subdivided into formations by using one or a few subjectively chosen dominant species as indicators. The transitions between these formations were rather continuous than discrete. The vegetation type and complex levels correspond well to existing fynbos-wide classifications. Comparing the formations to the results of other vegetation studies is problematic even on the scale of the Agulhas Plain, due to the high regional plant diversity in the Fynbos Biome.

  13. Joutsenmerkkihakemus Case: Best Western Hotel Raumanlinna

    OpenAIRE

    Tamminen, Tuire

    2010-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tehtiin Joutsenmerkkihakemus Best Western Hotel Raumanlinnalle. Kehittämistyö oli lähtöisin toimeksiantajan omista tarpeesta ja toiveista. Tässä työssä suunniteltiin, miten ympäristömerkki saavutetaan. Työhön liittyi kiinteästi henkilöstökoulutuksen järjestäminen, jossa kerrottiin Raumanlinnan henkilökunnalle Joutsenmerkistä sekä perehdytettiin heidät toimimaan merkin velvoittamalla tavalla. Koulutuksessa henkilökunta perehdytettiin myös siihen, mitä merkki tarkoittaa...

  14. Indian Reservations, RBD, Published in 1985, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, BIA Western Regional Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1985. It is described as 'RBD'....

  15. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  16. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series Ecology, distribution and population status of Elaeocarpus venustus Bedd. (Oxalidales: Elaeocarpaceae, a threatened tree species from Agasthiyamalai Biosphere Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Irwin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ecology, population size, status of regeneration, habitat degradation and threat status of Elaeocarpus venustus Bedd. An endemic and threatened tree species restricted to Agasthiyamalai Biosphere Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India. The population sites of this species in the study area were recorded using Global Positioning System and mapped using Arc GIS software. The population of this species is highly fragmented due to anthropogenic activities. The total stem count in all population sites from the study area was carried out to understand the population structure. A total of 181 saplings were recorded from the entire study area of which 180 are from a single site. Nearly 64% of the stems recorded in this study are mature stems. Poor regeneration was seen in population sites that were highly disturbed. In spite of good adult population, the low number of saplings shows poor germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings.

  17. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  18. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  19. New species of Himalmartensus Wang & Zhu, 2008 (Araneae: Amaurobiidae with the first description of a male from the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Quasin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Himalmartensus Wang & Zhu, 2008 (Family: Amaurobiidae is described from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalaya, India. In this study, a male specimen of this genus is described for the first time from India.

  20. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingli Wang; Limin Dai; Jianqiong Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR) in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China...

  1. FY-09 Summary Report to the Office of Petroleum Reserves on the Western Energy Corridor Initiative Activities and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2010-01-01

    To meet its programmatic obligations under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Office of Naval Petroleum and Shale Oil Reserves (NPSOR) has initiated the Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI). The WECI will implement the Unconventional Strategic Fuels Task Force recommendations for accelerating and promoting the development of domestic unconventional fuels to help meet the nations’ energy needs. The mission of the WECI is to bolster America’s future fuel security by facilitating socially and environmentally responsible development of unconventional fuels resources in the Western Energy Corridor, using sound engineering principles and science-based methods to define and assess benefits, impacts, uncertainties, and mitigation options and to resolve impediments. The Task Force proposed a three-year program in its commercialization plan. The work described herein represents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of the DOE’s WECI. This effort represents an interim phase of work, designed to initiate only select portions of the initiative, limited by available funding resources within NPOSR. Specifically, the work presented here addresses what was accomplished in FY-09 with the remaining carryover (~$420K) from NPOSR FY-08 funds. It was the intent of the NPOSR program to seek additional funding for full implementation of the full scope of work; however, the original tasks were reduced in scope, terminated, or eliminated (as noted below). An effort is ongoing to obtain funding to continue the tasks initiated under this project. This study will focus on the integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon-neutral and environmentally acceptable manner. Emphasis will be placed on analyses of the interrelationships of various energy-resource development plans and the infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal, and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development scenarios. The interactions at build

  2. The Optimal Level of International Reserves: The case of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Rahabi, Anys

    2010-01-01

    Algeria has seen a surge in its international reserves over the past few years. However, most of this growth is originated by the important increase in oil prices Algeria’s economy is widely dependent vis-à-vis hydrocarbon’s prices due to a low development and diversification of its economic activities. This economy is thus very exposed to external shocks and should prevent against bankruptcy and ensure sufficient equity to import goods and services during these adverse periods. In our study,...

  3. Threatened Limestone Fynbos plant communities of Andrew’s Field and Tsaba-Tsaba Nature Reserve, Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Zietsman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of inland plains and hills of the Andrew’s Field and Tsaba-Tsaba Nature Reserve, Bredasdorp District, Western Cape was classified using TWINSPAN and Braun-Blanquet procedures. The resulting four plant communities and nine subcommunities were described and interpreted ecologically. The vegetation was sampled using 97 randomly stratified plots. The floristic composition, Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance of each species, and various environmental variables were recorded in each sample plot. The relationship between the vegetation units and the associated environmental gradients was confirmed by ordination, using the DECORANA computer program, applied to the floristic data set. The conservation priority of each vegetation unit was determined by taking the occurrence of Red Data List species, limestone endemic species and Cape Floristic Region endemic species into consideration. TTie distribution of the plant communities can mainly be ascribed to differences in the clay/sand content of the soil and the degree of exposure of the vegetation to the dominating winds (southeastern and northwestern of the area.

  4. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigar” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma L. NICOLIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the rocks around the spring there are species specific to flooding plains of the beech sub-stratum and also thermophilous and xerophilous species, many of them Balkan, Pontic or Mediterranean elements. The phytocoenoses we analysed belong to the Phyllitidi - Fagetum Vida (1959 1963 association. The association is characteristic to shady and moist slopes with soils rich in humus and formed on a lime substratum sometimes with surface rocks. The species with high abundance-dominance values are: Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia cordata, Hedera helix, Asplenium scolopendrium, Arum orientale, Asarum europaeum, Cardamine bulbifera, Lunaria annua, Polypodium vulgare. Such species as Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Fraxinus ornus, Ruscus hypoglossum, Syringa vulgaris point out the thermophilous character of the forests in southern Banat.

  5. WESTERNIZATION IN CHINA: A CASE STUDY IN PROCESSED POTATOES

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: China, potatoes, westernization, food demand, convenience foods Abstract: The demand for convenience foods is growing around the world, especially in China. However, the contributing factors of this change in food preferences are still largely unknown. To measure this westernization trend, data from a survey of Chinese consumers in Beijing is evaluated using a multinomial ordered logit model to determine which consumer attributes influence the probability of consuming western foods ...

  6. Results of an Assessment to Identify Potential Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture on American Indian Reservations in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Brummer, Fara Ann; Hill, George C.; Lewis, Steve; Hebb, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports the results of survey research conducted with tribal producers between 2011 and 2012 on 19 of the largest American Indian reservations in Idaho, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington. The purpose of the research was to identify potential barriers to sustainable agriculture on reservation lands. This…

  7. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinca M. IMBREA; Alma L. NICOLIN

    2009-01-01

    The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the...

  8. Community participation in the management of wetland nature reserve: a case study of Nanjishan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more conflicts have emerged in the management of nature reserves, of which the main problem is that how to carry out the campaign of conservation along with the promotion of development of local economics. To resolve the actual problem in Nanjishan National Wetland Nature Reserve and explore the idiographic method of the management of the wetland reserve, some studying methods including face-to-face interviews, informal discussion with local leaders and officials, group discussion with local fishers, questionnaire, and job of the conversation station have been carried out. The results show that the education level of the local people is low; only 5% of the local people have an opportunity to the junior college; the main income of the local people is fishing, which accounts for 70%more or less; and the income is coming down year by year because of the unreasonable way of fishing. To cope with the problems, some reformative way of management and the development of the reserve are introduced, such as establishing an NOG that constitutes of local fishermen to achieve the goal of community co-management, developing Bed and Breakfiast and so on. Through practice of the management of the participation of the local people, we draw the conclusion that the local people have a great desire to improve their life level, and to make the co-management of the reserve easy,it is important for the managers to play the role of pilot including engrafting the new ideas, giving some subsidy to encourage the local people to take part in the management. In addition, making local people perceive value of the reserve and the close relation between reserve conservation and the promotion of level of their life. On this basis, they incline to take part in the management of the reserve.

  9. First case of Francisella bacteraemia in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Aravena-Román

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisella species are Gram-negative, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccobacilli, facultative intracellular fastidious bacteria. We report the isolation of a Francisella-like species from a blood culture collected from a 44-year-old bacteraemic patient in Perth, Western Australia. The organism was identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing and by fatty acid methyl esters analysis. The strain genotypically resembled Francisella hispaniensis, a species previously isolated from human blood in Spain.

  10. Development of a path forward for special-case wastes at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the management of the inventory of existing and potential surplus equipment and materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that are candidates for various waste or surplus material categories, including special case waste (SCW). This inventory is called candidate equipment and materials (CEM). This report presents a logical method for disposition of this and future CEM, summarizes the inventory, and suggests preliminary dispositions for the CEM. Also, recommendations are offered for an improved CEM management strategy and actions in this and future years to implement that strategy

  11. Biosphere reserves - an attempt to form sustainable landscapes (A case study of three biosphere reserves in the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2008), s. 38-51. ISSN 0169-2046 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biosphere reserve * nature protection * socio-economic development * sustainable development * triangulation Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2008

  12. Typhoon-Induced Magnetic Disturbances: Cases in the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three typhoons occurred over the western Pacific in September 2008 and were enhanced beyond category 3 as they approached Taiwan. The geomagnetic total intensity field recorded at 2 local monitoring stations in Taiwan and 1 remote station in Japan was utilized to examine the magnetic disturbances induced by these typhoons. Analytical results show that amplitude changes in the frequency domain, which are retrieved from the total intensity data via the Fourier transform, at the monitoring and remote stations were consistent, even though magnetic storms strongly affected the magnetic field. However, obvious discrepancies were repeatedly found in the amplitudes in the frequency band between 0.0025 - 0.007 Hz, when typhoons of category > 3 were the closest to the monitoring stations. The frequency band is different from the induction fields from either oceanic storm waves or swells, and is consistent with that of magnetic pulsations triggered by acoustic waves from upward air motion during typhoons.

  13. The master plot in the audiovisual narrative. The western case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix GONZÁLEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A plot provides us the story that it offers a hyphen and later a film. Plots are limited, however possibilities, argument them that these offer music infinite. At the same time, we can say that all cultures avail themselves of some plots and similar arguments to structure their mythical stories. In addition, United States is the modern nation where better a dialectic relation between the myth and story keeps. At this nation, the significance of the event has been shown and you have gotten free through the myth. We will see through this article how the western is the kind of American cinema what else and better answer for the folkloric traditional story to the cánones, because your plots have been taken directly of the classical legends.

  14. Tree ring reconstruction of summer temperature variations over the past 159 years in Wolong National Natural Reserve, western Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    LI Zong-Shan; Liu, Guo-Hua; ZHANG Qi-Bing; HU Chan-Juan; LUO Shu-Zheng; LIU Xing-Liang; He, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Aims Improved understanding of tree growth responses to climate is needed to model and predict forest ecosystem responses to current and future climatic variability. Coniferous forests in Wolong National Natural Reserve occupy broad elevational ranges with varied geology and topography and thus have great potential for dendroclimatological studies. However, little is known about the growth-climate relationships in this region compared with the nearby Tibetan Plateau. Our objective was to dete...

  15. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the De Hoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA in conserved areas, arachnids were collected in the De Hoop Nature Reserve in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The survey was carried out between 1999 and 2007, and consisted of five intensive surveys between two and 12 days in duration. Arachnids were sampled in five broad habitat types, namely fynbos, wetlands, i.e. De Hoop Vlei, Eucalyptus plantations at Potberg and Cupido’s Kraal, coastal dunes near Koppie Alleen and the intertidal zone at Koppie Alleen. A total of 274 species representing five orders, 65 families and 191 determined genera were collected, of which spiders (Araneae were the dominant taxon (252 spp., 174 genera, 53 families. The most species rich families collected were the Salticidae (32 spp., Thomisidae (26 spp., Gnaphosidae (21 spp., Araneidae (18 spp., Theridiidae (16 spp. and Corinnidae (15 spp.. Notes are provided on the most commonly collected arachnids in each habitat.Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.

  16. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong

    2007-01-01

    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  17. Interface modeling to predict well casing damage for big hill strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2012-02-01

    Oil leaks were found in well casings of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interface between the caprock and top of salt. This damage could be caused by interface movement induced by cavern volume closure due to salt creep. A three dimensional finite element model, which allows each cavern to be configured individually, was constructed to investigate shear and vertical displacements across each interface. The model contains interfaces between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interface behavior in a realistic manner. This analysis results indicate that the casings of Caverns 105 and 109 failed by shear stress that exceeded shear strength due to the horizontal movement of the top of salt relative to the caprock, and tensile stress due to the downward movement of the top of salt from the caprock, respectively. The casings of Caverns 101, 110, 111 and 114, located at the far ends of the field, are predicted to be failed by shear stress in the near future. The casings of inmost Caverns 107 and 108 are predicted to be failed by tensile stress in the near future.

  18. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  19. The buying behavior of Danish customers: a case study for Best Western Hotel Walram

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This project-based thesis is concerned with the development of a marketing plan for the case company, Best Western Hotel Walram in Valkenburg, the Netherlands, and will demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in international business. The reason for elaborating a marketing plan was the desire to expand the business activities of the case company to the Scandinavian countries, starting with Denmark. During the research period, various interviews with the managemen...

  20. A case study of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) causing ocular myiasis in a western hognose snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diclaro, J W; Lehnert, M S; Mitola, M A; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G

    2011-07-01

    Late instar larvae of the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris Loew, were found near the right eye of a live captive-reared western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus Baird and Girard. Dissection and removal of the snake's dorsal cranial bones revealed tissue degradation of the infected eye, the optic nerve, and the brain case; we suggest that these factors contributed to the death of this snake. This case study further demonstrates the opportunistic behavior of M. scalaris. PMID:21845957

  1. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  2. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingli Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China. Personal interviews and informal group discussions were employed to understand local residents’ attitudes toward conservation. Factors affecting their attitudes were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that attitudes held by most farmers are not favorable toward the conservation of the CMBR. It is not ecotourism but rather income from collection of forest products, household crop lands, and migrant labor that actually influences their attitudes. We found that the 1-day-sightseeing tour style, the limited tourism period, and the low level of education and extreme poverty of the local residents, together with existing institutions and lagging regulations make it very difficult for ecotourism to engender local residents’ support. We concluded that institutional measures to guarantee local people’s sharing in the revenue generated by the reserve, as well as regulations to ensure involvement of the local community in the decision-making process are preconditions for ecotourism to engender local support in China. Providing educational opportunities for children and vocational training for young local residents can also contribute indirectly to enhanced conservation.

  3. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Forest Cover Change Patterns (1973-2020): A Case Study from South Western Ghats (India)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study used time series remote sensing data from 1973, 1990 and 2004 to assess spatial forest cover change patterns in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), South Western Ghats (India). Analysis of forest cover changes and its causes are the most challenging areas of landscape ecology, especially due to the absence of temporal ground data and comparable space platform based data. Comparing remotely sensed data from three different sources with sensors having different spatial and...

  4. Protected reserves within tropical forests managed fortimber production: recommendations using Bolivia as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredericksen, T.S.; Peña Claros, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bolivian forestry law requires that 10 per cent of areas under forest management must be set aside as 'ecological reserves', serving as protected areas from resource extraction. These guidelines appear to be based largely on reserve design theory from the conservation biology literature includin

  5. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca M. IMBREA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the rocks around the spring there are species specific to flooding plains of the beech sub-stratum and also thermophilous and xerophilous species, many of them Balkan, Pontic or Mediterranean elements. The phytocoenoses we analysed belong to the Phyllitidi - Fagetum Vida (1959 1963 association. The association is characteristic to shady and moist slopes with soils rich in humus and formed on a lime substratum sometimes with surface rocks. The species with high abundance-dominance values are: Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia cordata, Hedera helix, Asplenium scolopendrium, Arum orientale, Asarum europaeum, Cardamine bulbifera, Lunaria annua, Polypodium vulgare. Such species as Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Fraxinus ornus, Ruscus hypoglossum, Syringa vulgaris point out the thermophilous character of the forests in southern Banat.

  6. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

    2011-10-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

  7. Detecting land-cover change using mappable vegetation related indices: A case study from Sinharaja Man and the Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BD Madurapperuma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates multi-year changes of vegetation in the Sinharaja Man and the Biosphere (MAB reserve using mappable vegetation related indices viz., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Burn Index (BI. Land-cover changes in the Sinharaja MAB reserve were detected using Landsat 7 ETM+ images for 1993, 2001, and 2005. Seven individual bands of each image were converted to new multiband files by layer stacking using ENVI® 4.5. Then the multiband files were re-projected to UTM Zone 44 North, WGS-84 Datum. Each data set was exported to ENVI® EX software package to detect the changes between time steps based on NDVI and BI using an image difference tool. Land-cover data, which were obtained from the DIVA GIS web portal, were compared with Landsat image data. Results of BI showed that the Sinharaja MAB reserve fringe was vulnerable to forest fire. For example, from 1993- 2001, 160 ha identified as burned area. In contrast, from 2001-2005, 79 ha burned, and for the entire period of 1993-2005, 10 ha burned. NDVI resulted in a 962 ha increase of vegetation prime at the western Sinharaja from 2001-2005. In addition, there was a 15 ha decrease in vegetation from 1993-2005. The results were visualized using an embedded 3D render window of Google Earth and 2D view of ArcGIS explorer online. In conclusion, in-situ ground truthing data is needed for the fire-influenced area for implementing sustainable forest resource management at the Sinharaja MAB reserve. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Evaluation of professional development courses: A case study of a secondary school in Western Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Shandyrova, Gulnara

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate a newly formatted professional development course established in Kazakhstan in 2011. This paper focuses on ways to assess the effectiveness of this particular professional development programme by applying Guskey’s Framework (2000). The research study was conducted through a case study at a secondary school in Western Kazakhstan by using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. This research have produced a number of key findings:  the participants hig...

  9. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao;

    2014-01-01

    regions that plan for high penetration of intermittent renewables. Extreme intermittency in the nature of wind power imposes elevated risk levels to power system operation. This every day challenge of wind dominant power systems necessitate the crucial role of operating reserves. In this paper, we propose...... the economic benefit of reserve provision provided by cross border interconnections. The focus here will be on reserve services from abundant hydropower resource in Norway, taking advantage of fast VSC-based HVDC interconnection that is expected to be commissioned in immediate coming years....

  10. Management of China's foreign exchange reserves: a case study on the state administration of foreign

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Wei Hu

    2010-01-01

    Summary for non-specialistsWith rapid economic growth and continuing economic integration with the outside world, China's foreign exchange (FX) reserves have witnessed considerable accumulation. As of 2009 it amounted to USD 2.4 trillion, accounting for just under 1/3 of the global FX reserves. Rapid growth of FX reserves at this speed has created various problems, e.g. inflationary pressure and huge holding costs.In this paper by analyzing the SAFE - Chinese governmental agency in charge of ...

  11. Trans-Pacific Transport of Saharan Dust to Western North America: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendry, Ian G. M.; Strawbridge, Kevin B.; O'Neill, Norman; Macdonald, Anne Marie; Liu, Peter S. K.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Anlauf, Kurt G.; Jaegle, Lyatt; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    The first documented case of long range transport of Saharan dust over a pathway spanning Asia and the Pacific to Western North America is described. Crustal material generated by North African dust storms during the period 28 February - 3 March 2005 reached western Canada on 13-14 March 2005 and was observed by lidar and sunphotometer in the Vancouver region and by high altitude aerosol instrumentation at Whistler Peak. Global chemical models (GEOS-CHEM and NRL NAAPS) confirm the transport pathway and suggest source attribution was simplified in this case by the distinct, and somewhat unusual, lack of dust activity over Eurasia (Gobi and Takla Makan deserts) at this time. Over western North America, the dust layer, although subsiding close to the boundary layer, did not appear to contribute to boundary layer particulate matter concentrations. Furthermore, sunphotometer observations (and associated inversion products) suggest that the dust layer had only subtle optical impact (Aerosol Optical Thickness (Tau(sub a500)) and Angstrom exponent (Alpha(sub 440-870) were 0.1 and 1.2 respectively) and was dominated by fine particulate matter (modes in aerodynamic diameter at 0.3 and 2.5microns). High Altitude observations at Whistler BC, confirm the crustal origin of the layer (rich in Ca(++) ions) and the bi-modal size distribution. Although a weak event compared to the Asian Trans-Pacific dust events of 1998 and 2001, this novel case highlights the possibility that Saharan sources may contribute episodically to the aerosol burden in western North America.

  12. [Turkish immigrants in Western Europe: with reference to the German case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irbec, Y Z

    1996-03-01

    "The export of surplus manpower to Western Europe has been an important feature of the Turkish employment policy since the 1960s....Professional education, set up in the receiving countries for foreign workers, has played a vital role on the employment opportunities. This is particularly the case of Germany, where the greatest number of Turkish immigrants have settled. Second generation children of Turkish descent are in fact more and more encouraged to attend professional schools, since the German young generation aims at higher sectors of employment." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320686

  13. Enhancing Conservation Education Opportunities in Nature Reserves in Tropical Countries: A Case Study in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Abigail; Romero, Bart

    1998-01-01

    To meet the educational needs of residents and visitors at a nature reserve in Belize, educators developed a program to teach participating students and provide ongoing educational resources for future visitors. Fifteen North-American college students received academic training in rainforest ecology and environmental education. They then created…

  14. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  15. Ecotourism and nature-reserve sustainability in environmentally fragile poor areas: the case of the Ordos Relict Gull Reserve in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the applicability of the conventional wisdom that economic growth is paramount to environmental sustainability by examining ecotourism and nature-reserve sustainability in environmentally fragile poor regions. The discussion focuses on the Ordos Relict Gull Reserve in the Inner Mongolia region of China. The study evaluated reserve records of water and soil conditions and interpreted satellite images to identify lake-level and land-cover changes at the reserve. The Ordos Relict Gulls seem to have abandoned the reserve following ecotourism development and established new colonies in northern Shaanxi. We argue that ecotourism—especially ersatz ecotourism—in certain nature reserves is an unsustainable practice rooted in the conventional wisdom that economic development spurs environmental protection as suggested by the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. The article concludes that environmental protection rather than economic growth is of vital importance in nature-society interactions in environmentally fragile poor areas. We call for prohibitions on tourism in such nature reserves to enhance sustainability.

  16. Assessment of the safety reserve offered by a concrete buffer in case of a geological repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment calculations have been performed to investigate if the sorption of 14C, 36Cl and 129I on the cementitious materials occurring in the near field of the repository on the diffusion would offer an extra safety reserve to deep disposal of vitrified HLW. Four cases have been studied: a reference case with no cementitious material and three cases in which the considered concrete region was subsequently extended to the buffer, backfill and gallery liner. The results show a beneficial impact on peak dose and residence time of the three radionuclides. The effect on total released fractions is very high for 14C, moderate for 36Cl and small for 129I

  17. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Queiroz

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon.This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261 regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%, followed by moderate (26.8%, and severe (4.6%. The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47-4.55; p = 0.001], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18-3.29; p = 0.033 and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17-2.93; p = 0.008] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity.Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus, the mapping of scorpions fauna in different Amazon localities

  18. On a Research of Biosphere Reserve Areas Planning, Case of Lake Seyfe

    OpenAIRE

    Dönmez, Yasin; GÖKYER, Ercan; Yazgan, Mehmet Ertuğrul

    2012-01-01

    Biosphere reserve which has international significance and located within the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme which has terrestrial and/or areas of coastal ecosystems. Conservation of biological diversity is a fundamental approach to solve the continuity of relationship between cultural values and economic development in a sustainable manner. Lake Seyfe and its environs were protected under different protection status as a result of wild life conservation studies. In this study, the la...

  19. Neophytes In Protected Areas. Case Study: The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiu Paulina; Negrean Gavril; Daniela Smarandache; Liţescu Sanda; Basnou Corina

    2014-01-01

    The Danube Delta is a relatively young territory, formed about 14,000 years ago. It has quadruple status: Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar site, UNESCO World Heritage site, Natura 2000 site. Water and human activities are the most important factors influencing the flora of this area, including the penetration and spread of alien plants. The main goal of our research in this area was to inventory the alien plants and to identify those species which are invasive and potentially invasive in the natural...

  20. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  1. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: analysis of 2012 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB control in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region has seen substantial progress in the last decade, with a 33% reduction in prevalent TB cases since 2000. The burden remains immense, however, and national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon these gains. Through routine surveillance, countries and areas in the Region reported 1.4 million TB cases in 2012. The case notification rate increased in the early 2000s, appears to have stabilized in recent years and is in decline for all forms and new smear-positive cases. The age and sex breakdown for smear-positive TB case rates by country shows generally higher rates with increased age and declining rates over time for all age groups. Treatment success remains high in the Region, with 15 countries reaching or maintaining an 85% success rate. HIV testing among TB patients has increased gradually along with a slow decline in the number of HIV-positive patients found. The trend of TB notification is heavily influenced by programmatic improvements in many countries and rapidly changing demographics. It appears that cases are being found earlier as reflected in declining rates of smear-positive TB and steady rates of TB in all forms. WHO estimates depict a decline in TB incidence in the Region. HIV testing, while still low, has increased substantially in recent years, with essential TB/HIV services expanding in many countries. TB surveillance data, within inherent limitations, is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making.

  2. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere. PMID:25190597

  3. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000-39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030-9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate adaptation

  4. The first case of anoxia in waters of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunzhas, P. A.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Ivin, V. V.; Barabanshchikov, Yu. A.; Volkova, T. I.; Vyshkvartsev, D. I.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Mikhailik, T. A.; Semkin, P. Ju.; Tishchenko, P. P.; Khodorenko, N. D.; Shvetsova, M. G.; Golovchenko, F. M.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2013, anoxia of the bottom waters was established in the southern region of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Science, in the depression between Furugelm Island and coastal waters. Death of the benthic community was registered using a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The hydrochemical studies revealed that the area of the absence and/or presence of low oxygen contents corresponds to an area of anomalously high contents of ammonium, phosphates, and silicates, a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide and normalized alkalinity, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The microbiological decomposition of diatoms precipitated on the seafloor in the absence of oxygen regeneration was the reason for anoxia. Its formation in summer of 2013 was caused by anomalously abundant precipitates in the Far East.

  5. The Evolutions of Interest and Beliefs about Arabic as a Foreign Language: A Case Study on Three Western Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Hazem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate the evolutions of interest and beliefs about Arabic as a foreign language among three Western faculty members at an education college in United Arab Emirates. The study used four data resources which were: interviews, field notes, reflective journals and an information form. After four months of…

  6. Opportunities for Western Food Products in China: The Case of Orange Juice Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuqi; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The rapid income per capita of Chinese consumers and increasing demand for nearly all agricultural products have attracted western food industries to focus on this booming and huge market. This research investigated the perspectives of western food products in China's market, with focus on one representative western food-orange juice, by studying the Chinese consumer knowledge, perceptions, and willingness to pay (WTP) for different types of orange juice products. Though the Chinese consumers...

  7. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  8. The Role of People's Knowledge and Attitudes in Conservation of Wildlife in the Natural Reservations: A Case Study of the Ibex Reservation in ALRiyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD) was established in 1406 (H), and enacted plans to control grazing, wood gathering and hunting in the protected areas of Saudi Arabia. However, its efforts have not been successful in putting an end to uncontrolled grazing, trees felling and hunting in the protected areas. This is mainly due to the non-enforcement of the ban on hunting which is considered a local tradition, the freedom of trade in allowed and non-allowed animals, and people low level of awareness about the rules and regulations of hunting, grazing and trees felling. The aim of this study is to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and people's behaviors towards the Ibex reserve, to recommend solutions that can put an end to illegal hunting, and to show the role of education programs in solving this problem. The study population consisted of all people residing around the Ibex reserve, in the towns of Haotat Bany Tammem , Al-Helwa and Al-Hareek. A simple random sample of 400 people was taken. The response rate was 86%. Furthermore, more than 25 focus group discussion sessions took place, in which the researcher met with 240 local people. Percentages, means, standard deviations and simple correlation were used to analyze the study data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study indicated that the young generation's level of knowledge regarding the importance of wildlife is low. The main reason for this is the lack of educational programs that deals with the importance of wildlife conservation. The study also showed that the respondents have good information about the Ibex reserve location and the patrolling system used to protect it, while their information about the plants and animals' life in the reserve is limited. The respondents perceived that the enforcement of punishment is the only way to put an end to illegal hunting in the reserve. It is recommended to have television educational programs

  9. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; White, Michael A [Utah State University (USU); Jones, Gregory V [Southern Oregon University, Ashland, OR; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000 39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030 9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate

  10. The Story of a Typical Atypical Graduate of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luta, Adele

    2012-02-01

    An entrepreneurial perspective to life can lead to wearing a myriad of hats. Long gone is the stereotypical start-up role. Entrepreneurs now hold physics degrees and procure innovation when called upon. An alumni of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program, Adele Luta has spent the last 5 years at NASA developing an innovative approach to spacesuit sizing. Previously, she founded Eleda International consulting firm and is currently working with Adjuvat Biosciences, on a proprietary treatment pancreatic cancer.

  11. Neophytes In Protected Areas. Case Study: The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiu Paulina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta is a relatively young territory, formed about 14,000 years ago. It has quadruple status: Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar site, UNESCO World Heritage site, Natura 2000 site. Water and human activities are the most important factors influencing the flora of this area, including the penetration and spread of alien plants. The main goal of our research in this area was to inventory the alien plants and to identify those species which are invasive and potentially invasive in the natural and semi-natural ecosystems in order to propose measures for their prevention and mitigation. An inventory of these plants, conducted between 2009 and 2012 and based on bibliography and field research, comprises over 160 taxa. About half of them originated from America and less than a quarter of them from Asia. A relatively high number of species have unknown status in the Danube Delta; they were reported only from one or two localities and we did not record them during our extensive field work. In this category we also included some taxa of Xanthium without a very clear taxonomy. The taxa recorded as casual are usually ornamental plants escaped from cultivation; however among them there are some species which are known as invasive in other areas of Romania, as well as in Europe. There are 26 naturalised species, two of which established here over one hundred years ago. 37 invasive species were identified, many of them recorded in natural or seminatural places. In order to prevent and mitigate the spread of plants recognised as invasive, we propose the implementation of some measures such as providing relevant information to local communities and raising awareness about the damages caused by the alien species, and promoting further research on alien plant species in this protected area.

  12. Hydrodynamic and hydrochemicalcharacterization of groundwater in agricultural area (case of Agafay farm-Western Haouz) Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiani, Salma; El mandour, Abdennabi; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Khalil, Nourdine; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Khabba, Said; Hamaoui, Addi; Kamal, Safia

    2016-04-01

    Water resources play an important role in the socio-economic development of the Haouz plain. The agriculture and tourism are two essential components of this development. They represent more than 85% of the water consumption of the Tensift catchment. Under a semi-arid climate, according to hydric stress water used for irrigation essential for most crops, comes from pumping in groundwater from the unconfined aquifer of the Haouz. The use of groundwater for irrigation causes problems of soil degradation by the intensification of salinization processes, sodisation or alkalizing at several degrees. These situations are closely related to the natural characteristics of the environment (soil and climate) and the modalities of water management dedicated for irrigation highly affected by water quality. It is in this sense that the study was conducted in an irrigated citrus orchard drip, located in the western part of Haouz at 35 km of Marrakesh. The aim of this study is to characterize the area on hydrogeological and hydrochemical point of view, on the basis of a measurement and sampling campaign of thirty wells corresponding to June 2014. The piezometric map shows parallel flow lines oriented northwest. The aquifer recharge is ensured by lateral flow from the High Atlas and by the infiltration from surface water from Chichaoua, Assif El Mal and N'fis rivers. The low amount of flow rate recorded and measured in the vicinity of the study area at the sensing points are relative to the rise of Paleozoic substratum which reduces the recharge of the aquifer. On the hydrochemical level, groundwater quality is generally good (86% of cases). The strong mineralization is concentrated mainly in irrigated areas downstream along the flow direction of the aquifer and at the Guemassa substratum.

  13. Evaluation of Arable Land Reserve Resources and Analysis of Restrictive Factors: A Case Study of Hangjin Banner in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; YANG; Xiangjun; YUN

    2015-01-01

    Taking land available for cultivation and mining land available for reclamation in Hangjin Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,using land use database of 2012 as evaluation base,it made evaluation of arability of 677 021. 40 hm2 reserve land resources by the restrictive factor evaluation method. Besides,it analyzed main restrictive factors of arable land reserve resources in Hangjin Banner. Results indicate that the total area arable land reserve resources is 52 200. 02 hm2,accounting for 7. 71% of total area evaluated. Irrigation condition and soil thickness are major factors restricting development of arable land reserve resources in the study area. It is expected to provide reference for development of arable land reserve resources and land consolidation project in Hangjin Banner.

  14. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  15. Equine glaucoma: a retrospective study of 13 cases presented at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 1992 to 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, C L; Grahn, B H

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of equine glaucoma seen by the ophthalmology service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) was 6.5%. The majority of cases (11/13) were associated with clinical manifestations of uveitis. Congenital glaucoma was documented in 1 case, and primary glaucoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old quarter horse. There were no breed or sex predilections evident. Affected horses were middle-aged to old (average age = 9.5 years, ranging from 2 weeks to 23 years). The clinical ma...

  16. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Forest Cover Change Patterns (1973-2020: A Case Study from South Western Ghats (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used time series remote sensing data from 1973, 1990 and 2004 to assess spatial forest cover change patterns in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR, South Western Ghats (India. Analysis of forest cover changes and its causes are the most challenging areas of landscape ecology, especially due to the absence of temporal ground data and comparable space platform based data. Comparing remotely sensed data from three different sources with sensors having different spatial and spectral resolution presented a technical challenge. Quantitative change analysis over a long period provided a valuable insight into forest cover dynamics in this area. Time-series maps were combined within a geographical information system (GIS with biotic and abiotic factors for modelling its future change. The land-cover change has been modelled using GEOMOD and predicted for year 2020 using the current disturbance scenario. Comparison of the forest change maps over the 31-year period shows that evergreen forest being degraded (16% primarily in the form of selective logging and clear felling to raise plantations of coffee, tea and cardamom. The natural disturbances such as forest fire, wildlife grazing, invasions after clearance and soil erosion induced by anthropogenic pressure over the decades are the reasons of forest cover change in KMTR. The study demonstrates the role of remote sensing and GIS in monitoring of large-coverage of forest area continuously for a given region over time more precisely and in cost-effective manner which will be ideal for conservation planning and prioritization.

  17. Adapting Western Pedagogies for Chinese Literacy Instruction: Case Studies of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala; Tse, Shek Kam

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Western ideas and progressive pedagogies have been introduced to China (including Shenzhen), Hong Kong, and Singapore to replace traditional Chinese pedagogy. But these imported ideas are not congruent with traditional Chinese culture and thus have encountered resistance from Chinese teachers. The present study observed and…

  18. Internationalization as De-Westernization of the Curriculum: The Case of Journalism at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Rhonda; Obijiofor, Levi; Fitzgerald, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum points to the interdependent and interconnected (globalized) world in which higher education operates. However, while international awareness is crucial to the study of journalism, in practice this often means an Anglo-American curriculum based around Western principles of journalism education and training…

  19. Western Michigan University: Quasi-Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University has designed an innovative "Quasi-Revolving Fund" model that demonstrates the institution's full commitment to incorporating sustainability into campus operations. The Quasi-Revolving Fund recaptures money from cost-savings, similar to a typical green revolving fund, but it also sources capital from the broader…

  20. Pedagogy to Empower Chinese Learners to Adapt to Western Learning Circumstances: A Longitudinal Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanamuthu, Kala; Yap, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Deficit theorisations of Chinese Learners studying in western countries are criticised for dichotomising learning attributes into Surface- or Deep-learning approaches. Subsequent context-dependent, small culture studies of students transiting between cultures theorise learning as a dynamic journey of adapting to a range/continuum of learning…

  1. Case Report: Atypical Cornelia de Lange Syndrome [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Leanza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS (also called Bushy Syndrome or Amsterdam dwarfism, is a genetic disorder that can lead to several alterations. This disease affects both physical and neuropsychiatric development. The various abnormalities include facial dysmorphia (arched eyebrows, synophrys, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, down-turned angles of the mouth, upper-extremity malformations, hirsutism, cardiac defects, and gastrointestinal alterations. The prevalence of this syndrome is approximately one per 15,000. Ultrasound is not the perfect means to diagnose CdLS, however, many abnormalities can be detected prenatally by scrupulous image observation. We report an atypical CdLS case characterized by increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester, normal karyotype, saddle nose, micrognathia with receding jaw, low set ears, facies senilis, arthrogryposis of the hands, absence of the Aranzio ductus venous, dilatation of gallbladder and bowel, a unique umbilical artery, increased volume of amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth retardation ending with the interruption of pregnancy.

  2. Dune vegetation and coastal thicket plant communities in threatened limestone fynbos of Andrew’s Field and Tsaba-Tsaba Nature Reserve, Struisbaai, Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Zietsman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal thicket and dune vegetation of Andrew’s Field and Tsaba-Tsaba Nature Reserve was classified using Braun-Blanquet procedures and TWINSPAN. The vegetation was sampled using 74 randomly stratified sample plots. The floristic composition, cover- abundance of each species, and several environmental variables were recorded in each sample plot. Six plant communities were identified, namely, Rhus glauca - Euclea racemosa low to tall closed thicket community; Chrysanthemoides monilifera - Solanum africanum low closed dune shrub community; Chrysanthemoides monilifera - Ehrharta villosa var. maxima low to high closed dune shrub community; Ehrharta villosa var. maxima low to short closed dune grassland community; Ammophila arenaria low to short closed dune grassland community; and Arcthotheca populifolia - Thinopyrum distichum low to short open beach community. These were subdivided into eight subcommunities and four variants. All communities, sub-communities and variants were described and ecologically interpreted. The distribution of the communities, sub-communities and variants can mainly be ascribed to differences in landform, rockiness of the soil surface the degree of protection / exposure of the vegetation to the dominating winds of the area.

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  4. Vulnerability to Agricultural Drought in Western Orissa: A Case Study of Representative Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Mrutyunjay; Swain, Mamata

    2011-01-01

    The nature of vulnerability to agricultural drought in three study blocks of Bolangir district in western Orissa has been analysed. The indexing and vulnerability profile method have been used for assessing the nature of drought vulnerability, coping capacity and risk. The study has revealed that the three most influential biophysical factors of drought vulnerability are: rainfall variability, drought intensity and shortage of available waterholding capacity of soil and the three most influen...

  5. Evaluating the Demand Patterns for Irrigation Water: The Case of Western Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidis, Anastasios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Kamenidou, Irene

    2003-01-01

    This article is concerned with the management of water resources in the region of Western Macedonia. Taking into account the great importance of agriculture as the principal consumer of water in the region, as well as the drastic increase in regional water consumption over the last decade, a related study evaluating the demand patterns for irrigated water can prove to be extremely valuable. This paper examines the demand patterns and probable trends for irrigated water using the Discrete Sequ...

  6. Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Sorab Georgy Sadri; Sharukh N Tara

    2012-01-01

    This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of bank assura...

  7. NeoWestern business-government relations: the case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    McMenamin, Iain

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the applicability of Western models of business-government relations to the postcommunist context. Given the absence of a business-government relationship over the forty years of communism, it seems perfectly plausible that postcommunist countries should produce a historically unprecedented form of business-government relations and a new type of capitalist democracy. On the other hand, these countries have for several years been unequivocally regarded as capitalis...

  8. Modeling Employment, Housing, and Population in Western North Dakota: The Case of Dickinson

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.; Rathge, Richard W.; Olson, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Communities in western North Dakota are struggling to manage the unprecedented growth in employment associated with the current oil boom. The city of Dickinson is undergoing a comprehensive plan to develop policies, strategies, and solutions for providing infrastructure, transportation, housing, and public services as a result of the new conditions brought on by oil field development. This study was designed to provide input into the city’s comprehensive planning effort. Employment projection...

  9. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  10. VITAL ENERGY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT: INTERFACES BETWEEN WESTERN THOUGHT AND INDIGENOUS COSMOLOGY – THE JAVAÉ CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Panosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what happens in Western capitalist societies, who think the world so disruptive, creating dichotomies as culture / nature and society / environment, indigenous thought in such oppositions are not common. Thus, indigenous peoples do not live a crisis mentality on the environment. The Javaé provides elements with which it becomes possible to think about their "ideas" of body and vital energy and how these inform their practices and their relationship with social and environmental. Understanding this concept as something that includes a social totality that includes humans and nonhumans, and thus, maintaining a social and ecological balance.

  11. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Sony; P. R. Arun

    2015-01-01

     Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 speci...

  12. The Influence of the Climate Change on Landslide Disasters in Western Japan -Hiroshima's case-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Aditian, Aril

    2015-04-01

    In last year 2014 and 2012, tremendous landslides due to heavy rainfalls occurred in western Japan. Especially in August 2014, serious landslide disasters induced by the extremely heavy rainfall caused over 70 people's death in Hiroshima. Most of them were caused by debris flows from shallow landslides on granite forest slopes on August 20. In Hiroshima, long-term increase in rainfalls was not obvious, while this trend was found in other area such as Kyushu district. However, in western Japan, the influence of climate change emerged in the increase of vapor concentration caused by rising water surface temperature in East China Sea and that brought the extreme rainfall. The landslide (debris flow) disasters in Hiroshima have distinctive characteristics in terms of followings: (1) the source of debris flows (directly flowing down from mostly shallow landslides), (2) their usual equivalent friction coefficient "Mf" i.e. relative travel distance for Granite (values between 0.174 and 0.554). (3) the peculiar meteorological condition of frontogenesis with vapor convergence on the stationary front and around the Pacific high pressure that can generate the heavy precipitation (above 101 mm/hr, total 256 mm). (4) Contrary to Mf values above, they caused heavy disaster at downstream area with the urban development on hillside slopes. We found that the Mf becomes bigger (relatively short travel distance) as the return period of disasters"Tr"becomes shorter as evaluating in the next formula: Mf = 0.278 Tr^(-3.32). If the return period becomes shorter due to climate change (it is possible), Mf may become bigger. However, the cities such as Hiroshima, Kobe or Nagasaki in western Japan which have the urban area at hillside will be more prone to severe debris flow disasters. (5) Also, theoretically, we may have more slope failures and debris flows per area "N/A" if the rainfall increment "dR" increases. The "increasing ratio in N/A" is given by next equation: (N/A)/(N0/A)=((R0 + d

  13. Sosiaalinen media ja Facebook osana markkinointiviestintää : case: Best Western Hotel Seaport

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Anniina

    2011-01-01

    Sosiaalinen media on noussut tulevaisuuden hallitsevaksi markkinointikanavaksi sen kustannustehokkuuden ja monipuolisuuden ansiosta. Sosiaalinen media on käsitteenä vielä melko tuore, ja sen tuomien hyötyjen saavuttaminen vaatii yrityk-seltä sitoutumista ja uutta markkinointistrategiaa. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda Best Western Hotel Seaportille kehi-tyssuunnitelma markkinointiviestinnän ja näkyvyyden parantamiseksi sosiaalisen median keinoin. Tässä työssä esittelen sosiaal...

  14. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS TO NORTHERN WESTERN GHATS: A CASE STUDY OF RATNAGIRI AND SINDHUDURG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machhindra Sakate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are total 1904 villages and 12 districts of Maharashtra come under the northern Western Ghats. It has spread over 400 km. coastal area and Deccan plateau in Maharashtra. It has received abundant natural beauty and natural wealth. The mining, fishing and agriculture are the main occupation of the peoples in this region. The life style and culture of these people are highly influenced by natural heritage. The area is environmentally sensitive and significantly contributing in the rural development of the region. However, the excess and irrational use of natural resources has resulted in loss of biodiversity in general and socio-environmental life in particular.

  15. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  16. Risk factors for inadequate TB case finding in Rural Western Kenya: a comparison of actively and passively identified TB patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Van't Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a low case detection rate. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We aimed to identify factors associated with inadequate case finding among adults with PTB in this population by comparing characteristics of 194 PTB patients diagnosed in a health facility after self-report, i.e., through passive case detection, with 88 patients identified through active case detection during the prevalence survey. We examined associations between method of case detection and patient characteristics, including HIV-status, socio-demographic variables and disease severity in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS: HIV-infection was associated with faster passive case detection in univariable analysis (crude OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.0-5.9, but in multivariable logistic regression this was largely explained by the presence of cough, illness and clinically diagnosed smear-negative TB (adjusted OR (aOR HIV 1.8, 95% CI 0.85-3.7. Among the HIV-uninfected passive case detection was less successful in older patients aOR 0.76, 95%CI 0.60-0.97 per 10 years increase, and women (aOR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.73. Reported current or past alcohol use reduced passive case detection in both groups (0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79. Among smear-positive patients median durations of cough were 4.0 and 6.9 months in HIV-infected and uninfected patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: HIV-uninfected patients with infectious TB who were older, female, relatively less ill, or had a cough of a shorter duration were less likely found through passive case detection. In addition to intensified case finding in HIV-infected persons, increasing the suspicion of TB among HIV

  17. Health Care between Medicine and Religion : The Case of Catholic Western Germany around 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current revision of the relationship between religion and medicine in the ‘post-secular’ or ‘desecularised’ society invites a new look on their function for each other at the beginning of the modern era, i.e. the political and economic secularisation during the dissolution of the Ancient Empires in Europe. Exemplified by the Prince-Archbishoprics of Western Germany, the consequences of the church’s change from state power to mere pastoral care are demonstrated for the three groups of Catholic physicians in academic medicine, priests in rural health care and nuns in nursing. During the turn from the enlightenment idea of religion serving medicine to the romantic concept of medicine contributing to religion their activities shifted dramatically: Whereas more members of religious congregations entered nursing than before, priests had to give up any medical work and Christian doctors were forced to cope with the separation between academic medicine and the religious world view.

  18. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  19. Biophysical regions identification using an artificial neuronal network: A case study in the South Western Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Martin; Provost, Christine; Lebbah, Mustapha

    A classification method based on an artificial neuronal network is used to identify biophysical regions in the South Western Atlantic (SWA). The method comprises a probabilistic version of the Kohonen’s self-organizing map and a Hierarchical Ascending Clustering algorithm. It objectively defines the optimal number of classes and the class boundaries. The method is applied to ocean surface data provided by satellite: chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and sea surface temperature gradient, first to means and then, in an attempt to examine seasonal variations, to monthly climatologies. Both results reflect the presence of the major circulation patterns and frontal positions in the SWA. The provinces retrieved using mean fields are compared to previous results and show a more accurate description of the SWA. The classification obtained with monthly climatologies offers the flexibility to include the time dimension; the boundaries of biophysical regions established are not fixed, but vary in time. Perspectives and limitations of the methodology are discussed.

  20. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogwang Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5% of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0% parishes and 32/212 (15.1% villages (clusters, were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54 and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14. Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community

  1. Natural airborne dust and heavy metals: a case study for kermanshah, Western iran (2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Pirsaheb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust pollution has become a serious environmental problem especially in recent decades. The present study aim was the investigation of the levels of PM10 concentration in Kermanshah, western Iran and also measured five important heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Hg and Cr in some samples during 2005 to 2011.A total 2277 samples were collected from air pollution measurement station belonging to the Department of Environment in Kermanshah. Furthermore, four samples were collected during dusty days to determine the selected heavy metals concentration. The samples were analyzed statistically using the SPSS Ver.16.The highest seasonal average concentration in spring was recorded in 2008 with 216.63μg/m(3, and the maximum values of 267.79 and 249.09μg/m(3 were observed in summer and winter in 2009, respectively. The maximum concentration of 127.1μg/m(3 was in autumn in 2010. The metals concentration (Pb, Cd, As, Hg and Cr of samples were 42.32±5.40, 37.45±9.29, 3.51±2.07, 1.88±1.64 and 0μg/g in July, 2009, respectively.According to National Ambient Air Quality of USEPA guidelines, the most days with non-standard, warning, emergency and critical conditions were related to 2009 (120 days while the least polluted days were recorded in 2006 (16 days. There are concerns about the increasing frequency and intensity trend of dust storms in recent years as a result of special condition in neighboring Western countries which it could endanger public health and environment. All measured heavy metals except mercury was higher than the standard level of WHO and USEPA.

  2. Surgery for thyroid goiter in western India. A prospective analysis of 334 cases.

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    Bapat R

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available 334 consecutive cases of thyroid swellings operated by a single surgical unit over 9 years have been analysed prospectively. There was a female preponderence (4.39:1. The swellings were clinically differentiated into uninodular (39.52%, multinodular (47.31% and diffuse (13.17%. Hyperthyroidism was manifested in 49 cases (14.67%. Pressure symptoms were present in only 1.5% cases. FNAC detected malignancy in 14 of 162 cases (8.64%. The initial 100 cases were operated upon by standard Lahey′s technique and the latter 234 by modified technique described by Bapat et al for benign thyroid disease. Operations performed included nodulectomies (5.39%, hemithyroidectomies (41.92%, partial thyroidectomies (25.75%, subtotal (25.45% and near total thyroidectomies (1.5%. Post-operative complications were higher in the first group and included unilateral cord palsies-5 (5%. hypocalcemia-4 (4% hypoparathyroidism-1 (1% haemorrhage-1 (1% and mortality-1 (1% vis a vis cord palsies-2 (0.85%, hypocalcemia-3 (1.28%, hypoparathyroidism-1 (0.43% and there was no mortality. Histopathology revealed 83 (24.85% colloid goiters, 193 (57.78% nodular goiters, 21 (6.29% follicular adenomas, 7 (2.10% cases of thyroiditis and 30 (8.98% malignancies. This study reveals the lower incidence of RLN palsy after modified thyroidectomies, and a low incidence of malignancy.

  3. Cross-disciplinary Undergraduate Research: A Case Study in Digital Mapping, western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmeyer, S. J.; de Paor, D. G.; Nicoletti, J.; Rivera, M.; Santangelo, B.; Daniels, J.

    2008-12-01

    As digital mapping technology becomes ever more advanced, field geologists spend a greater proportion of time learning digital methods relative to analyzing rocks and structures. To explore potential solutions to the time commitment implicit in learning digital field methods, we paired James Madison University (JMU) geology majors (experienced in traditional field techniques) with Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) engineering students (experienced in computer applications) during a four week summer mapping project in Connemara, western Ireland. The project consisted of approximately equal parts digital field mapping (directed by the geology students), and lab-based map assembly, evaluation and formatting for virtual 3D terrains (directed by the engineering students). Students collected geologic data in the field using ruggedized handheld computers (Trimble GeoExplorer® series) with ArcPAD® software. Lab work initially focused on building geologic maps in ArcGIS® from the digital field data and then progressed to developing Google Earth-based visualizations of field data and maps. Challenges included exporting GIS data, such as locations and attributes, to KML tags for viewing in Google Earth, which we accomplished using a Linux bash script written by one of our engineers - a task outside the comfort zone of the average geology major. We also attempted to expand the scope of Google Earth by using DEMs of present-day geologically-induced landforms as representative models for paleo-geographic reconstructions of the western Ireland field area. As our integrated approach to digital field work progressed, we found that our digital field mapping produced data at a faster rate than could be effectively managed during our allotted time for lab work. This likely reflected the more developed methodology for digital field data collection, as compared with our lab-based attempts to develop new methods for 3D visualization of geologic maps. However, this experiment in

  4. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2012-06-27

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system by establishing a relationship between the pumping test results and vertical electrical soundings by using regression technique. The relationship is applied to the area along the resistivity profiles where boreholes are not drilled. Our findings show a good match between pumped hydraulic conductivity and estimated hydraulic conductivity. In case of sparse borehole data, regression technique is useful in estimating hydraulic properties for aquifers with varying lithology. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  6. Price dispersion in neighboring countries in the Western Balkans - the case of the Macedonian tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazhe JORDANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the degree of change in price and co- movement of prices between markets. The distinctiveness of the study is that it introduced a single product (highly perishable product price relationship analysis between a pair of spatially separated markets in the countries of the Western Balkan. This study attempts to comprehend to what extent the Macedonian domestic market is integrated into the regional markets, as well as to understand the relationship between the spatially separated regional markets. The data refer to the domestic Macedonian market and four different regional markets (Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro, as major importers of Macedonian fresh tomatoes. These countries were part of a common market until the 1990s and in the past period transited to a market economy. The method used is common time series analysis through unit root test, co-integration test and causality test. The study showed that the Macedonian economy, especially in terms of the tomato industry, is highly vulnerable and dependant on external markets. Future developments do not only depend upon the advances in the country, but also on developments in the export destinations. This also applies to the other concerned countries in the regions. The main finding is that a small country such as Macedonia is absorbed by developments in other countries in the region. This finding is supported by the results of the study that demonstrated a high level of co-integration between the domestic and regional markets.

  7. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  8. Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorab Georgy Sadri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

  9. Semiautomatic construction of isobase surfaces: A case study from the central Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlička, Karel; Sládek, Ján; Šilhavý, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    This article describes a method for semiautomated construction of isobase surfaces in the environment of a Geomorphological Information System (GmIS). The motivation to automate the process is that the manual construction of isobase surfaces involves several decision procedures, and also a lot of manual vectorization which can be time-consuming if the area of interest is large. A (semi-)automated process of isobase surface construction could accelerate the process of morphostructural analysis. Therefore, the contribution focuses on design, development and testing of such a method. The developed tools were compared to an expert driven construction of isobase surfaces. The automatically constructed data layers were compared to the layers that were constructed manually in the southwest part of the study area (Turčianska kotlina basin (Western Carpathians) and surrounding area in Slovakia). Three different statistical methods were used (correlation, linear regression and DTM volume difference checking). All three methods proved very high similarity of automatically created isobase surfaces to expert driven isobase surfaces creation. The results show that the method of semiautomated creation can be used in morphostructure analysis and save the time needed for manual isobase surface creation. The method's technological background is based on the ESRI platform. The original desktop solution has been developed for use on a client/server architecture that is able to present the capabilities of GmIS to a wider geomorphological audience.

  10. Rural community tourism in western Sichuan's Qiang nationality:a case study of Wulong Stockade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the local economy of the development of tourism resources in China's relatively underdeveloped minority areas is already common knowledge in academic and business circles. However, it's necessary to research more on specific patterns of tourism development in these ethnic' minority areas. This paper studies Wulong Stockade in Beichuan County in Sichuan Province and examines the distinctive experience of the local Qiang community about developing local tourism resources and the local funding of the development, It notes how the introduction of new re-afforestation laves of 1999 affected the traditional, agriculture-based economy and how a member of the community was a key motivator in initiating tourism as a new economic resource. It has also explored changes in the economic conditions of Qiang peasants since tourism began in Wulong Stockade, where local incomes have increased considerably. This paper focuses on a characteristic Qiang area in the mountains of western Sichuan, demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of community tourism development, and suggests that other ethnic minority mountain villages in rural areas draw lessons from Wulong Stockade's experience.

  11. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is a key issue in the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia's major heavy industrial region, where the major energy consuming industries consume upto 80 PJ/yr of energy in their processes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made towards the reduction of energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in Kwinana. One way to further advance sustainable energy use is through the realisation of regional synergies. These concern the capture, recovery and reuse of by-products, water and energy between industries in close proximity. Kwinana is recognised as a leading edge example in regional synergy development, but more synergy opportunities appear to exist. The centre for sustainable resource processing (CSRP) is undertaking research to develop new synergies in Kwinana, including energy utility synergies. As part of the research, a methodology was developed and applied to identify and evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental feasibility of collaborative energy recovery opportunities from industry flue gases in Kwinana. The trial application demonstrated the significant potential to mitigate CO2 emissions through energy recovery from flue gases by applying technologies to convert the embedded energy into useful thermal and electric applications. This article discusses the methodology and outcomes from the trial applications, including the impact of carbon taxes, reducing costs of emerging technologies, and increasing energy prices

  12. Drought vulnerability assessment: The case of wheat farmers in Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Sharafi, Lida; Azadi, Hossein; Hosseininia, Gholamhossein; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Drought, as a natural and slow-onset phenomenon, creates numerous damages to agricultural communities. As a drought prone area in the Middle East, Iran has currently launched a crisis management approach to mitigate the harmful impacts of drought. However, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies should be designed based upon vulnerability management which can increase farmers' ability to challenge the impacts. The purpose of this study was to assess drought vulnerability across three drought intensities (very high, extremely high, and critical) areas in Western Iran. Accordingly, a survey study was applied and 370 wheat farmers who all experienced drought during 2007-2009 were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. Face to face interviews were used to collect data on vulnerability indices from the farmers. Me-Bar and Valdez's vulnerability formula was applied to assess the vulnerability of wheat farmers during drought. Results revealed that the farmers' vulnerability is influenced mainly by economic, socio-cultural, psychological, technical, and infrastructural factors. The results also indicated that the farmers in Sarpole-Zahab township were most vulnerable compared to those in the Kermanshah township as the least vulnerable. Accordingly, some conclusions and recommendations are drawn for both policy-makers and practitioners who often must prioritize limited resources in the design vulnerability-reducing interventions.

  13. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. PMID:27391250

  14. The Right to Self-Determination and Natural Resources: The Case of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate, fish and possibly oil and gas all constitute important natural resources found on the territory and in the waters of Western Sahara. The importance of these natural resources must be recognised in order to understand the stalemate in the attempted process of decolonisation from Morocco which has been going on for more than 30 years. The article analyses the ‘resource dimension’ of the right to self-determination, as recognised in human rights treaties and in Resolution III of the UN Conference on the Law of the Seas, as well as several resolutions from the United Nations General Assembly. If the resources are exploited in a manner which does not benefit the peoples seeking to enjoy the right to self-determination, such exploitation is illegal. The article shows that the current exploitation takes place in a manner contrary to the interests of the local population, the Saharawis. The article also demonstrates that recent license agreements with Saharawi authorities in the field of oil and gas, signal a potentially new and constructive approach by international corporations.

  15. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored.

  16. Customer service quality strategy in the tourism and leisure industry : a case study of Mkabati Nature Reserve / Francis Sekajja

    OpenAIRE

    Sekajja, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Customer defections have been linked to service encounter failure in the tourism, leisure and hospitality industry. This study embraces the idea of improving customer acquisition, retention and satisfaction through proactively promoting operational excellence and improved customer service strategies. Mkambati Nature Reserve is studied to evaluate its customer service levels and to lay the foundation for the development of strategies for customer service improvement. Located in rural Transk...

  17. Severe rainfall events over the western Mediterranean Sea: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco Martín, Jesús; Mora García, Manuel; de Pablo Dávila, Fernando; Rivas Soriano, Luis

    2013-06-01

    A study of severe rainfall (≥ 100 mm in 24 h) over the Spanish provinces of Malaga, Granada y Almeria (close to the Alboran Sea, the westernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea) has been performed using 5 years (2006-2010) of data. The episodes of heavy rainfall were classified using the moisture flux at the 850 hPa pressure level and the lifted index. This gave three types, associated with situations of intense moisture flux and little static instability, moderate moisture flux and static instability, and moderate moisture flux and strong static instability. Representative cases of each type were analyzed, and it was found that both non-convective (41% of cases) and convective (59% of cases) systems caused the episodes of severe precipitation considered in this study. The convective structures included isolated and persistent convective systems, multicellular convective systems, and mesoscale convective systems.

  18. 心理应激性卵巢储备功能下降的中西医研究进展%Research Progress in Treatment of Psychological Stress Decreased Ovarian Reserve Function of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔丽蔚; 冯敬华; 李柳丽

    2014-01-01

    心理应激性卵巢储备功能下降是一种典型的心身性疾病,可导致女性内分泌紊乱及生殖功能障碍,甚至卵巢功能早衰。现代医学认为长期心理应激可引起下丘脑-垂体-卵巢的激素分泌与受体生成失调而发病,中医认为本病与肾虚、肝郁、脾虚、血瘀有关。在治疗上,仅有少数研究显示単味药、复方中药对心理应激性DOR的内分泌有一定改善。中西医对身心兼治研究较少,因此应该重视身心疾病的心理干预和药物结合的治疗。%Psychological stress sex of ovarian reserve function decline is a typical psychosomatic disease,this disease cause female endocrine disorders and even premature ovarian function and reproductive dysfunction.Modern medicine thinks long-term psychological stress can cause the hypothalamus-pituitary - ovarian hormones and receptors generated disorders and disease,Traditional Chinese medicine think this disease is associated with kidney,liver depression and blood stasis.In treatment,only a handful of studies have shown that some single Chinese herbal medicine and compound Chinese medicine for psychological stress low ovarian function of the endocrine have certain improvement.The research of Chinese and western medicine for the treatment of physical and mental is less, therefore,should pay more at ention to physical and mental disease psychological intervention and drug combination therapy.

  19. Thyrotoxic Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (THPP: a challenge for the Emergency Medicine physician in Western countries. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP is an endocrine emergency with sudden onset of acute muscle hypo-asthenia associated with severe hypokalemia and normal acid-base balance, due to thyrotoxicosis. It may develop in patients of Asian and Native American descent, but it is very rare and undiagnosed in Western countries. Standard treatment includes β-blockers and thyrostatic drugs, but hypokalemia should not be treated with high potassium doses due to the risk of hyperkalemic rebound. Since early diagnosis and correct treatment can prevent life-threatening cardio-pulmonary complications, the emergency physician should keep in mind this rare possibility. We report a case of a 43 year old Caucasian man presenting at ED with tetraparesis as the first symptom of thyrotoxicosis with no other remarkable symptoms or signs.

  20. 26 CFR 1.803-1 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered by the premiums are not included in life insurance reserves. Unpaid loss reserves for noncancellable health and accident policies are included in life insurance reserves if they are computed or... liability is computed, life, health, or accident contingencies. (d) In any case where reserves are...

  1. Spring phytoplankton and periphyton composition: case study from a thermally abnormal lakes in Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchardt Lubomira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Getting to know the response of different groups of aquatic organisms tested in altered thermal environments to environmental conditions makes it possible to understand processes of adaptation and limitation factors such as temperature and light. Field sites were located in three thermally abnormal lakes (cooling system of power plants, in eastern part of Wielkopolska region (western Poland: Pątnowskie, Wąsosko-Mikorzyńskie and Licheńskie. Water temperatures of these lakes do not fall below 10°C throughout the year, and the surface water temperature in spring is about 20˚C. In this study, we investigated the species structure of the spring phytoplankton community in a temperature gradient and analyzed diversity of periphyton collected from alien species (Vallisneria spiralis and stones. 94 taxa belonging to 56 genera of algae (including phytoplankton and periphyton were determined. The highest number of algae species were observed among Chlorophyta (49, Bacillariophyceae (34 and Cyanobacteria (6. In spite of important differences in temperature in the investigated lakes, taxonomic composition of phytoplankton was comparable. Thermophilic species: Glochidinium penardiforme and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were found in the species structure (blooms were not observed. The obtained data also showed that the biotic surface of Vallisneria spiralis was a better substrate for Bacillariophyceae colonization than stones. The examination in the spring season of these thermally altered lakes, indicated the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton typical for eutrophic reservoirs (not heated. There was no replacement of any phytoplankton groups which are characteristic for spring conditions, even if there were changes in the competition dynamics.

  2. EUNIS habitat's thresholds for the Western coast of the Iberian Peninsula - A Portuguese case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Pedro; Bentes, Luis; Oliveira, Frederico; Afonso, Carlos M. L.; Rangel, Mafalda O.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2015-06-01

    The European Nature Information System (EUNIS) has been implemented for the establishment of a marine European habitats inventory. Its hierarchical classification is defined and relies on environmental variables which primarily constrain biological communities (e.g. substrate types, sea energy level, depth and light penetration). The EUNIS habitat classification scheme relies on thresholds (e.g. fraction of light and energy) which are based on expert judgment or on the empirical analysis of the above environmental data. The present paper proposes to establish and validate an appropriate threshold for energy classes (high, moderate and low) and for subtidal biological zonation (infralittoral and circalittoral) suitable for EUNIS habitat classification of the Western Iberian coast. Kinetic wave-induced energy and the fraction of photosynthetically available light exerted on the marine bottom were respectively assigned to the presence of kelp (Saccorhiza polyschides, Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca) and seaweed species in general. Both data were statistically described, ordered from the largest to the smallest and percentile analyses were independently performed. The threshold between infralittoral and circalittoral was based on the first quartile while the 'moderate energy' class was established between the 12.5 and 87.5 percentiles. To avoid data dependence on sampling locations and assess the confidence interval a bootstrap technique was applied. According to this analysis, more than 75% of seaweeds are present at locations where more than 3.65% of the surface light reaches the sea bottom. The range of energy levels estimated using S. polyschides data, indicate that on the Iberian West coast the 'moderate energy' areas are between 0.00303 and 0.04385 N/m2 of wave-induced energy. The lack of agreement between different studies in different regions of Europe suggests the need for more standardization in the future. However, the obtained thresholds in

  3. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Images of Iranians in Western Movies: The Case of Iranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahimi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The significant role of the media, in general, and the movies, in particular, in disseminating information and creating images of the real life by use of the language as a powerful social tool is totally irrefutable. Although critical analysis of the movie discourse is a fashionable trend among the critical discourse analysts, there is a paucity of research on movie discourse in Iran. Besides, the increasing number of the anti-Iranian movies produced in the last decade and the growing tendency among the English students to watch American movies, have established the need for conducting a research to investigate the images of Iranians represented in the Western movies. Thus, in this article an anti-Iranian movie called Iranium, allegedly labeled as documentary, has been critically analyzed using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. For this purpose, Van Dijk’s framework (2004 has been utilized to uncover the ideological manipulations and misrepresentations of this movie. The analysis revealed that the dichotomy of in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation is a very effective discursive strategy at the disposal of the movie makers who have used language as a weapon to attack Iran by representing a distorted and unrealistic image of the Iranians’ history, culture and ideologies. The findings of the present study imply that adopting a critical discourse analysis perspective in the EFL classes is a necessity which needs the development of the required materials, by the curriculum developers, that raise the students’ critical awareness as well as their language skills and proficiency.Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Discursive Structures, Derogation, Euphemization, Hegemony, Ideology, Manipulation, Power 

  4. Wintertime particulate pollution episodes in an urban valley of the Western US: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of elevated PM2.5 concentrations and potential exceedences of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS in Truckee Meadows, Nevada, an urban valley of the Western US, during winter 2009/2010. Continuous PM2.5 mass and time-integrated chemical speciation data were acquired from a central valley monitoring site with meteorological measurements from nearby sites. All nine days with PM2.5>35 μg m−3 experienced 24-h average temperature inversion of 1.5–4.5 °C and snow cover of 8–18 cm. A stagnant atmospheric condition inhibited wind ventilation while highly reflective snow cover reduced daytime surface heating leading to persistent inversion. Elevated ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and water associated with it are most important to the PM2.5 exceedances during this unusually cold and snowy winter. An effective-variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB receptor model using locally-derived geological profiles and inorganic/organic markers identified secondary NH4NO3 (27–37%, residential wood combustion (RWC; 11–51%, and diesel engine exhausts (7–22% as the major contributors to PM2.5. Paved road dust and de-icing materials were minor, but detectable contributors. RWC is a more important source than diesel for organic carbon (OC, but vice versa for elemental carbon (EC. A majority of secondary NH4NO3 is also associated with reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx from RWC and diesel engines (including snow removal equipments. Findings from this study may apply to similar situations experienced by other urban valleys.

  5. Coastal and mesoscale dynamics characterization combining glider and altimetry: case study over the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Bouffard; Pascual, Ananda; Ruiz, Simon; Isabelle Pujol, Marie; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Tintore, Joaquin

    Satellite altimetry allows a direct computation of geostrophic velocity anomalies. However, conventional altimetry measurements remain largely spurious in coastal zone, due to several factors such as inaccurate geophysical corrections (e.g. atmospheric and tidal signals) as well as environmental issues (land contamination in the altimetric and radiometric footprints). At the present time and in the attempt of future relevant technologies (cf. SWOT satellite), experimen-tal coastal altimeter products are under development (XTRACK, PISTACH, COASTALT. . . ). The main efforts consist in the application of coastal-oriented corrections and the review of the data recovery strategies near the coast. The new coastal altimetric products need to be assessed with independent data before to be used in synergy with other measurements and fully exploited for scientific applications. This is the frame of this study as part of an intensive observational program conducted in the Western Mediterranean Sea. We present here the main outcomes resulting from the combination of coastal altimetry and gliders. Gliders -autonomous underwater vehicles -allow to provide precise and high resolution data complementary to altimetry (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity. . . ) both at surface and over the whole water column. Since July 2007, several glider missions have been performed along Jason-1, Jason-2 and ENVISAT altimeters. The altimetric sea level anomalies have been processed from both standard and coastal-oriented strategies. Furthermore, new methodologies have also been developed in order to combine surface glider geostrophic velocities (derived from CTD measurements) with integrated currents estimated by the glider (derived from GPS locations every 6 hours). These approaches prove to be very efficient to improve the budget errors and homogenize the physical contents of altimetry and glider data. Further, the combined analysis of the two datasets provides interesting insights of

  6. Profile of Cancer Cases at a Tertiary Care Level Teaching Hospital in Rural Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant D Deshpande , Kailash K Singh , Deepak B Phalke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Prevalence and pattern of cancer is known to vary from region to region. Epidemiological information on cancer including the pattern is an important basis for determining the priorities for cancer control in any population group. Objective: Present work is an attempt to study magnitude, profile and some epidemiological aspects in relation to cancer cases at a tertiary care level teaching hospital in rural area. Method: All records were studied and analyzed. A total of 1106 patients were treated during the period studied. A proforma was used to collect data such as age, sex, place of residence, type of cancers and treatment given. The data collected were entered into MS-Excel sheets and analysis was carried out. The information obtained was tabulated analyzed using the software GraphPad Instat demo version. Results: A total of 1106 cancer patients were treated during the January 2010 to December 2010. Among these, 626(56.60 were females and 480(43.39 were females. In males, the common cancers were oral cavity cancers, lung cancers and GIT cancers. The most common cancers among females were the cervical carcinomas, which constituted 32.10% of the total number of cancers cases followed by cancers of breast. Almost 2/3rd of cases occurred in the age group of 41 to 70 years. Maximum frequency was observed in 51–60 year age group in both sexes. Maximum numbers (74.59% of the cases were from rural area. The main methods of cancer treatment were surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, used alone or in combination. Conclusion: Tobacco and alcohol related cancers predominated in males. In females, cervical cancer predominated over breast cancer. Human behavior is a major determinant in the successful control of cancer. Understanding cancer magnitude, risk and trends will be of help in cancer control.

  7. NATURAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma cruzi IN ONE DOG IN CENTRAL WESTERN BRAZIL: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY It is estimated that about 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, mostly in Latin America and more than 25 million are at risk of acquiring this infection in endemic areas. Dogs are an important reservoir for this pathogen and thus, considered a risk factor for human populations. This report describes one case of Chagas disease in a dog from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The diagnosis was obtained by direct examination of trypomastigote forms in blood smears. Amastigotes forms were visualized in microscopy of the bone marrow, lymph nodes, kidneys, liver and brain. The T. cruzi (ZIII infection was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, and sequencing. The animal presented multisystemic failure and died. Although acute Chagas disease in humans is not reported in Cuiabá, this is the first report of a canine case in this region. This case represents a warning, to health professionals and authorities, to the possibility of transmission of this zoonosis in Cuiabá.

  8. The Socio-Political Conceptualization of Serengeti Landscapes in Europe: The Case of ‘Western Iberia’

    OpenAIRE

    Pellis, A.; Felder, M.; Duim, van der, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the socio-political conceptualization of ‘Western Iberia’, one of Rewilding Europe’s first pilot areas. Drawing from Actor Network Theory and social theories discussing Politics of Scale, we illustrate how ‘Western Iberia’ is continuously being negotiated through practices in different sites within / outside its geographical boundaries. We identify five different versions of ‘Western Iberia’ for illustrative purposes to claim that there is not one ‘Western Iberia’ but m...

  9. [Cutaneous larva migrans: report of three cases from the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Emel; Uslu, Esma; Turan, Hakan; Başkan, Elife; Kılıç, Nida

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitosis frequently seen in persons who have travelled to tropical or subtropical regions and in those who have worked in contact with soil. The disease frequently develops due to Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ancylostoma caninum species. After penetrating the skin and entering the body, the hookworm larva proceeds to bore tunnels through the epidermis, creating pruritic, erythematous, serpiginous lesions. Secondary bacterial infections of the lesions can often be seen, especially on the legs and buttocks. In this article we presented three atypical local cases which have not been declared previously in our country. The first case, a 54-year-old male who was admitted to hospital in August with complaints of an obverse body rash and itching lasting for a week. Eruptions were observed over a small area on the right side of the abdomen, consisting of itchy, raised, erythematous, curvilinear string-like lesions. Moreover, no eosinophilia was detected in the patient, whose culture showed a growth of Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CLM accompanied by secondary bacterial infection and treated for three days with 1 g of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, mupirocin cream and albendazole 400 mg/d. Under this regime, the lesions were seen to decline. The second case, a 38-year-old male was also admitted in August, complaining of itching and redness on his body. The patient, whose blood count values were normal, exhibited itchy, raised, serpiginous string-like lesions located on the left side of his body. The patient, whose bacterial culture was negative, was clinically diagnosed as CLM and treated for three days with albendazole 400 mg/d and the lesions were seen to improve. The third case, a 23-year old male was admitted in September complaining of itching and redness on his neck. An itchy, crescent-shaped erythematous lesion was detected on his neck; bacteriological cultures and blood count were normal. The

  10. How to play the game as the bridge between two European power markets—the case of Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Amundsen, Eirik S.; Donslund, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to investigate the price and quantity fluctuations in Western Denmark, which took place during the winter season 2002–2003. It was a period, which exhibited critical supply conditions in the Nordic area due to a shortage of hydropower. On average, the market in Western D...... between Western Denmark and Germany....

  11. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  12. Soil tillage, physical disturbance and fauna population: a case study in western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Jabbar

    2015-04-01

    As a vital biological habitat for a great number of organisms and a medium for soil food web, soil has a great importance in regulating the two main life-supporting processes: production and decomposition. For more sustainable agricultural systems, understanding the mechanisms shaping soil fauna populations is of great importance specially in semi-arid regions with low organic matter soils. In this regard a two year study in 2008 and 2009 was conducted in western Iran to see the consequences of implementing three different tillage systems (conventional, minimum and no tillage) and three levels of organic matter amendment (0, 20 and 40 ton.ha-1 of cattle manure) over the population of soil fauna (i.e. earthworms, mite, springtail and nematodes) in three different sampling periods each year. In the second year BD decreased in the tillage treatments with mechanical turmoil but seems it started to increase in conventional tillage that can be due to higher decomposition of organic matter as the result of aeration and mixing of organic matter with the soil but shows a decrease pattern for the other two which can be due to less and no disturbance and as a result less elimination of soil aggregates. Observed earthworm populations were low besides of their patchy distribution that made the numbers unreliable to be interpreted. Soil mites showed no change regarding to treatments implemented which highlighted the importance of the need to observations in the suborder level and some other environmental variables. Soil springtails were reduced by soil tillage indicating their sensitivity to the disturbance in their physical habitat. Nematodes were mainly affected by organic matter. They showed an increase in their population (113 N.100g soil-1) in 2008 with application of 40 ton.ha-1 of cattle manure but in the second year because of the remaining effects of cattle manure the changes has been observed in response to the disturbance induced by tillage with the lowest numbers in

  13. The use of science in environmental policy: a case study of the Regional Forest Agreement process in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Horwitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of pluralism as it relates to the involvement of science in processes of environmental policy formulation. In particular, it focuses attention on the dominance of normal science within the Australian debate on commercial forest use, management, and conservation. It presents case study information from the Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement (RFA process, a policy initiative designed to end a long-running conflict over public forestland. It then analyzes the use of science within this political process, along with the respective impacts of different voices within science on the RFA outcomes. The case study data highlight the vulnerability of reductionist science within complex political debates and support arguments for a widening of the scientific basis of policy processes to include alternative ways of understanding nature-society relations. The paper contends that such a broadening will make science not only more robust, but also more valuable as a problem-solving tool in future decision-making processes on land use, conservation, and broader sustainability questions. It also considers the obstacles facing pluralism.

  14. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  15. The study of Forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.

  16. World oil reserves 1948-2000. No significant changes in the period 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data collected by the Oil and Gas Journal relating to world oil reserves. Table 1 gives details of world oil reserves annually as of 1 January 1948-2000 covering the USA, Canada, Latin America, the total western hemisphere, the Middle East, Africa, Western Europe, and the total world reserves. Table 2 lists OPEC oil reserves annually as of 1 January 1960-1999 covering Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Venezuela, Qatar, Libya, Indonesia, UAE, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon and the total reserves. The final table illustrates the changes in world oil reserves in 1998 from 1997, in 1999 from 1998, and in 2000 from 1999

  17. [Volvulus of the pelvic colon. Apropos of 59 cases in the western Africa savannah area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L; Gournier, J P; Barthe, B L

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe their experience after treatment of 59 cases of volvulus of the pelvic colon. This disorder is frequent in West Africa and affects the protein deficient malnourished population. A definite predominance of volvulus occurred during the dry season between December and April, perhaps related to a diet richer in cellulose or deficient in water. There was a delay in presentation at the Hospital Center; necrosis of the twisted loop, the age of the patient and multiple associated conditions all contributed to the severity of this condition. Treatment had three aims: removal of the obstruction, reestablishment of continuity and avoidance of recurrence. Indications were dictated by the patient's general condition and the vascular status of the loop of bowel. It is reasonable to attempt reduction via intubation if the loop of bowel appears viable. Success enables a colectomy to be performed after a preparation, while failure necessitates surgical correction of ideally colectomy in a one stage procedure. On the other hand, a gangrenous loop necessitates colectomy without untwisting, with closure of the distal end using the Hartmann technique and with reestablishment of continuity 3 weeks later. PMID:2805924

  18. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: A profile of 26 cases from western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Primary central nervous system (CNS lymphoma (PCNSL is a rare malignant non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and it accounts for 1% of all intracranial tumors. Only a few PCNSL studies have been reported from India, and studies on prognostic factors determining outcome, or evaluation of the response to currently accepted treatment, are lacking. Aims : This study attempts to further delineate the clinical, radiological and pathological profile of PCNSL in India, to evaluate response to treatment and to assess usefulness of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG score. Settings and Design : All patients with pathologically proven PCNSL admitted over three years at a large tertiary care institution were studied. Materials and Methods : Clinical features, IELSG prognostic score, imaging and pathological features, and response to treatment were evaluated. Results were analyzed using χ 2 test. Results : Of 26 patients found, all except two were immunocompetent. Median age at diagnosis was 59 years. Focal deficits (76.9% and neuropsychiatric symptoms (57.6% were the commonest presenting complaints. Except for one case, at least some contrast enhancement was seen in brain lesions of all patients. Pathological studies showed high grade diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL histology in 96.2% of patients. Of 22 patients who received methotrexate (MTX based chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy; six died, with a response rate of 72.7%. Median survival was 10 months. Median follow-up duration was 14.5 months. Four patients developed treatment-related cognitive decline. All six patients with IELSG score of 4/5 died, while all 16 patients with a score of 0-3 survived. Conclusions : PCNSL presents most commonly in the sixth decade with focal neurological deficit, behavioral symptoms and cognitive decline. High grade DLBCL is the commonest histological subtype. Steroids should ideally be withheld until biopsy as they may confound the diagnosis. Most

  20. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  1. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity. PMID:26577861

  2. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  3. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  4. Local envenoming by the Western hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus): a case report and review of medically significant Heterodon bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Scott A; Keyler, Daniel E

    2009-09-01

    A case of clinically significant local envenoming resulting from a bite inflicted by a Western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus, is described. The patient was bitten while offering a juvenile mouse to a captive snake. The snake maintained a grip on the patient's arm (left anticubital fossa) for several minutes. The bite resulted in marked edema, ecchymoses, lymphadenopathy, cutaneous signs suggestive of mild cellulitis and blister formation. There were no systemic effects. Recovery was complete after approximately five months. Several documented Heterodon sp. bites with significant clinical effects are reviewed. This common xenodontine colubrid must be considered capable of inflicting medically significant bites. It is currently unclear whether the pathological changes associated with these bites are due to specific Duvernoy's secretion components, Type I hypersensitivity or a combination of these. The influence of the feeding response on the severity of clinical effects is considered as is the discrepancy between experimentally verified pharmacological activities of Duvernoy's secretions from Heterodon sp. and medical sequelae of documented bites. Although hognose snakes may uncommonly produce medically significant bites, they should not be considered dangerous or venomous. Captive specimens should be handled carefully, particularly when offered food. PMID:19393681

  5. Chinese familial tradition and Western influence: a case study in Singapore on decision making at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zheng Jie Marc; Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Yee, Chung Pheng Alethea

    2010-12-01

    Decision making for an incompetent patient at the end of life is difficult for both family members and physicians alike. Often, palliative care teams are tasked with weaving through opinions, emotions, and goals in search for an amenable solution. Occasionally, these situations get challenging. We present the case of an elderly Chinese Singaporean with metastatic cancer, whose family and physicians had conflicting goals of care. The former was adamant on treating the patient's disease with an untested drug, whereas the latter aimed to treat his symptoms with more conventional medication. Drug-drug interactions prevented treatment with both. Beginning with a discussion of the patient's best interest, we delve into the Singaporean context to show how culture affects medical decision making. Confucianism and filial piety are the values on which this family's workings were based. In an analysis of what this entails, we attempt to explain the significant and assertive family involvement in the decision-making process and their insistence on using novel medications, having exhausted conventional interventions. Within this mix were Western influences, too. Through the Internet, family members have become more informed and empowered in decision making, wresting the traditional paternalistic role of physicians in favor of "patient autonomy." An understanding of such dynamic facets will help better tailor culturally appropriate approaches to such complex situations. PMID:21145471

  6. A Case Study on a Trial Site in Western Austria to Assess Benefits of Railway Lineside Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Lineside vegetation along railways can provide a wide range of ecosystem services and benefits. At the same time, there are several specific demands on the vegetation systems ensuring maintenance of highest standards of safety and operational performance. As a first step of the study, these demands on lineside vegetation but also their potentials for both rail specific internal and external benefits were summarized. For further analyses a case study was performed. A trial site, located in Austriás western federal state of Vorarlberg, was selected. The overall trial corridor was 22 km long and offered a large diversity in geomorphology, embankment types and surrounding land cover. A GIS-based classification of location types was conducted by using available open source geodata. Additionally, images, taken every fifty meters by a camera, mounted on a locomotive, supported the classification process. Following parameter were assessed: type of the track body, geomorphology, site conditions, technical facilities and surrounding land cover. Along railway infrastructure facilities, ecosystem services, provided by the lineside vegetation, are closely associated with improvement of the stability and resilience of embankments and cuttings. At the same time, specific criteria that must be fulfilled at every location type. These are safety and technical issues, such as keeping the railway clearance profile, economical issues respectively avoiding additional maintenance costs by strong plant growth. Supplementary ecosystem services are strongly related to the position in the landscape and the surrounding land cover. Along urban structures, that can be noise- or sight protection, provided by the lineside vegetation. On location types along agricultural land, lineside vegetation can provide ecological corridors or enhance the landscape structure. In this context, ecosystem services were derived to the previously assigned location types. The result of the case study is a GIS

  7. Development of Western Logistics Finance Based on Village Banks:A Case Study of Baise City in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; CAI

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzed the feasibility of development of western logistics finance based on village banks. Combining actual situations,it came up with four specific models for operation of western logistics finance:( i) settlement type advance payment by village banks,( ii)pledge by warehouse receipts,( iii) inventory pledge,and( iv) confirmation warehouse models.

  8. Change as Challenge for Shop-Floor Learning: The Case of Western and Local Manufacturing Companies in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianzhong

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of workplace learning and problem solving by examining Western and local enterprises in South China. Discusses whether the managerial concepts embedded in Chinese culture help or impede collective learning and concludes that new ways of working and learning are emerging through the interaction of Western and Chinese culture.…

  9. The State of Health of Nature Reserves: A Case Study using the Fusion of Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filski, J.

    2012-04-01

    The primary dangers to nature reserves are from human activities such as oil spills, farming and urbanization. The relevance of fusion between high resolution hyperspectral reflectance data and Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data to determine the state of health of nature reserves is illustrated. The study area covers 0.384 square kilometers within the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge in the Big Bend region of the State of Florida's Gulf Coast in the United States of America. Hyperspectral processing and analysis is conducted using the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) 4.7 Service Pack 2. The materials with the top eight fractional abundances are investigated. Together, these bands represent over 95% of the full scene. Hyperspectral data ranging from 395 nm to 2,450 nm classifies geomorphologic features, primary vegetation types, and vegetation stress. The lidar data assists with feature identification and gauging vegetation roughness. Today's remote sensing sensors acquire ephemeris data concurrently with their image data to permit accurate georeferencing to map coordinates. Successful fusion between the hyperspectral and lidar data is achieved with the georeferencing capabilities of the ENVI software. The analysis of the fused data set reveals the main components shaping the study area's ecosystem as limestone, sea water intrusion and sunshine. The study area has three environments: a southernmost low-lying area closest to the Gulf of Mexico and therefore, frequently inundated by sea water where cordgrasses thrive; a middle transition zone that is more sea water-deprived and therefore more vulnerable to the damaging rays of the sun. It is here that the more resourceful but stressed black needlerush dominates; finally a northernmost area with higher elevations of exposed limestone that protects a robust deciduous forest. Deciduous trees also appear in the lower zones but only where there is sufficient limestone to form islands or hammocks to

  10. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  11. Evaluation of two sets of immunohistochemical and Western blot confirmatory methods in the detection of typical and atypical BSE cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenlee Justin J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three distinct forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, defined as classical (C-, low (L- or high (H- type, have been detected through ongoing active and passive surveillance systems for the disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of two sets of immunohistochemical (IHC and Western blot (WB BSE confirmatory protocols to detect C- and atypical (L- and H-type BSE forms. Obex samples from cases of United States and Italian C-type BSE, a U.S. H-type and an Italian L-type BSE case were tested in parallel using the two IHC sets and WB methods. Results The two IHC techniques proved equivalent in identifying and differentiating between C-type, L-type and H-type BSE. The IHC protocols appeared consistent in the identification of PrPSc distribution and deposition patterns in relation to the BSE type examined. Both IHC methods evidenced three distinct PrPSc phenotypes for each type of BSE: prevailing granular and linear tracts pattern in the C-type; intraglial and intraneuronal deposits in the H-type; plaques in the L-type. Also, the two techniques gave comparable results for PrPSc staining intensity on the C- and L-type BSE samples, whereas a higher amount of intraglial and intraneuronal PrPSc deposition on the H-type BSE case was revealed by the method based on a stronger demasking step. Both WB methods were consistent in identifying classical and atypical BSE forms and in differentiating the specific PrPSc molecular weight and glycoform ratios of each form. Conclusions The study showed that the IHC and WB BSE confirmatory methods were equally able to recognize C-, L- and H-type BSE forms and to discriminate between their different immunohistochemical and molecular phenotypes. Of note is that for the first time one of the two sets of BSE confirmatory protocols proved effective in identifying the L-type BSE form. This finding helps to validate the suitability of the BSE confirmatory tests for BSE

  12. Corn-Based Ethanol Production and Environmental Quality: A Case of Iowa and the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Silvia; Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2009-10-01

    Growing demand for corn due to the expansion of ethanol has increased concerns that environmentally sensitive lands retired from agricultural production and enrolled into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) will be cropped again. Iowa produces more ethanol than any other state in the United States, and it also produces the most corn. Thus, an examination of the impacts of higher crop prices on CRP land in Iowa can give insight into what we might expect nationally in the years ahead if crop prices remain high. We construct CRP land supply curves for various corn prices and then estimate the environmental impacts of cropping CRP land through the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model. EPIC provides edge-of-field estimates of soil erosion, nutrient loss, and carbon sequestration. We find that incremental impacts increase dramatically as higher corn prices bring into production more and more environmentally fragile land. Maintaining current levels of environmental quality will require substantially higher spending levels. Even allowing for the cost savings that would accrue as CRP land leaves the program, a change in targeting strategies will likely be required to ensure that the most sensitive land does not leave the program.

  13. Geographic Information System-Allocation Model for Forest Path: A Case Study in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Hasmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forest road planning requires a host of information, particularly the availability of spatial and non-spatial data. The requirement of a planning system or tools to gather, integrate and manipulate all data is essential. The ability of Geographic Information System (GIS to integrate such massive information and develop a spatial model of earth features will lead to time and cost reduction and allows analysis of spatial problems more effective than the traditional method. Approach: The objective of this study was to test the potential of GIS in modeling forest road allocation in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve (AHFR, Selangor, Malaysia. This study is also to compare a road profile (new path generated from GIS approach (new path with existing forest road and allocates the best road path for compartment 2 and 14. Data from digital topographic map was used to generate slope class, elevation class, direction and distance. New road paths were determined using spatial analyst. Several module or technique that used were cost weight, reclassify, raster calculator and shortest path modeling. Results: Results showed that road path generated from GIS technique was shorter and avoid more unnecessary slope and elevation. Road profiles such as elevation, slope and length were analyzed and discussed. Conclusion: The result clearly revealed that GIS has strength and played a vital role in modeling forest road allocation effectively and reduced time consuming.

  14. The British foreign exchange reserves puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Hüfner, Felix P.

    2000-01-01

    The British foreign exchange reserves decreased by 40 percent during the period August 1996-December 1999 although the Pound Sterling is considered a floating exchange rate since it left the EMS in 1992. Since changes in the level of foreign exchange reserves are usually taken as indicators for foreign exchange interventions in the economic literature we investigate the case of the British reserves in detail. While the Pound Sterling has appreciated strongly against the Deutsche Mark in this ...

  15. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  16. Meteorological and hydrological extremes derived from taxation records: case study for south-western Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (MHEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, similarly as it was in the past. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology and hydrology to find such information. Some of them are related to records connected with taxation system. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crops have been damaged by MHEs. The corresponding documents contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence; often also impacts on crops or land may be derived. The nature of events leading to damage include particularly hailstorms, torrential rain, flash floods, floods (in regions along larger rivers), less frequently windstorms, late frosts and in some cases also information about droughts or extreme snow depths. However, the results obtained are influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records - their temporal and spatial incompleteness, limitation of the MHEs occurrence in the period of main agricultural work (May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about MHEs was of secondary importance). All these aspects related to the study of MHEs from taxation records are demonstrated for five estates (Bítov, Budkov, Jemnice with Staré Hobzí, Nové Syrovice and Uherčice) in the south-western part of Moravia for the 18th-19th centuries. The analysis shows importance of taxation records for the study of past MHEs as well as great potential for their use.

  17. The Rise of Obesity and Diabetes with the Adoption of A Western Diet: A Case Study of Native American Communities

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1900s, rates of obesity and diabetes among Native American populations have been much higher than the rates of those disorders for Americans as a whole—and yet, before 1950 or so, diabetes was extremely rare among Native Americans. This paper suggests that the influence of Western culture in Native American communities in the last 60 years, and particularly Native American adoption of the Western diet, is the primary reason for the rapid increase in obesity and diabetes. This ...

  18. Riding on Tyvek(R)—A Case Study about How a New Material Invented by Western Multinational Company Enters China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a case study about how a new product developed by Western multinational company enters new market- the Mainland China. In this study, a new fabric- DuPont's hi-technical Tyvek PU Coating, is fashionized and developed into a new fashionable and functional casual- rainwear, using the approach of new product development method (idea generation;screening; business analysis; development; evaluation and testing; commercialization).

  19. Relationship Between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Blood Levels of Epstein-Barr Virus in Children in North-Western Tanzania: A Case Control Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabyemera Rogatus; Masalu Nestory; Rambau Peter; Kamugisha Erasmus; Kidenya Benson; De Rossi Anita; Petrara Maria; Mwizamuholya Damas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) are common in African children, with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania. Methods A matched case control study of NHL subt...

  20. An illustrated checklist of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae from the Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Sathiandran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated checklist of 36 species of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae from the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the southern Western Ghats is presented.  Records of eight species endemic to the Western Ghats and a rare primitive old world dung beetle group, Ochicanthon nitidus (Paulian, from the forests of Periyar Tiger Reserve are provided. 

  1. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  2. Land use change and carbon stock dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa - Case study of Western Africa - Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, E.; Chiti, T.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    Among different regions of the world, Africa and particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has contributed less than any other to the greenhouse gas emissions, but it is also the region most vulnerable and the least well equipped to the consequences. In SSA the role of land use change in controlling CO2 emissions may be more critical than in any other regions and perhaps the most uncertain component of the global carbon cycle. The most typical example of incomplete estimates will arise from the lack of reliable data for carbon pools. Three factors account for much of the rest of the uncertainty: (1) initial stocks of carbon in ecosystems affected by land-use change, (2) per hectare changes in carbon stocks in response to different types of land-use change, and (3) legacy effects; that is, the time it takes for carbon stocks to equilibrate following a change in land use. Considering the source of uncertainty and the lack of field data for SSA, the study has been located in Ghana (Jomoro district, Western Region) where forest is the only source of wood for domestic uses and deforestation annual rate was 2.2% for the period 2005-2010. This study analyze the above mentioned gaps by assessing: 1) initial carbon stocks (tropical rain forest), 2) per hectare changes in carbon stocks as consequence of deforestation followed by six different main land uses [tree plantations (rubber, coconut, cocoa, oil palm, mixed plantations) and a secondary forest], 3) dynamics of soil carbon stocks through the time considering chronosequences. When accounting changes in carbon stocks in the UNFCCC framework, it is required to consider 5 carbon pools that are: aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, litter, dead wood and soil. Within REDD+ mechanism it is clear that only aboveground pool has to be always considered, belowground biomass is recommended and the others are facultative. Evidence from official UNFCCC reports suggests that only a very small fraction of developing countries

  3. Therapeutic Observation on Treatment of Infantile Cerebral Palsy with Integrative Chinese-Western Medicine: A Clinical Report of 104 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dong-hao; SHI Bing-pei; SHI Wei; CHEN Dong-dong; MIAO Jing; YANG Hong; HAN Chou-ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic effects of combined treatment with Chinese and western medicine in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: 104 CP children were treated mainly with physiotherapy and acupuncture, together with occupational therapy, sensory integration and electrical stimulation. Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) was used to assess the effects of treatment. Results: After treatment for 3.29±0.80 months, the majority of CP children improved their IQ and limb symptoms, with decreased abnormal posture, increased muscle strength and improved motor developmental function. GMFM88 and GMFM66 scores had significantly increased after treatment. Conclusions: Combined treatment with Chinese and Western Medicine has confirmed effects on CP children.

  4. Economic Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Measures: Tribal Case Studies with the Yurok Tribe, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, and the Pascua Yaqui Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Thomas L.; Auberle, William M.; Eastwood, John D.; Laroche, David R.; Slack, Robert P.; Smith, Dean H.; Ormond, Amanda S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of three energy-efficiency case studies conducted with three different Native American tribes in the western United States is presented. The case studies demonstrate that energy-efficiency is economically feasible and has the potential to reduce air pollution, and can potentially help tribes meet other important tribal objectives.

  5. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  6. Impact of Land-use Patterns on Distributed Groundwater Recharge and Discharge——A Case Study of Western Jilin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moiwo Juana PAUL

    2006-01-01

    The impact of land-use on distributed groundwater recharge and discharge in the western Jilin (WJ) was analyzed in this study. WJ is a transitional, semi-arid zone with a fragile, hydrological closed ecosystem in the Songhua River Basin (SRB). The research tool includes a seamlessly linked MODFLOW, WetSpass, the Seepage packages, and ArcGIS. The model calibration showed good agreement between simulated water table elevation and measured water table depths, while predicted groundwater discharge zones showed strong correlations with field occurrences of drainage systems and wetlands. Simulated averages for distributed recharge, water table elevation and groundwater drawdown were 377.42mm/yr, 194.43m, and 0.18m respectively. Forest vegetation showed the highest recharge, followed by agricultural farmlands, while open-water and other drainage systems constituted groundwater exit zones. When present land-use conditions were compared with the hypothetical natural pre-development scenario, an overall loss of groundwater recharge (24.09mm/yr) was observed, which for the project area is 18.05 × 108m3. Groundwater abstraction seemed to be the cause of water table drawdown, especially in the immediate vicinities of the supply wells. An important issue of the findings was the ability of the hypothetical forest vegetation to protect, and hence sustain aquifer reserves and dependent ecosystems. The profound data capture capability of ArcGIS makes it particularly useful in spatio-temporal hydroecological modeling.

  7. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  8. Outcomes Approaches to Assessment: Comparing Non-Government and Government Case-Study Schools in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Joanne; Vidovich, Lesley; Chapman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A key feature of recent curriculum reform in post-industrialised liberal economies has been the ascendancy of outcomes-based education policies. A 1995 review conducted in Western Australia (WA) recommended an outcomes-based approach, and in response, the Curriculum Framework (CF) was released in 1998. The same year, the WA State government…

  9. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Lopez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation.

  10. Invasive amebiasis and ameboma formation presenting as a rectal mass: An uncommon case of malignant masquerade at a western medical center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with rectal pain and bleeding secondary to ulcerated, necrotic rectal and cecal masses that resembled colorectal carcinoma upon colonoscopy. These masses were later determined to be benign amebomas caused by invasive Entamoeba histolytica, which regressed completely with medical therapy. In Western countries, the occurrence of invasive protozoan infection with formation of amebomas is very rare and can mistakenly masquerade as a neoplasm. Not surprisingly, there have been very few cases reported of this clinical entity within the United States. Moreover, we report a patient that had an extremely rare occurrence of two synchronous lesions, one involving the rectum and the other situated in the cecum. We review the current literature on the pathogenesis of invasive E. Histolytica infection and ameboma formation, as well as management of this rare disease entity at a western medical center.

  11. Data Assimilation of AIRS Water Vapor Profiles: Impact on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary; Wick, Gary; Neiman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers are transient, narrow regions in the atmosphere responsible for the transport of large amounts of water vapor. These phenomena can have a large impact on precipitation. In particular, they can be responsible for intense rain events on the western coast of North America during the winter season. This paper focuses on attempts to improve forecasts of heavy precipitation events in the Western US due to atmospheric rivers. Profiles of water vapor derived from from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations are combined with GFS forecasts by a three-dimensional variational data assimilation in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI). Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) forecasts initialized from the combined field are compared to forecasts initialized from the GFS forecast only for 3 test cases in the winter of 2011. Results will be presented showing the impact of the AIRS profile data on water vapor and temperature fields, and on the resultant precipitation forecasts.

  12. The Oxidation Kinetics of Continuous Carbon Fibers in a Cracked Ceramic Matrix Composite. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ., May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental observations and results suggest two primary regimes as a function of temperature, i.e., diffusion and reaction controlled kinetics. Thermogravimetric analysis of carbon fiber in flowing oxygen gave an activation energy of 64.1 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 500 to 600 C and an apparent activation energy of 7.6 kJ/mol for temperatures from 600 to 1400 C. When C/SiC composite material was unstressed, matrix effects at temperatures from 900 to 1400 C protected the internal fibers. When under stress, self-protection was not observed. Increasing the stress from 10 to 25 ksi caused a 67 to 82 percent reduction in times to failure at temperatures from 750 to 1500 C. Based on experimental results, observation, and theory, a finite difference model was developed, which simulates the diffusion of oxygen into a matrix crack that is bridged by carbon fibers. The model allows the influence of important variables on oxidation kinetics to be studied systematically, i.e., temperature, reaction rate constant, diffusion coefficient, environment, and sample geometry.

  13. Infrared surface temperature measurements for the surface tension driven convection experiment. M.S. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., Aug. 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), a planned space transportation system (STS) flight experiment, a commercially available infrared thermal imaging system is used to quantify the imposed thermal signature along the free surface. The system was tested and calibrated for the STDCE with ground-based equivalents of the STDCE hardware. Before using the system, consideration was given to the radiation characteristics of the target (silicone oil). Absorption coefficients were calculated to understand the surface depth as seen by the imager and the penetration depth of the surface heater (CO2 laser). The performance and operational specifications for the imager and image processing system are described in detail to provide an understanding of the equipment. Measurements made with the system were compared to thermocouple measurements and a calculated surface temperature distribution. This comparison showed that in certain regions the IR imager measurements were within 5 percent of the overall temperature difference across the free surface. In other regions the measurements were within + or - 10 percent of the overall temperature gradient across the free surface. The effective emissivity of silicone oil for these experimental conditions was also determined. Measurement errors and their possible solutions are discussed.

  14. Considerations for the application of finite element beam modeling to vibration analysis of flight vehicle structures. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The manner of representing a flight vehicle structure as an assembly of beam, spring, and rigid-body components for vibration analysis is described. The development is couched in terms of a substructures methodology which is based on the finite-element stiffness method. The particular manner of employing beam, spring, and rigid-body components to model such items as wing structures, external stores, pylons supporting engines or external stores, and sprung masses associated with launch vehicle fuel slosh is described by means of several simple qualitative examples. A detailed numerical example consisting of a tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft is included to provide a unified illustration of the procedure for representing a structure as an equivalent system of beams, springs, and rigid bodies, the manner of forming the substructure mass and stiffness matrices, and the mechanics of writing the equations of constraint which enforce deflection compatibility at the junctions of the substructures. Since many structures, or selected components of structures, can be represented in this manner for vibration analysis, the modeling concepts described and their application in the numerical example shown should prove generally useful to the dynamicist.

  15. The structure and development of streamwise vortex arrays embedded in a turbulent boundary layer. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the structure and development of streamwise vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer was conducted. The vortices were generated by a single spanwise row of rectangular vortex generator blades. A single embedded vortex was examined, as well as arrays of embedded counter rotating vortices produced by equally spaced vortex generators. Measurements of the secondary velocity field in the crossplane provided the basis for characterization of vortex structure. Vortex structure was characterized by four descriptors. The center of each vortex core was located at the spanwise and normal position of peak streamwise vorticity. Vortex concentration was characterized by the magnitude of the peak streamwise vorticity, and the vortex strength by its circulation. Measurements of the secondary velocity field were conducted at two crossplane locations to examine the streamwise development of the vortex arrays. Large initial spacings of the vortex generators produced pairs of strong vortices which tended to move away from the wall region while smaller spacings produced tight arrays of weak vortices close to the wall. A model of vortex interaction and development is constructed using the experimental results. The model is based on the structure of the Oseen Vortex. Vortex trajectories are modelled by including the convective effects of neighbors.

  16. Adaptation to climate change in the biosphere reserves: a case study of Katunskiy Biosphere Reserve, Russia. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 3 No. 1 3 1|

    OpenAIRE

    Yashina, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as the driver of biodiversity change. In recent years, the issues related to climate change have left the purely scientific realm and got on the agenda of many international organizations, programmes, conventions and initiatives seeking ways to mitigate and adapt to this phenomenon. Protected areas and biosphere reserves (BRs) in particular, focused as they are on the conservation of ecosystem services and on fostering sustainable regional development...

  17. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M. R.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  18. Seasonal hypoxia in eutrophic stratified coastal shelves: mechanisms, sensibilities and interannual variability from the North-Western Black Sea case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea north-western shelf (NWS is a~shallow eutrophic area in which seasonal stratification of the water column isolates bottom waters from the atmosphere and prevents ventilation to compensate for the large consumption of oxygen, due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments.

    A 3-D coupled physical biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS at different temporal scales from seasonal to interannual (1981–2009 and to differentiate the driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication of hypoxic conditions in bottom waters.

    Model skills are evaluated by comparison with 14 500 in-situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean Database and the Black Sea Commission data. The choice of skill metrics and data subselections orientate the validation procedure towards specific aspects of the oxygen dynamics, and prove the model's ability to resolve the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of oxygen concentration as well as the spatial location of the oxygen depleted waters and the specific threshold of hypoxia.

    During the period 1981–2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS, receiving large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniestr and Dniepr rivers, and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian Bay of Constanta.

    In order to explain the interannual variability of bottom hypoxia and to disentangle its drivers, a statistical model (multiple linear regression is proposed using the long time series of model results as input variables. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate related variables.

    The use of four predictors allows to reproduce 78% of hypoxia interannual variability: the annual nitrate discharge (N, the sea

  19. Community land use planning on First Nations reserves and the influence of land tenure: A case study with the Penticton Indian Band

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhurst, Marena

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the land tenure and management systems that exist on First Nations reserves in Canada is foundational to supporting effective and sustainable local land use and planning in these communities. Proposed federal legislation has reignited debate over the individual land holdings system (Certificates of Possession) existing on many reserves, but there is a lack of research concerning the history, impacts, and practical implications of this land tenure system, particularly empirical r...

  20. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoqing Yuan; Maozhu Jin; Jinfei Ren; Mingming Hu; Peiyu Ren

    2014-01-01

    Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR) model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to...

  1. Trans-national horizon scanning for invasive non-native species:a case study in western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Belinda; Zieritz, Alexandra; Adriaens, Tim; Bellard, Céline; Boets, Pieter; Britton, Robert J; Newman, Jonathan R.; van Valkenburg, Johan L. C. H.; David C. Aldridge

    2016-01-01

    Horizon scanning for high-risk invasive non-native species (INNS) is crucial in preparing andimplementing measures to prevent introductions, as well as to focus efforts in the control of species already present. We initiated a trans-national horizon-scanning exercise focused on four countries in western Europe: Great Britain, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, which share similar environmental and socio-economic characteristics. We followed a structured four-step approach combining existing...

  2. Dealing with 'western classical music' in Indian music schools. A case study in Kolkata, Bangalore, Goa and Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Bernd; Chatterjee, Sebanti

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the design and results of an efficiency study that accompanied a skill-enhancement project for Indian teachers of Western classical music in selected cities in India, undertaken by the Goethe-Institut Kolkata from 2009 to 2011 in collaboration with the University of Music Würzburg. At the same time it contributes to a segment of comparative music educational research with an interdisciplinary approach to provide further thoughts on a methodological and theoretical foun...

  3. Aural awareness in ensemble rehearsals. A qualitative case study of three undergraduate chamber music ensembles playing Western classical music

    OpenAIRE

    Slette, Aslaug Louise

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aims at understanding the roles and characteristics of aural awareness in ensemble rehearsals, within the contexts of higher music education and Western classical music. The overall idea of the subject area of aural training as a complementary discipline in undergraduate studies, is that it should inform and support performance activities, and lead to aural awareness. For example, one may expect music students to be aurally aware in their unsupervised, curricular ensem...

  4. Reforming Urban Water Utilities in Western and Central Africa : Experiences with Public-Private Partnerships, Volume 2. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Matar; Marin, Philippe; Locussol, Alain; Verspyck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Western and Central Africa has one of the longest experiences with public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the developing world, both for water supply and for combined power and water supply utilities. Cote d'Ivoire has a successful partnership dating from 1959, and over the last two decades as many as 15 countries (out of 23 in the region) have experimented with PPPs: eight for water su...

  5. Reassessing the Significance of Firearms in Central Africa: The Case of North-Western Zambia to the 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Macola, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Based on a close examination of European travelogues and the evidence produced in the wake of the formulation of colonial gun policies, this article contends that the significance of firearms in Central Africa in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has been unduly played down in the existing literature. The first substantive section of the article charts the movement of the gun frontier in nineteenth-century north-western Zambia. It foregrounds the new technology’s economic and milit...

  6. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto I. Lopes; Francisco T. Dénes; Messi, Gustavo B.; Marcos G. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Prune perineum syndrome (PPS) is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI co...

  7. Evaluation on the Implementation of Urban and Rural Planning Law and Some Policy Suggestions: A Case Study in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Kai; Li; Hao; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the implementation of the Urban and Rural Planning Law in western China through questionnaires, interviews, onsite visits, and literature analysis. Results show that, though the western region has made great progress in the study and publicity of the Law, as well as in their local legislation and administrative system adjustments, there are problems impeding the implementation of the Law, such as overlapping government administration, inadequate implementation measures, controversial provisions that cause operational difficulties, local legislative confusion, and poor legal awareness. As such, this article proposes suggestions as follows: to legalize the detailed implementation rules and regulations, as well as other related regulations and technical standards, in order to improve the system of urban and rural planning laws and regulations; to strengthen legal supervision to maintain the authority of the law; to formulate proper planning policy guidelines based on the specifi c conditions of western region; and to strengthen the publicity, education, and training of the Law so as to promote the publics’ legal awareness.

  8. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  9. Risk factors for Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease in farmed bison (Bison bison) herds in western Canada: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana L; Barkema, Herman W; Woodbury, Murray; Ribble, Carl; Perez-Casal, Jose; Windeyer, M Claire

    2016-07-01

    North American bison producers have been attempting to control and prevent Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease without the benefit of bison-specific knowledge. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of disease associated with M. bovis infection in western Canadian farmed bison, and to identify herd-level risk factors for M. bovis-associated disease. Bison producers (n=49) from western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia) were selected for a 1:2 case-control study. Data were collected by an in-person interview using a questionnaire regarding clinical presentations of outbreaks and herd-level management factors. Risk factors associated with M. bovis outbreaks were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. All 17 case herds had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of M. bovis infection within the last 5 years. In 11 (65%) of the 17 case herds, disease associated with M. bovis infection recurred in subsequent years. Overall, 88% of case herds had recently introduced bison that later developed clinical signs associated with M. bovis infection. Within a bison operation, a median of 8% (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 3-11%) developed clinical signs: lameness, reluctance to move, swollen joints, difficulty breathing, coughing, sluggishness, and loss of body condition. Also, calving percentage the year after the first M. bovis outbreak was lower than calving percentage the year before the outbreak. Herd-level mortality risk during the first M. bovis outbreak in case herds ranged from 0.5 to 50% (median 5%, IQR: 3-10%) and the median case fatality risk was 100%. Case herds were more likely than control herds to have a feedlot unit (OR=7), to receive regular visits from rental trailers or trailers from other farms (OR=15), to annually vaccinate bison (OR=7), and to lose at least one bison due to fatal respiratory disease in the previous year (OR=9). These findings will aid development of evidence

  10. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  11. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 mm.ky- 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 mm.ky- 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  12. Case Report: A case report highlighting bilateral EDB wasting as a clinical marker for lumbar canal stenosis [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy Mohan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Herein we discuss a case of a 55 year old male presenting with history suggestive of sciatica on the left leg. Straight leg raising (SLR test was positive at 45 degrees on the left side. His ankle reflex was absent and the power of extensor hallusus longus (EHL was 4/5 on the same side. MRI lumbosacral spine revealed left paramedian disc prolapsed on L4/L5 level with spinal canal diameter of 9mm.However since his bilateral extensor digitorm brevis (EDB were wasted, we suspected associated lumbar canal stenosis and thereby opted for laminectomy and discectomy in this case. Intraoperatively dural wasting, hypertrophied facets and narrow canal were confirmed. Laminectomy, medial facectectomy and discectomy were carried out. The patient recovered uneventfully with resolution of his sciatica-like pain. Bilateral EDB wasting thereby provides a clinical clue to the underlying lumbar canal stenosis and can help in making correct therapeutic decisions.

  13. Geostatistical estimation of uranium ore reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1960s geostatistics have been applied for uranium ore reserves calculation, and, as in the case for other minerals, has been considerably developed. This is because of the ability of geostatistics to quantify clearly the main ore reserve questions, i.e. which are the geological (or in situ) ore reserves; what are the effects of a mining selection (recoverable reserves); and what is the precision of these estimates. These different concepts are presented in this paper as applied to uranium ore deposits. First, the specific problem of uranium is analysed, which is the importance of indirect measurements of grade by radiometry logging, which introduces imprecisions generally higher in the uranium grades and tonnages than those coming from the ore reserve calculation itself. (author)

  14. Negotiation style, speech accommodation, and small talk in Sino-Western business negotiations: A Hong Kong case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes authentic negotiation encounters between a Danish buyer and several predominantly Chinese sellers at a jewelry fair in China. Three recurring themes were identified in the data: different negotiation styles (a preference for an indirect mitigated style in the Chinese...... negotiators as opposed to a preference for a direct unmitigated approach in the Western negotiator), linguistic accommodation, and small talk about the interlocutor's place of residence, which is interpreted as strategic communication in which negotiators are allowed to check the interlocutor's financial...

  15. The Influence of Religion and Ethnicity on Family Planning Approval: A Case for Women in Rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Mutombo, Namuunda; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva; Ezeh, Alex; Muga, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The role of sociocultural factors such as religion and ethnicity in aiding or hampering family planning (FP) uptake in rural Western Kenya, a region with persistently high fertility rates, is not well established. We explored whether attitudes towards FP can be attributed to religious affiliation and/or ethnicity among women in the region. Findings show that religion and ethnicity have no impact; the most significant factors are level of education and knowledge about the benefits of FP for the mother. FP interventions ought to include strategies aimed at enhancing women's knowledge about the positive impacts of family planning. PMID:25763505

  16. Changing Perceptions of Forest Value and Attitudes toward Management of a Recently Established Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the main sources of conflict and understanding the relationships between protected areas and local communities are critical to conflict resolution related to protected area management. We surveyed and assessed the perceptions of local people related to forest values of the Bulong Nature Reserve (BNR, Yunnan, China, and their attitudes toward forest management of the recently-established nature reserve. Factors influencing the differences in perceptions and attitudes were investigated. Our results indicated local residents preferred the economic value of forests, and they perceived more forest values after reserve establishment than before, especially for ecological services. Interviewees believed the value of the forests have increased, and predicted that the forest will have increased importance to their livelihoods and health in the future. Nonetheless, the majority of interviewees were dissatisfied with current reserve management. Variation in these perceptions and attitudes were related to several social variables: age, gender, education, and distance from the reserve. Embedding the findings of the present study, specifically the perceptions and attitudes of local people, into management guidelines for mitigation of potential conflicts is proposed and should help managers to achieve biodiversity-related goals. This study offers new insights related to the identification of the underlying sources of conflict in forest management and provides a better understanding of the relationship between local people and protected areas. The study also contributes to the literature on forest values of indigenous populations by examining those of remote, rural populations in China.

  17. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: A rare case with an unfavourable outcome [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto I. Lopes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prune perineum syndrome (PPS is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI confirmed the previous findings and revealed a right crossed ectopic kidney, intestinal malrotation, a hypoplastic infrarenal inferior vena cava and a hypoplastic right iliac artery. Endoscopic evaluation through the orifice revealed a cavity lined by urothelial mucosa, with a small communication to the anterior urethra in its anterior wall.             A staged reconstruction was planned, with a first-step urinary diversion through a continent abdominal reservoir associated to bilateral orchiopexy. The patient was discharged from the hospital three weeks later under intermittent catheterization. The next planned surgical step was the resection of the perineal mass and its cavity associated to the removal of the prominent sacrococcygeal bones. Unfortunately, four months after the first surgery the patient developed an acute abdomen and underwent a laparotomy that revealed a necrotic ileal segment secondary to obstructive adherences. He developed severe malabsorption followed by septic shock, dying five weeks after the procedure.             Due to the lack of literature, there is no consensus for the management of these cases. The wish of the family for a better quality of life and social acceptance, compelled us to perform a urinary diversion, to be followed by a plastic and orthopedic reconstruction. Despite the successful initial result, the patient developed a late abdominal obstruction that was misdiagnosed, precipitating his untimely

  18. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto I. Lopes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune perineum syndrome (PPS is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI confirmed the previous findings and revealed a right crossed ectopic kidney, intestinal malrotation, a hypoplastic infrarenal inferior vena cava and a hypoplastic right iliac artery. Endoscopic evaluation through the orifice revealed a cavity lined by urothelial mucosa, with a small communication to the anterior urethra in its anterior wall. A staged reconstruction was planned, with a first-step urinary diversion through a continent abdominal reservoir associated to bilateral orchiopexy. He was discharged from the hospital three weeks later under intermittent catheterization. The next surgical step would be the resection of the perineal mass and its cavity associated to the removal of the prominent sacrococcygeal bones. Unfortunately, four months after the first surgery the patient developed an acute abdomen and was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a necrotic ileal segment secondary to obstructive adherences. He developed severe malabsorption followed by septic shock, dying five weeks after the procedure. Due to the lack of literature, there is no consensus for the management of these cases. The wish of the family for a better quality of life and social acceptance, compelled us to perform a urinary diversion, to be followed by a plastic and orthopedic reconstruction. Despite the successful initial result, the patient developed a late abdominal obstruction that was misdiagnosed, precipitating his untimely death five months after the first procedure.

  19. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics. PMID:24835081

  20. A case report of monitoring PSA level changes in two prostate cancer patients treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom along with western anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to find out how Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP and Sweet Bee Venom(SBV treatments are effective on prostate cancer patients by monitoring Prostate specific antigen(PSA values. Methods: We treated two prostate cancer patients with MGP and SBV from October 2008 to April 2011. One patient had localized prostate cancer, the other was in the terminal stage of prostate cancer with lung and bone metastasis and both had been receiving western anticancer therapy. We had monitored the changes of PSA value. Results: In case 1, MGP and SBV treatments seemed to be helpful in preventing the recurrence of localized prostate cancer. In case 2, PSA value was decreased by MGP treatment. Conclusions: It is conceivable that MGP and SBV are effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer.

  1. Association of Research Self-Efficacy with Medical Student Career Interests, Specialization, and Scholarship: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S. Beth; Prayson, Richard A.; Dannefer, Elaine F.

    2015-01-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal…

  2. Reserve Function in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Duraj

    2003-01-01

    Reserves occupy an important place and play a big part at the enterprise.s financial management system. Problem of reserves also belongs to principle matter of strategic management.they expresses through creating the enterprises competitive position. Reserves fulfill many of various functions in the enterprises. Reserves permit to avoid the risk accompanying the economic activity of each enterprise; they create to the firm a chance of effective development and opportunities of protection of o...

  3. Impact assessment of a fisheries closure with effort and landings spatial analyses: A case study in the Western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miethe, Tanja; Bastardie, Francois; Dorrien, Christian von;

    2014-01-01

    Commercial fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea (WBS; ICES Subdivisions 22–24) are dominated by Danishand German vessels. By combining and processing logbook and Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data forGermany and Denmark, we compare patterns of spatial effort allocation and the origin of the...... Link connectingDenmark and Germany could lead to the temporal closure of fishing activities. Three different effort-displacement scenarios were tested to determine how lost landings, caused by a fishing closure of acorridor near the link during construction, could be counteracted by moving the...... activities to a nearfieldarea. To compensate for lost landings, the best strategy appears to be redistributing fishing effort of sprat-targeting métiers to areas that have had relatively high catch rates (landings per unit of effort (LPUE))or with large absolute sprat landings, assuming spatial stability of...

  4. Influence of Seasonal On-Farm Diversity on Dietary Diversity: A Case Study of Smallholder Farming Households in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'endo, Mary; Bhagwat, Shonil; Keding, Gudrun B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the associations between dietary patterns and farm diversity as well as socioeconomic variables during two seasons in rural Western Kenya. As a mean of two surveys, the average dietary diversity scores (DDS) of households and women were low, implying low household economic access to food and low women's dietary quality. The Food Consumption Score (FCS) showed that acceptable levels of food consumption were realized over seven consecutive days in the 2014 survey by the majority of households (83%) and women (90%). While there was no strong association between the food scores and seven farm diversity indicators, both food scores were significantly associated with the household's wealth status, ethnicity of both the household head and the spouse, and the education level of the spouse. For holistic household food and nutrition security approaches, we suggest a shift from a focus on farm production factors to incorporating easily overlooked socioeconomic factors such as household decision-making power and ethnicity. PMID:27398836

  5. Toward enhanced capability for detecting and predicting dust events in the western United States: the Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.; Pan, L.; Tang, Y.; Stajner, I.; Pierce, R. B.; McQueen, J.; Wang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Dust aerosols affect human life, ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry and climate in various aspects. Some studies have revealed intensified dust activity in the western US during the past decades despite the weaker dust activity in non-US regions. It is important to extend the historical dust records, to better understand their temporal changes, and to use such information to improve the daily dust forecasting skill as well as the projection of future dust activity under the changing climate. This study develops dust records in Arizona in 2005-2013 using multiple observation data sets, including in situ measurements at the surface Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites, and level 2 deep blue aerosol product by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The diurnal and inter-annual variability of identified dust events are shown related to observed weather patterns (e.g., wind and soil moisture) and surface conditions (e.g., land cover type and vegetation conditions), suggesting a potential for use of satellite soil moisture and land products to help interpret and predict dust activity. Backtrajectories computed using NOAA's Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicate that the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts are important dust source regions during identified dust events in Phoenix, Arizona. Finally, we assess the impact of a recent strong dust event on western US air quality, using various observational and modeling data sets, during a period with a stratospheric ozone intrusion event. The capability of the current US National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC) Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to represent the magnitude and the temporal variability of aerosol concentrations is evaluated for this event. Directions for integrating observations to further improve dust emission modeling in CMAQ are also suggested.

  6. Metamorphic Sole and Accreted Units Along a subduction Interface: form Birth to Steady State (the Case of Western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, A.; Agard, P.; Chopin, C.; Soret, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Western Turkey, obducted ophiolite, metamorphic sole and oceanic accretionnary complex units linked with the closure of the Neotethys are found along a 400 kilometre-long section (from north to south). We herein reappraise the metamorphic evolution of the sub-ophiolitic metamorphic units (both the metamorphic sole and the accretionnary units) of Western Turkey (i) to better characterize rock units exhumed along a cooling subduction interface, from birth to steady state (ii) to constrain the formation of metamorphic sole during the initiation of subduction (iii) and to track record of obducted ophiolite. On the basis of field and petrological observation three differents accretionnary units are reccognized with pressure-temperature estimates ranging from incipient metamorphism to blueschist-facies conditions providing information on plate coupling at different depths along the subduction interface. The upper part of the metamorphic sole was form in an amphibolite facies (garnet amphibolite - garnet clinopyroxene amphibolite). Different slices of metamorphic sole with different pressure-temperature conditions might be observed probably showing discrete timing of accretion to the upper plate. Part of the samples are characterized by a late blueschsit developpement. Both the blueschist overprint in the metamorphic sole and the high-pressure in oceanic unit were found only in the northern part of the field investigation. On the basis of the presented data, available radiometric and palaeogeographic data as well as recent themomechanical moddeling a tentative reconstruction of the subduction-zone evolution through time and the emplacement of a large-scale ophiolite is presented. Finally a comparison with ongoing work on the metamorphic sole of the Semail ophiolite of Oman is proposed with special highlights on the retrograde evolution in both settings.

  7. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  8. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, using modelling and GIS techniques: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Masoud; M M El Osta

    2016-08-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer (NSSA) is the main groundwater resource of the El-Bahariya Oasis, which is located in the middle of the Western Desert of Egypt. This aquifer is composed mainly of continental clastic sediments of sandstone with shale and clay intercalations of saturated thickness ranging between 100 and 1500 m. Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sustainable resources management and land use planning. Accordingly, this research aims to estimate the vulnerability of NSSA by applying the DRASTIC model as well as utilising sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in the study area. The main objective is to demonstrate the combined use of the DRASTIC and the GIS techniques as an effective method for groundwater pollution risk assessment, and mapping the areas that are prone to deterioration of groundwater quality and quantity. Based on DRASTIC index (DI) values, a groundwater vulnerability map was produced usingthe GIS. The aquifer analysis in the study area highlighted the following key points: the northeastern and western parts of the NSSA were dominated by ‘High’ vulnerability classes while the northwestern and southeastern parts were characterised by ‘Medium’ vulnerability classes. The elevated central partof the study area displayed ‘Low’ aquifer vulnerability. The vulnerability map shows a relatively greater risk imposed on the northeastern part of the NSSA due to the larger pollution potential of intensive vegetable cultivation. Depth-to-water, topography and hydraulic conductivity parameters were found to be more effective in assessing aquifer vulnerability.

  9. Categorization and auditing of reserve estimates in a series of Kazakhstan oil and gas fields, including a probabilistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencioni, L.C.; Johnston, B.G.; Hagemann, S.G.

    1996-12-31

    Many western oil and gas companies are evaluating opportunities for projects in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The type and quality of available data, as well as existing interpretations made by the Soviets, are often very unfamiliar to engineers without experience in the FSU. This paper presents a case study of an audit of reserve estimates for a series of eight undeveloped gas-condensate and volatile oil reservoirs, the Kamen/Tokarev-Teplov (KTT) Trend, located in northwestern Kazakhstan. The study described in this paper was commissioned by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to evaluate the provision of financing and taking an equity in the project. Thus, the concerns of the IFC involved several questions: (1) What are the reserves upon which financing can be based with relatively low risk? (2) What are the most likely reserves which should be considered for longer term planning and budgeting purposes? and (3) What are the upside potential and downside risk? These questions can be effectively answered concurrently by the use of a probabilistic reserve analysis. The data review for these fields yielded the results that the majority of the available data was of good quality and reasonable and sufficient to use in estimating reserves. Some of the well test and PVT data, however, showed inconsistencies due to measurement or sampling techniques which had to be resolved. Adjustments were made to account for these data problems. This paper presents a discussion of our review of the data and previous interpretations and reserve estimates, and a description of our deterministic reserve estimates and probabilistic analysis.

  10. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 109m3, up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 103m3, an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  11. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  12. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  14. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of ha

  15. Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Skjöldevald, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

  16. Relationship between Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and blood levels of Epstein-Barr Virus in children in north-western Tanzania: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabyemera Rogatus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL are common in African children, with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania. Methods A matched case control study of NHL subtypes was performed in children under 15 years of age and their respective controls admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, Sengerema and Shirati district designated hospitals in north-western, Tanzania, between September 2010 and April 2011. Peripheral blood samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers and EBV DNA levels were estimated by multiplex real-time PCR. Clinical and laboratory data were collected using a structured data collection tool and analysed using chi-square, Fisher and Wilcoxon rank sum tests where appropriate. The association between NHL and detection of EBV in peripheral blood was assessed using conditional logistic regression model and presented as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results A total of 35 NHL cases and 70 controls matched for age and sex were enrolled. Of NHLs, 32 had BL with equal distribution between jaw and abdominal tumour, 2 had large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL and 1 had NHL-not otherwise specified (NHL-NOS. Central nervous system (CNS presentation occurred only in 1 BL patient; 19 NHLs had stage I and II of disease. Only 1 NHL was found to be HIV-seropositive. Twenty-one of 35 (60% NHL and 21 of 70 (30% controls had detectable EBV in peripheral blood (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.71 – 13.33, p = 0.003. In addition, levels of EBV in blood were significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (p = 0.024. Conclusions BL is the most common childhood NHL subtype in north-western Tanzania. NHLs are not

  17. Relationship between Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and blood levels of Epstein-Barr Virus in children in north-western Tanzania: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) are common in African children, with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania. Methods A matched case control study of NHL subtypes was performed in children under 15 years of age and their respective controls admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, Sengerema and Shirati district designated hospitals in north-western, Tanzania, between September 2010 and April 2011. Peripheral blood samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers and EBV DNA levels were estimated by multiplex real-time PCR. Clinical and laboratory data were collected using a structured data collection tool and analysed using chi-square, Fisher and Wilcoxon rank sum tests where appropriate. The association between NHL and detection of EBV in peripheral blood was assessed using conditional logistic regression model and presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 35 NHL cases and 70 controls matched for age and sex were enrolled. Of NHLs, 32 had BL with equal distribution between jaw and abdominal tumour, 2 had large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 1 had NHL-not otherwise specified (NHL-NOS). Central nervous system (CNS) presentation occurred only in 1 BL patient; 19 NHLs had stage I and II of disease. Only 1 NHL was found to be HIV-seropositive. Twenty-one of 35 (60%) NHL and 21 of 70 (30%) controls had detectable EBV in peripheral blood (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.71 – 13.33, p = 0.003). In addition, levels of EBV in blood were significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (p = 0.024). Conclusions BL is the most common childhood NHL subtype in north-western Tanzania. NHLs are not associated

  18. The migrant as a factor in regional development--the case of Ghana returnees in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegbola, O

    1976-09-01

    The role of the returnee migrant in the development of the Savannah region of Western Nigeria is examined within the framework of a general hypothesis about the characteristics of the migrants and nonmigrants. From the socioeconomic data on these groups, significant differences emerge. It is assumed that return migrants are more enterprising than nonmigrants and that the type of skills acquired by migrants are those needed for development. 91% of return migrants are not involved in primary activities (e.g., farming) and have a better socioeconomic status even if they do return to agriculture. The majority have learned skills, organized cooperative unions, accumulated money and are given government loans on their return. They returnees as a group tend to establish "footloose" industries, speak more languages, have attained some Western type education (53% are literate), own a radio (90%), read newspapers and correspond with their colleagues who have moved to other parts of the country. Over 66% use modern credit facilities in banks and 23% insure their shops against risks of fire and theft. Educational levels of the children of migrants are significantly higher than nonmigrant's children; 78% of the return migrants had formulated plans for their children's future compared to 42% of the nonmigrants. Therefore, the return migrant represents a net gain in skills and entrepreneurship on the basis of which a spatial settlement strategy for the regeneration of the less developed parts of the country could be planned. Strategies for wide diffusion or concentration of the returnees in one area are rejected. The paper recommends settling a minimum of 1000 returnees in a central development unit surrounded by settlements in a region with a population density of 100/square mile. Services should be prioritized and emphasis placed on the marketing of food crops. 1 such development is described in Ogbomosho district in the Savannah region. Policy implications examined include the

  19. Geological and geophysical characteristics of massive sulphide deposits: A case study of the Lirhanda massive sulphide deposit of Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindi, E.; Maneno, J. B. J.

    2016-08-01

    An integrated geophysical ground survey was conducted on an airborne electromagnetic (EM) anomaly located in Kakamega forest of Western Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence of massive sulphides and identify suitable optimal geophysical method(s) for the investigation of similar anomalies. The study was also expected to provide information on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the deposit. Field work involved electromagnetic methods: Vertical Loop (VLEM), Horizontal Loop (HLEM), TURAM EM and potential field methods: gravity and magnetics. Geochemical sampling was carried out concurrently with the geophysical survey. All the geophysical methods used yielded good responses. Several conductors conforming to the strike of the geology were identified. TURAM EM provided a higher resolution of the conductors compared to VLEM and HLEM. The conductors were found to be associated with positive gravity anomalies supporting the presence of bodies of higher density than the horst rock. Only the western section (west of 625W) of the grid is associated with strong magnetic anomalies. East of 625W strong EM and gravity anomalies persist but magnetic anomalies are weak. This may reflect variation in the mineral composition of the conductors from magnetic to non-magnetic. Geochemical data indicates strong copper anomalies (upto 300 ppm) over sections of the grid and relatively strong zinc (upto 200 ppm) and lead (upto 100 ppm) anomalies. There is a positive correlation between the location of the conductors as predicted by TURAM EM and the copper and zinc anomalies. A test drill hole proposed on the basis of the geophysical results of this study struck massive sulphides at a depth of 30m still within the weathered rock zone. Unfortunately, the drilling was stopped before the sulphides could be penetrated. The drill core revealed massive sulphide rich in pyrite and pyrrhotite. An attempt has been made to compare characteristics of the

  20. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  1. Spatial interpolation of precipitation depending on elevation: Case study of the Skrapež River, Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Majkić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make an adequate basic dataset for a subsequent hydrological research, the study of interpolation of precipitation values from measurement stations (points to large areas (areas was done. Among many statistical interpolation methods that estimate precipitation values in unsampled areas (where there are no measurements or they are sparse, spatial interpolation method which includes relief (elevation was chosen for the study. Inclusion of elevation parameter was done in order to minimize the extent of interpolation errors. Research was done in the catchments area of the Srkapež River (Western Serbia. Precipitation data were collected from 19 measurement stations for the period from 1961 to 2000. The reduction method was used for filling the missing data in the data set. The best framework for managing spatial (georeferred data is Geographical Information System, enabling easier calculation and improved precision. Therefore, raster GIS was used for spatial interpolation of precipitation and for calculating mean annual precipitation value. Concerning the fact that the observed area is a mountainous region, where precipitation may change over short spatial scales, a DEM with a grid resolution of 100 m was used.

  2. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  3. Therapeutic Evaluation on Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine—Clinical Analysis of 56 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULu-ming; WULiang-cun; 等

    2003-01-01

    Objective:In comparison with chemotherapy,to evaluate therapeutic effects on advanced pancreatic cancer treated by integrative Chinese and western medicine(ICWM) therapies.Methods:Based on the retrospective study of 56 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer,life table was applied to the anal-ysis of patients' survival rate and X2 test to the comparison of therapeutic response between ICWM and chemotherapy groups.Results:The results showed that 1-year survival rate 25.96%±24.64%; 5-year 37%±3.24%;2-year survival rate 34.61%±16.31%;3-year survival rate 25.96%±24.64%;5-year survival rate 25.96%±24.64%; and median survival period 16.3 months.However 1-year survival rate in the chemotherapy group was 21.95%±27.54%;2-year survival rate 7.31%±27.54%;3-year survival rate 0%; and median survival period 7.5months.The therapeutic effects between two groups were signifi-cantly different(P=0.004).Further analysis suggested that the reduction of cancer mass in the ICWM group was more than that in chemotherapy group(P=0.049) and the improvement of advanced pancreatic cancer related-symptoms better than that of chemotherapy group(P=0.002).Conclusion:The ICWM comprehensive therapy is of important value in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer.

  4. Therapeutic Evaluation on Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine Clinical Analysis of 56 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鲁明; 吴良村; 林胜友; 杨维鸿; 郭勇; 徐颖扉; 舒琦瑾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In comparison with chemotherapy, to evaluate therapeutic effcts on advanced pancreatic cancer treated by integrative Chinese and western medicine (ICWM) therapies. Methods: Based on the retrospective study of 56 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer,life table was applied to the analysis of patients' survival rate and χ2 test to the comparison of therapeutic response between ICWM and chemotherapy groups. Results: The results showed that 1-year survival rate in the ICWM group was 55.37%±3.24%; 2-year survival rate 34.61%±16.31%; 3-year survival rate 25.96%±24.64%; 5-year survival rate 25.96%±24.64%; and median survival period 16.3 months. However 1-year survival rate in the chemotherapy group was 21.95%±27.54%; 2-year survival rate 7.31%±27.54%; 3-year survival rate 0%; and median survival period 7.5 months. The therapeutic effects between two groups were significantly different (P=0.004). Further analysis suggested that the reduction of cancer mass in the ICWM group was more than that in chemotherapy group (P=0.049) and the improvement of advanced pancreatic cancer related-symptoms better than that of chemotherapy group (P=0.002). Conclusion: The ICWM comprehensive therapy is of important value in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer.

  5. Assessment of factors limiting algal growth in acidic pit lakes-a case study from Western Australia, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Naresh; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Larranaga, Santiago A

    2016-03-01

    Open-cut mining operations can form pit lakes on mine closure. These new water bodies typically have low nutrient concentrations and may have acidic and metal-contaminated waters from acid mine drainage (AMD) causing low algal biomass and algal biodiversity. A preliminary study was carried out on an acidic coal pit lake, Lake Kepwari, in Western Australia to determine which factors limited algal biomass. Water quality was monitored to obtain baseline data. pH ranged between 3.7 and 4.1, and solute concentrations were slightly elevated to levels of brackish water. Concentrations of N were highly relative to natural lakes, although concentrations of FRP (water quality. Microcosms of Lake Kepwari water were amended with N, P and C nutrients with and without sediment. Nutrient amendments under microcosm conditions could not show any significant phytoplankton growth but was able to promote benthic algal growth. P amendments without sediment showed a statistically higher mean algal biomass concentration than controls or microcosms amended with phosphorus but with sediment did. Results indicated that algal biomass in acidic pit lake (Lake Kepwari) may be limited primarily by low nutrient concentrations (especially phosphorus) and not by low pH or elevated metal concentrations. Furthermore, sediment processes may also reduce the nutrient availability. PMID:26593729

  6. Territorial Management Within the Systems Affected by Mining.Case Study the South-Western Development Region in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Pintilii

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is a concise form of some present days researches within the Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Researches on Territorial Dynamics within the University of Bucharest, which had as main major objective to identify and to underline the instability from the natural environment, determined by coal exploitation, as well as to identify the efficient management systems in some areas located in the south-western part of Romania, Oltenia. Researches identified the major effects these economic activities have upon air pollution, slopes’ dynamic, air and soil pollution. A special importance is given to the human component within territorial systems, as population is often dislodged to other localities and this phenomenon implies many social and economic consequences. One of the most important aggressions upon natural and built environment is that related to the landscape damage, following exploiting and processing rough material in order to obtain the final product, the coal. The direct impact of mining activities upon environment may be translated by a local biodiversity decrease, even if these coal mines are rehabilitated after they’re closed. Therefore, an integrated approach is necessary and it must refer to the way of administering mines for long term, by common actions of all the implied factors (government, mining companies and the local communities. The scientific demarche of building the model of environment management in the areas affected by mining took into account the new European context, which represents a supra system imposing the strategic coordinates where the process of managing territorial instability takes place.

  7. Tectonic fabrics vs. mineralogical artifacts in AMS analysis: A case study of the Western Morocco extensional Triassic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Moussaid, B.; Villalaín, J. J.; El Ouardi, H.; Soto, R.; Torres-López, S.; Román-Berdiel, T.

    2016-03-01

    New magnetic fabric data from 48 sites in Upper Triassic red beds from the Argana, Asni and Tizi n'Tichka areas in the western High Atlas, in combination with rock magnetic analyses, SEM observations and qualitative chemical analyses, reveal that mineralization processes can affect the primary (extensional) or secondary (post-depositional) magnetic fabrics. Twenty out of the 48 analyzed sites show tectonic-related fabrics consistent with the rifting stage (primary). Their orientation suggests that the extensional Atlasic (for the Asni area) and Atlantic (for Argana area) distinct directions prevailing during Liassic times are already present in the Upper Triassic sediments. The other 28 sites show axes switching (including different possibilities, kmax-kmin or kint-kmin), indicating their secondary development related to mineralogical changes after deposition. However, orientation of magnetic susceptibility axes (without considering their relative value) is consistent with the main directions obtained for the rifting stage. This magnetic fabric study also suggests that (i) extension had a small transtensional component and (ii) there is a limited influence of compressional inversion tectonics.

  8. Public Participation in Public Policy Process – Case Study in Seven Counties from North-Western Region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Public participation is an ever significant notion of modern governance. In the light of lower levelsof citizen turnout at elections, contemporarydemocracies face a growing and complex problemof legitimacy. In this sense, in the last decademore and more governments around Europe andUSA turn to new strategies and plans to reach thecommunity they represent and encourage activeparticipation in solving community problems. It isin this note that the present pilot study “Initiativesand Design of Public Policy” was conducted, aimingto evaluate the level of public participation of fourprofessional categories (lawyers, doctors, teachersand managers in the design and formulation ofpolicy proposals and identify the factors thatinfluence their level of involvement. The studywas conducted in seven counties in the North-Western Region of Romania using a conveniencesample of 250 individuals. Data gathered showsthat involvement is low in all four categories withlawyers topping the list surprisingly. Moreover wehave identified certain drawbacks about currentlegal framework for sustaining public involvementwhich negatively affects the level of publicparticipation. Even though the data is provisionaland is representative only for the study populationthe results are in line with other studies on thismatter which show little public participation in thepolicy process.

  9. Sustainable livelihoods through conservation of wetland resources: a case of economic benefits from Ghodaghodi Lake, western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Lamsal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of local ethnic groups in wetland conservation, determined the economic benefits that they received from the wetlands, and assessed socioeconomic factors that affect dependency on wetlands. A total of 217 wetland resource-user households residing around Ghodaghodi Lake, western Nepal were surveyed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests and ordinary least squares regressions. The wetland resources contributed significantly to the household economy of the local people. Each household extracted lake resources at an annual worth of NPR 4379 ($63 USD, equivalent to 12.4% of the household total gross income. Although the people maintained a positive attitude toward wetland conservation, their participation in conservation efforts was inadequate. Socioeconomic factors such as larger household size, older age of the head of the family, and larger area of agricultural land increased the rate of resource extraction. In contrast, when households were involved with local conservation organizations, resource extraction was reduced. We recommend the following resource conservation and livelihood strategies: implementation of community-based conservation approaches to increase system productivity, adoption of biogas plants, and improved cooking stoves to reduce fuelwood consumption, coupled with conservation awareness programs.

  10. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  11. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  12. An Evaluation of fertiliser Recommendations Obtained From Experimental Settings a Case of smallholder Maize Fertiliser Recommendations in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to compare maize yield in Kisii and Trans-Nzoia Districts of Western Kenya. Separate yield response functions were established for experimental and farm data and used to undertake an economic analysis of fertiliser used on maize on smallholder farms. For Kisii District, the optimal values obtained in the field management practices between farmers and researchers. Further, based on the farm data results from this district, farmers on average use fertiliser optimally. Therefore as long as these farmers are constrained by their resources such that they can not improve on their management practices, using of Nzoia district, the experimental and farm data optimal levels were not significantly different. this was attributed to the fact that maize production in this region is commercial activity and the level of field management tend to approximate the level at the research station. Therefore farmers in this region can gain from increased use of fertilizers at there current levels of field management. The study concluded that fertiliser rates obtained from experimental data are not suitable for all regions in Kenya

  13. Using geophysics on a terminal moraine damming a glacial lake: the Flatbre debris flow case, Western Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lecomte

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A debris flow occurred on 8 May 2004, in Fjǽrland, Western Norway, due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and a natural terminal moraine failure. The site was investigated in 2004 and 2005, using pre- and post-flow aerial photos, airborne laser scanning, and extensive field work investigations, resulting in a good understanding of the mechanics of the debris flow, with quantification of the entrainment and determination of the final volume involved. However, though the moraine had a clear weak point, with lower elevation and erosion due to overflowing in the melting season, the sudden rupture of the moraine still needs to be explained. As moraines often contain an ice core, a possible cause could be the melting of the ice, inducing a progressive weakening of the structure. Geophysical investigations were therefore carried out in September 2006, including seismic refraction, GPR and resistivity. All methods worked well, but none revealed the presence of ice, though the depth to bedrock was determined. On the contrary, the moraine appeared to be highly saturated in water, especially in one area, away from the actual breach and corresponding to observed water seepage at the foot of the moraine. To estimate future hazard, water circulation through the moraine should be monitored over time.

  14. Clinical Observation on Treatment of 2,062 Cases of Immune Infertility with Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on female immune infertility. 3,496 women suffering from primary or secondary infertility had their ASAb, EMAb,AOAb and ACAb level tested, with the positive rate of 23.11%, 34.95%, 20.77% and 30.41% respectively.2,062 positive cases were periodically treated with the Chinese drug Xiaokangwan (消抗丸) plus dexamethasone, vitamin E and vitamin C for 2 periods as a course of treatment. At the end of a treatment course, the rate for the antibodies to turn negative reached over 85% and the average pregnant rate reached 36.66%. The treatment of immune infertility with the integrated approach can reduce or eliminate the influence of antibodies in the serum of patients on various links of pregnancy, thus reaching the goal of curing infertility.

  15. Leg edema and painful gait in a Western African due to dra-cunculiasis:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yann A.Meunier

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 28 year old man from Mali who came to consultation for "lower limb edema and pain-ful gait".The diagnosis of dracunculiasis was established by the suggestive symptomatology and the notion of a trip back to his native country a year earlier.It was confirmed by the outing of the worm.

  16. A study of culture confirmed cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital from Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Chhagan Nakate

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB has increased in India in recent years. Since the disease can affect virtually all organs, has an atypical clinical presentation, the clinical samples for laboratory diagnosis are sometimes difficult to procure, the confirmation of diagnosis is often delayed. With this background, the present study was undertaken to identify the culture confirmed cases of EPTB from clinically suspected cases, to identify the patient related factors associated with the disease and common sites of involvement in these patients. Methods: The study comprised of 143 patients clinically suspected to have EPTB. Relevant clinical samples were collected from these patients according to the anatomical site involved. Confirmation of diagnosis was done by mycobacterial culture using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J medium. Results: Out of 143 specimens, 42 (29.37% were culture positive for mycobacteria (culture confirmed cases. Higher proportion of EPTB was found in females (36.92% than males (23.08%. Maximum patients of EPTB belonged to the age group of 21-40 years (22 cases out of 57, 38.60%. Out of the 17 HIV positive patients, 6 (35.29% were culture positive for mycobacteria. Maximum culture positivity was found with pus samples from bone and joint (44.12% followed by lymph nodes (42.42%. Conclusion: It was found that female sex, younger age (below 40 years and HIV infection were found to be commonly associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. While many studies report TB lymphadenitis as the most common form of EPTB, in our study bone and joint was found to be the commonest site involved in the disease followed by lymph node. Since EPTB has become more common than previously and is difficult to diagnose, it is important to have greater clinical suspicion for the disease and to take appropriate laboratory help for its confirmation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1077-1080

  17. Gene flow and demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti: A case study from the western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano; Schubart, Christoph D.; Fratini, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Most marine organisms are characterized by at least one planktonic phase during their life history, potentially allowing interconnection of populations separated by several hundred kilometers. For many years, the idea that marine species are genetically homogenous throughout their range of distribution, due to passive larval transport, has been a paradigm. Nowadays, a growing number of studies underline the existence of boundaries in the marine realm and highlight how larval dispersal is a complex process depending on biotic as well as abiotic factors. Marine fragmented habitats, such as atolls, mangroves and estuaries, are optimal systems for investigating the marine dispersion process under a metapopulation approach, since populations can be geographically defined a priori as opposed to those occupying open marine environments. Within this frame, the present paper investigates the population genetic structure and the demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti within the western Indian Ocean by partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I. A total of 167 specimens were sampled from six mangrove sites distributed along the East African coast, from Kenya to South Africa, also including a mangrove forest located on Mahé Island, Seychelles. A sharp genetic break between the mainland and the Seychelles is recorded, revealing the existence of two historically distinct groups that can be defined as independent evolutionary units. Gene flow along the East African coast appears to be high enough to form a single metapopulation, probably by means of stepping stone populations. Otherwise, this mainland metapopulation is currently under expansion through a gradual moving front from the subtropical toward the equatorial populations.

  18. Interbasinal marker intervals——A case study from the Jurassic basins of Kachchh and Jaisalmer, western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANDEY; Dhirendra; Kumar; FüRSICH; Franz; Theodor

    2009-01-01

    The Kachchh Basin and the Jaisalmer Basin are two neighboring Mesozoic sedimentary basins at the western margin of the Indian craton. The Jurassic succession of the Kachchh Basin is more complete and more fossiliferous than that of the Jaisalmer Basin. Consequently, intrabasinal correlation of the sedimentary units has been possible in the Kachchh Basin, but not in the Jaisalmer Basin. However, some marker beds existing in the Kachchh Basin can be recognized also in the Jaisalmer Basin. Ammonite evidence shows that they are time-equivalent. The following four units form marker intervals in both basins: (1) the pebbly rudstone unit with Isastrea bernardiana and Leptosphinctes of the Kaladongar Formation (Kachchh Basin) and the Isastrea bernardiana-bearing rudstone of the Jaisalmer Formation (Jaisalmer Basin) both represent transgressive systems tract deposits dated as Late Bajocian; (2) bioturbated micrites with anomalodesmatan bivalves within the Goradongar Yellow Flagstone Member (Kachchh Basin) and bioturbated units in the Fort Member (Jaisalmer Basin) represent maximum flooding zone deposits of the Middle to Late Bathonian; (3) trough-crossbedded, sandy packto grainstones of the Raimalro Limestone Member (Kachchh Basin) and the basal limestone-sandstone unit of the Kuldhar section of the Jaisalmer Formation (Jaisalmer Basin) correspond to Late Bathonain transgressive systems tract deposits; and (4) ferruginous ooid-bearing carbonates with hardgrounds of the Dhosa Oolite member (Kachchh Basin) and the middle part of the Jajiya Member (Jaisalmer Basin) are Oxfordian transgressive systems tract deposits. The fact that in both basins similar biofacies prevailed during certain time intervals demonstrates a common control of their depositional history. As the two basins represent different tectonic settings, the most likely controlling factors were the relative sea-level changes produced by eustatic processes, a common subsidence history of the northwestern margin of

  19. Restoration and Rational Use of Degraded Saline Reed Wetlands:A Case Study in Western Songnen Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bolong; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun; YANG Fuyi; LI Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    The protection,restoration and sustainable use are key issues of all the wetlands worldwide.Ecological,agronomic,and engineering techniques have been integrated in the development of a structurally sound,ecologically beneficial engineering restoration method for restoring and utilizing a degraded saline wetland in the western Songnen Plain of China.Hydrological restoration was performed by developing a system of biannual irrigation and drainage using civil engineering measures to bring wetlands into contact with river water and improve the irrigation and drainage system in the wetlands.Agronomic measures such as plowing the reed fields,reed rhizome transplantation,and fertilization were used to restore the reed vegetation.Biological measures,including the release of crab and fish fry and natural proliferation,were used to restore the aquatic communities.The results of the restoration were clear and positive.By the year 2009,the reed yield had increased by 20.9 times.Remarkable ecological benefits occurred simultaneously.Vegetation primary-production capacity increased,local climate regulation and water purification enhanced,and biodiversity increased.This demonstration of engineering techniques illustrates the basic route for the restoration of degraded wetlands,that the biodiversity should be reconstructed by the comprehensive application of engineering,biological,and agronomic measures based on habitat restoration under the guidance of process-oriented strategies.The complex ecological system including reeds,fish and crabs is based on the biological principles of coexistence and material recycling and provides a reasonable ecological engineering model suitable for the sustainable utilization of degraded saline reed wetlands.

  20. Detecting Trend and Seasonal Changes in Bathymetry Derived from HICO Imagery: A Case Study of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigo A.; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) aboard the International Space Station has offered for the first time a dedicated space-borne hyperspectral sensor specifically designed for remote sensing of the coastal environment. However, several processing steps are required to convert calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiances to the desired geophysical parameter(s). These steps add various amounts of uncertainty that can cumulatively render the geophysical parameter imprecise and potentially unusable if the objective is to analyze trends and/or seasonal variability. This research presented here has focused on: (1) atmospheric correction of HICO imagery; (2) retrieval of bathymetry using an improved implementation of a shallow water inversion algorithm; (3) propagation of uncertainty due to environmental noise through the bathymetry retrieval process; (4) issues relating to consistent geo-location of HICO imagery necessary for time series analysis, and; (5) tide height corrections of the retrieved bathymetric dataset. The underlying question of whether a temporal change in depth is detectable above uncertainty is also addressed. To this end, nine HICO images spanning November 2011 to August 2012, over the Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, were examined. The results presented indicate that precision of the bathymetric retrievals is dependent on the shallow water inversion algorithm used. Within this study, an average of 70% of pixels for the entire HICO-derived bathymetry dataset achieved a relative uncertainty of less than +/-20%. A per-pixel t-test analysis between derived bathymetry images at successive timestamps revealed observable changes in depth to as low as 0.4 m. However, the present geolocation accuracy of HICO is relatively poor and needs further improvements before extensive time series analysis can be performed.

  1. Climate Change Adaptation in the Western U.S.: the Case for Dynamic Rule Curves in Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change in the Western U.S. will bring systematic hydrologic changes affecting many water resources systems. Successful adaptation to these changes, which will be ongoing through the 21st century, will require the 'rebalancing' of competing system objectives such as water supply, flood control, hydropower production, and environmental services in response to hydrologic (and other) changes. Although fixed operating policies for the operation of reservoirs has been a traditional approach to water management in the 20th century, the rapid pace of projected climate shifts (~0.5 F per decade), and the prohibitive costs of recursive policy intervention to mitigate impacts, suggest that more sophisticated approaches will be needed to cope with climate change on a long term basis. The use of 'dynamic rule curves' is an approach that maintains some of the key characteristics of current water management practice (reservoir rule curves) while avoiding many of the fundamental drawbacks of traditional water resources management strategies in a non-stationary climate. In this approach, water resources systems are optimized for each operational period using ensemble streamflow and/or water demand forecasts. The ensemble of optimized reservoir storage traces are then analyzed to produce a set of unique reservoir rule curves for each operational period reflecting the current state of the system. The potential advantage of this approach is that hydrologic changes associated with climate change (such as systematically warmer temperatures) can be captured explicitly in operational hydrologic forecasts, which would in turn inform the optimized reservoir management solutions, creating water resources systems that are largely 'self tending' as the climate system evolves. Furthermore, as hydrologic forecasting systems improve (e.g. in response to improved ENSO forecasting or other scientific advances), so does the performance of reservoir operations. An example of the approach is

  2. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (−0.87) and kerosene oil (−0.89)

  3. Ecohydrodynamics of cold-water coral reefs: a case study of the Mingulay Reef Complex (western Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Moreno Navas

    Full Text Available Ecohydrodynamics investigates the hydrodynamic constraints on ecosystems across different temporal and spatial scales. Ecohydrodynamics play a pivotal role in the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems, however the lack of integrated complex flow models for deep-water ecosystems beyond the coastal zone prevents further synthesis in these settings. We present a hydrodynamic model for one of Earth's most biologically diverse deep-water ecosystems, cold-water coral reefs. The Mingulay Reef Complex (western Scotland is an inshore seascape of cold-water coral reefs formed by the scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa. We applied single-image edge detection and composite front maps using satellite remote sensing, to detect oceanographic fronts and peaks of chlorophyll a values that likely affect food supply to corals and other suspension-feeding fauna. We also present a high resolution 3D ocean model to incorporate salient aspects of the regional and local oceanography. Model validation using in situ current speed, direction and sea elevation data confirmed the model's realistic representation of spatial and temporal aspects of circulation at the reef complex including a tidally driven current regime, eddies, and downwelling phenomena. This novel combination of 3D hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing in deep-water ecosystems improves our understanding of the temporal and spatial scales of ecological processes occurring in marine systems. The modelled information has been integrated into a 3D GIS, providing a user interface for visualization and interrogation of results that allows wider ecological application of the model and that can provide valuable input for marine biodiversity and conservation applications.

  4. Soil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalermchart; Lark, Richard Murray; Marchant, Ben Paul; Garré, Sarah; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry; Weihermueller, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural experiments the success or failure of a potential improvement is generally evaluated based on the plant response, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Because within-site variability can negatively affect statistical power, improvements in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is well understood and incorporated into the experimental design, or if some surrogate variable is used as a covariate in the analysis. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), measured by electromagnetic induction (EMI) may be one source of this information. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements of maize (the response variable) were taken from an agricultural experiment in Western Thailand. A statistical model of these variables was used to simulate experiments with different designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were used to quantify the statistical power when testing three orthogonal contrasts. The following experimental designs were considered: a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). According to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) the smallest effect sizes could be detected using the CRBECa design, which suggests that ECa survey measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by better blocking. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that larger power improvements could be achieved when ECa was used as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to describe subsurface variability and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments.

  5. The role of herpesviruses (BoHV-1 and BoHV-4) and pestiviruses (BVDV and BDV) in ruminant abortion cases in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer-Göktuna, Pelin; Alpay, Gizem; Öner, Eda Baldan; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2016-06-01

    The economic impact of abortions in ruminant breeders is one of the biggest problems in livestock. Of the infectious agents, viruses, especially herpesviruses and pestiviruses, are the most important causative agents of abortion in ruminants. In the present study, the role of herpesviruses (bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4)) and pestiviruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), border disease virus (BDV)) was investigated in cases of ruminant abortion between 2007 and 2015 in western Turkey. Out of 81 aborted fetal samples (60 calves, 19 lambs, and 2 kids), 42 were positive, which included 31 calves, 9 lambs, and 2 goats; 39 aborted fetal samples were negative for the pestivirus antigen ELISA. BoHV-1 antigen ELISA was positive in 3 cases which included 2 calves and 1 lamb; the remainder 78 cases were negative. Pestivirus and BoHV-1 were positive in 51.85 and 3.70 %, respectively, of the samples. According to PCR analysis, BoHV-4 was not encountered in any of the tested samples. In one of the calf fetus samples, both BVDV and BoHV-1 were positive; in one of the lamb fetus samples, BoHV-1 was positive. There was a much higher level of pestivirus antigen than the other viral agents evaluated in the study (p viral cause of ruminant abortions in the examined area. PMID:27038195

  6. Western Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  7. Effects of landscape design of forest reserves on Saproxylic beetle diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouget, C; Parmain, G

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the density of natural reserves in the forest landscape may provide conservation benefits for biodiversity within and beyond reserve borders. We used 2 French data sets on saproxylic beetles and landscape cover of forest reserves (LCFR) to test this hypothesis: national standardized data derived from 252 assessment plots in managed and reserve stands in 9 lowland and 5 highland forests and data from the lowland Rambouillet forest, a forested landscape where a pioneer conservation policy led to creation of a dense network of reserves. Abundance of rare and common saproxylic species and total saproxylic species richness were higher in forest reserves than in adjacent managed stands only in highland forests. In the lowland regional case study, as LCFR increased total species richness and common species abundance in reserves increased. In this case study, when there were two or more reserve patches, rare species abundance inside reserves was higher and common species richness in managed stands was higher than when there was a single large reserve. Spillover and habitat amount affected ecological processes underlying these landscape reserve effects. When LCFR positively affected species richness and abundance in reserves or managed stands, >12-20% reserve cover led to the highest species diversity and abundance. This result is consistent with the target of 17% forested land area in reserves set at the Nagoya biodiversity summit in 2010. Therefore, to preserve biodiversity we recommend at least doubling the current proportion of forest reserves in European forested landscapes. PMID:26084716

  8. Confirmed malaria cases among children under five with fever and history of fever in rural western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidenya Benson R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that malaria treatment should begin with parasitological diagnosis. This will help to control misuse of anti-malarial drugs in areas with low transmission. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of parasitologically confirmed malaria among children under five years of age presenting with fever or history of fever in rural western Tanzania. A finger prick blood sample was obtained from each child, and thin and thick blood smears were prepared, stained with 10% Giemsa and examined under the light microscope. A structured questionnaire was used to collect each patient's demographic information, reasons for coming to the health center; and a physical examination was carried out on all patients. Fever was defined as axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C. Findings A total of 300 children with fever or a history of fever (1 or 2 weeks were recruited, in which 54.3% (163/300, 95%CI, 48.7-59.9 were boys. A total of 76 (76/300, 25.3%, 95%CI, 22.8 - 27.8 of the children had fever. Based on a parasitological diagnosis of malaria, only 12% (36/300, 95%CI, 8.3-15.7 of the children had P. falciparum infection. Of the children with P. falciparum infection, 52.7% (19/36, 95%CI, 47.1-58.3 had fever and the remaining had no fever. The geometrical mean of the parasites was 708.62 (95%CI, 477.96-1050.62 parasites/μl and 25% (9/36, 95%CI, 10.9 -- 39.1 of the children with positive P. falciparum had ≥ 1001 parasites/μl. On Univariate (OR = 2.13, 95%CI, 1.02-4.43, P = 0.044 and multivariate (OR = 2.15, 95%CI, 1.03-4.49 analysis, only children above one year of age were associated with malaria infections. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the children under the age of five with fever had malaria, and with a proportion of children having non-malaria fever. Improvement of malaria diagnostic and other causes of febrile illness may provide effective measure in management of febrile illness in

  9. Paired stable isotopologues in precipitation and vapor: A case study of the amount effect within western tropical Pacific storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Jessica L.; Noone, David; Cobb, Kim M.; Moerman, Jessica W.; Konecky, Bronwen L.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding controls on the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and vapor in the West Pacific Warm Pool is vital for accurate representation of convective processes in models and correct interpretation of isotope-based paleoclimate proxies, yet a lack of direct observational evidence precludes the utility of these isotopic tracers. Results from a measurement campaign at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea from 28 April to 8 May 2013 demonstrate variability in the stable isotopic composition (δD and δ18O) of precipitation and vapor in individual precipitation events and over a 10 day period. Isotope ratios in water vapor and precipitation progressively increased throughout the period of measurement, coincident with a transition from high to low regional convective activity. Vapor isotope ratios approached equilibrium with seawater during the quiescent period and likely reflected downwind advection of distilled vapor and re-evaporation of rainfall during the period of regional convection. On a 5 min timescale across individual storms, isotope ratios in precipitation were strongly correlated with isotope ratios in surface vapor. However, individual precipitation isotope ratios were not strongly correlated with surface meteorological data, including precipitation rate, in all storms. Yet across all events, precipitation deuterium excess was negatively correlated with surface temperature, sea level pressure, and cloud base height and positively correlated with precipitation rate and relative humidity. Paired surface precipitation and vapor isotope ratios indicate condensation at boundary layer temperatures. The ratio of these paired values decreased with increasing precipitation rate during some precipitation events, suggesting rain re-evaporation and precipitation in equilibrium with an isotopically distinct upper level moisture source. Results from the short campaign support the interpretation that isotope ratios in precipitation and vapor in the western

  10. Correlation of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Seismicity with Operation Parameters of Shale Gas Extraction: Two Case Studies in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbod, A. M.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Snyder, D. B.; Cairns, S.; Walker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast British Columbia, specifically the Horn River Basin (HRB) and Montney Trend, are among the largest shale gas production regions in western Canada. In contrast, there has been no large-scale hydraulic fracturing (HF) operation in the Northwest Territories in the Norman Wells region of the central Mackenzie valley. In this study, we investigate the effect of injection pressure, operation duration and injected volume on the observed seismicity in the HRB and Norman Wells regions and compare our observations with the pre-HF records. In the HRB, we apply the single-station location and waveform correlation methods to establish a homogenous earthquake catalog (2006/12-2011/12). In the Northwest Territories, we combine data from a local seismograph network of 4 stations plus a dense array of 7 stations located from 1 km to 50 km from the operation wells to locate earthquakes (2013/09-2014/07). In the HRB, the initial effect of an increased injected volume is an increase in earthquake frequency but not magnitude. Local earthquakes gradually become larger in magnitude as the scale of HF in the region expands. While the injection pressure during HF operations has been regulated at a relatively constant level, the massive increase of injection volume in 2010 and 2011 coincides with a series of ML>3 events. Relatively large seismic moment release (>1014 N m) occurred only when the monthly injected volume exceeded ~150,000 m3. In addition, we observe variable time lags, from days to up to 4 months between intense HF and the occurrence of a significant local earthquake. On the other hand, in the Norman Wells region, two small-scale HF were performed in 2014 with a total injected volume of ~ 14000 m3. We observed an increase in the number of micro-earthquakes (M < 2.0) during the HF period without a clear change in the overall seismic pattern. From these two observations, we conclude that HF operations do not necessarily result in an increase in the occurrence rate of

  11. Aligning Incentives in Orthopaedics: Opportunities and Challenges—the Case Medical Center Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Randall E.; Zenty, Thomas F.; Adelman Esq., Harlin G.

    2009-01-01

    For 30 years, the orthopaedic faculty at Case Western Reserve University worked as an independent private corporation within University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Hospital). However, by 2002, it became progressively obvious to our orthopaedic practice that we needed to modify our business model to better manage the healthcare regulatory changes and decreased reimbursement if we were to continue to attract and retain the best and brightest orthopaedic surgeons to our practice. In 2002, our...

  12. How Effective is the Buffer Zone? Linking Institutional Processes with Satellite Images from a Case Study in the Lore Lindu Forest Biosphere Reserve, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Stoll-Kleemann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere reserves seek to reconcile nature conservation with local development goals, for example by delineating buffer zones of sustainable resource use around core areas with primary conservation objectives. Here we evaluate buffer zone effectiveness in reducing deforestation within the Lore Lindu Biosphere Reserve in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Socio-economic and remote-sensing data were combined in an integrated approach. We applied a systematic qualitative social research design and carried out in-depth interviews with local, sub-national, and national authorities. Data collected through the interviews were used to interpret satellite images: (1 spatially, that is, forest cover change in the buffer zone versus the core area and, (2 over time, that is, forest cover change as a response to changing management regimes and socio-economic processes in the region. For this purpose a time series of LANDSAT scenes from 1972 to 2007 was used to classify homogeneous areas of forest cover to detect deforestation. According to the satellite image analysis, the buffer zone in Lore Lindu was ineffective at reducing forest cover clearing in the core area between 1972 and 2007. Since management establishment in 1998, the deforestation rate within the core area even increased fourfold. The gathered data suggest that there are three main institutional drivers to account for this ineffectiveness: (1 Low awareness of boundary demarcation among the villagers due to the lack of participation during management and boundary establishment, (2 The fall of the national president Suharto in 1998, which subsequently triggered deforestation activities in the core area, as the park was perceived to be the local branch of the national, suppressive regime, and (3 The lack of implementation of the biosphere reserve concept at the national level, which leads to unclear responsibilities in the buffer zone as the legal backing for any cooperation in the buffer zone is lacking

  13. Sensitivity of quantitative precipitation forecasts to boundary layer parameterization: a flash flood case study in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zampieri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Montserrat-2000' severe flash flood event which occurred over Catalonia on 9 and 10 June 2000 is analyzed. Strong precipitation was generated by a mesoscale convective system associated with the development of a cyclone. The location of heavy precipitation depends on the position of the cyclone, which, in turn, is found to be very sensitive to various model characteristics and initial conditions. Numerical simulations of this case study using the hydrostatic BOLAM and the non-hydrostatic MOLOCH models are performed in order to test the effects of different formulations of the boundary layer parameterization: a modified version of the Louis (order 1 model and a custom version of the E-ℓ (order 1.5 model. Both of them require a diagnostic formulation of the mixing length, but the use of the turbulent kinetic energy equation in the E-ℓ model allows to represent turbulence history and non-locality effects and to formulate a more physically based mixing length. The impact of the two schemes is different in the two models. The hydrostatic model, run at 1/5 degree resolution, is less sensitive, but the quantitative precipitation forecast is in any case unsatisfactory in terms of localization and amount. Conversely, the non-hydrostatic model, run at 1/50 degree resolution, is capable of realistically simulate timing, position and amount of precipitation, with the apparently superior results obtained with the E-ℓ parameterization model.

  14. Estimation of active faulting in a slow deformation area: Culoz fault as a case study (Jura-Western Alps junction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Taille, Camille; Jouanne, Francois; Crouzet, Christian; Jomard, Hervé; Beck, Christian; de Rycker, Koen; van Daele, Maarten; Lebourg, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The north-western Alps foreland is considered as still experiencing distal effects of Alpine collision, resulting in both horizontal and vertical relative displacements. Based on seismological and geodetic surveys, detailed patterns of active faulting (including subsurface décollements, blind ramps and deeper crustal thrusts have been proposed (Thouvenot et al., 1998), underlining the importance of NW-SE left-lateral strike-slip offsets as along the Vuache and Culoz faults (cf. the 1996 Epagny event: M=5.4; Thouvenot et al., 1998 and the 1822 Culoz event I=VII-VIII; Vogt, 1979). In parallel to this tectonic evolution, the last glaciation-deglaciation cycles contributed to develop large and over-deepened lacustrine basins, such as Lake Le Bourget (Perrier, 1980). The fine grain, post LGM (ie post 18 ky), sedimentary infill gives a good opportunity to evidence late quaternary tectonic deformations. This study focuses on the Culoz fault, extending from the Jura to the West, to the Chautagne swamp and through the Lake Le Bourget to the East. Historical earthquakes are known nearby this fault as ie the 1822 Culoz event. The precise location and geometry of the main fault is illustrated but its Eastern termination still needs to be determined. High resolution seismic sections and side-scan sonar images performed in the 90's (Chapron et al., 1996) showed that the Col du Chat and Culoz faults have locally deformed the quaternary sedimentary infill of the lake. These studies, mainly devoted to paleo-climate analysis were not able to determine neither the geometry of the fault, or to quantify the observed deformations. A new campaign devoted to highlight the fault geometry and associated deformation, has been performed in October 2013. Very tight profiles were performed during this high resolution seismic survey using seistec boomer and sparker sources. In several places the rupture reaches the most recent seismic reflectors underlying that these faults were active during

  15. [Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) and justice tests in the Republic of China in the context of western knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China. PMID:25579214

  16. On Making Statistical Inferences Regarding the Relationship between Spawners and Recruits and the Irresolute Case of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porch, Clay E; Lauretta, Matthew V

    2016-01-01

    Forecasts of the future abundance of western Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) have, for nearly two decades, been based on two competing views of future recruitment potential: (1) a "low" recruitment scenario based on hockey-stick (two-line) curve where the expected level of recruitment is set equal to the geometric mean of the recruitment estimates for the years after a supposed regime-shift in 1975, and (2) a "high" recruitment scenario based on a Beverton-Holt curve fit to the time series of spawner-recruit pairs beginning in 1970. Several investigators inferred the relative plausibility of these two scenarios based on measures of their ability to fit estimates of spawning biomass and recruitment derived from stock assessment outputs. Typically, these comparisons have assumed the assessment estimates of spawning biomass are known without error. It is shown here that ignoring error in the spawning biomass estimates can predispose model-choice approaches to favor the regime-shift hypothesis over the Beverton-Holt curve with higher recruitment potential. When the variance of the observation error approaches that which is typically estimated for assessment outputs, the same model-choice approaches tend to favor the single Beverton-Holt curve. For this and other reasons, it is argued that standard model-choice approaches are insufficient to make the case for a regime shift in the recruitment dynamics of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. A more fruitful course of action may be to move away from the current high/low recruitment dichotomy and focus instead on adopting biological reference points and management procedures that are robust to these and other sources of uncertainty. PMID:27272215

  17. On Making Statistical Inferences Regarding the Relationship between Spawners and Recruits and the Irresolute Case of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay E Porch

    Full Text Available Forecasts of the future abundance of western Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus have, for nearly two decades, been based on two competing views of future recruitment potential: (1 a "low" recruitment scenario based on hockey-stick (two-line curve where the expected level of recruitment is set equal to the geometric mean of the recruitment estimates for the years after a supposed regime-shift in 1975, and (2 a "high" recruitment scenario based on a Beverton-Holt curve fit to the time series of spawner-recruit pairs beginning in 1970. Several investigators inferred the relative plausibility of these two scenarios based on measures of their ability to fit estimates of spawning biomass and recruitment derived from stock assessment outputs. Typically, these comparisons have assumed the assessment estimates of spawning biomass are known without error. It is shown here that ignoring error in the spawning biomass estimates can predispose model-choice approaches to favor the regime-shift hypothesis over the Beverton-Holt curve with higher recruitment potential. When the variance of the observation error approaches that which is typically estimated for assessment outputs, the same model-choice approaches tend to favor the single Beverton-Holt curve. For this and other reasons, it is argued that standard model-choice approaches are insufficient to make the case for a regime shift in the recruitment dynamics of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. A more fruitful course of action may be to move away from the current high/low recruitment dichotomy and focus instead on adopting biological reference points and management procedures that are robust to these and other sources of uncertainty.

  18. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  19. Consequences of estuarine sand dredging and dumping on the Urdaibai Reserve of the Biosphere (Bay of Biscay): the case of the “Mundaka left wave”

    OpenAIRE

    Monge Ganuzas, Manu; Cearreta, Alejandro; Iriarte Avilés, Eneko

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In the spring of 2003, 240,000 m3 of sand were dredged from the main channel of the lower Oka estuary (Urdaibai Reserve of the Biosphere) and dumped on the southern area of Laida beach located at the estuary mouth. After few months, strong erosion of the deposited sediments occured as a consequence of the northwards migration of the final meander of the main estuarine channel before it reached the estuary inlet. At the same time, the estuarine inlet abandoned its original p...

  20. Forex Reserve Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China faces pressure of preserving the value of its $3 trillion foreign exchange reserves While already under pressure to revalue its currency,the yuan,against the U.S.dollar,China also faces the challenge of stifling vast losses to its foreign exchange reserve,mostly denominated in U.S.dollars.These losses to foreign exchange

  1. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  2. The hydro-meteorological chain in Piemonte region, North Western Italy - analysis of the HYDROPTIMET test cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rabuffetti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROPTIMET Project, Interreg IIIB EU program, is developed in the framework of the prediction and prevention of natural hazards related to severe hydro-meteorological events and aims to the optimisation of Hydro-Meteorological warning systems by the experimentation of new tools (such as numerical models to be used operationally for risk assessment. The objects of the research are the mesoscale weather phenomena and the response of watersheds with size ranging from 102 to 103 km2. Non-hydrostatic meteorological models are used to catch such phenomena at a regional level focusing on the Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF. Furthermore hydrological Quantitative Discharge Forecast (QDF are performed by the simulation of run-off generation and flood propagation in the main rivers of the territory. In this way observed data and QPF are used, in a real-time configuration, for one-way forcing of the hydrological model that works operationally connected to the Piemonte Region Alert System. The main hydro-meteorological events that affected Piemonte Region in the last years are analysed, these are the HYDROPTIMET selected test cases of 14–18 November 2002 and 23–26 November 2002. The results obtained in terms of QPF and QDF offer a basis to evaluate the sensitivity of the whole hydro-meteorological chain to the uncertainties in the numerical simulations. Different configurations of non-hydrostatic meteorological models are also evaluated.

  3. Evaluation of the hydro-meteorological chain in Piemonte Region, north western Italy - analysis of two HYDROPTIMET test cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rabuffetti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROPTIMET Project, Interreg IIIB EU program, is developed in the framework of the prediction and prevention of natural hazards related to severe hydro-meteorological events and aims to the optimisation of Hydro-Meteorological warning systems by the experimentation of new tools (such as numerical models to be used operationally for risk assessment. The object of the research are the Mesoscale weather phenomena and the response of watersheds with size ranging from 102 to 103 km2. Non-hydrostatic meteorological models are used to catch such phenomena at a regional level focusing on the Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF. Furthermore hydrological Quantitative Discharge Forecast (QDF are performed by the simulation of run-off generation and flood propagation in the main rivers of the interested territory. In this way observed data and QPF are used, in a real-time configuration, for one-way forcing of the hydrological model that works operationally connected to the Piemonte Region Alert System. The main hydro-meteorological events that interested Piemonte Region in the last years are studied, these are the HYDROPTIMET selected test cases of 14-18 November 2002 and 23-26 November 2002. The results obtained in terms of QPF and QDF offer a sound basis to evaluate the sensitivity of the whole hydro-meteorological chain to the uncertainties in the numerical simulations. Different configurations of non-hydrostatic meteorological models are also analysed.

  4. The proportion of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency and PAH gene deficiency variants among cases with hyperphenyalaninemia in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Moradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Defects either in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheOH or in the production and recycling of its cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin [BH4] are the causes of primary hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA. The aim of our study was to investigate the current status of different variants of HPA Kurdish patients in Kermanshah province, Iran. Materials and Methods: From 33 cases enrolled in our study, 32 were identified as HPA patients. Reassessing of pre-treatment phenylalanine concentrations and the analysis of urinary pterins was done by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: A total of 30 patients showed PAH deficiency and two patients were diagnosed with BH4 deficiency (BH4/HPA ratio = 6.25%. Both of these two BH4-deficient patients were assigned to severe variant of dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR deficiency. More than 75% of patients with PAH deficiency classified as classic phenylketonuria (PKU according their levels of pre-treatment phenylalanine concentrations. Conclusion: Based on the performed study, we think that the frequency of milder forms of PKU is higher than those was estimated before and/or our findings here. Furthermore, the frequency of DHPR deficiency seems to be relatively high in our province. Since the clinical symptoms of DHPR deficiency are confusingly similar to that of classic PKU and its prognosis are much worse than classical PKU and cannot be solely treated with the PKU regime, our pilot study support that it is crucial to set up screening for BH4 deficiency, along with PAH deficiency, among all HPA patients diagnosed with HPA.

  5. Marine reserve design theory for species with ontogenetic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Models for marine reserve design have been developed primarily with 'reef fish' life histories in mind: sedentary adults in patches connected by larval dispersal. However, many fished species undertake ontogenetic migrations, such as from nursery grounds to adult spawning habitats, and current theory does not fully address the range of reserve options posed by that situation. I modelled a generic species with ontogenetic migration to investigate the possible benefits of reserves under three alternative scenarios. First, the fishery targets adult habitat, and reserves can sustain yields under high exploitation, unless habitat patches are well connected. Second, the fishery targets the nursery, and reserves are highly effective, regardless of connectivity patterns. Third, the fishery targets both habitats, and reserves only succeed if paired on adjacent, well-connected nursery and adult patches. In all cases, reserves can buffer populations against overexploitation but would not enhance fishery yield beyond that achievable by management without reserves. These results summarize the general situations in which management using reserves could be useful for ontogenetically migrating species, and the type of connectivity data needed to inform reserve design. PMID:25631225

  6. 1 CFR 21.12 - Reservation of numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of numbers. 21.12 Section 21.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.12 Reservation of numbers. In a case where related parts...

  7. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  8. Flood disaster and protection measures in Turkey Case Study: May 1998 flood disaster at North Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to geographical location, geology, and topography, Turkey undergoes three main types of natural disasters related to gravity flows; floods, landslides, and snow avalanches. Flooding is second important natural hazard after earthquakes with 18 floods and 23 deaths per year, on average. During 20-21 May 1998, the rainfall which was equal to about four times of long-term mean annual rainfall total of north western Black Sea geographical region of Turkey affected 35.000 m2 , damaged 1300 km highway, 600 km roads to the villages, and 60 km railway. After the recession of the flood waters, the field survey done proved that 12 highway bridges, 91 small bridges on village roads and 6900 highway culverts, 13.800 m retaining wall and about 500 houses were severely damaged. During the last five years, with the loans and credits provided by World Bank, a series of flood protection structures were designed and built for the rehabilitation of the region. Mostly concentrating on non-structural flood protection studies, a work programme has been drafted in this framework to develop flood management and to reduce or eliminate long-term risk and damage to people and their property from natural hazards and their effects. In this case study, the factors causing the flood disaster are given, and the flood event is analyzed from hydrologic and morphologic points of view. Also the different types of the flood protection measures are exemplified and the experience gained in controlling the flood damages is presented.(Author)

  9. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  10. Sunrise as a tourist attraction in the context of tourist motivation theory: a case study of the peak of Babia Góra (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocior Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourist ascents of mountain peaks before sunrise are increasingly popular. Babia Góra (Western Carpathians is a peak on the Polish-Slovak border frequently visited by a great number of tourists at sunrise. The main objective of our research, based on the case study of Babia Gora, was to answer a more general question whether the sunrise can be considered a tourist attraction. The research included the observation and description of every sunrise at summer holiday weekends during 2012 from the peak of Babia Góra as well as the collection of data on the number of tourists and weather conditions. Survey interviews, using questionnaire, with randomly selected hikers present on the peak of Babia Góra at sunrise (269 were conducted. The investigation showed that during summer holiday sunrises there were a maximum of 130 people on the summit of Babia Góra at the same time. Most of the surveyed people (84% agreed that the opportunity to observe the sunrise was one of the pull factors for them. This confirms the hypothesis that sunrise constitutes a tourist attraction.

  11. Comparison of reserve estimates using different reserve definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors that can impact an oil reserve volume estimate were described. The importance of setting standards for the definition of reserve categories was discussed. The continuing process of updating and revising reserve definitions is a reflection of the changing nature of the petroleum industry and also points up the difficulty of writing a comprehensive definition of reserves and guidelines that would serve the needs of industry without unnecessary complexity. Current working definitions of some common terms dealing with reserves estimating were included

  12. Ovarian reserve tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian reserve plays a crucial role in achieving pregnancy following any treatment in subfertile women. The estimation of ovarian reserve is routinely performed through various ovarian reserve tests (ORTs in an effort to predict the response and outcome in couples prior to In Vitro Fertilization and counsel them. Most widely used tests are basal follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count. The role of ORTs in our routine practice is discussed in this article. A MEDLINE search was done to identify suitable articles for review.

  13. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magarian, G.J.; Palac, R.; Reinhart, S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded.

  14. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded

  15. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  16. Are Emerging Asia’s Reserves Really Too High?

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Ruiz-Arranz; Milan Zavadjil

    2008-01-01

    Empirical analysis does not suggest that reserves are "too high" in the majority of Asian countries, though China may be a special case. Much of the reserve increase in Asia can be explained by an optimal insurance model under which reserves provide a steady source of liquidity to cushion the impact of a sudden stop in capital inflows on output and consumption. Moreover, the benefits of reserves in terms of reduced spreads on privately held external debt further explains the observed growth i...

  17. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is influenced by hormonal contraception. This study quantified the effect of hormonal contraception on both endocrine and sonographic ovarian reserve markers in 228 users and 504 non-users of hormonal contraception. On day...... 2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  18. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  19. The Role of Maternal, Health System, and Psychosocial Factors in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Failure in the Era of Programmatic Scale Up in Western Kenya: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Onono, Maricianah; Owuor, Kevin; Turan, Janet; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Gray, Glenda E; Cohen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in an area of Kenya with widely accessible free PMTCT services. A matched case-control study was conducted at 31 public facilities in western Kenya. HIV-infected mothers with infants aged 6 weeks to 6 months were interviewed and medical charts were reviewed. Cases were mothers of infants with a definitive diagnosis of HIV. Controls were mothers of infants testing HIV negative. Case...

  20. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  1. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  2. Predictability of prototype flash flood events in the Western Mediterranean under uncertainties of the precursor upper-level disturbance: the HYDROPTIMET case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R.; Martín, A.; Homar, V.; Alonso, S.; Ramis, C.

    2005-07-01

    The HYDROPTIMET case studies (9-10 June 2000 Catalogne, 8-9 September 2002 Cévennes and 24-26 November 2002 Piémont) appear to encompass a sort of prototype flash-flood situations in the western Mediterranean attending to the relevant synoptic and mesoscale signatures identified on the meteorological charts. In Catalogne, the convective event was driven by a low-pressure system of relatively small dimensions developed over the mediterranean coast of Spain that moved into southern France. For Cévennes, the main circulation pattern was a synoptic-scale Atlantic low which induced a persistent southerly low-level jet (LLJ) over the western Mediterranean, strengthened by the Alps along its western flank, which guaranteed continuous moisture supply towards southern France where the long-lived, quasistationary convective system developed. The long Piémont episode, very representative of the most severe alpine flash flood events, shares some similarities with the Cévennes situation during its first stage in that it was controlled by a southerly moist LLJ associated with a large-scale disturbance located to the west. However, these circulation features were transient aspects and during the second half of the episode the situation was dominated by a cyclogenesis process over the Mediterranean which gave place to a mesoscale-size depression at surface that acted to force new heavy rain over the slopes of the Alps and maritime areas. That is, the Piémont episode can be catalogued as of mixed type with regard to the responsible surface disturbance, evolving from a large-scale pattern with remote action (like Cévennes) to a mesoscale pattern with local action (like Catalogne). A prominent mid-tropospheric trough or cut-off low can be identified in all events prior and during the period of heavy rain, which clearly served as the precursor agent for the onset of the flash-flood conditions and the cyclogenesis at low-levels. Being aware of the uncertainty in the

  3. Predictability of prototype flash flood events in the Western Mediterranean under uncertainties of the precursor upper-level disturbance: the HYDROPTIMET case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Romero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROPTIMET case studies (9–10 June 2000 Catalogne, 8–9 September 2002 Cévennes and 24–26 November 2002 Piémont appear to encompass a sort of prototype flash-flood situations in the western Mediterranean attending to the relevant synoptic and mesoscale signatures identified on the meteorological charts. In Catalogne, the convective event was driven by a low-pressure system of relatively small dimensions developed over the mediterranean coast of Spain that moved into southern France. For Cévennes, the main circulation pattern was a synoptic-scale Atlantic low which induced a persistent southerly low-level jet (LLJ over the western Mediterranean, strengthened by the Alps along its western flank, which guaranteed continuous moisture supply towards southern France where the long-lived, quasistationary convective system developed. The long Piémont episode, very representative of the most severe alpine flash flood events, shares some similarities with the Cévennes situation during its first stage in that it was controlled by a southerly moist LLJ associated with a large-scale disturbance located to the west. However, these circulation features were transient aspects and during the second half of the episode the situation was dominated by a cyclogenesis process over the Mediterranean which gave place to a mesoscale-size depression at surface that acted to force new heavy rain over the slopes of the Alps and maritime areas. That is, the Piémont episode can be catalogued as of mixed type with regard to the responsible surface disturbance, evolving from a large-scale pattern with remote action (like Cévennes to a mesoscale pattern with local action (like Catalogne. A prominent mid-tropospheric trough or cut-off low can be identified in all events prior and during the period of heavy rain, which clearly served as the precursor agent for the onset of the flash-flood conditions and the cyclogenesis at low-levels. Being aware of the

  4. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  5. UNDERSTANDING WOMEN’S PERCEPTIONS ON AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION: THE CASE OF COMMUNITIES ADJACENT TO KITULANG’HALO FOREST RESERVE IN MOROGORO RURAL DISTRICT, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Uisso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better plan for future involvement of women in the management of the environment, it is crucial to understand their perceptions on agroforestry practices for environmental conservation. The study assessed women’s perceptions on agroforestry for environmental conservation in Lubungo A and Maseyu villages which are adjacent to Kitulang’halo Forest Reserve in Morogoro Rural District. Secondary data reviews and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA involving Focus Group Discussions (FGDs, Key Informant Interviews (KIIs, field observations and household interviews were used for data collection. The results of this study indicated that in both villages studied there were dominance of male headed households, married head of households, working group, small and medium household size, number of respondents completed primary education and farming activities. From the Likert scale analysis it was realized that, the perception of women on the contribution of agroforestry to environmental conservation was generally positive. However, women were highly positive (1st Rank about the contribution of agroforestry to wind break. Furthermore, the chi-square (X2 test results showed that there was a significant relationship between household head (X2 = 8.63, p = 0.013, age (X2 = 11.227, p = 0.024 and the level of rating of the contribution of agroforestry to environmental conservation. Conversely, X2 test showed no association between marital status, education level and household size with respondent’s level of rating. For a better future management of the environment in the agricultural landscapes women should equally recognise all the environmental benefits of the agroforestry activities. Furthermore, provision of agroforestry and environmental education, accessible loan for agroforestry, seedlings and modern agricultural equipments for enhancing agroforestry practices for environmental conservation is necessary.

  6. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  7. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  8. Effect of intervention and type of forest management on quality and quantity characteristics of dead wood in managed and reserve forests: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kambiz T. Abkenari; Fateme Akbari; Babak Pilehvar

    2012-01-01

    We compared the dead wood (DW) conditions of Cheshmeh-sar forest and Sardab forest with different management history,including reserve forest and harvested forest.The First forest took 100% inventory from all the available DW.Also dead trees were compared in terms of species,shape,location and quality of fracture in both forests.Volumes of dead wood in Cheshmeh-sar and Sardab forests were 207.47 and 142.74 m3,respectively.Due to this significant difference,impact on the management level was determined.In Cheshmeh-sar forest,42% of dead trees were standing and 58% were fallen type while in Sardab forest 38.6% were standing and 61.4% fallen.But the difference was not statistically significant between them (p =0.0587).In terms of quality,dead trees of hard,soft and hollow had the highest frequency,respectively.However,71.5% of DW was seen as hard dead in Cheshmeh-sar forest while hard dead trees in Sardab forests were 54.2%.Soft quality degree of dead trees which formed in Cheshmeh-sar and Sardab forest were calculated as 26.6% and 43.4% respectively.Also 30% of the dead trees of Sardab forest were eradicated while in Cheshmeh-sar this amount was reduced to 12%.Due to this significant difference ((P=0/018),it is concluded that the type of management and human interference are affecting the quality of dead trees and makes us to think the human interferences could effect on the ecosystem of touched forests.

  9. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of premenopausal breast cancers from a nuclear fallout area and matched cases from Western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, G; Varma, R; Huang, H; Pryshchepava, A; Groth, J; Fleming, D; Nowak, N J; McQuaid, D; Conroy, J; Mahoney, M; Moysich, K; Falkner, K L; Geradts, J

    2005-09-19

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) was performed on breast carcinomas in premenopausal women from Western New York (WNY) and from Gomel, Belarus, an area exposed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. Genomic DNA was isolated from 47 frozen tumour specimens from 42 patients and hybridised to arrays spotted with more than 3000 BAC clones. In all, 20 samples were from WNY and 27 were from Belarus. In total, 34 samples were primary tumours and 13 were lymph node metastases, including five matched pairs from Gomel. The average number of total CNAs per sample was 76 (range 35-134). We identified 152 CNAs (92 gains and 60 losses) occurring in more than 10% of the samples. The most common amplifications included gains at 8q13.2 (49%), at 1p21.1 (36%), and at 8q24.21 (36%). The most common deletions were at 1p36.22 (26%), at 17p13.2 (26%), and at 8p23.3 (23%). Belarussian tumours had more amplifications and fewer deletions than WNY breast cancers. HER2/neu negativity and younger age were also associated with a higher number of gains and fewer losses. In the five paired samples, we observed more discordant than concordant DNA changes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumours: one comprised predominantly of Belarussian carcinomas and the other largely consisting of WNY cases. In total, 50 CNAs occurred significantly more commonly in one cohort vs the other, and these included some candidate signature amplifications in the breast cancers in women exposed to significant radiation. In conclusion, our high-density aCGH study has revealed a large number of genetic aberrations in individual premenopausal breast cancer specimens, some of which had not been reported before. We identified a distinct CNA profile for carcinomas from a nuclear fallout area, suggesting a possible molecular fingerprint of radiation-associated breast cancer. PMID:16222315

  10. Spatial heterogeneity in mangroves assessed by GeoEye-1 satellite data: a case-study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leempoel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests, which are declining across the globe mainly because of human intervention, require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc. to better implement conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (under the jurisdiction of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve – ZMNNR, P. R. China were assessed through time using 1967 (Corona KH-4B, 2000 (Landsat ETM+, and 2009 (GeoEye-1 satellite imagery. An important decline in mangrove cover (−36% was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to dike construction for agriculture (paddy and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%, the ratio mangrove/aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice culture. In the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 m × 5 m plot-based tree measurements (August–September, 2009 and spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1, both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73–100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum is identifiable at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands close to B. gymnorrhiza (classification accuracy: 85%. Sand proportion in the sediment showed significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA, P < 0.05 between the three mangrove classes (B. gymnorrhiza and small and tall A. corniculatum. Distribution of tall A. corniculatum on the convex side of creeks and small A.corniculatum on the concave side (with sand show intriguing patterns of watercourse changes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination is well demonstrated

  11. Determinants and Impact of Rural-Urban Migration: A Case Study of Selected Communities in Western Nigeria. African Rural Employment Paper No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essang, Sunday M.; Mabawonku, Adewale F.

    This economic analysis of migration was designed to test the following six hypotheses on the causes of out-migration from agriculture and its effect on the rural economy of Western Nigeria: (1) age of the rural family, of which the migrant is a member, is positively related to rural-urban migration rate; (2) a positive relationship exists between…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Application of Modern Distance Learning Resources for Rural Elementary and Middle Schools in Western China: The Case of Three Cities in Gansu Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaixue; Yu, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    Based on a specially adapted questionnaire, research was carried out to explore how resources in modern distance learning were being applied in rural elementary and middle schools in Western China, in order to enhance the usefulness of the allocated resources. One particular distance learning project was used as the subject of the study, and…

  13. “Its Gnow or Never”: a case study of community action for malleefowl conservation in the wheatbelt area of Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennings, S.

    1999-01-01

    Concern for the decline of the malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould, 1840, in the Gnowangerup Shire, Western Australia, lead to the formation, in August 1992, of the Malleefowl Preservation Group Inc. (MPG) which currently supports a membership in excess of 1500 individuals (January 1998). The group’s a

  14. "No Longer from Pyramids to the Empire State Building": Why Both Western Civilization and World Civilization Should Be Part of the History Major--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, Peter Stearns wrote, "The ongoing debate between partisans of Western civilization surveys and fans of world history continues with no signs of any abatement." No one can deny that the rise of world history has been a phenomenon in American higher education over the past 30 years. Most high school students now take some version of a world…

  15. Community and conservation reserves in southern India: status, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanagavel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community Reserves and Conservation Reserves illustrate a community-based co-management model, a first of its kind within the protected area (PA network of India. Such reserves mark a shift towards an inclusive and decentralised approach within PAs in the country. Three such reserves in southern India: the Aghanashini Lion-tailed Macaque Conservation Reserve, Kadalundi-Vallikunnu Community Reserve and Thirupaddaimaradur Conservation Reserve, were selected to examine the reasons for their creation, management and stakeholder dynamics, with an aim to review their productivity and potential replicability. The study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with Forest Department officials, local community members and researchers working in the three reserves. Insufficient interaction between the stakeholders appeared to be a common issue in two reserves. The functioning of the reserves was also influenced, and in some cases negatively affected, by local politics. Financial stability was crucial in the functioning of reserves, as was consistency in interaction and appropriate monitoring of management plans. These elements are recommended for sustaining such reserves and creating community-based management systems for conservation, to support an inclusive approach to PA management.

  16. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  17. Case Report: "ADHD Trainer": the mobile application that enhances cognitive skills in ADHD patients [version 5; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Ruiz-Manrique; Kazuhiro Tajima-Pozo; Francisco Montañes-Rada

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 10 year old patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid video game addiction, who was treated with medication combined with a novel cognitive training method based on video games called TCT method. A great risk of developing video game or internet addiction has been reported in children, especially in children with ADHD. Despite this risk, we hypothesize that the good use of these new technologies might be useful to develop new m...

  18. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Callum M.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Gell, Fiona R

    2005-01-01

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should b...

  19. Calibration of low-grade metamorphic indicators with low-T thermochronometers: A test case from the western U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, C.; Stockli, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    In the parlance of low-T thermochronology, sedimentary rocks are considered "reset" when they contain detrital grains (typically apatite or zircon) that have (U-Th)/He or fission-track ages younger than the depositional age. In studies focused on cooling histories, thermochronology data are frequently considered useful only if they come from reset samples, but in some cases it may be difficult to predict in advance whether a particular stratigraphic unit is reset. Quantitative indicators of low-grade metamorphism, which typically involve analyses that are less time-consuming and less costly than thermochronology analyses, may be useful for estimating peak temperatures experienced by sedimentary strata and thus whether those strata are reset, but currently there are no empirically-based calibrations between these indicators and the various low-T thermochronometers. We have focused on calibrating two of the most commonly used methods: illite crystallinity (IC; a low-grade metamorphic indicator sensitive to temperature variations in the range of ~100-300 °C) and the zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometer (which has a nominal closure temperature of ~190 °C). We utilize samples from a transect of siliciclastic Cambrian strata in the western US over which there is a large gradient in IC. Initial data suggest that the zircon (U-Th)/He partial retention zone is bracketed between quartzites and sandstones with IC of 0.3 and 1.1 °2θ, respectively, consistent with previous temperature estimates for the IC scale. Additional data from samples with intermediate IC will narrow this range and improve the calibration. Furthermore, (U-Th)/He data from 21 individual zircon grains from the least-metamorphosed sample along the transect (the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone at Frenchman Mtn., NV; IC=1.1° 2θ) have implications for the notion of "reset" ages and detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology. (U-Th)/He ages of detrital zircons in the Tapeats at Frenchman Mtn. range from >1600 Myr

  20. Two cases of imported malaria in Western Romania, 2010-2011 Raul Neghina1, Elena Doina Nicola2, Camelia Nita3, Virgil Musta1,3, Emilia Nicoara1,3, Tudor Rares Olariu1,2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raul Neghina; Elena Doina Nicola; Camelia Nita; Virgil Musta; Emilia Nicoara; Tudor Rares Olariu

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malaria is a major problem for European travelers to endemic regions. In Romania during 1980-2007 approximately20 imported cases were detected annually. The aim of our short communication is to present2 interesting cases of imported malaria detected in Western Romania. The first patient was a20-year female who traveled to India and acquired an infection with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). The second patient, a60-year female, contracted an infection withPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) during a trip to Ghana; the evolution of the disease was severe with many complications and the patient finally died. The cases presented revealed the difficulties in establishing a correct diagnosis of malaria in a non-endemic country, consequences of an incomplete taken anamnesis. Travel history should always represent a mandatory part of a well conducted investigation. At the same time, we must underline the importance of a correct and complete prophylaxis prior to every departure to tropical countries.

  1. The Climate and Its Impacts on Egyptian Civilized Heritage: Ei-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt As a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world´s cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditio...

  2. Effect of contract farming on productivity and income of small holders: The case of tea production in north-western Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Saigenji, Yoshiko; Zeller, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines potential of contract farming as a rural development tool by revealing its effect on productivity and income of small holders in tea production in north-western Vietnam. In the present research, three economic analyses are applied. First, the technical efficiency of tea production is estimated by using stochastic frontier model. The results show that contract farming achieved significantly higher technical efficiency compared to non-contract farming. Second, logit model is...

  3. Education of local governments as a way towards sustainable development of the countries of the Western Balkans - Case Study of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Vujadinovic, Radoje; Karadzic, Uros

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need of capacity building in sustainable development in the Western Balkans Countries. Thus, education and training are necessary elements to make municipality administration capable to recognize, define, prepare, and finalize any kind of the energy efficiency projects, from the simple ones up to technically and particularly financially complex projects, particularly taking into consideration today very attractive concepts of the projects financing, as ESCO’s, PPP, etc.This...

  4. Tracing metamorphism, exhumation and topographic evolution in orogenic belts by multiple thermochronology: a case study from the Nízke Tatry Mts., Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danišík, M.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Glotzbach, Ch.; Weisheit, A.; Dunkl, I.; Kohút, M.; Evans, N. J.; Orvošová, M.; McDonald, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2011), s. 285-298. ISSN 1661-8726 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : (U–Th–[Sm])/He dating * fission track dating * thermal modelling * exhumation * zircon * apatite * Nízké Tatry Mts. * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  5. Assessment of baseline socio-economic conditions of beneficiaries of SANREM/CAPs Project: Case study of smallholder farmers in eastern Uganda and western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Owori, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess baseline socio-economic data collected from 790 households (HHs) in the SANREM/CRSP conservation agricultural production systems (CAPS) project areas of Trans-Nzoia and Bungoma districts in western Kenya, and Tororo and Kapchorwa districts in eastern Uganda. Surveys were administered before local farmers began working closely with researchers to co-design and test improved CAPS. The aim of my analysis is to identify socio-economic differences in the four...

  6. Changes in immigrants' social integration during the stay in the host country: the case of non-western immigrants in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Martinovic, B.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Maas, I.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on social integration of immigrants were predominantly of static nature. This article provides a dynamic account by distinguishing differences in social integration that develop shortly after immigrants’ arrival in the host country from changes with length of stay. We examine contacts in leisure time between natives and non-western immigrants in the Netherlands. Theories from research on ethnic intermarriage are applied to these more common forms of contact. We use pooled cro...

  7. Pilot project of integration of Chinese medicine (acupuncture) and Western medicine for neurohabilitation of children with acquired brain injury: a study of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, CL; Chu, VLY; Wong, VCN; Li, L.; Lam, SS

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate if there is any efficacy of integration of Chinese medicine (acupuncture) and western medicine for rehabilitation for two children with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: Two children (M/1 year, with dystonic cerebral palsy, cortical visual impairment and global developmental delay due to acute encephalitis; and M/12 years, with spastic tetraplegia, cortical visual impairment, and severe mental retardation due to hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy related to hypertrop...

  8. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of premenopausal breast cancers from a nuclear fallout area and matched cases from Western New York

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, G.; Varma, R.; Huang, H.; Pryshchepava, A; Groth, J.; Fleming, D; Nowak, N. J.; McQuaid, D; Conroy, J.; Mahoney, M; Moysich, K.; Falkner, K L; Geradts, J

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) was performed on breast carcinomas in premenopausal women from Western New York (WNY) and from Gomel, Belarus, an area exposed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. Genomic DNA was isolated from 47 frozen tumour specimens from 42 patients and hybridised to arrays spotted with more than 3000 BAC clones. In all, 20 samples were from WNY and 27 were from Belarus. In total,...

  9. NATs: working children’s identity. The particular case of the Bolivian working children’s union within the Western child labour discourse.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaue, Léa

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Labour Organization, more than 850’000 children execute lucrative activities in Bolivia. Through the Western discourse on child labour, children who work are often specifically characterized and connected with negative terms such as exploitation and poverty. The Bolivian working children have created their own labour union, the UNATsBO, in order to defend their right to work and to promote a positive perception on children’s work. After years of demands from the...

  10. Case Report: "ADHD Trainer": the mobile application that enhances cognitive skills in ADHD patients [version 5; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ruiz-Manrique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 10 year old patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and comorbid video game addiction, who was treated with medication combined with a novel cognitive training method based on video games called TCT method. A great risk of developing video game or internet addiction has been reported in children, especially in children with ADHD. Despite this risk, we hypothesize that the good use of these new technologies might be useful to develop new methods of cognitive training. The cognitive areas in which a greater improvement was observed through the use of video games were visuospatial working memory and fine motor skills. TCT method is a cognitive training method that enhances cognitive skills such as attention, working memory, processing speed, calculation ability, reasoning, and visuomotor coordination. The purpose of reviewing this case is to highlight that regular cognitive computerized training in ADHD patients may improve some of their cognitive symptoms and might be helpful for treating video game addiction.

  11. Neotectonics of the Inner Western Carpathians: Liptovský Ján area, case study (northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Littva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The neotectonic study results of the Liptovský Ján area and its implications for neotectonic development of the Inner Western Carpathians are presented. A broad spectrum of methods was used e.g., geological mapping, structural analysis, boreholes log data, morphotectonic analyses, transverse valley profiles, and orientation of cave corridors. Three groups of normal faults active during the Quaternary were identified. The youngest faults are oriented generally in the N–S direction. The older fault groups are represented by the WNWESE and NE–SW directions as well. The successive arrangement of faults suggests change of the stress field from the N–S to the E–W oriented extensional axes under the tension condition in the study area during the Pleistocene. Comparison of obtained results with other studies revealed that stress field within the Inner Western Carpathians realm was changed during the Quaternary, from tension oriented generally in N–S direction to orogen-parallel extension i.e. parallel to the Inner Western Carpathian arc.

  12. Study on the ecotourism model of the ethnic region in western Sichuan Province under the comprehensive tourism strategy: a case of Zoige County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ethnic areas of western Sichuan Province are characterized by complicated topography,seismic active zone,serious soil erosion,fragile eco-environment,low level of economy,and so on.Periphery regions and central regions appear in western Sichuan Province.The socio-economie development in the central regions is at high level,whereas the ethnic areas are generally at lower level.Moreover,the deterioration of the eco-environment has seriously restricted the development of traditional industries in the ethnic areas and it is necessary to develop environment-friendly and resource-saving industries.The ethnic areas of western Sichuan Province are rich in tourism resources,and have the potentiality of developing ecotourism.Advantages of tourism resources in the ethnic areas should be made full use of and "comprehensive tourism" is the requirement of the characteristics and the status quo of the ethnic areas.The "comprehensive tourism development model" has the functions of ecotourism on the key industry.Based on the demands and the interaction among different industries',the model can accelerate the development of related-industries,such as eco-agriculture,eco-industry,eco-tertiary indnstry,and so on.Through implementing the comprehensive tourism model,we can fidly utilize the advantages of ethnic areas,and promote the rapid and sustainable growth of regional economy,and also the harmonious development of economy,environment and soctety.

  13. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  14. Wetlands Reserve Program

    OpenAIRE

    US Government

    2007-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is a voluntary program. It provides technical and financial assistance to eligible landowners to restore, enhance, and protect wetlands. Landowners have the option of enrolling eligible lands through permanent easements, 30-year easements, or restoration cost-share agreements. This program offers landowners an opportunity to establish, at minimal cost, long-term conservation and wildlife habitat enhancement practices and protection.

  15. A Sociological Study or the Effect of Western Values and Mass Media on Body Image (The Case of 15-and-above Years Old Women in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Body image is a complicated phenomenon including physiological, psychological and sociological indexes. Recently, new studies are conducted about body image. From a psychological perspective, it is defined, as "an image of the body one has in mind and the way that the body is seen". In fact, Body image is a mentality means that everyone is concerned with his /her appearance. Much of this mindset, positive or negative, roots in values of the society in which it is promoted. In every society, there are certain patterns and characteristics associated with cultural ideals of beauty and the ways that female body should look and appear. One specific example of this, which is accepted in most societies, is being slim. However, appearance and its ideals have a broad meaning and cannot be considered only from a physiological perspective. Instead, it can be studied from a sociological perspective, as it is the society which dictates the appropriate appearance for people. To the extent that a person tries to have an acceptable appearance, he or she is accepted by the community. The society and culture in which a person is born and grows, teaches them how to define and interpret many of the changes that occur in the body. It is through our perceptions of our body that we come to understand how to establish relations with others, and may also affect the responses that we receive from others. Considering the fact that mass media and Western values are among the most important influential sources by which body image is defined, this study examines the relationship between Western values and mass media with body image Materials and Methods The statistical population of this study includes all 15-and-above years old women in Tabriz. Sample size was chosen through Cochran Formula, according to which 316 women were selected by means of cluster sampling method. This study is done through survey method and we used questionnaire for collecting the data. Also, we analyzed the data by

  16. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. PMID:23701641

  17. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  18. Reserve Creation and Reserve Pooling in the International Monetary System

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Richhild Moessner; Allen, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews the arrangements for meeting additional post-crisis demand for international liquidity. It distinguishes between reserve creation and reserve pooling as a basis for multilateral liquidity facilities; reserve pooling arrangements carry the risk that, in a general crisis, all the members will want to draw at the same time. We analyse the recently agreed enlargement of the International Monetary Fund from this perspective, and conclude that the IMF will carry much more liquidit...

  19. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN RESERVED DESERTIFICATION AREA--A Case Study in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shu-lan; OUYANG Hua; NIU Hai-shan; WANG Lin; ZHANG Feng; GAO Jun-qin; TIAN Yu-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) was considered to be a key index in evaluation of soil degradation and soil C sequestration.To discuss the spatial-temporal dynamics of SOC in arable layer in reversed desertification area,a case study was conducted in Yulin City,Shaanxi Province,China.Data of SOC were based on general soil survey in 1982 and repeated soil sampling in 2003.Soil organic carbon content (SOCC) was determined by K2Cr3O7-FeSO4titration method,and soil organic carbon density (SOCD) was calculated by arithmetic average and area weighted average method,respectively.On average,SOCC and SOCD of the arable layer in the study area from 1982 to 2003had increased 0.5 lg/kg and 0.16kg/m2,respectively.Considering main soil types,the widest distributed Arid-Sandic Entisols had lowest values and increments of SOCC and SOCD during the study period;while the second widest Los-Orthic Entisols had higher values and increments of SOCC and SOCD,compared to the mean values of the whole region.The results indicated that reversed desertification process was due to the modification of land use and management practices,such as natural vegetation recovery,planting grass,turning arable land to grassland,and soil and water conservation etc.,which can improve SOCC and SOCD and thus enhance soil C sequestration.

  20. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  1. Study on Countermeasures for Increasing Income of Herdsman in Western Ethnic Minority Areas——A Case Study of Evenki Autonomous Banner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking typical western ethnic pastoral area-Evenki Autonomous Banner in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as an example,this article analyses the factors restricting income increase of herdsman penetratingly as follows:the growth in revenue of animal husbandry in pastoral area is limited by ecology;the infrastructure construction in pastoral area lags behind,and the development of animal husbandry is still sluggish;the overall level of industrialization operation of agriculture and animal husbandry is not high;the employment structure of herdsman is simple,and the channel of income increase is narrow;the transfer of labor forces in pastoral area shows " pumping-like transfer" ;herdsmen enjoy few national policies of supporting agriculture and benefiting farmers,and the policy support is short.On the basis of the actual situation in western ethnic minority areas,following countermeasures and proposals are put forward for increasing herdsman’s income:transform the mode of production and operation,enhance the organization degree of the majority of herdsmen;improve infrastructure conditions,and promote comprehensive production capacity of agriculture and animal husbandry;quicken pace of industrialization,strengthen the construction of technology support and service system;speed up human capital accumulation rate of herdsman,improve self-development ability of herdsman;propel transformation of production pattern of animal husbandry,innovate ecological protection construction mechanism;increase subsidies for animal husbandry,pastoral area and herdsman in western ethnic minority areas,strengthen policy implementation.

  2. Indicators of success for smart law enforcement in protected areas: A case study for Russian Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötte, Michiel H H; Kolodin, Igor A; Bereznuk, Sergei L; Slaght, Jonathan C; Kerley, Linda L; Soutyrina, Svetlana V; Salkina, Galina P; Zaumyslova, Olga Y; Stokes, Emma J; Miquelle, Dale G

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable conservation resources have been committed to develop and use law enforcement monitoring and management tools such as SMART, measures of success are ill-defined and, to date, few reports detail results post-implementation. Here, we present 4 case studies from protected areas with Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia, in which indicators of success were defined and evaluated at each. The ultimate goal was an increase in tiger numbers to 1 individual/100 km(2) at each site. We predicted that improvements in law enforcement effectiveness would be followed by increases in prey numbers and, subsequently, tiger numbers. We used short-term and long-term indicators of success, including: (i) patrol team effort and effectiveness; (ii) catch per unit effort indicators (to measure reductions in threats); and (iii) changes in target species numbers. In addition to implementing a monitoring system, we focused on improving law enforcement management using an adaptive management process. Over 4 years, we noted clear increases in patrol effort and a partial reduction in threats. Although we did not detect clear trends in ungulate numbers, tiger populations remained stable or increased, suggesting that poaching of tigers may be more limiting than prey depletion. Increased effectiveness is needed before a clear reduction in threats can be noted, and more time is needed before detecting responses in target populations. Nonetheless, delineation of concrete goals and indicators of success provide a means of evaluating progress and weaknesses. Such monitoring should be a central component of law enforcement strategies for protected areas. PMID:26458501

  3. Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic Sealers: a case study on the exploitation of marine resources during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in the south-western Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Glykou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the economic significance of marine resources in the south-western Baltic Sea during the transition to agriculture. Faunal remains are used in order to explain subsistence patterns, including preferred prey, exploitation of specific ecozones, hunting methods and techniques, butchering and dietary patterns. Seasonality can be linked to specific economic advantages that result from natural faunal abundances and not selective hunting. The importance of marine resources remains steady during the transition to agriculture, as shown by residue analysis on ceramic vessels from the same archaeological context as well as by faunal abundance.

  4. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar): Case study from Western Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csóka György; Pödör Zoltán; Nagy Gyula; Hirka Anikó

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech) at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary) after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Micro...

  5. Dynamics in mangroves assessed by high-resolution and multi-temporal satellite data: a case study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR, P. R. China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leempoel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are declining across the globe, mainly because of human intervention, and therefore require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc. to implement better conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (P. R. China were assessed through time using 1967, 2000 and 2009 satellite imagery (sensors Corona KH-4B, Landsat ETM+, GeoEye-1 respectively. Firstly, multi-temporal analysis of satellite data was undertaken, and secondly biotic and abiotic differences were analysed between the different mangrove stands, assessed through a supervised classification of a high-resolution satellite image. A major decline in mangrove cover (−36% was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to rice cultivation and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction has prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%, the ratio mangrove / aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice cultivation in the vicinity. From the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 × 5 m plot-based tree measurements (August–September, 2009 as well as spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1, both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73–100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum was correctly classified at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands with B. gymnorrhiza (overall classification accuracy: 85%. In the case of sediments, sand proportion was significantly different between the three mangrove classes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 (0.5 m for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination was well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e

  6. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  7. A CGE analysis to study the impacts of energy investment on economic growth and carbon dioxide emission: A case of Shaanxi Province in western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Xiliang; He, Jiankun [Institute of Nuclear Energy and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A two-region ten-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was built to analyze the effects of investment growth in the energy sectors of western areas of China on the local economy and emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). There are three different scenarios in the quantitative analysis for the investment increase in energy sectors of the western areas. The investment to energy sectors is increased at the rate of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Based on Shaanxi Province's 2002 input-output table, the change of some macro-economic variables is simulated under these scenarios. The results show that the GDP growth is at 0-8.92%, households disposable income growth is at 0-8.94%, and emission of carbon dioxide growth is at 0-11.10% when the investment growth is at 0-60%. The oil and gas sector is the most effective sector with a growth rate of 0-19.47%. (author)

  8. Application of a Mathematical Model to an Advertisement Reservation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem COSGUN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Television networks provide TV programs free of charge to the public. However, they acquire their revenue by telecasting advertisements in the midst of continuing programs or shows. A key problem faced by the TV networks in Turkey is how to accept and televise the advertisements reserved by a client on a specified advertisement break which we called “Advertisement Reservation Problem” (ARP. The problem is complicated by limited time inventory, by different rating points for different target groups, competition avoidance and the relationship between TV networks and clients. In this study we have developed a mathematical model for advertisement reservation problem and extended this model for some cases encountered in real business life. We have also discussed how these cases affect the decisions of a TV network. Mixed integer linear programming approach is proposed to solve these problems. This approach has been implemented to a case taken from one of the biggest TV networks of Turkey.

  9. Oak Ridge national reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation is located on 37 000 acres in east Tennessee. The Oak Ridge facilities include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP - originally built as a uranium enrichment facility for defence programmes and originally named 'The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant'. After World War II this plant was renamed Oak Ridge K-25 Site and produced enriched uranium for the commercial nuclear power industry from 1945 to 1985. It was renamed ETTP in 1987. The situation at this site is characterized by hundreds of contaminated buildings in deteriorating conditions. The water table is shallow at the site implying a short travel time of the contaminants. The overall strategy for cleanup of the Reservation is based on surface water considerations as the Reservation encompasses five distinct watersheds. The cleanup strategy is a risk-based approach that focuses first on those contaminant sources that are the greatest contributors of risk. The watershed approach is used to determine which sources are the worst contributors and therefore should be cleaned up as early as possible. At the end of site cleanup, planned by 2015, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will continue to operate as a world-class research facility. Y-12 will continue to operate, fulfilling its national security mission. As cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park is completed DOE will transfer ownership of the uncontaminated buildings to the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) which in turn will lease this property for immediate private industrial use. To further refine the overall cleanup strategy, a prioritization system has been developed to help guide decisions where investments should be made. The general priorities are as follows: (a) Mitigate immediate onsite and offsite risks; (b) Reduce offsite migration of contaminants; (c) Remediate sources of surface

  10. Offer of secondary reserve with a pool of electric vehicles on the German market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the business case of offering secondary downward reserve for frequency control on the German market by a pool of electrical vehicles. Former benchmark studies promised high revenues especially for this case. The benefits could provide an incentive to customers to buy an electric vehicle. The business case is analyzed for the German market as a case study. Specific regulations for this market, real driving patterns and real market data are taken into account when calculating revenues. Secondary reserve is strictly regulated, requiring a very high level of availability. As a result, simulated revenues are lower than assumed. Simulation shows average revenues of less than 5€ per month and vehicle. As a major bottleneck for an offer of secondary reserve, fully charged batteries are identified. Additionally an issue is made of costs for communication and customer compensation. Based on the simulation results, it is argued that the market for secondary reserve should not be accessed with these small units. For electric vehicles, easier accessible markets with lower related costs should be considered instead. -- Highlights: •We analyze a business case of providing reserve power with electric vehicles. •We include legal regulations for providing reserve power in the calculation. •Reserve requirements lead to a significant drop in expected revenues. •Results show that vehicles are not suitable to offer reserve power

  11. 中西医治疗婴幼儿腹泻病47例疗效观察%Clinical observation on 47 cases of Chinese and western medicine treatment of infant diarrhea disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦冬梅; 刘宽荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observe the clinical effects of infants and young children with diarrhea. Methods In January 2011 to December 2012,98 cases of children with diarrhea were randomly divided into western medicine group and the combination of Chinese and western two groups,both on the basis of fluid therapy,western medicine group with antidiarrheal,antivirus,digestion drug therapy,combination of Chinese and western piece together to push the balance ridge,moxibustion god que acupuncture point,traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture points topical treatment, the treatment result is analyzed. Results Average hospital 3-8 d,4.5 d;Hospital were recovered.Two groups of treatment after 48 h of efficient comparative difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion On the basis of fluid therapy,push the balance ridge,moxibustion CV 8 point, Chinese medicine acupuncture point topical treatment of diarrhoea,curative effect is superior to western medicine.%目的:观察婴幼儿腹泻病中西医结合治疗的临床疗效。方法我院2011年1月—2012年12月收治98例腹泻病患儿,随机分为西医组和中西结合2组,均以液体疗法为基础,西医组配合止泻、抗病毒、助消化药物治疗,中西结合组配以推拿捏脊、艾灸神阙穴、中药穴位外敷治疗,对2组的治疗结果进行对比分析。结果患儿住院3 d~8 d,平均4.5 d,均痊愈出院。2组治疗48 h内的总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论以液体疗法为基础,配以推拿捏脊、艾灸神阙穴、中药穴位外敷治疗婴幼儿腹泻,疗效优于西药治疗。

  12. Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident and convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Status lists as of 12 September 2000. Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession. Declarations/reservations made upon expressing consent to be bound and objections thereto. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes the information given in document INFCIRC/335/Add.9 and INFCIRC/336/Add. 10. It accordingly supersedes that document. It contains signatures, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or successions, as well as declarations/reservations made upon signature by the countries and-or organizations with have accepted it

  13. Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Status lists as of 30 September 2002. Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession. Declarations/reservations made upon expressing consent to be bound and objections thereto. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes the information given in document INFCIRC/335/Add.10 and INFCIRC/336/Add. 11. It accordingly supersedes that document. It contains signatures, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or successions, as well as declarations/reservations made upon signature by the countries and-or organizations with have accepted it

  14. Marine sediment contamination and dynamics at the mouth of a contaminated torrent: The case of the Gromolo Torrent (Sestri Levante, north-western Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Consani, S; Dinelli, E; Vagge, G; Carbone, C

    2016-08-15

    In this study we have examined the currents and hydrological characteristics of the water column off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent (north-western Italy) in relation to the grain-size, mineralogical characteristics and metal distribution in the marine sediment sampled. Our purpose was to quantify and map the contamination that was carried out to sea from the abandoned Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine that has heavily impacted the torrent. Our results show high concentrations of Cu and Zn, and relatively high concentrations of Cd and Ni inside the bay into which the Gromolo Torrent flows. However, high concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb, and V found in the northern and/or eastern parts of the study area originated from other sources. The subdivision of study stations in terms of metal and mineral contents in the bottom sediments highlighted the clear influence of the currents on their dispersion and distribution in the area. PMID:27289290

  15. The relationship between indian ocean high pressure and runoff variability in the Donnelly river catchment in southwest western Australia: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the relationship between changes in the Indian Ocean High Pressure and the runoff variability in Donnelly river catchment of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA). Significant outcomes suggests that the intensity as well as the Zonal movement of Indian Ocean high Pressure significantly influence on winter stream flow. When Indian Ocean High shifted towards West, stream flow in Donnelly river increases, and vice versa. The multiple correlation between stream flow and Indian Ocean High (IOHP and IOHLN) is 0.48, while correlation between Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is 0.40. Centers of Action (COA) indices explains 21% stream flow variability while southern Oscillation index (SOI) explains only 15% stream flow variability. (author)

  16. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  17. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  18. Major Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the end of 2010,China had 2,588 nature reserves,covering 14.9 percent of its land area.These nature reserves have effectively protected more than 90 percent of land ecosystems,85 percent of wild animals and 65 percent of higher plant species

  19. An integrated approach to health care costs: the case of American Can.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, J B; Haslinger, J

    1984-01-01

    Faced with numerous health care options, corporations are searching for plans which provide necessary benefits while containing costs. This article examines the case of the American Can Company where, since 1978, a new approach has produced mutual economic gains and employee satisfaction. American Can's efforts involved differential pricing and encouraged responsible selection by employees. The company was one of several studied by the Health Systems Management Center at Case Western Reserve University under contract with the Business Roundtable Health Initiatives Task Force. Such studies provide insight for other companies seeking ways to attack burgeoning corporate health care costs. This article is one of a series reporting the results of these studies. PMID:10272752

  20. Buying versus exploring for reserves in the Canadian oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of a business strategy for Canadian oil companies focussed on either buying reserves or on exploration is examined. A measurement of the amount of merger and acquisition (M ampersand A) transactions vs the amount of exploration activity shows that the number of M ampersand A transactions has risen from 262 in 1989 to an estimated 1,500 in 1992. This sales activity has partly resulted from major companies selling assets to pay down debt. In the same period, the number of licensed exploration wells has decreased from 2,800 to 1,500. An analysis of statistics on the costs of acquisitions vs cost of finding and development shows acquisitions costs are lower in all cases. In addition, the median acquisition price has been falling steadily. Buying reserves has other advantages, including the fact that reserves can be added more quickly, lower risk, and readily available financing. Exploration, however, has its advantages, including the potential for very large reserve additions, higher tax deductions and incentives available, less competition from the industry, and low input costs. The acquisition vs exploration strategies are illustrated using the stock performance of two companies. If the acquisitions trend continues, there will be increases in the profitability of existing reserves, the number of companies, and tax receipts, However, in the long term there will be a drop in Canadian reserves and a significant reduction in the size of the industry. 14 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Patterns of wildlife exploitation in the Ugalla ecosystems of Western Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ngure, Paulo Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Unsustainable use of wildlife is a global conservation challenge. Understanding ecosystem specific patterns of wildlife exploitation is key to addressing this challenge. This thesis explores the nature of wildlife exploitation in and around Ugalla Game Reserve in western Tanzania. The reserve is divided into Ugalla east and Ugalla west tourist hunting blocks. First, I assessed the status of wildlife in the hunting blocks. Overall, estimates of wildlife population parameters suggested that Uga...

  2. Heat transfer and fluid flow modelling in supra-detachment basins: a case study of the Devonian basins of western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souche, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Andersen, T. B.; Medvedev, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Devonian basins of western Norway are supra-detachment basins located above a large crustal-scale detachment system, so-called the Nordfjord Sogn Detachment Zone. These basins are characterised by a thick succession (>10km) of siliciclastic sediments ranging in size from coarse conglomerates to fine grain sandstones and organized into narrow half-graben systems. Their architecture and geometry is closely controlled by the development of the coeval (i.e. Early to Middle Devonian) detachment acting as a normal fault/shear zone beneath the basins. The exhumation of rocks within the footwall of the detachment was subsequently followed by an increase of the geothermal gradient at the base of the sedimentary successions. Shear heating resulting from the intense rock deformation within the shear zone also played a role in increasing the temperature at the base of the basins. These two significant processes might have in turn contributed to the fluid mobility in the basins. In this study, we explore the feasibility of porous convection to occur spontaneously in sedimentary basins due to a regional increase of the geothermal gradient. Such process can be approximated by Darcy flow through porous media where the fluid density in the system might introduce a buoyancy-driven instability between lighter hot fluids at the base and denser cold fluids at the top of the basin. In geological systems porous flow might be inhibited by the closing of pores with depth, which leads to a reduced permeability and a limited amount of heat carrying fluids. Also, geological heterogeneities inherited from the layered structure of the sedimentary strata introduce large variations in the rock transport properties. We address these problems numerically by modelling heat and mass transport in porous media assuming quasi-incompressible Darcy flow. The fluid (water) density, viscosity, and specific heat are computed from the pore fluid pressure and the temperature. We investigate the onset of

  3. Constraining exhumation pathway in an accretionary wedge by (U-Th)/He thermochronology—Case study on Meliatic nappes in the Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiš, Marián; Danišík, Martin; Ružička, Peter; Schmiedt, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    This study reconstructs the late stages in the exhumation history of a nappe derived from the Meliatic accretionary wedge in the Western Carpathians by means of zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dating. The Meliatic accretionary wedge formed due to the closure of the Neotethyan Triassic-Jurassic Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean in the Late Jurassic. The studied fragments of the blueschist-bearing Meliatic Bôrka Nappe were metamorphosed at low-temperature and high- to medium-pressure conditions at ca. 160-150 Ma and included into the accretionary wedge. The time of the accretionary wedge formation constrains the beginning of the Bôrka Nappe northward thrusting over the Gemeric Unit of the evolving Central Western Carpathians (CWC) orogenic wedge. The zircon (U-Th)/He data on four samples recorded three evolutionary stages: (i) cooling through the ∼180 °C isotherm at 130-120 Ma related to starting collapse of the accretionary wedge, following exhumation of the high-pressure slices in the Meliatic accretionary wedge; (ii) postponed exhumation and cooling of some fragments through the ∼180 °C isotherm from 115 to 95 Ma due to ongoing collapse of this wedge; and (iii) cooling from 80 to 65 Ma, postdating the thrusting (∼100-80 Ma) of the Bôrka Nappe slices during the Late Cretaceous compression related to formation of the CWC orogenic wedge. The third stage already documents cooling of the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe slices in the CWC orogenic wedge. The apatite (U-Th)/He data may indicate cooling of a Bôrka Nappe slice to near-surface temperatures at ∼65 Ma. The younger AHe age clusters indicate that at least one, or possibly two, reheating events could have occurred in the longer interval from ∼40 to ∼10 Ma during the Oligocene-Miocene. These were related to sedimentary burial and/or the magmatism as documented in other parts of the CWC.

  4. The New Features of Landslide Relief Discovered Using Lidar – Case Study from Babia Góra Massif, Western Carpathian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łajczak Adam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basing on LiDAR data, the re-interpretation of the limit and distribution of the selected landslide forms in 9 test areas were carried out. The forms are located at the slopes of the monoclinal ridge of Babia Góra Mt. (1,725 m a.s.l. in the flysch Western Carpathians. The earlier knowledge on these landforms is shown in the unpublished map at the scale of 1:5,000 which was prepared basing on geomorphological mapping. Basing on the newest information source, subtle geomorphic signatures of landslides were found, the dynamics of these forms and directions of their further development were determined. Local differentiation of deep-seated landslides was indicated according to the relation between the sandstone layer dip and slope inclination, slope length, and altitude of the location of headwaters. An attention was paid to polycyclic relief of the highest located landslide forms, which contain the elements of glacial and nival morphology, and some are modelled by debris flows.

  5. Seabed habitat mapping employing single and multi-beam backscatter data: A case study from the western continental shelf of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, K.; Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Ingole, Baban; Menezes, Andrew; Srivastava, Ratan

    2012-10-01

    Acoustic backscatter from multi-beam echo-sounder (MBES) and dual-frequency single-beam echo-sounding systems (SBES) operable at 95 kHz and 33/210 kHz, respectively, were used to study the distribution of sediment texture and benthic macro-fauna along the central part of the western continental shelf of India (off Goa). To characterize the continental shelf seafloor, single-beam and multi-beam backscatter signals were acquired along with grab sediment samples. The relationships between processed acoustic backscatter strength, grain size, and benthic macro-fauna abundance were demonstrated employing clustering technique (PCA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) based mapping. The clustering analysis delineated that the backscatter values at three frequencies are strongly correlated with both substrate type and faunal functional groups. The preferences of deposit feeders (soft body benthic macro-fauna) for the fine-sediment regions and filter feeders (hard body benthic macro-fauna) for coarse sediment regions were linked to the variations in sediment granulometry as well as backscatter strengths in the study area. This study further demonstrates the utility of high frequency backscatter data employing echo-sounding systems towards the interpretation of seafloor sediments and benthic habitat characteristics across large areas of seafloor.

  6. Multinational corporations and foreign investors in CEE: Western European multinationals in the CEE agro-food industry: The cases of Nestle, Unilever and InBev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chobanova Yordanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Systems of Innovation Approach (SI and International Business (IB literature, this paper analyzes the level of embeddedness of Multi­national Enterprises (MNEs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. MNEs are discussed as they link the host country economy with the global economy by their regional and global networks. The expansion and successful embeddedness of West European multinational firms is crucial for the industrial integration of CEECs into the EU. The focus of the study is on the largest food processing com­panies, which invested in the region - namely Nestlé Unilever and InBev. The paper discusses the motives of investment and the entry strategies of food MNEs, outlines their contribution to the local development and stresses on the national actors as forces to embedded foreign direct investment (FDI. The paper discovered that EU membership facilitated the processes of global reorganizations of Nestlé, Unilever and InBev in CEE. All the three MNEs object of this research closed partially or completely plants all over CEE (and Western Europe. Hence, in a liberal trade regime it is very difficult to talk about long-term embeddedness of MNEs. It seems that the global strategies of the companies and the size of the market are the factor, which pre-determines the level of embeddedness of food MNEs in a certain economy and not so much the national actors and institutions. .

  7. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  8. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  9. How does land use link terrestrial and aquatic carbon in western North America?: Implications from an agricultural case study in central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Sigler, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    The fate of soil organic matter with expanding human land use is of increasing concern for planetary health and ecological sustainability. In North American grasslands, cultivation has commonly resulted in loss of stored soil organic carbon to dissolved phases in groundwater and surface water, as well as to atmospheric CO2 via decomposition. In addition, cultivation has released nutrients stored in organic matter and facilitated water movement through soils to benefit crops, increasing groundwater recharge rates. This has altered groundwater chemistry both by changing biogeochemistry of the terrestrial-aquatic interface and by increasing addition of nutrients, herbicides, and pesticides to these systems. In this presentation, we consider the effects of food production practices on terrestrial-aquatic carbon linkages in former grassland ecosystems of western North America. Our data from an agricultural area in central Montana begin to reveal how elevated nitrate and pesticide levels in groundwater on an isolated landform reflect transformation over the last century of a temperate grassland ecosystem for wheat and cattle production. Rates and pathways of carbon and nitrogen loss are inferred from the concentration and isotopic character of both water and carbon and nitrogen over three years in soils, shallow groundwater, emergent springs and surface waters. In this semi-arid, non-irrigated context, the fate of soil organic matter is linked with redistribution of pedogenic carbonate as well as other soil and rock derived solutes. We consider implications for future trends in dissolved carbon and nitrogen in surface waters in the region.

  10. Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Quick, Robert E; Abbott, Daniel P; Ogutu, Paul; Rheingans, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-use water chlorination reduces diarrhoea risk by 25-85%. Social marketing has expanded access to inexpensive sodium hypochlorite for water treatment, at a cost of less than US$0.01 per day, in Kenya. To increase product access, women's groups in western Kenya were trained to educate neighbours and sell health products to generate income. We evaluated this programme's impact on equity of access to water treatment products in a cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 487 randomly selected households in eight communities served by the women's groups. Overall, 20% (range 5-39%) of households in eight communities purchased and used chlorine, as confirmed by residual chlorine observed in stored water. Multivariate models using illiteracy and the poorest socioeconomic status as a referent showed that persons with at least some primary education (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.5) or secondary education (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6, 17.5) and persons in the four wealthiest quintiles (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) were more likely to chlorinate stored water. While this implementation model was associated with good product penetration and use, barriers to access to inexpensive water treatment remained among the very poor and less educated. PMID:19491503

  11. The role of maternal, health system, and psychosocial factors in prevention of mother-to-child transmission failure in the era of programmatic scale up in western Kenya: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Maricianah; Owuor, Kevin; Turan, Janet; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Gray, Glenda E; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in an area of Kenya with widely accessible free PMTCT services. A matched case-control study was conducted at 31 public facilities in western Kenya. HIV-infected mothers with infants aged 6 weeks to 6 months were interviewed and medical charts were reviewed. Cases were mothers of infants with a definitive diagnosis of HIV. Controls were mothers of infants testing HIV negative. Cases and controls were matched in a 1:3 ratio on socio-demographic factors. Fifty cases and 135 controls were enrolled. Conditional (matched) logistic regression analysis was conducted. Odds of being a case were higher for women who first learned their HIV status during pregnancy [OR:2.85, 95%CI:1.41-5.78], did not adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) [OR:3.35, 95%CI:1.48-7.58], or had a home delivery [OR:2.42, 95%CI:1.01-5.80]. Based on medical record review, cases had higher odds of their provider not following guidelines for prescription of ART for mothers [OR:8.61, 95%CI:2.83-26.15] and infants [OR:9.72, 95%CI:2.75-34.37]. Stigma from the community [OR:0.37, 95% CI:0.14-1.02] or facility [OR:0.38, 95%CI:0.04-3.41], did not increase the odds of MTCT. Poor adherence to PMTCT guidelines and recommendations by both infected women and health care providers hamper efforts to attain elimination of MTCT. PMID:25738870

  12. Comparison of severe acute respiratory illness (sari) and clinical pneumonia case definitions for the detection of influenza virus infections among hospitalized patients, western Kenya, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makokha, Caroline; Mott, Joshua; Njuguna, Henry N; Khagayi, Sammy; Verani, Jennifer R; Nyawanda, Bryan; Otieno, Nancy; Katz, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Although the severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) case definition is increasingly used for inpatient influenza surveillance, pneumonia is a more familiar term to clinicians and policymakers. We evaluated WHO case definitions for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and pneumonia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) for children aged <5 years and Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illnesses (IMAI) for patients aged ≥13 years) for detecting laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized ARI patients. Sensitivities were 84% for SARI and 69% for IMCI pneumonia in children aged <5 years and 60% for SARI and 57% for IMAI pneumonia in patients aged ≥13 years. Clinical pneumonia case definitions may be a useful complement to SARI for inpatient influenza surveillance. PMID:27219455

  13. Changing Ecological and Cultural States and Preferences of Nature Conservation Policy: The Case of Nature Values Trade in South-Western Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloniemi, Riikka; Vilja, Varho

    2009-01-01

    We present a rural Finnish case of nature conservation called the nature values trade (NVT) as an example of the process of changing ecological and cultural states and preferences of environmental policy. We emphasise the importance of local ecological and cultural circumstances for the formulation of environmental policy. The study shows how…

  14. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...... frequency reserve to power systems. The project consists of five work packages, including: Background and perspective Dynamical simulation of chosen concepts Monitoring demand as frequency controlled reserve Strategy and practical implementation Conclusion and evaluation Within the project, the frequency...

  15. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically. PMID:26976560

  16. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  17. Clinico-Epidemiological Correlates of Hospitalized H1N1 Pneumonitis Cases in A Teaching Hospital of Western India During 2009-2010 Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Bhavin D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In late March and early April 2009, an outbreak of H1N1 influenza a virus infection was detected in Mexico. The first case of this flu in India was found at the Hyderabad airport on 13 May. As of 15 November 2009, 15411 cases of swine flu have been confirmed and 523 deaths been reported in India. Methodology: This cross-sectional study includes all adult, confirmed H1N1 positive patients in Category “C” admitted in “Swine Flu Ward” of SMIMER hospital, Surat, during the H1N1 pandemic 2009-2010. Detailed clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations were done in all 40 enrolled patients. Results: Out of total admitted 40 H1N1 positive and category C patients, 9 patients expired and 31 patients cured and discharged. Mean age of expired patients and of cured patients was 32 years and 36 years respectively. Most common symptom was fever (100% and cough (92.5%. Breathlessness was significantly more common (p value<0.05 in patients who expired as compared to patients who got cured. Mean SGPT and SGOT was three times higher in non-fatal cases as compared to non-fatal cases. In 88.89% of the fatal cases shows higher SGPT and SGOT level more than upper normal limit which was statistically significant (p value<0.05. Conclusion: Fever was most common symptom followed by cough, headache/bodyache, throat pain, breathlessness and running nose. Poor prognostic factor were Breathlessness on admission, delay more than 2 days, cyanosis on admission, hepatic dysfunction, low platelet count. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 218-222

  18. The Climate and Its Impacts on Egyptian Civilized Heritage: Ei-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt As a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Ismael

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world´s cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22º30'14" and 26º00'00" N, and between 30º27'00" and 30º47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El- Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve that aims the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1941 to 2000 (60 years, and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX. The results were

  19. Micro- and submicrostructural evidence for high-temperature brittle-ductile transition deformation of hornblende: Case study of high-grade mylonites from Diancangshan, western Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OM (optical microscope)/TEM (transmission electron microscope) micro- and submicrostructural analysis of hornblende rocks sheared at high temperatures from the Diancangshan area, western Yunnan reveals evidence for deformation in the brittle-ductile transition of hornblende at middle crustal level (about 637℃ and 0.653 GPa) and mechanisms of deformation in the transitional regime are further discussed. Sheared hornblende rocks at middle crustal level have typical mylonitic microstructures, shown by coarse porphyroclasts and fine matrix grains. Different mineral phases in the rocks show distinct deformation characteristics. Hornblende and feldspar grains are intensely deformed with obvious grainsize reduction, but quartz grains are recrystallized dominantly by grain growth. Hornblende grains show typical brittle-ductile transition nature. Initial crystallographic orientations of porphyroclasts have strong effects on the behavior of grains during deformation. There are mainly two types of porphyroclasts, type I "hard" porphyroclasts and type II "soft" porphyroclasts, with [001] perpendicular and parallel to external shear stresses respectively. "Hard" porphyroclasts generally occur as competent grains that are rarely deformed or sometimes deformed by fracturing and dislocation tangling. "Soft" porphyroclasts are highly deformed primarily by dislocation tangling (as shown in the cores of the porphyroclasts), but twinning, dislocation glide and climb probably due to hydrolytic weakening also contribute to dynamic recrystallization of the porphyroclasts into fine grains in the matrix. The micro- and submicrostructures of the two types of porphyroclasts and fine-grained matrix provide powerful evidence for the behavior of brittle-ductile transition of hornblende grains. It is concluded that twinning nucleation is one of the most important processes that operate during dynamic recrystallization of hornblende crystals at the brittle-ductile transition. (100) [001] twin

  20. Variations in energy consumption and survival status between rural and urban households: A case study of the Western Loess Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As energy consumption is closely related to all aspects of human life, it becomes the standard by which to measure people's quality of life and the national development level. Based on the “energy ladder” hypothesis, we conducted questionnaire surveys in the Western Loess Plateau of China, and accessed a considerable amount of information about the energy usage of rural and urban households. The results show that the per capita effective heat is 323.3, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in the provincial capital, medium-sized cities, county towns and rural areas, respectively. The energy ladder feature is obvious. Using 719 sample data, the multiple regression analysis was conducted between per capita effective heat and two independent variables including per capita income and the attributes of energy used, the parameter estimation of the cross-quadratic model produced more significant effects. The three-dimensional graph clearly shows the differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households. High-income residents in urban areas consume more high-quality energy, they enjoy an affluent lifestyle. While low-income households in rural areas obtain less effective heat, and use poor quality fuels, they are still at the level of basic survival. - Highlights: ► The per capita effective heat is 323.3.4, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in four types of region. ► The energy attributes score of a rural resident is 60% of that of an urban resident. ► The energy ladder feature is obvious. ► The effective heat is the result of two independent variables interacting together. ► The differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households are great.

  1. Surrogate Model Application to the Identification of Optimal Groundwater Exploitation Scheme Based on Regression Kriging Method—A Case Study of Western Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkai An

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surrogate model to identify an optimal exploitation scheme, while the western Jilin province was selected as the study area. A numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established first, and four exploitation wells were set in the Tongyu county and Qian Gorlos county respectively so as to supply water to Daan county. Second, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS method was used to collect data in the feasible region for input variables. A surrogate model of the numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was developed using the regression kriging method. An optimization model was established to search an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme using the minimum average drawdown of groundwater table and the minimum cost of groundwater exploitation as multi-objective functions. Finally, the surrogate model was invoked by the optimization model in the process of solving the optimization problem. Results show that the relative error and root mean square error of the groundwater table drawdown between the simulation model and the surrogate model for 10 validation samples are both lower than 5%, which is a high approximation accuracy. The contrast between the surrogate-based simulation optimization model and the conventional simulation optimization model for solving the same optimization problem, shows the former only needs 5.5 hours, and the latter needs 25 days. The above results indicate that the surrogate model developed in this study could not only considerably reduce the computational burden of the simulation optimization process, but also maintain high computational accuracy. This can thus provide an effective method for identifying an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme quickly and accurately.

  2. Subtle genetic connectivity between Mexican Caribbean and south-western Gulf of Mexico reefs: the case of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Sánchez, C. A.; Pérez España, H.; Rivera Madrid, R.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arias González, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient reef management strategies rely on detailed knowledge of biological exchange dynamics. At present, available connectivity information on Mexican Atlantic reefs is scarce, particularly concerning the Veracruz Reef System (VRS), which is located in the south-western Gulf of Mexico. This study used a hierarchically nested sampling design to evaluate the levels of genetic connectivity both within and between the Mexican Caribbean (MC) and VRS reef regions; all of the studied reefs are marine protected areas. Microsatellites were used as genetic markers, and bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits were used as a biological model. The paired genetic differentiation index between regions ( Fst (ENA) = 0.008) was lower than the global index ( Fst (ENA) = 0.027), suggesting that the stronger restrictions to gene flow may be located inside the regions rather than between them. The AMOVA results supported this explanation, as the differences were only non-significant between regions. In the VRS, Santiaguillo reef was associated with low genetic connectivity levels, whilst within the MC region the group formed by Chinchorro Bank and Cozumel exhibited a restriction to gene flow with Puerto Morelos, their northernmost reef. Despite their spatial separation, reefs from different regions (Puerto Morelos and Anegada de Adentro) showed the lowest, albeit significant, genetic difference, meaning that a subtle genetic connectivity exists at the regional scale. The detected composite flow pattern is likely related to self-recruitment and cohesive dispersal processes interacting with current patterns, which may favour genetic connections under specific conditions. The results presented here suggest that coral reef management in the Mexican Atlantic Ocean should consider large scale measures in addition to appropriate local actions to protect reef fish populations.

  3. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of individual alkanes as a new approach to petroleum correlation: case studies from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maowen Li; Obermajer, M.; Chunqing Jiang; Snowdon, L.R.; Fowler, M.G. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada); Yongsong Huang [Brown University, Providence, RI (United States). Department of Geological Science

    2001-07-01

    Isotopic compositions of carbon-bound hydrogen in individual n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid alkanes, from a number of crude oil samples, were measured using gas chromatography-thermal conversion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The precision of this technique is better than 3 per cent for most alkanes, compared to the large range of {delta}D variation among the samples (up to 160 per cent). The oils were selected from major genetic oil families in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, with source rocks ranging in age from Ordovician (and possibly Cambrian) to Cretaceous. The hydrogen isotopic composition of alkanes in crude oils is controlled by three factors: isotopic compositions of biosynthetic precursors, source water {delta}D values, and postdepositional processes. The inherited difference in the lipid's biosynthetic origins and/or pathways is reflected by a small hydrogen isotopic variability within n-alkanes, but much larger differences in the {delta}D values between n-alkanes and pristane/phytane. The shift toward lighter hydrogen isotopic compositions from Paleozoic to Upper Cretaceous oils in the WCSB reflects a special depositional setting and/or a minor contribution of terrestrial organic matter. The strong influence of source water {delta}D values is demonstrated by the distinctively lower {delta}D values of lacustrine oils than marine oils, and also by the high values for oils with source rocks deposited in evaporative environments. Thermal maturation may alter the {delta}D values of the alkanes in the oil to some extent, but secondary oil migration does not appear to have had any significant impact. The fact that oils derived from source rocks that could be of Cambrian age still retain a strong signature of the hydrogen isotopic compositions of source organic matter, and source water, indicates that {delta}D values are very useful for oil-source correlation and for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. (author)

  4. Case Study on the Impact of the Vortex in the Easterlies in the Tropical Upper Troposphere on the Western Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiuping; WU Guoxiong; LIU Yimin; LIU Huanzhu

    2009-01-01

    By employing the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (1000-10 hPa, 2.5°× 2.5°), the impact of the vortex in the easterlies (EV) over the tropical upper troposphere on the zonal movement of the western Pacific subtropical anticyclone (WPSA) during 19-25 June 2003 is analyzed in this paper. It is shown that the EV can extend from middle troposphere to the height of 50 hPa, reaching a maximum at 200 hPa. The vertical thermal distribution appears to be "warmer in the upper layer and colder in the lower layer". The WPSA retreats eastward abnormally when the EV and the vortex in the westerlies (WV) encounter around the same longitude while they move toward each other. It is also shown that the vorticity variation extends from the troposphere to the height of 50 hPa, with the most prominent change occurring at 200 hPa by the diagnostic analyses of the vertical vorticity equation. The WPSA appears to retreat abnormally eastward while the negative/positive vorticity change becomes stronger near the east/west side of the EV, and the areas with positive vorticity tendency both in the EV and WV join together into one belt along 130° E during the process of the EV and the WV moving toward each other. In the vorticity equation, the positive contribution caused by the hotizontal advection term is the maximum, and the minimum is caused by the β effect. It is also found that enhanced horizontal vorticity advection and β effect, as well as the "barotropic development" resulted from the in-phase superposition of the southerly and the northerly winds in the easterlies and westerlies near 130° E, are in agreement with the WPSA eastward retreat.

  5. Design philosophy and practice of asymmetrical 3D fracturing and random fracturing: A case study of tight sand gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present two technical models are commonly taken in tight gas reservoir stimulation: conventional massive fracturing and SRV fracturing, but how to select a suitable fracturing model suitable for reservoir characteristics is still a question waiting to be answered. In this paper, based on the analysis of geological characteristics and seepage mechanism of tight gas and shale gas reservoirs, the differences between stimulation philosophy of tight gas reservoirs and shale reservoirs are elucidated, and the concept that a suitable stimulation model should be selected based on reservoir geological characteristics and seepage mechanism aiming at maximally improving the seepage capability of a reservoir. Based on this concept, two fracturing design methods were proposed for two tight gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin: asymmetrical 3D fracturing design (A3DF for the middle-shallow Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm stacked reservoirs in which the hydraulic fractures can well match the sand spatial distribution and seepage capability of the reservoirs; SRV fracturing design which can increase fracture randomness in the sandstone and shale laminated reservoirs for the 5th Member of middle-deep Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm. Compared with that by conventional fracturing, the average production of horizontal wells fractured by A3DF increased by 41%, indicating that A3DF is appropriate for gas reservoir development in the Penglaizhen Fm; meanwhile, the average production per well of the 5th Member of the Xujiahe Fm was 2.25 × 104 m3/d after SRV fracturing, showing that the SRV fracturing is a robust technical means for the development of this reservoir.

  6. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Catherine A.; Grant, William E.; Mora, Miguel A.; Woodin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  7. Nature conservation on agricultural land: a case study of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding at Koobabbie in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Saunders

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature conservation and agricultural production may be considered as conflicting objectives, but for a wheat and sheep property in Western Australia they have been pivotal management objectives for the last 48 years. Koobabbie, a 7,173 ha property, has retained 41.5% of the original native vegetation, and is a designated Important Bird Area by BirdLife Australia, while still being an economically profitable agricultural enterprise. Since 1987 the owners of Koobabbie have kept detailed records of the avifauna of the property, and encouraged staff from government, non-government and academic organisations to conduct research and monitoring of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding on their property. In addition, they have instituted control programs for two over-abundant cockatoo species which compete with Carnaby’s Cockatoo for nest sites, and for Feral Cats that are predators of nesting female Carnaby’s Cockatoo and their offspring. This paper presents the results of research and monitoring from 2003-2013, during which seven artificial nesting hollows were erected, and former active nest hollows that had become derelict were repaired. By 2008, the number of breeding pairs on the property was at least 27, but two mass deaths of breeding females in 2009 and 2012 reduced the number of breeding pairs by 80%. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring conservation on private property, and raises a number of issues in relation to management of endangered species dependent on large hollow-bearing trees on private property.

  8. Unprotected karst resources in western Iran: the environmental impacts of intensive agricultural pumping on the covered karstic aquifer, a case in Kermanshah province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Kamal; Taheri, Milad; Parise, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bare and covered karst areas, with developed karstic aquifers, cover 35 percent of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. These aquifers are the vital sources for drinking and agricultural water supplies. Over the past decade, intensive groundwater use (exploitation) for irrigation imposed a significant impact on the carbonate environments. The huge amount of groundwater over-exploitations has been carried out and still goes on by local farmers in the absence of appropriate governance monitoring control. Increasing in water demands, for more intense crop production, is an important driving force toward groundwater depletion in alluvial aquifers. Progressive groundwater over-exploitations from underlying carbonate rocks have led to dramatic drawdown in alluvial aquifers and deep karst water tables. Detecting new sources of groundwater extractions and prohibiting the karst water utilization for agricultural use could be the most effective strategy to manage the sustainability of covered karst aquifers. Anthropogenic pressures on covered karst aquifers have magnified the drought impacts and caused dryness of most of the karst springs and deep wells. In this study, the combination of geophysical and geological studies was used to estimate the most intensively exploited agricultural zones of Islam Abad plain in the southwestern Kermanshah province using GIS. The results show that in the past decade a great number of deep wells were drilled through the overburden alluvial aquifer and reached the deep karst water resources. However, the difficulties involved in monitoring deep wells in covered karst aquifer were the main cause of karst water depletion. Overexploitation from both alluvial and karst aquifers is the main reason for drying out the Arkawazi, Sharafshah, Gawrawani karst springs, and the karst drinking water wells 1, 3 and 5 of Islam Abad city. Karst spring landscape destructions, fresh water supply deficit for inhabitants, decreasing of tourism and

  9. Nursing Experience Based on Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for 240 Cases of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease%240例小儿手足口病中西医结合的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the nursing interventions of hand-food-and-mouth disease. Methods:The clinical data of 240 cases was retrospectively analyzed. Results: After treatment and nursing,the prognosis was good. The mild cases were cured within one week. The average course was 7-8 days. There was no death case. Conclusion:The hand foot and mouth disease is an acute infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal virus. Through intensive nursing based on combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine can make speedy recovery.%目的:通过对手足口病患儿的护理,探讨小儿手足口病的护理措施.方法:回顾分析240例患儿的临床资料.结果:经过治疗和护理本组预后良好,轻症在1周内痊愈,平均疗程7~8天左右,未出现1例死亡病例.结论:小儿手足口病是一种由多种肠道病毒引起的急性传染病,通过中西医结合等精心护理,可使患儿早日康复.

  10. Severe malaria in Battambang Referral Hospital, an area of multidrug resistance in Western-Cambodia: a retrospective analysis of cases from 2006–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lon, Chanthap; Timmermans, Ans; Buathong, Nillawan; Nou, Samon; Se, Youry; Sitthy, Ngo; Chann, Soklyda; Kraesub, Somporn; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Walsh, Douglas S.; Tyner, Stuart; Fukuda, Mark; Callender, David; Sherwood, Jeffrey; Koy, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recent malaria containment and control efforts leading to reduced incidence, Cambodia remains endemic for both Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Little has been reported in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the burden of severe malaria (SM) in Cambodia. Methods Medical records for all patients admitted to the Battambang Referral Hospital (BRH) with an admitting or discharge diagnosis of SM from 2006 to 2009 (suspected SM cases) wer...

  11. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. A conceptual socio-hydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the

  13. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that, regardless of the geological environment (continental, marine or hydrothermal), the occurrences of clay minerals and/or mineral phases with clay-type crystal structure (as zeolites and Mn-oxides), play a key role in the trace elements and REEs uptake processes. The REE resources are produced mostly from ion-adsorption type REE deposits of southern China that are formed by weathering of granitic rocks and subsequent chemical adsorption of REE on clay minerals. A significant group of minerals with a high metal uptake capacity is represented by Mn oxides. Their "tunnel" structure, in fact, allows both the absorption (inside the minerals) and adsorption (outside the minerals) of cations and anions producing metal accumulations with economic and environmental significance. However, the ores, mainly that forming within sedimentary environment, often have impurities due to presence of minerals unrelated to mineralization. These minerals can significantly alter the compositional features of the ores and suggest misleading conclusions. In Sardinia (Italy, western Mediterranean), Mn-oxide mineralizations occur and recently their origin has been discussed and identified (Sinisi et al. 2012). In this study the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Sardinian sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn-ore are exhibit exploring the possibility that they can represent exploitable trace and REE mineralizations. High contents of metals characterize these Mn deposits. Besides some trace elements (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, and U) that commonly typify the Mn oxi-hydroxide ores, all rare earth elements showed high concentrations in the Sardinian deposits, comparable to those of the main actually exploited REE sinks. For this reason, a simple statistical data treatment (R-mode Factor Analysis) was performed on fifteen and nineteen samples of sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn ore respectively, in order to identify both the mineral phases trapping trace

  14. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  15. Spatial analysis of the impact of land-use on surface runoff and soil erosion-a case study of western Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juana P Moiwo

    2006-01-01

    The impact of land-use on surface runoff and soil erosion is still poorly understood at basin scale. Thus in the Western Jilin Ecosystem (WJE), surface runoff and soil erosion were measured against identified land-use types in the basin. Due to the spatial nature of the analysis, GIS ArcMap version 9.1 and the WetSpass model were used in the simulation process. In the study, the WetSpass model was extended with the Dynamic Sediment Balance Equation (Ziegler et al., 1997), to simulate and quantify soil erosion. A hypothetical natural grassland scenario was developed for the study area and compared with the present land-use management conditions. The results indicate significant differences in runoff and soil erosion across the different land-use types both within and between the two scenarios. Calculated averages of surface runoff and soil erosion for the present land-use management were 48.03 mm/a and 83.43 kg/(m2·a) respectively. Those for the hypothetical natural grassland scenario were 24.70 mm/a and 78.36 kg/m2·a) . Thus an overall decrease in runoff and soil erosion was observed as the conditions changed from the present land-use management to the hypothetical natural grassland state. Under the present land-use management, urban settlements exhibited the highest surface runoff but one of the least soil erosions, while bare-lands showed the highest soil erosion. It was more generally observed that runoff and erosion varies with vegetation type/density. It was concluded based on the research findings that the present land-use management might not be the best scenario for the ecosystem as it showed increased basin runoff and soil erosion in comparison with the natural grassland vegetation. Since no best scenario was simulated for or advanced in the study, further research to develop a more balanced land management system is thus required. The findings of the study can assist in the identification of vulnerable/fragile ecosystems in the basin and to guide

  16. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity ...

  17. Reserve selection in boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Most boreal forests in North Europe are intensively managed, and the forest landscape is far from its natural stage leading to hundreds of species being threatened in Sweden alone. Reserves are established to protect biodiversity, but since the resources available for conservation do not cover all species in need of protection, effective prioritization is essential. In this thesis, a reserve selection model based on a goal programming approach was developed, finding the optimal age comp...

  18. The case for a large heavy oil stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EnCana Corporation markets significant proprietary and third party crude oil production in North America. This presentation presented details of EnCana's projected resources as well as estimated proved reserves in Canadian oil sands. Details of the Western Canadian heavy oil market were presented. Issues concerning Western Canadian Select (WCS) were also presented, including details of distillation and asphalt characteristics. Details of the WCS synthetic bitumen synergy were examined, as well as quality management issues. It was suggested that further optimization of WCS facilities include reduced operating complexity; less tank proliferation; delivery quality consistency; and reliability. WCS refiner advantages were also evaluated. Shipping and ramping details were discussed, along with growth potential. It was noted that WCS satisfies all the criteria for a benchmark crude. It was concluded that the case for a large Canadian heavy oil stream includes reduced operating complexity; optimized logistics; delivery quality consistency; improved stream liquidity; and enhanced price discovery. tabs., figs

  19. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven Ronald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Park, Byoung Yoon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldredge, Lisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wynn, Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Checkai, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  20. The role of the unexpired risk reserves and outstanding loss reserves in general insurance business

    OpenAIRE

    PARTACHI Ion; Oleg VEREJAN; BRADU Marcel; VEREJAN Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this article is to introduce the topic of both Unexpired Risk Reserve and loss Reserving, especially of the Incurred but not reported reserves (IBNR). We will focus on the purpose, common definitions and basic principles. We will explore the common techniques used by practicing actuaries in estimating of Unexpired Risk Reserve and loss reserves. Unexpired Risk Reserve is the present value of loss and expense payments to be provided for by premiums covering the period from the va...

  1. Accretionary wedge harzburgite serpentinization and rodingitization constrained by perovskite U/Pb SIMS age, trace elements and Sm/Nd isotopes: Case study from the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Putiš, Marián; Yang, Yue-Heng; Koppa, Matúš; Dyda, Marian

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite-bearing harzburgites occur in a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge complex of the Inner Western Carpathians Meliata Unit in Slovakia. Although dark rounded, slightly hydrated relic “cores” of harzburgite boulders are perovskite-free, perovskite (Prv) occurrence in the surrounding serpentinites and rodingites enabled dating of hydration, resulting in two metamorphic-metasomatic Prv generations. Perovskite (1) grows parallel to relic clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae or forms randomly oriented grain clusters in serpentinized orthopyroxene (Opx1) porphyroclasts, often accompanied by tiny andradite lamellae clusters, or it is partly replaced by Ti-andradite. Perovskite crystallization indicates evolving rodingitization fluids pervading the boundary between the harzburgite “cores” and Prv-free serpentinite. This strictly limited occurrence of Prv (1) within a 1 to 20-cm across-zone implies slightly postponed Prv crystallization to serpentinization by LREE(Ce,La), Ca2+, Ti/Fe3+-enriched aqueous fluids. A grain scale metasomatic mechanism partitioned Ca and Ti from the host orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, spinel (Ti) and grain-boundary pervasive fluids to Prv. In contrast, Prv (2) occurs in a 1 to 3 cm across chlorite-rich blackwall zone between hosting serpentinite and rodingite veins, thus indicating channelled rodingitization fluid flow and accompanying hydraulic fracturing. Here, Prv (2) is ingrown by chlorite and apatite. Part of this Prv (2) formed in a rodingite vein mineral assemblage composed of diopside, andradite, vesuvianite, epidote/zoisite, apatite and chlorite. Both perovskite 1 and 2 are replaced by pyrophanite along the grain rims and interiors; most likely via fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation at increased Si-Fe-Mn-Al element solubility in rodingitization fluids pervading serpentinized harzburgite. Both Prv generations, especially Prv (2), can be partly to almost totally replaced by (Ti-) Adr

  2. What Is Western Civilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  3. ReservationHop and the Effect of Unrestricted Marketization on Society

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to conduct a case study examining the intrusion of marketplace ideals on various aspects of everyday life. In this thesis, I provide a case study of a new business in San Francisco, ReservationHop, that transforms the previously first come, first serve restaurant reservation service into an auction style scalping (resell at a higher price) system, thereby affecting the distribution of an economic service, or good. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this thesis ...

  4. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  5. Nodding syndrome, western Uganda, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-07-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  6. Successful Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation of a Patient Suffering from Type II Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia A Rare Case Report from Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Gaurang; Shah, Sandip; Panchal, Harsha; Patel, Apurva; Uparkar, Urmila; Anand, Asha; Parikh, Sonia; Patel, Kinnari; Shah, Kamlesh; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent form of congenital dyserythropoiesis (CDA) is congenital dyserythropoietic anemia II (CDA II). CDA II is a rare genetic anemia in humans, inherited in an autosomally recessive mode, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly normocytic anemia and hemolytic jaundice. Patients are usually transfusion-independent except in severe type. We are here reporting a case of severe transfusion-dependent type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia in a 5-year-old patient who has undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at our bone marrow transplantation centre. Patient has had up until now more than 14 mL/kg/month of packed cell volume (PCV), which he required every 15 to 20 days to maintain his hemoglobin of 10 gm/dL and hematocrit of 30%. His pre-HSCT serum ferritin was 1500 ng/mL and he was on iron chelating therapy. Donor was HLA identical sibling (younger brother). The preparative regimen used was busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin). Cyclosporine and short-term methotrexate were used for graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Engraftment of donor cells was quick and the posttransplant course was uneventful. The patient is presently alive and doing well and he has been transfusion-independent for the past 33 months after HSCT. PMID:25692053

  7. Successful Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation of a Patient Suffering from Type II Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia A Rare Case Report from Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang Modi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent form of congenital dyserythropoiesis (CDA is congenital dyserythropoietic anemia II (CDA II. CDA II is a rare genetic anemia in humans, inherited in an autosomally recessive mode, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly normocytic anemia and hemolytic jaundice. Patients are usually transfusion-independent except in severe type. We are here reporting a case of severe transfusion-dependent type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia in a 5-year-old patient who has undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT at our bone marrow transplantation centre. Patient has had up until now more than 14 mL/kg/month of packed cell volume (PCV, which he required every 15 to 20 days to maintain his hemoglobin of 10 gm/dL and hematocrit of 30%. His pre-HSCT serum ferritin was 1500 ng/mL and he was on iron chelating therapy. Donor was HLA identical sibling (younger brother. The preparative regimen used was busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin. Cyclosporine and short-term methotrexate were used for graft versus host disease (GVHD prophylaxis. Engraftment of donor cells was quick and the posttransplant course was uneventful. The patient is presently alive and doing well and he has been transfusion-independent for the past 33 months after HSCT.

  8. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  9. The Case SIS Project: An Enterprise System in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Sean; Lyytinen, Kalle

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Case Western Reserve University (Case) initiated the acquisition,  customization, and implementation of a new student information system (SIS).   The Case SIS Project was intended to integrate the capture and management of  all student information and student-facing administrative functions  across the university’s distinct schools. Key functions supported by the  platform include admissions, financial aid, course selection and enrollment,  grading, degree tracking,...

  10. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from cases of urinary tract infections among hospitalized and out-patients at a tertiary health facility in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyekale Oluwalana Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common human infections with distribution of causative agents and their susceptibility pattern to antibiotics varying from region to region. This study aimed at determining the bacterial uropathogens and their antibiotic resistance profile among patients in a Nigerian tertiary health care facility. Materials and Methods: Appropriate urine specimens (midstream/catheter specimen urine of all suspected cases of UTI by clinicians were processed in the medical microbiology laboratory for detection of significant bacteriuria. Bacteria uropathogens isolated were identified by standard biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility test to eight antibiotics was carried out on them using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was identified by cefoxitin disc diffusion technique and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing enterobacteria were detected using double-disc synergy test. Results: Of the total 157 males and 189 females investigated, 35.7% and 66.1% respectively had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogen both among in- and out-patients (52.6% vs. 65.5%. Other isolated organisms were S. aureus (13.4% vs. 19.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3% vs. 2.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.2% vs. 7.1% and K. aerogenes (7.2% vs. 1.2%. Resistance rate of uropathogens to antibiotics was higher among in-patients. Resistance rate to ofloxacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone was generally very low compared to other tested antibiotics. Multiple resistant bacteria: MRSA and ESBL-producing enterobacteria were detected among both in-and out-patient with no significant difference in isolation rate. Conclusion: There is a need for continuous monitoring of uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile for evidence-based empirical treatment of UTI. There is an urgent need for the establishment of antibiotic

  11. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok;

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore the...... reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects on...... reliability and economic aspects according to various reserve capacity is evaluated at HLII level and the appropriate reserve is determined....

  12. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  13. The phytosociology of the northern section of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After classifications and descriptions of the southern and western sections of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve were published, a study on the phytosociology of the northern part was initiated. The study is aimed at providing an ecological basis for establishing an efficient wildlife management programme for the reserve. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 15 plant communities, which can be grouped into six major plant communities, were identified. Descriptions of the various plant communities, include diagnostic species, prominent species and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, forb and grass strata. A hierarchical classification, description of the plant communities and a vegetation map are presented.

  14. Nuclear power plant as cold reserve? Short expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short expertise on NPPs as cold reserve discusses the following topics: definition and motivation of a cold reserve, focus on nuclear power plants as cold reserve, security of energy supply and requirement of additional cold reserve, conclusion and recommendations.

  15. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O Mensah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration.The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and

  16. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Ernest O.; Aikins, Moses K.; Gyapong, Margaret; Anto, Francis; Bockarie, Moses J.; Gyapong, John O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP) in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration. Methodology/Principal Findings The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes—across health system functions–stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system–national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII) with a range of 0.00–1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was

  17. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  18. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity. PMID:26365329

  19. Cognitive reserve: The warehouse within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is characterized by progressive and mostly irreversible memory loss. Other neuropsychiatric disorders affect cognition in varying manner. Are all people affected with such disorders manifest clinically in similar manner or does our brain have some reserve to tolerate insults? Relevant researches over the last two decades were scrutinized to understand brain reserve, appreciate the conceptual change in the same over years, and how the same can be improved for better cognition and memory over the year. Literature evidence suggests that the cognitive reserve (CR is a dynamic and functional concept. There is adequate evidence to suggest that enriched environment and various other measures are likely to improve CR across all age. Improving CR may delay or reverse the effects of aging or brain pathology.

  20. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  1. Describing students' talk about physical science phenomena outside and inside the classroom: A case of secondary school students from Maragoli, western region of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberrecht, Stephen Patrick

    Because of cultural and linguistic influences on science learning involving students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, calls have been made for teachers to enact teaching that is sensitive to these students' backgrounds. However, most of the research involving such students has tended to focus on students at elementary grade levels from predominantly two linguistic backgrounds, Hispanic and Haitian Creole, learning science concepts mainly in the life sciences. Also, most of the studies examined classroom interactions between teachers and the students and among students. Not much attention had been paid to how students talk about ideas inherent in scientific phenomena in an outside-the-classroom context and much less on how that talk relates to that of the classroom. Thus, this research extends knowledge in the area of science learning involving students learning science in a language other than their first language to include students from a language background other than Hispanic and Haitian Creole at not only the high school level but also their learning of ideas in a content area other than the life science (i.e., the physical sciences). More importantly, this research extends knowledge in the area by relating science learning outside and inside the classroom. This dissertation describes this exploratory research project that adopted a case study strategy. The research involved seven Form Two (tenth grade) students (three boys and four girls) from one public, mixed gender day secondary school in rural Kenya. I collected data from the students through focus group discussions as they engaged in talking about ideas inherent in selected physical science phenomena and activities they encountered in their everyday lives, as well as learned about in their science classrooms. I supplemented these data with data from one-on-one semi-structured interviews with two teachers (one for chemistry and one for physics) on their teaching of ideas investigated in

  2. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  3. Comment on: "Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique" by Edixhoven et al. (2014) - clarifying comments and thoughts on key conceptions, conclusions and interpretation to allow for sustainable action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, R. W.; Wellmer, F.-W.

    2016-02-01

    , innovation for exploiting low-grade deposits, etc.) is acknowledged, but the right conclusions are not drawn, including the mixing of finiteness and staticness, and the way in which the critique of the USGS upgrading of the Moroccan reserves has been linked to Peak P. In particular, we clarify that reserves are primarily company data that serve mining companies for their strategic planning and may, by no means, be used as proxy data for providing global Peak P estimates. Likewise, we elaborate that drilling plans for assessing reserves have to be adjusted to site characteristics, in particular, in the case of four plateaus in Morocco and the Western Sahara comprising an area greater than 10 000 km2. We reconstruct the IFDC and USGS estimates and conclude that there is no evidence for considering the somewhat surprising increase to 50 Gt phosphate concentrate to be an unreasonable estimate for Moroccan reserves. However, the partial mixing of different units (e.g., phosphate ore and phosphate concentrate or marketable product) in the USGS data may be avoided by improving the database and using proper conversion factors. When applying these factors and assessing all reserves of marketable Gt of phosphate rock (PR-M), which is a common scale for measuring annual consumption, the magnitude of the 2014 USGS estimates of 67 Gt PR reserves does not change essentially but decreases from 64 (IFDC assessment) to 57.5 Gt PR-M (a worst-case calculation). We agree that a better harmonization of the (national) classification systems is meaningful. The discussion includes several ideas and thoughts that go beyond the paper by Edixhoven et al. (2014). We suggest that the discrepancies in the resource estimates are often caused by missing system understandings, different conceptions of sciences, and diverging world views. Finally, we suggest the establishment of a solidly funded, international standing committee that regularly analyzes global geopotential for assuring long-term supply

  4. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  5. China has proven 2974 iron ore reserve and 1248 copper reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently national mineral resource evaluation has achieved preliminary progress. At present a total of 2974 iron ore reserves have been proven, including 121 large-scale reserves; as well as 1248 copper reserves, including 37 large-scale reserves. Preliminary findings of the evaluation have indicated that retained iron re-

  6. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  7. A framework for stochastic simulation of distribution practices for hotel reservations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halkos, George E.; Tsilika, Kyriaki D. [Laboratory of Operations Research, Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Korai 43, 38 333, Volos (Greece)

    2015-03-10

    The focus of this study is primarily on the Greek hotel industry. The objective is to design and develop a framework for stochastic simulation of reservation requests, reservation arrivals, cancellations and hotel occupancy with a planning horizon of a tourist season. In Greek hospitality industry there have been two competing policies for reservation planning process up to 2003: reservations coming directly from customers and a reservations management relying on tour operator(s). Recently the Internet along with other emerging technologies has offered the potential to disrupt enduring distribution arrangements. The focus of the study is on the choice of distribution intermediaries. We present an empirical model for the hotel reservation planning process that makes use of a symbolic simulation, Monte Carlo method, as, requests for reservations, cancellations, and arrival rates are all sources of uncertainty. We consider as a case study the problem of determining the optimal booking strategy for a medium size hotel in Skiathos Island, Greece. Probability distributions and parameters estimation result from the historical data available and by following suggestions made in the relevant literature. The results of this study may assist hotel managers define distribution strategies for hotel rooms and evaluate the performance of the reservations management system.

  8. A framework for stochastic simulation of distribution practices for hotel reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this study is primarily on the Greek hotel industry. The objective is to design and develop a framework for stochastic simulation of reservation requests, reservation arrivals, cancellations and hotel occupancy with a planning horizon of a tourist season. In Greek hospitality industry there have been two competing policies for reservation planning process up to 2003: reservations coming directly from customers and a reservations management relying on tour operator(s). Recently the Internet along with other emerging technologies has offered the potential to disrupt enduring distribution arrangements. The focus of the study is on the choice of distribution intermediaries. We present an empirical model for the hotel reservation planning process that makes use of a symbolic simulation, Monte Carlo method, as, requests for reservations, cancellations, and arrival rates are all sources of uncertainty. We consider as a case study the problem of determining the optimal booking strategy for a medium size hotel in Skiathos Island, Greece. Probability distributions and parameters estimation result from the historical data available and by following suggestions made in the relevant literature. The results of this study may assist hotel managers define distribution strategies for hotel rooms and evaluate the performance of the reservations management system

  9. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  10. An integrated map correlation method and multiple-source sites drainage-area ratio method for estimating streamflows at ungauged catchments: A case study of the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Kayra; Kentel, Elcin

    2016-01-15

    Stream gauges measure the temporal variation of water quantity; thus they are vital in managing water resources. The stream gauge network in Turkey includes a limited number of gauges and often streamflow estimates need to be generated at ungauged locations where reservoirs, small hydropower plants, weirs, etc. are planned. Prediction of streamflows at ungauged locations generally relies on donor gauges where flow is assumed to be similar to that at the ungauged location. Generally, donor stream gauges are selected based on geographical proximity. However, closer stream gauges are not always the most-correlated ones. The Map Correlation Method (MCM) enables development of a map that shows the spatial distribution of the correlation between a selected stream gauge and any other location within the study region. In this study, a new approach which combines MCM with the multiple-source site drainage-area ratio (DAR) method is used to estimate daily streamflows at ungauged catchments in the Western Black Sea Region. Daily streamflows predicted by the combined three-source sites DAR with MCM approach give higher Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) values than those predicted using the nearest stream gauge as the donor stream gauge, for most of the trial cases. Hydrographs and flow duration curves predicted using this approach are usually in better agreement with the observed hydrographs and flow duration curves than those predicted using the nearest catchment. PMID:26520038

  11. Experience on treatment of 200 cases with blunt abdominal trauma by integrated Chinese and western medicine%闭合性腹部创伤200例中西医诊疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰文贤

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察200例闭合性腹部损伤患者的中西医疗效。全面系统的体格检查。腹腔穿刺应作为常规首选的检查手段。腹部闭合创伤的治疗应遵循的原则是分秒必争、争取时机;细致探查、避免遗漏;遵循原则、处理果断;积极正确处理合并伤。闭合性腹部创伤术后功能恢复,早期可灌注以补益气血,逐癖通腑为治则的固脱清腑汤。%Objective: To observe the traditional Chinese and Western medical treatment effect of 200 cases of closed abdominal injury. A comprehensive system of physical examination. Abdominal paracentesis should be used as the preferred means of conventional check. Treatment of closed abdominal trauma should abide by the principle of count every minute and second, strive for the opportunity;detailed exploration, avoid missing; follow the principles, processes decisively; positive and correct treatment of associated injury. Functional recovery after blunt abdominal trauma, early reperfusion by replenishing qi and blood, by addiction Tongfu to treat solid De Qing Fu decoction.

  12. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author)

  13. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

  14. Does medium-term emersion cause a mass extinction of tidal flat macrobenthos? The case of the Tricolor oil pollution prevention in the Zwin nature reserve (Belgium and The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Colen, C.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2006-06-01

    As a result of the Tricolor oil pollution in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (winter 2003) the Zwin nature reserve, consisting of tidal flats and salt marshes, was blocked from the North Sea by use of a sand barrier. Hence, macrobenthic tidal flat organisms, by nature strongly dependent on the cyclic incoming seawater, were emersed during a period of 27 days. Because the effect of medium-term emersion on the ecologically important benthic life could not be assessed beforehand, the damming was taken as an opportunity to examine these effects. This study demonstrated that: (1) no species vanished due to emersion, (2) although the emersion might have caused some mortality, a mass mortality within the macrobenthos did not occur, and (3) the supra-littoral amphipods Talitrus saltator and Orchestia gammarellus performed a strong, though ephemeral immigration into the intertidal zone during the period of emersion. In view of both its minor impacts on the macrobenthos and its effectiveness in preventing oil pollution in the Zwin nature reserve, damming as a measure against oil pollution may be considered effective protection, especially during winter.

  15. 中国与SEC储量评估差异分析——以元坝长兴组元坝103H井区长二段气藏为例%Reasons for differences of reserve estimation results between domestic and SEC rules: A case study of gas reservoir in 2nd section of Changxing Formation, well Yuanba 103H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韵; 张贵生; 马丽梅

    2012-01-01

    Three main petroleum companies in our country have successfully come into the SEC in succession since 2000, and the reserve estimations on oversea market have been made based on SEC rules. The differences of reserve estimation concept, classification and purpose lead to the differences of estimation results between domestic and SEC rules. A case study of gas reservoir has been carried out in the 2nd section of the Changxing Formation, well Yuanba 103H. The determination of gas-bearing area and effective thickness based on domestic and SEC rules has been compared.%2000年以来,我国三大石油公司陆续在美国证券交易市场成功上市,上市储量评估采用的技术规范是SEC准则.国内外储量评估内涵、分类和目的有所不同,使国内外评估结果存在差异.该文以元坝103H井区长二段气藏为例,就国内规范和SEC准则在容积法评估储量过程中确定含气面积、有效厚度等参数取值的具体方法逐一对比分析.

  16. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people l...

  17. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...'s resistance to calculating a full life cycle analysis for each component in the Multi Family... this final rule Rural Development will now base the reserve account amount on a life-cycle analysis or... formula that will be used in the life cycle analysis. A commenter suggested defining the formula to...

  18. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  19. 75 FR 66078 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA (DOE/ EIS-0439) and Possible California Desert... environmental analysis document for the proposed Rice Solar Energy Project (Project), in Riverside County..., 2010 (75 FR 15427).\\1\\ Western and the BLM held public scoping meetings in Big River, CA, on March...

  20. The World Revolution of Westernization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Laue, Theodore H.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of westernization from a global perspective. Analyzes the reasons for perceived Western "superiority," how these reasons contributed to the buildup of western power, and its attractiveness to non-Western cultures. Indicates the necessity for a trans-national, culturally non-specific view of history to meet this age of global…

  1. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  2. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  3. Marine reserves lag behind wilderness in the conservation of key functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'agata, Stéphanie; Mouillot, David; Wantiez, Laurent; Friedlander, Alan M; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Although marine reserves represent one of the most effective management responses to human impacts, their capacity to sustain the same diversity of species, functional roles and biomass of reef fishes as wilderness areas remains questionable, in particular in regions with deep and long-lasting human footprints. Here we show that fish functional diversity and biomass of top predators are significantly higher on coral reefs located at more than 20 h travel time from the main market compared with even the oldest (38 years old), largest (17,500 ha) and most restrictive (no entry) marine reserve in New Caledonia (South-Western Pacific). We further demonstrate that wilderness areas support unique ecological values with no equivalency as one gets closer to humans, even in large and well-managed marine reserves. Wilderness areas may therefore serve as benchmarks for management effectiveness and act as the last refuges for the most vulnerable functional roles. PMID:27354026

  4. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  5. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  6. Determining reserve requirements in DK1 area of Nord Pool using a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allocation of electricity reserves is the main tool for transmission system operators to guarantee a reliable and safe real-time operation of the power system. Traditionally, a deterministic criterion is used to establish the level of reserve. Alternative criteria are given in this paper by using a probabilistic framework where the reserve requirements are computed based on scenarios of wind power forecast error, load forecast errors and power plant outages. Our approach is first motivated by the increasing wind power penetration in power systems worldwide as well as the current market design of the DK1 area of Nord Pool, where reserves are scheduled prior to the closure of the day-ahead market. The risk of the solution under the resulting reserve schedule is controlled by two measures: the LOLP (Loss-of-Load Probability) and the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk). Results show that during the case study period, the LOLP methodology produces more costly and less reliable reserve schedules, whereas the solution from the CVaR-method increases the safety of the overall system while decreasing the associated reserve costs, with respect to the method currently used by the Danish TSO (Transmission System Operator). - Highlights: • The uncertainty of load, wind power production, and power plant outages is considered. • Reserve capacity is scheduled independently of energy. • Risk is assessed by the loss-of-load probability and the CVaR of the total cost. • The study case is performed on real data from the DK1 area of Nordpool • System reliability is increased, while reducing the associated reserve costs

  7. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D.

    2012-03-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  8. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  9. Investment in the Western Hemisphere energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the main characteristics of Western Hemisphere energy markets are well known to those in the energy industry. The United States sits in the northern half of the hemisphere, importing more and more oil from the rest of the world. Brazil, with a market one-tenth of the size of the United Sates, sits in the southern half of the hemisphere, importing less and less oil from the rest of the world. Venezuela sits in the center with an eye to the future as a long-term player in the world petroleum industry. Venezuela has 6 or 7 percent of the world's known conventional petroleum reserves, plus an uncountable bitumen resource which is now being commercialized as Orimulsion, a low-emission substitute for coal. The United States is circled by major producing countries with smaller exports, such as Mexico and Canada, and there are smaller producing or consuming countries of which Colombia is the largest exporter and Argentian the largest importer. The United States dominates the numbers. Half of British Petroleum's (BP) investments have been in the energy industry of the Western Hemisphere. We are maintaining that proportion, but opportunities are becoming more difficult to find

  10. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  11. Preserving a spirit of place: U.S. Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marshik, Joel; Renz, Lyle; Sipes, Jim; Becker, Dale; Paulson, Dale

    2001-01-01

    US Highway 93 traverses the Flathead Indian Reservation, which is located on the west side of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana. Picturesque mountains and mountain valleys, with the broad Flathead Valley to the North and the majestic Mission Mountains to the East, characterize this part of Montana. The area is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including grizzly bear, white-tailed deer, mule deer, pronghorn, elk, painted turtles, bighorn sheep, and a number of fish and bird species. It ...

  12. Reserve price: Lessons learned from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auctions have been used in several formats in the electric energy industry. In general, regulators may be uncomfortable initiating a reverse auction at a higher-than-expected final price, fearing that participants may sell their energy at an excess profitability. Nevertheless, evidence from electricity procurement auctions conducted in Brazil supports the findings that these types of auctions have the opposite effect. By attracting a larger number of agents, these auctions can trigger stronger competition and lead to lower settlement pricing. Accordingly, the Brazilian cases examined in this article present significant evidence to support this directional theory. In fact, there are some cases of electricity procurement auctions that show that inadequate auction reserve pricing leads to inefficient outcomes and may also cause the auction to fail. On the other hand, auctions with adequate price caps have led to lower final clearing prices, thus contributing to reasonable final energy pricing. - Highlights: • Outcomes from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions were analyzed. • Cases of success and frustration after adopting (in)adequate reserve prices. • Setting different price caps per source is inefficient. • Higher-than-normal price cap is more effective than fine-tuning reserve prices

  13. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  14. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  15. 中西医结合治疗外阴白色病变36例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 36 cases of white lesions of vulva treated with Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to apply the effect of chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of white lesions of the vulva. Methods: 72 cases of patients were randomly divided into our hospital from february 2014 to March 2015 to meet the diagnostic criteria of patients with white lesions of the vulva. control group and experimental group, 36 cases. the control group was treated with focused ultrasound, and the experimental group was treated with the combination of traditional chinese medicine fumigation and focused ultrasound. the treatment of the two groups of patients were compared.Results: the total effective rate in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group, the difference was obvious,P<0.05, it was statistically signiifcant. The recurrence rate of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group, the difference was signiifcant,P<0.05, with statistical signiifcance. Conclusion: the treatment of the patients with white lesions of the vulva, the treatment effect is satisfactory, and the recurrence rate is low, it is worth recommending.%目的:对中西医结合在外阴白色病变治疗中的应用效果。方法:将纳入的72例病例进行随机分组,均为我院2014年2月份到2015年3月份收治的符合诊断标准的外阴白色病变患者。对照组和实验组各36例。对照组实施聚焦超声治疗,实验组联合中药熏洗以及聚焦超声进行治疗。对两组患者的治疗情况进行对比。结果:实验组的总有效率为,比对照组的要高,差别明显,P<0.05,有统计学意义。实验组的复发率比对照组低,差异显著,P<0.05,具备统计学意义。结论:对外阴白色病变患者实施中西医结合治疗,其治疗效果理想,且复发率低,值得推荐。

  16. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune

  17. Reserves In Traditional And Contemporary Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to analyse concepts of reserves in traditional accounting models and the characteristics  of the area of reserves in contemporary global accounting standards. Concepts of reserves in different countries are deeply rooted in the socio-economic environment of accounting. The differences in the significance, role and the scale of creation of reserves are especially evident in the Anglo-Saxon and continental accountingReserves play a very important role in the accounting system of IFRSs– they provide a specific control mechanism which enables companies to verify economic benefits embodied in their net assets.The analysis of the IFRSs rules concerning the creation of valuation reserves and provisions may lead to the conclusion that they are- above all – subject to true and fair view concept. The only purpose of reserves is to present faithfully the estimated loss in value of net assets. There are many requirements which are intended to prevent the undue use of reserves.The area of reserves is becoming more and more complex. The sources of complexity of reserves go beyond their inherent features and stem from the general orientation of contemporary accounting towards a model of anticipated losses/gains  in net assets.

  18. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  20. Western Area Power Administration customer database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Lee, A.D.; Wright, G.A.; Durfee, D.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report describes a comprehensive customer database compiled by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist with analyses conducted as part of the Western Area Power Administration Energy Planning and Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The database was used by PNL as a tool to help select a sample of Western customers for potential participation in the Organizational Impacts Analysis case studies, and was used as part of the Utility Impact Analysis to identify sources and costs of auxiliary power. Secondary information sources were used predominantly to compile one year of system related information on the Western customers (over 600) included in the database. This information was useful for its intended purposes; however, year-to-year information may not be consistent across utilities and not all information was available for each utility.

  1. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  2. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  3. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniere, A

    2006-07-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  4. Debt Redemption and Reserve Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2013-01-01

    Foreign participation in local-currency bond markets in emerging countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. In light of this trend, we revisit sovereign debt sustainability and incentives to default when the sovereign is temporarily excluded from capital markets. Differently from previous analyses, we assume that in addition to accumulating international reserves, countries can borrow internationally using their own currency. As opposed to traditional sovereign debt models (al...

  5. Conch, Cooperatives, and Conflict: Conservation and Resistance in the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In theory, biosphere reserves link biodiversity conservation with development, primarily through sustainable resource utilisation, and alternative, conservation-compatible economies in the buffer and transition zones outside the core area. Successful management should reduce pressure on natural resources within its core area as well as enable local communities to participate in the management of buffer zone resources in a sustainable manner. The Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve was declared in 1996 to protect coral reefs and marine biodiversity, while also enabling fishing cooperatives to maintain their livelihoods based upon the sustainable extraction of lobster, conch, and scalefish. In 2004, eight years after the Reserve′s declaration, Mexican authorities struggled to control marine resource use in the reserve, especially the extraction of queen conch (Strombus gigas. This article provides an overview of the long struggle to conserve queen conch populations in the area. Particular attention is paid to describing the various forms of resistance fishermen employed to counter the increasing regulation and vigilance that accompanied the creation of the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve. This case chronicles the resistance to regulation and interpersonal violence that erupts when entrenched attitudes and practices are confronted with increasing surveillance. Thus, what was observed in the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve parallels other research that depicts the forms of resistance to conservation that local people enact when confronted with conservation interventions. Finally, the plight of queen conch in the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve clearly reflects the conflicts and difficulties found across Mexico in the implementation of the biosphere reserve model.

  6. Coalbed gas potential in the miocene Soma basin (Western Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Sedat; Inan, Sedat; BAYSAL, Mustafa; YÜRÜM, YUDA; Yurum, Yuda

    2010-01-01

    The Neogene Basins of Turkey contain as much as 9 billion tons of lignite-rank coal (Sengiller, 2001; Tuncah et al., 2002). The Miocene Soma Basin, a rift basin trending NE-SW (approximately 20 kilometers by 5 kilometers) in the Aegean Extensional Province (EAP) of Western Turkey, is estimated to contain at the least one billion tons of lignite and about half of this reserve is present at depths greater than 600 m (Turkish Coal Enterprises, 2006). Miocene marillimestone units and Pliocene cla...

  7. Two Papers on Canadian Indians; Education and Economic Development: The Case of Indian Reserves in Canada. [and] The Capitalization of a Traditional Pursuit: The Case of Wild Rice in Manitoba. Center for Settlement Studies, Series 5: Occasional Papers Nos. 5 and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Paul; Lithman, Yngve Georg

    The first paper aims to give a certain relativity to the significance of education and to indicate the limitations of any educational effort. The thinking underlying the current approach to the economic development of native communities and reserves is discussed as well as the implications and consequences of such thinking. It is argued that the…

  8. Rodrigues Island: Hope thrives at the François Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Burney

    2011-06-01

    , Rodrigues’ big neighbor 650 km to the west. Through heterophylly, the adaptation of having tough, finely dissected and presumably less edible leaves near the ground where animals can reach, as well as in some cases certain plant chemicals that the tortoises apparently don’t like, and long flexible stems that tortoises seem not to trample down or chew, these plants are thriving in the midst of a high density of these hungry lumbering reptiles. A tall secure fence keeps them inside the Reserve, and keeps out the free - ranging goats, sheep, and cattle which have converted so much of the rest of this island to Lantana and other unpalatable invasives. Those ungulates, with their advanced teeth, love to eat the native plants, and have nearly driven them to extinction. I have been an advocate for this approach – reintroducing the “megafauna” back to lands where they are extinct, or their closest living relatives or even an ecological surrogate – for several decades. The scientific underpinnings for restoring ecological functions this way are quite sound, and there are plenty of examples of this “rewilding” already working around the world, from Siberia’s “Pleistocene Park” with reintroduced musk oxen, wild horses, and so forth, to American media mogul Ted Turner’s vast ranches in the western US with herds of many thousands of bison, elk, and yes – even a giant tortoise (Bolson’s reintroduced to its former range from Mexico. You can read about these and others in my recent book1. Some years ago I even proposed something like this for Madagascar – starting with tortoises but under the right circumstances perhaps including living ratite birds, hippos, and crocodiles, in some fenced reserve lands. I doubt that most readers took me seriously then (perhaps even now. Here at the Leguat Reserve, though, rewilding is not a hypothetical proposal, it is a way of life, a major tourist attraction, and a very interesting scientific experiment. Rewilding is working

  9. The environmental sustainability. The physical cost of replacement of mineral reserves; La sostenibilidad ambiental a escala planetaria. El coste fisico de reposicion del Capital Mineral de la Tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A.; Martinez, A.; Botero, E.

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate the physical value of mineral and water reserves, the concept of Exergy Replacement Cost has been defined as the energy required by the best available technologies to return a resource to the same conditions as it was delivered by the ecosystem. In the case of fossil fuel reserves, a new concept called exergy abatement cost has been proposed as a physical way of measuring the exergy cost of the best available technology for avoiding the environmental externalities associated with the use of fossil fuels. According to the results obtained, the physical value of mineral reserves is 15.4% of oil reserves. In the case of water reserves, 0,4 to 6,4 times the fossil energy consumed would be needed each year to supply only a part of the functions of the hydrological cycle. The global exegetic abatement costs would be 11,3% of the proven world exegetic reserves in fossil fuels. (Author)

  10. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  11. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Sala

    Full Text Available Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  12. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  13. Oil reserves viewed from a geological and a financial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exactly how high are the current levels of oil reserves owned by private companies in the oil sector? To what extent are the figures that they provide in their annual balance sheets reliable? Finally, what is the relationship between their declared reserves and the value of their share prices in the financial markets? In order to answer these questions, we need to consider the various links existing between on the one hand the various problems related to the technical estimation of deposits and on the other hand the economic thinking behind their use. On 22 June 2004, a discussion focusing on these themes was organised by the Centre de Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres (Centre for Energy and Raw Material Geopolitics) of Dauphine University) as part of the conference: 'Oil reserves viewed from a geological and a financial perspective'. The result of the debates was clear: various methodological justifications, several accounting standards and a lack of serious monitoring have led to oil companies developing the habit of increasing the crude reserves previously declared each year, to the extent that this practice has become a virtual expectation within the financial markets. The case of Shell, a company an whose professionalism has never been called into question until last year, has clearly revealed the dangers related to this situation. The major losses in value suffered by the Anglo-Dutch company due to the brutal reaction following the unexpected downward revision of its estimated deposits provide clear proof of a latent problem. It is to be hoped that this experience will have a paradigmatic effect, bringing about a rethink of current standards with regard to the estimation of reserves, one which is more necessary today than at any time in the past. Here, we are presenting two articles providing an overview of the discussion underway and introducing two separate points of view. The first article (by Yves Mathieu of the IFP) introduces the

  14. Coordinated Action of Fast and Slow Reserves for Optimal Sequential and Dynamic Emergency Reserve Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkuti, Surender Reddy; Bijwe, P. R.; Abhyankar, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimal dynamic reserve activation plan after the occurrence of an emergency situation (generator/transmission line outage, load increase or both). An optimal plan is developed to handle the emergency situation, using coordinated action of fast and slow reserves, for secure operation with minimum overall cost. This paper considers the reserves supplied by generators (spinning reserves) and loads (demand-side reserves). The optimal backing down of costly/fast reserves and bringing up of slow reserves in each sub-interval in an integrated manner is proposed. The simulation studies are performed on IEEE 30, 57 and 300 bus test systems to demonstrate the advantage of proposed integrated/dynamic reserve activation plan over the conventional/sequential approach.

  15. Sequential evaluation of hepatic functional reserve by {sup 99m}Technetium-galactosyl human serum albumin scinitigraphy after proton beam therapy: a report of three cases and a review of the literatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Tokuuye, Koichi; Sugahara, Shinji; Hat, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Akine, Yasuyuki [Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Takeda, Tohoru; Jin Wu [Graduate school of Comprehensive Human Science, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    The treatment strategy for malignant liver tumors should be appropriately determined because post-treatment quality of life greatly depends on the patients' residual hepatic function. In this report, we present three patients with malignant liver tumors treated by proton beam therapy in whom pre- and post-therapeutic hepatic functional reserves were evaluated sequentially for more than a year by {sup 99m}Technetium-galactosyl human serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) scintigraphy. All three patients exhibited the distinctive time course of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA uptake efficiency, which suggested a transient decline in the ratio of liver activity to heart and liver activity at 15 minutes (LHL15) 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. This change was not in parallel with that expected from a functioning normal liver tissue volume. In a year after proton beam therapy, LHL15 recovered nearly to the pre-treatment level in all three patients. Our observations may be related to the up-regulation of receptor-mediated {sup 99m}Tc-GSA uptake during hepatic regeneration after proton beam therapy.

  16. 自然保护区森林防火体系建设--以九寨沟为例%Forest Fire Prevention System Construction Nature Reserve-A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦浪

    2016-01-01

    林业资源是脆弱且不可再生的,其中对林业资源威胁最大的就是森林火灾。为科学有效地保护好区内有限的林业资源,当前亟需建立一套标准化、信息化、专业化的森林防火体系来不断增强林区火灾防控管理。以九寨沟国家级自然保护区为例子,从多个角度和立场进行分析,列出一套合理的全面的森林防火体系建设发展策略。%forestry resources are fragile and non-renewable, which pose the greatest threat to forest resources is forest fires. Scientific areas to effectively protect the limited forest resources, is urgently needed to establish a standardized, information, and professional forest fire prevention system to continuously enhance the prevention and control of forest fire management. In this paper, Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve as an example to be analyzed from various angles and positions, listed a reasonable comprehensive forest fire prevention system construction and development strategy.

  17. Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vacek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced. Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1 is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce.

  18. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the...

  19. The economic costs of reserve forces utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Craig L.; Ryan, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This project offers a model useful for estimating the social cost of U.S. Reserve Forces and National Guard employment alternatives in support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). We consider two specific alternatives in this report: (1) the operational force (status quo) and (2) increasing Active Duty Force end strength and keeping Reserve Forces as a strategic reserve. We assume both alternatives are equal in effectiveness. Each alternative provides certain benefits and costs to Ame...

  20. Statistical Method of Estimating Nigerian Hydrocarbon Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey O. Oseh; Ifeanyi A. Oguamah; Charles U.Omohimoria; Omotara O. Oluwagbenga

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon reserves are basic to planning and investment decisions in Petroleum Industry. Therefore its proper estimation is of considerable importance in oil and gas production. The estimation of hydrocarbon reserves in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been very popular, and very successful, in the Nigerian oil and gas industry for the past 50 years. In order to fully estimate the hydrocarbon potentials in Nigerian Niger Delta Region, a clear understanding of the reserve geology and...

  1. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  2. Role of Online Reviews in Hotel Reservations Intention Based on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuling Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media are playing an increasingly important role as information sources for travelers and online reviews reconstruct the decision-making of purchase. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence extent of online reviews on consumer’s hotel reservation intention. Based on the data analysis from the online comments, the measurable conceptual model of online comment which affecting the consumer’s hotel reservation intention is built up, the five observed variables and the relevant suppose have been put forward. The model is evaluated according to a national survey of potential consumers. All data have been analyzed with the Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results show that all variables except comment source significantly affected tourists’ hotel reservation intention. It also puts forward a reference case for the tourism company and its websites on improving online reservation service quality to meet customer’s satisfaction.

  3. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  4. Internal Globalization of Western Balkan

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  5. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  6. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  7. A recent inventory of the fishes of the north-western and central western coast of Lake Tanganyika (Democratic Republic Congo)

    OpenAIRE

    Van SteenBerge, Maarten; Vanhove, Maarten PM; Muzumani Risasi, Donatien; Mulimbwa N'sibula, Théophile; Muterezi Bukinga, Fidel; Pariselle, Antoine; Gillardin, Céline; Vreven, Emmanuel; Raeymaekers, Joost; Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip AM; Nshombo Muderhwa, Venant; Snoeks, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Background. Despite the importance of Lake Tanganyika's biodiversity for science and the livelihoods of the riparian people, high-resolution surveys of the fish biodiversity are sparse and fragmentary, especially along the western (Congolese) shoreline. The coast suffers locally from intensive human activities and lacks adequate protective measures or nature reserves. However, in view of the intra-lacustrine endemism of this fish fauna, conservation needs to be managed lake-wide at a fine sca...

  8. Resource type influences the effects of reserves and connectivity on ecological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Nicholas A; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Martin, Tyson S H; Gilby, Ben L; Maxwell, Paul S; Huijbers, Chantal M; Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A

    2016-03-01

    Connectivity is a pivotal feature of landscapes that affects the structure of populations and the functioning of ecosystems. It is also a key consideration in conservation planning. But the potential functional effects of landscape connectivity are rarely evaluated in a conservation context. The removal of algae by herbivorous fish is a key ecological function on coral reefs that promotes coral growth and recruitment. Many reef herbivores are harvested and some use other habitats (like mangroves) as nurseries or feeding areas. Thus, the effects of habitat connectivity and marine reserves can jointly promote herbivore populations on coral reefs, thereby influencing reef health. We used a coral reef seascape in eastern Australia to test whether seascape connectivity and reserves influence herbivory. We measured herbivore abundance and rates of herbivory (on turf algae and macroalgae) on reefs that differed in both their level of connectivity to adjacent mangrove habitats and their level of protection from fishing. Reserves enhanced the biomass of herbivorous fish on coral reefs in all seascape settings and promoted consumption of turf algae. Consumption of turf algae was correlated with the biomass of surgeonfish that are exploited outside reserves. By contrast, both reserve status and connectivity influenced herbivory on macroalgae. Consumption of macroalgae was greatest on fished reefs that were far from mangroves and was not strongly correlated with any fish species. Our findings demonstrate that landscape connectivity and reserve status can jointly affect the functioning of ecosystems. Moreover, we show that reserve and connectivity effects can differ markedly depending on resource type (in this case turf algae vs. macroalgae). The effectiveness of conservation initiatives will therefore depend on our ability to understand how these multiple interactive effects structure the distribution of ecological functions. These findings have wider implications for the

  9. Towards a Resource Reservation Approach for an Opportunistic Computing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced reservation has been used in grid environments to provide quality of service (QoS) and to guarantee resources available at the execution time. However, in grid subtypes, such as opportunistic grid computing, it is a challenge provides QoS and guarantee of availability resources. In this article, we propose a new advanced reservation approach which offers to a user the possibility to select resources in advance for a future utilization. Therefore, the main goal of this proposal is to offer a best effort feature to a user from an opportunistic configuration. In these types of environments, it is not possible to provide QoS, because, usually, there are no guarantees of resources availability and, consequently, the execution of users applications. In addition, this research work provides a way to organize executions, what it can improve the scheduling and system operations. Experimental results, carried out through a case study, shown the efficiency and relevance of our proposal

  10. 78 FR 50038 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Research Reserve takes an integrated approach to management, linking research, education, training and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY... Comment Period for the Wells, Maine National Estuarine Research Reserve Management Plan revision....

  11. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P < 0.001). Migration between PHX and SWR (Nm = 1, 4, and 8 individuals/generation) increased their genetic diversity in the short-term and substantially reduced the probability of extinction in PHX during 25 generations. Under such scenarios, maximum genetic diversities were achieved in the first generations before the effects of genetic drift became predominant. Although captive populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  12. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  13. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  14. The Protection of Groundwater Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan consumed 900 Mm3 per year in 2010. 65% of this water, 500 Mm3, is used for agriculture (3% of GDP), 360 Mm3 by municipalities and 40 Mm3 by industry. Since 2002 the government has implemented a policy of tiered pricing by sector, but is having difficulties enforcing it in the agricultural sector, and illegal drilling of wells is on the rise in the highlands. The government has also begun to control more strictly the pumping of groundwater and pollution of groundwater reserves. Nationwi...

  15. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... technology have been developed and analysed, based on which simulation models have been constructed using the DIgSILENT Power Factory platform. The simulation studies of different scenarios confirm that the DFR can provide reliable performance of frequency control. Furthermore, relevant issues regarding...

  16. Power reserves at end users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper puts the attention to power reserves at end users. As a result of entered export obligations of power by inter-connecting the Norwegian hydroelectric power system and thermal power generating systems on the Continent, there is expected to be a shortage of electric power supply in Norway. In this connection, the paper evaluates and describes some typical types of loads suited for power control. The execution on how to control these loads is discussed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of malaria in Indian reserves of Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria constitutes a major cause of morbidity in the Brazilian Amazon where an estimated 6 million people are considered at high risk of transmission. Indigenous peoples in the Amazon are particularly vulnerable to potentially epidemic disease such as malaria; notwithstanding, very little is known about the epidemiology of malaria in Indian reservations of the region. The aim of this paper is to present a spatial analysis of malaria cases over a four-year time period (2003–2006 among indigenous peoples of the Brazilian State of Rondônia, southwestern Amazon, by using passive morbidity data (results from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears gathered from the National Malaria Epidemiologic Surveillance System databank. Results A total of 4,160 cases of malaria were recorded in 14 Indian reserves in the State of Rondônia between 2003 and 2006. In six reservations no cases of malaria were reported in the period. Overall, P. vivax accounted for 76.18 of malaria cases reported in the indigenous population of Rondônia. The P. vivax/P. falciparum ratio for the period was 3.78. Two reserves accounted for over half of the cases reported for the total indigenous population in the period – Roosevelt and Pacaas Novas – with a total of 1,646 (39.57% and 1,145 (27.52% cases, respectively. Kernel mapping of malaria mean Annual Parasite Index – API according to indigenous reserves and environmental zones revealed a heterogeneous pattern of disease distribution, with one clear area of high risk of transmission comprising reservations of west Rondônia along the Guaporé-Madeira River basins, and another high risk area to the east, on the Roosevelt reserve. Conclusion By means of kernel mapping, it was shown that malaria risk varies widely between Indian reserves and environmental zones defined on the basis of predominant ecologic characteristics and land use patterns observed in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The geographical

  18. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, F.; Phillips, A N; Lundgren, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. Th...

  19. U.S. gas reserves are up; crude oil reserve decline moderates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates show an increase in U.S. gas reserves for the first time since 1981. Lower 48 state gas reserves are higher than in 1985, and Alaskan gas reserves increased from the previous year. Revised North Slope fuel gas requirements resulted in reclassification of some Alaskan gas to economically recoverable and proved reserves increased in New Mexico, Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore, Oklahoma and Colorado. Coalbed methane in New Mexico, Alabama and Colorado increased by 1,411 Bcf, about 75% of lower 48 reserve growth

  20. Circulation Background and Dynamic Mechanisms of a Sandstorm Case in Western Inner Mongolia%内蒙古西部一次沙尘暴环流背景和动力机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁国波; 宋燕; 吕晶洁; 白月波

    2012-01-01

    The weather circulation background and dynamic mechanisms for a sandstorm case occurred in the western Inner Mongolia on 23 April 2009 are analyzed by using observation data. The results show that the main cause for this sandstorm case is strong cold air activities. The upper-level system causing thc sandstorm is the deep Mongolian transverse trough and northerly airflow on the east; the surface system is the strongly developing Mongolian cyclone. From the view point of dynamics, when the sandstorm happened, the momentum of northerly airflow aloft was transmitted downward to surface with prevailing descending motion because of convergence at upper levels and divergcnce at lower levels. The secondary circulation generated by disturbance development at middle and low levels made momentum transmit downward effectively. It is worthy to note that the key points for the storm are the southward movement of the upper Mongolian transverse trough and its rotation to upright position, which caused clod air to break and move southward; the upper northerly jet and the obvious development of the surface Mongolian cyclone around the exit of the jet werc thc necessary conditions for sandstorm generation; the continuous reinforcement of pressure gradient after the surface cold front speeding up intensified the burst of clod air; and the strong convergence aloft and divergence below increased the possibility for sandstorm generation.%利用相关资料对2009年4月23日内蒙古西部地区发生的沙尘暴天气的环流形势及动力机制进行分析.分析表明:强冷空气活动是本次沙尘暴天气发生的主要原因;造成本次沙尘暴的高空系统是斜压性很强的蒙古横槽及槽后的偏北急流,地面系统是强烈发展的蒙古气旋;从动力机制来看,沙尘暴发生时,由于高层辐合、低层辐散而形成的强烈下沉运动,使得高空偏北急流带的动量下传到地面,中低层波动发展形成的次级环流使动量下传

  1. Task Mapping and Bandwidth Reservation for Mixed Hard/Soft Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    reserved for the servers determines the quality of service (QoS) for soft tasks. CBS enforces temporal isolation, such that soft task overruns do not affect the timing guarantees of hard tasks. Transient faults in hard tasks are tolerated using checkpointing with rollback recovery. We have proposed a Tabu...... Search-based approach for task mapping and CBS bandwidth reservation, such that the deadlines for the hard tasks are satisfied, even in the case of transient faults, and the QoS for the soft tasks is maximized. Researchers have used fixed execution time models, such as the worst-case execution times for...

  2. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin

  3. 78 FR 66715 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Reserve Bank Services AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Notice... services and electronic access. These actions were taken in accordance with the requirements of the... services be established on the basis of all direct and indirect costs, including the PSAF. DATES: The...

  4. 77 FR 66980 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... Federal Reserve Bank Services AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Notice... services and electronic access. These actions were taken in accordance with the requirements of the... services be established on the basis of all direct and indirect costs, including the PSAF. DATES: The...

  5. 29 CFR 1912.42 - Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservation. 1912.42 Section 1912.42 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Miscellaneous § 1912.42 Reservation. The policies and procedures set forth... modification to the extent that such policies or procedures are consistent with the Federal Advisory...

  6. 48 CFR 49.109-2 - Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservations. 49.109-2 Section 49.109-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... that the wording of the reservation does not create any rights for the parties beyond those...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... heating or air conditioning must be done in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make...

  9. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km2, an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions. (letter)

  10. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; De Marchi, Massimo; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-02-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km2, an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions.

  11. Regional Variation in Non-Timber Forest Product Harvest Strategies, Trade, and Ecological Impacts: the Case of Black Dammar (Canarium strictum Roxb. Use and Conservation in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ticktin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide depend on the harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP for their livelihoods, and the importance of understanding the complex relationships between NTFP harvest and conservation is increasingly recognized. This study employs a cross-disciplinary, regional approach to identify some of the links between patterns of harvest, trade, and conservation of one of South India's most heavily harvested resins, Canarium strictum Roxb. (Burseraceae, or black dammar. We focus on indigenous communities in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR and ask: How is C. strictum tapped and is there variation across communities? How is C. strictum resin sold and bought, and what trade routes are involved? What are the impacts of tapping on C. strictum trees and population structure? We carried out interviews and focus-group discussions with harvesters in eight villages in three different regions, and with buyers and traders inside and outside of the NBR. We also established twenty-two 20 x 20 m plots to document population structure. Three broad resin-harvest strategies were identified: collection from natural fissures, tapping using incisions, and tapping using incisions and fire, each practiced in a different region. However, within each strategy there was large variation in tapping frequency and timing, tenure practices, and resin quality. The loss of tree tenure in some areas has led to a higher frequency of tapping and to the production of lower quality, lower value resin. Factors driving changes in both tenure and tapping strategies include rising commercial demand and value, pressure from outside harvesters, changes in livelihood strategies, and habitat destruction. Tapping leads to elevated mortality of C. strictum adults, with fire-tapping have a greater negative impact than tapping with no fire. The combination of social and ecological approaches used here provides insight on strategies for better conservation of C. strictum. These

  12. Independent evaluations: why reserve estimates differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing refinements in our capabilities to accurately estimate recoverable volumes and future rates of production of oil and gas reserves, was discussed. The four major reserves classification systems which are familiar to reservoir engineers were reviewed. These are: the classification systems established by (1) the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), (2) the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), (3) the World Petroleum Congress (WPC), and (4) the classification used by the former Soviet Union (FSU). All reserve reports should contain specific mention of the classification system used, and provide specific definitions of the reserves categories used in that report. The fallacy of comparing estimates of proven reserves using definitions and pricing assumptions taken from different systems was emphasized. Several recommendations were made for maintaining consistency among evaluations

  13. Escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e reserva do possível na jurisprudência do STF Resource limitation, cost of rights and the 'under reserve of the possibilities' clause in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wei Liang Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os temas da escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e cláusula de reserva do possível na jurisprudência do Supremo Tribunal Federal brasileiro. Por meio do estudo dessas decisões, procuro, primeiramente, descobrir em que tipo de matéria esses temas são comumente debatidos nos julgamentos do Supremo Tribunal Federal. Em um segundo momento, procuro entender a forma como o tribunal trata esses temas em sua jurisprudência e os critérios utilizados em suas análises. Por fim, busco examinar se a análise jurídica dos ministros leva em consideração preocupações relativas às conseqüências econômicas e distributivas das decisões. A pesquisa de acórdãos foi feita com base nestes três temas: direito à saúde, direito à educação e intervenção federal por não pagamento de precatórios. Em uma primeira fase, analiso o tratamento dado aos custos dos direitos, à reserva do possível e à escassez de recursos dentro de cada um desses temas. E, em um segundo momento, cruzo os resultados obtidos em cada tema para mostrar as diferenças de tratamento.This article presents an analysis the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation and the "under reserve of the possibilities" clause are featured in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law. By analyzing Brazilian Supreme Court's decisions, my aim is to verify, firstly, in which subjects these themes appear more frequently. Secondly, I intend to assess how this court deals with the referred themes in its case law and what are the criteria applied. finally, I attempt to examine if the judges decision making process takes into consideration economic and distributive consequences. The survey on court decisions was based on three categories of legal discussions: right to health, right to education, and federal intervention for the non-payment of judicial debts. Initially, I examine the treatment received by the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation

  14. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    With the recent publication of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), little doubt remains among scientists that the global climate system is changing due to human influence and that climate change will have far-reaching and fundamental impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. Arguably the best-documented evidence linking 20th Century warming trends to changes in physical and biological systems comes from the mountains of western North America (e.g., Figure SPM1 in Summary of Working Group 11 Report). In the West, ecosystem impacts include changes in the distribution of species as well as changing functional linkages between species such as the synchrony between flower emergence and pollinating insects. These climate impacts, when combined with other environmental stressors (e.g., altered disturbance regimes, land-use change and habitat fragmentation) portend an amplification of species extinction rates. One of the great challenges in adapting to climate change is developing and implementing policies that enhance ecological resilience in the face of these change. Clearly, the current system of nature reserves in Western North America is a fundamental asset for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the fixed- boundary nature of these protected areas presents a problem as species' ranges shift with future climate change. The loss of species whose ranges move outside of fixed park boundaries and the arrival of other species that move into protected areas could lead to significant turnover of species diversity, new species assemblages, and altered functionality. In short, reserves that were designed to protect particular species or communities may no longer serve their intended purpose under a changing climate. In this talk, we use case studies from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Sonoran Desert Ecosystem to define strategies for enhancing ecological resilience to climate change at

  15. The Last Western Flyer: The Western Auto Century

    OpenAIRE

    Marchman, James

    2004-01-01

    A treasure trove of pictures and history, The Last Western Flyer chronicles one of the most successful small town franchise operations in 20th Century America, Western Auto. It grew from humble beginnings as a penny mailer sent from the kitchen of a Kansas City home to over 5,000 retail outlets under its Circle Arrow signs. Western Auto brought everything from tires, spark plugs, socks, vitamin pills, fishing lures, radios and more, including its famous Western Flyer bikes to America’s major ...

  16. Planning Marine Reserve Networks for Both Feature Representation and Demographic Persistence Using Connectivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Michael; Williamson, David H.; Weeks, Rebecca; Jones, Geoff P.; Almany, Glenn R.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Hopf, Jess K.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only recently become available. However, systematic conservation planning methods currently incorporate demographic processes through unsatisfactory surrogates. There are therefore two key challenges to designing marine reserve networks that achieve feature representation and demographic persistence constraints. First, constructing a method that efficiently incorporates persistence as well as complementary feature representation. Second, incorporating persistence using a mechanistic description of population viability, rather than a proxy such as size or distance. Here we construct a novel systematic conservation planning method that addresses both challenges, and parameterise it to design a hypothetical marine reserve network for fringing coral reefs in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. For this application, we describe how demographic persistence goals can be constructed for an important reef fish species in the region, the bar-cheeked trout (Plectropomus maculatus). We compare reserve networks that are optimally designed for either feature representation or demographic persistence, with a reserve network that achieves both goals simultaneously. As well as being practically applicable, our analyses also provide general insights into marine reserve planning for both representation and demographic persistence. First, persistence constraints for dispersive organisms are likely to be much harder to achieve than representation targets, due to their greater complexity. Second, persistence and representation constraints pull the reserve network design process in divergent directions, making it difficult to

  17. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodolog...

  18. Interview regarding Uzbekistan Uranium Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his first extensive interview, Nicolay I. Kuchersky, President of Kyzylkumredmetzoloto and General Director of the Novoi Mining and Metallurgy Combine, discusses the business of mining uranium in Uzbekistan. This is a companion article following one that took an in-depth look at this newly independent country's activities in uranium mining. The president of the responsible organization discusses plans, wages, and interactions with the western world

  19. Epidemiologic update of dengue in the Western Pacific Region, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arima, Yuzo; Matsui, Tamano

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia Pacific region. Official dengue surveillance data for 2010 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on reported data, dengue has continued to show an increasing trend in the Western Pacific Region. In 2010, countries and areas reported a total of 353 907 dengue cases, of whic...

  20. Western Parenting: A Personal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Ward

    2011-01-01

    Bonding: Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting. They recognise their responsibility as a new dad, and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother. It is common to see a proud western father walking outside, on their own, with their tiny baby. Western dad's know that this time is special, and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.