WorldWideScience

Sample records for case study water

  1. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  2. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  3. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  4. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  5. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  6. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  7. Effective Drinking Water Pricing, A Case Study of Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedhosein Sajjadifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water pricing is a major challenge facing the water and wastewater industry in Iran where decisions of water pricing are essentially based on social, legal, administrative, and financial criteria with only a slight heed, if any, paid to economic considerations. Generally speaking, the price of water in Iran reflects a percentage fraction of the costs of water production and distribution while an economterically efficient model of water pricing is absent. This failure to account for economic considerations in water pricing has turned water into a commodity supplied either at a very low price or free of charge in cases. The current situation of water scarcity which is complicated by a multitude of environmental problems can only be ascribed to the present water pricing policies. It is, therefore, essential for the water sector to employ economic tools, adopt relevant approaches, and execute optimized strategic policies in an attempt to reduce the negative impacts of the imminent water crisis. Based on the above considerations, the present study was designed to investigate and review optimal water pricing policies at Arak Water and Wastewater Authority which functions as a business offering both domestic and non-domestic water services. The cost function considered is a translog one and the seemingly unrelated regressions are used for estimation. Results show that the domestic water price levied from customers covers only 33% of the total production and delivery costs such that Arak Water & Wastewater Authority practices the economy of scale in producing both domestic and non-domestic water. Considering the fact that pricing based on the marginal cost under the conditions of economy of scale leads to financial losses for Arak W&W Authority, it seems appropriate to calculate the second best price as suggested by Frank Ramsey. Thus, the marginal cost was combined with the price elasticity for the domestic water demand in the different

  8. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  9. Do water cuts affect productivity? Case study of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to examine the impact of water disruptions on productivity in African manufacturing firms, using cross-sectional data from the World Bank enterprise surveys. We measured water infrastructure quality or water disruptions using the number of hours per day without water and found this indicator to be a ...

  10. Online modelling of water distribution systems: a UK case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Machell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic simulation models of water distribution networks are routinely used for operational investigations and network design purposes. However, their full potential is often never realised because, in the majority of cases, they have been calibrated with data collected manually from the field during a single historic time period and, as such, reflect the network operational conditions that were prevalent at that time, and they are then applied as part of a reactive, desktop investigation. In order to use a hydraulic model to assist proactive distribution network management its element asset information must be up to date and it should be able to access current network information to drive simulations. Historically this advance has been restricted by the high cost of collecting and transferring the necessary field measurements. However, recent innovation and cost reductions associated with data transfer is resulting in collection of data from increasing numbers of sensors in water supply systems, and automatic transfer of the data to point of use. This means engineers potentially have access to a constant stream of current network data that enables a new era of "on-line" modelling that can be used to continually assess standards of service compliance for pressure and reduce the impact of network events, such as mains bursts, on customers. A case study is presented here that shows how an online modelling system can give timely warning of changes from normal network operation, providing capacity to minimise customer impact.

  11. Water market transfers in South Africa: Two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, W. L.; Armitage, R. M.

    2004-09-01

    Statistical analyses (discriminant, logit, and principal components) of water transfers in the Lower Orange River showed that water rights were transferred to farmers with the highest return per unit of water applied, those producing table grapes, and with high-potential arable "outer land" without water rights. Only unused water (sleeper right) was transferred, while water saved (through adoption of conservation practices) was retained possibly for security purposes. A second study in the Nkwaleni Valley in northern KwaZulu-Natal found that no water market had emerged despite the scarcity of water in the area. No willing sellers of water rights existed. Demand for institutional change to establish tradable water rights may take more time in the second area since crop profitability in this area is similar for potential buyers and nonbuyers. Transaction costs appear larger than benefits from market transactions. Farmers generally use all their water rights in the second area and retain surplus water rights as security against drought because of unreliable river flow. This study indicates that these irrigation farmers are highly risk averse (downside risk). Government policies that increase the level of risk and reduce security of licenses are estimated to have a significant effect on future investment in irrigation. In an investment model the following variables explain future investment: expected profits, liquidity, risk aversion (Arrow-Pratt), and security of water use rights. The study is seen in the light of the New South African Water Act of 1998. According to this act, the ownership of water in South Africa has changed from private to public. This reform may not impede the development of water markets in South Africa since in the well-developed water markets of the United States, western states claim ownership of water within their boundaries. All states in the western United States allow private rights in the use of water to be established and sold.

  12. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  13. Rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water and water contamination case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Rolf A.; Lee, Jiyoung; Clark, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Water systems are inherently vulnerable to physical, chemical and biologic threats that might compromise a systems' ability to reliably deliver safe water. The ability of a water supply to provide water to its customers can be compromised by destroying or disrupting key physical elements of the water system. However, contamination is generally viewed as the most serious potential terrorist threat to water systems. Chemical or biologic agents could spread throughout a distribution system and result in sickness or death among the consumers and for some agents the presence of the contaminant might not be known until emergency rooms report an increase in patients with a particular set of symptoms. Even without serious health impacts, just the knowledge that a water system had been breached could seriously undermine consumer confidence in public water supplies. Therefore, the ability to rapidly detect contamination, especially microbiological contamination, is highly desirable. The authors summarize water contamination case studies and discuss a technique for identifying microbiological contamination based on ATP bioluminescence. This assay allows an estimation of bacterial populations within minutes and can be applied using a local platform. Previous ATP-based methods requires one hour, one liter of water, and has a sensitivity of 100000 cells for detection. The improved method discussed here is 100 times more sensitive, requires one-hundredth of the sample volume, and is over 10 times faster than standard method. This technique has a great deal of potential for application in situations in which a water system has been compromised.

  14. Case study: Fixture water use and drinking water quality in a new residential green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Abouali, Mohammad; Wang, Mian; Zhou, Zhi; Nejadhashemi, Amir Pouyan; Mitchell, Jade; Caskey, Stephen; Whelton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Residential plumbing is critical for the health and safety of populations worldwide. A case study was conducted to understand fixture water use, drinking water quality and their possible link, in a newly plumbed residential green building. Water use and water quality were monitored at four in-building locations from September 2015 through December 2015. Once the home was fully inhabited average water stagnation periods were shortest at the 2nd floor hot fixture (90 percentile of 0.6-1.2 h). The maximum water stagnation time was 72.0 h. Bacteria and organic carbon levels increased inside the plumbing system compared to the municipal tap water entering the building. A greater amount of bacteria was detected in hot water samples (6-74,002 gene copy number/mL) compared to cold water (2-597 gene copy number/mL). This suggested that hot water plumbing promoted greater microbial growth. The basement fixture brass needle valve may have caused maximum Zn (5.9 mg/L), Fe (4.1 mg/L), and Pb (23 μg/L) levels compared to other fixture water samples (Zn ≤ 2.1 mg/L, Fe ≤ 0.5 mg/L and Pb ≤ 8 μg/L). At the basement fixture, where the least amount of water use events occurred (cold: 60-105, hot: 21-69 event/month) compared to the other fixtures in the building (cold: 145-856, hot: 326-2230 event/month), greater organic carbon, bacteria, and heavy metal levels were detected. Different fixture use patterns resulted in disparate water quality within a single-family home. The greatest drinking water quality changes were detected at the least frequently used fixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  16. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  17. Overcoming technology - obsolescence: a case study in Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, O.P.; Sonde, R.R.; Wechalekar, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia based Heavy Water Plants in India are set up essentially in conjunction with fertiliser plants for the supply of feed synthesis gas. Earlier ammonia was being produced in fertiliser plants using high-pressure technology which was highly energy intensive. However with fast developments in the field of production of ammonia, fertiliser plants are switching over to low pressure technology. Ammonia based heavy water plants have to operate on pressures corresponding to that of fertiliser plants. Due to low pressures in production of ammonia, heavy water plants would also be required to operate at low pressures than the existing operating pressures. This problem was faced at Heavy Water Plant at Baroda where GSFC supplying synthesis gas switched over to low pressure technology making it imperative on the part of Heavy Water Board to carry out modification to the main plant for continued operation of Heavy Water Plant, Baroda. Anticipating similar problems due to production of ammonia at lower pressures in other fertiliser plants linked to existing Heavy Water Plants, it became necessary for HWB to develop water ammonia front end. The feed in such a case would be water instead of synthesis gas. This would enable HWB to dispense with dependence on fertiliser plants especially if grass-root ammonia based heavy water plants are to be set up. Incorporation of water ammonia front end would enable HWB to de link ammonia based heavy water plants with fertiliser plants. This paper discusses the advantage of de linking heavy water plant respective fertiliser plant by incorporating water ammonia front end and technical issues related to front end technology. A novel concept of ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) was considered for the process integration with the front end. The incorporation of AAR with water ammonia front-end configuration utilizes liquid ammonia refrigerant to generate refrigeration without additional energy input which otherwise would have been

  18. Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of the Karoon River of Iran. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Determination of the status of water quality of a river or any other water source is highly ...

  19. Peace Corps Water/Sanitation Case Studies and Analyses. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study CS-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Diana E., Comp.

    This document provides an overview of Peace Corps water and sanitation activities, five case studies (Thailand, Yemen, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and Togo), programming guidelines, and training information. Each case study includes: (1) background information on the country's geography, population, and economics; (2) information on the country's…

  20. (Case Study: Underground Water Resources in Damghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Dashti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of recognition and optimal exploitation of underground water sources results from the fact that these resources contribute to 99% of total useable soft water of the world. In our country the agricultural sector is the main user of water among different economic sectors. Therefore, applying scientific and appropriate management measures and approaches for desired utilization of this production factor is critical. Taking into account of real value of water in water management of agricultural sector can lead to development of motivation required for saving its usage and also helps  its optimal allocation in production. Generally, water has two types of real prices. One is supplier (producer point of view and the second includes demander perspective. In this study, real price of water from producer and demander point of views was determined by the use of production function approach for wheat production at underground water sources (wells of Damghan. The required data were collected from 184 farmers of Damghan in agricultural year 2007-08. According to superior production function(Generalized Quadratic, economic value of water in wheat production is 403.2 Iranian rials and this is more than the usual value in the area

  1. Critical overview on water - hydrogen isotopic exchange; a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, Marius

    2002-01-01

    Water - hydrogen isotopic exchange process is attractive due to its high separation factor; it is neither corrosive or pollutant and, when used as a technological process of heavy water production, it requires water as raw material. Its efficiency depends strongly on the catalyst performance and geometry of the isotopic water - hydrogen exchange zone in which the isotopic transfer proceeds in two steps: liquid vapor distillation in the presence of an inert gas and a catalytic reaction in vapor - gas gaseous phase. An overview of the water hydrogen isotopic exchange is presented and technological details of the Trail - Canada facility as well as characteristics of the two pilots operated in Romania with Ni, Cr and hydrophobic catalysts are described. The mathematical approach of the successive water-water vapor-hydrogen isotopic exchange process given is based on a mathematical model worked out earlier by Palibroda. Discrepancies between computation and experimental results, lower than 11% for extreme cases and around 6% for the average range are explained as due to the ratio of the exchange potentials. Assumption is made in the theoretical approach that this ratio is positive and constant all long the column while the measurements showed that it varies within 0.7 and 1.1 at the upper end and within - 2.5 and - 4.4 at the lower end, what indicates a strong end effect. In conclusion it is stressed that a competing technological solution is emerging based on a monothermal electrolytic process or a bithermal - bibaric process both for heavy water and tritium separation process

  2. Predicting water solubility of congeners: Chloronaphthalenes-A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzyn, Tomasz, E-mail: puzi@qsar.eu.org [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Mostrag, Aleksandra; Falandysz, Jerzy [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kholod, Yana; Leszczynski, Jerzy [NSF CREST Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1325 Lynch St, Jackson, MS 39217-0510 (United States)

    2009-10-30

    Since the important physicochemical data for chloronaphtalenes (PCNs) are still scarce, we have predicted water solubility (log S) of all 75 congeners with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme. The values of log S, predicted by the most efficient model, varied from 0.01 to 1660 {mu}g dm{sup -3} (2.85 x 10{sup -11}-1.02 x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), depending on the number of chlorine atoms present in the molecule and the substitution pattern. We found that the main factor determining relative differences in solubility between the congeners is the solvent accessible volume related to the cavitation process occurring in the solvent. The results are presented as a case study of QSPR modeling for those Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that exist as families of congeners. By investigating the impact of (i) the way of the molecular descriptors' calculation, (ii) the size of applied database and (iii) chemometric method of modeling (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, and/or Partial Least Squares regression, PLS) on the quality of the models we proposed general recommendations for dealing with congeners. We found that the combination of the B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was the most optimal technique of the molecular descriptors' calculation for congeners when comparing with semi-empirical PM3, ab initio Hartee-Fock (HF), and Moller-Pleset 2 (MP2) method carried out with different-size basis sets. Moreover, the model developed with a larger and more general database that includes chloronaphthalenes, polychlorinated dibezno-p-dioxins, furans and biphenyls predicted the values of log S for PCNs noticeable worse than the model calibrated only on PCNs. In the later case it was possible to obtain satisfactory results by employing even the simplest MLR method and only one molecular descriptor. The values of log S were also calculated with the WSKOWIN and COSMO-RS models as the reference techniques and then compared to our

  3. Predicting water solubility of congeners: Chloronaphthalenes-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzyn, Tomasz; Mostrag, Aleksandra; Falandysz, Jerzy; Kholod, Yana; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Since the important physicochemical data for chloronaphtalenes (PCNs) are still scarce, we have predicted water solubility (log S) of all 75 congeners with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme. The values of log S, predicted by the most efficient model, varied from 0.01 to 1660 μg dm -3 (2.85 x 10 -11 -1.02 x 10 -5 mol dm -3 ), depending on the number of chlorine atoms present in the molecule and the substitution pattern. We found that the main factor determining relative differences in solubility between the congeners is the solvent accessible volume related to the cavitation process occurring in the solvent. The results are presented as a case study of QSPR modeling for those Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that exist as families of congeners. By investigating the impact of (i) the way of the molecular descriptors' calculation, (ii) the size of applied database and (iii) chemometric method of modeling (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, and/or Partial Least Squares regression, PLS) on the quality of the models we proposed general recommendations for dealing with congeners. We found that the combination of the B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was the most optimal technique of the molecular descriptors' calculation for congeners when comparing with semi-empirical PM3, ab initio Hartee-Fock (HF), and Moller-Pleset 2 (MP2) method carried out with different-size basis sets. Moreover, the model developed with a larger and more general database that includes chloronaphthalenes, polychlorinated dibezno-p-dioxins, furans and biphenyls predicted the values of log S for PCNs noticeable worse than the model calibrated only on PCNs. In the later case it was possible to obtain satisfactory results by employing even the simplest MLR method and only one molecular descriptor. The values of log S were also calculated with the WSKOWIN and COSMO-RS models as the reference techniques and then compared to our results.

  4. Case Study Analysis of the Impacts of Water Acquisition for Hydraulic Fracturing on Local Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is used to develop unconventional gas reserves, but the technology requires large volumes of water, placing demands on local water resources and potentially creating conflict with other users and ecosystems. This study examines the balance between water ...

  5. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  6. CASE STUDY ON WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN AN AQUAPONIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mihai Filep

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic systems are integrated systems that combine fish farming and different types of plants. It involves a dynamic interaction between fish plants and bacteria. Fish and plants are dependent the equilibrium of dissolved nutrients and water quality. Only by striking a balance between dissolved nutrients and water quality we can achieve a large production of plants and healthy fish. Thus, control of water quality in an aquaponic system is essential in order to obtain performance in raising fish and plants. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Faculty of Animal Science of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest within a period of 30 days. The system used for the experiment was designed and developed in the laboratory mentioned above. The plant used for water treatment in the system was basil (Ocimum basilicum. Fish species grown in the system was culture carp (Cyprinus carpio. Indicators measured to assess water quality in the system were: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and phosphates. The values determined pH 7.4-7.6, dissolved oxygen 8-10 mg / l, NH4 0.05-05 mg/ l, NO2 0.1-3.2 mg / l, NO3 0-80 mg / l, 0.02-0.3 mg, PO4 0.02-0.3 mg/l were not too high. In conclusion it was demonstrated that water quality in the aquaponic system studied is propitious to the growth and welfare of fish the registered values are not to be harmful.

  7. Barriers to sustainable water resources management : Case study in Omnogovi province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Enkhtsetseg, Mandukhai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the barriers to sustainable water resources management in water vulnerable, yet a mining booming area. The case study is conducted in Omnogovi province of Mongolia in Nov-Dec 2016. This study presents how the Omnogovi province manages its water with increased mining and examines what hinders the province from practicing sustainable water resources management and examines the involvement of residents in the water resources management of Omnogovi province. Qualitative approa...

  8. Landsat and water: case studies of the uses and benefits of landsat imagery in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat program has been collecting and archiving moderate resolution earth imagery since 1972. The number of Landsat users and uses has increased exponentially since the enactment of a free and open data policy in 2008, which made data available free of charge to all users. Benefits from the information Landsat data provides vary from improving environmental quality to protecting public health and safety and informing decision makers such as consumers and producers, government officials and the public at large. Although some studies have been conducted, little is known about the total benefit provided by open access Landsat imagery. This report contains a set of case studies focused on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery. The purpose of these is to shed more light on the benefits accrued from Landsat imagery and to gain a better understanding of the program’s value. The case studies tell a story of how Landsat imagery is used and what its value is to different private and public entities. Most of the case studies focus on the use of Landsat in water resource management, although some other content areas are included.

  9. Establishment of water quality classification scheme: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A water quality classification scheme based on 11 routinely measured physicochemical variables has been developed for the Calabar River Estuary. The variables considered include water temperature, pH. Eh, DO, DO saturation, BOD5, COD, TSS, turbidity, NH4-N and electrical conductivity. Classification of water source ...

  10. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  11. Water harvesting for improved water productivity in dry environments of the Mediterranean region case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, A.; Kuzucu, M.; Çelik, I.

    2014-01-01

    cover and compaction), which were studied in a pistachio plantation by monitoring soil water balance in the root zone. The overall efficiency of the water harvesting system was determined as the ratio of the amount of water stored and used by the crop to the amount of rainfall received in the catchment...

  12. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  13. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  14. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  15. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  16. Water balance analysis for efficient water allocation in agriculture. A case study: Balta Brailei, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Zenaida; Villani, Giulia; Tomei, Fausto; Minciuna, Marian; Aldea, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Trifu, Cristina; Neagu, Dumitru

    2017-04-01

    Balta Brailei is one of the largest agriculture area in the Danube floodplain, located in SE of Romania. An impressive irrigation system, that covered about 53.500 ha and transferred water from the Danube River, was carried out in the period 1960-1980. Even if the water resources for agriculture in this area cover in most of the cases the volumes required by irrigation water users, the irrigation infrastructure issues as the position of the pumping stations against the river levels hinder the use of the water during low flows periods. An efficient optimization of water allocation in agriculture could avoid periods with water deficit in the irrigation systems. Hydrological processes are essentials in describing the mass and energy exchanges in the atmosphere-plant-soil system. Furthermore, the hydrological regime in this area is very dynamic with many feedback mechanisms between the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes. Agricultural crops depend on capillary rise from the shallow groundwater table and irrigation. For an effective optimization of irrigation water in Balta Brailei, we propose to analyse the water balance taking into consideration the water movement into the root zone and the influence of the Danube river, irrigation channel system and the shallow aquifer by combining the soil water balance model CRITERIA and GMS hydrogeological model. CRITERIA model is used for simulating water movement into the soil, while GMS model is used for simulating the shallow groundwater level variation. The understanding of the complex feedbacks between atmosphere, crops and the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes in the Balta Brailei will bring more insights for predicting crop water need and water resources for irrigation and it will represent the basis for implementing Moses Platform in this specific area. Moses Platform is a GIS based system devoted to water procurement and management agencies to facilitate planning of

  17. Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sorlini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach is an iterative method focused on analyzing the risks of water contamination in a drinking water supply system, from catchment to consumer, in order to protect human health. This approach is aimed at identifying and drastically reducing water contamination in the entire drinking water system, through the identification and mitigation or, if possible, elimination of all factors that may cause a chemical, physical, microbiological and radiological risk for water. This study developed a proposal of WSP for the drinking water supply system (DWSS of Mortara, Italy, in order to understand which are the preliminary evaluation aspects to be considered in the elaboration of a WSP. The DWSS of Mortara (a town of 15,500 inhabitants, located in northern Italy consists of three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs, considering the following main contaminants: arsenic, iron, manganese and ammonia. Potential hazardous events and associated hazards were identified in each part of the water supply system. The risk assessment was carried out following the semi quantitative approach. The WSP proposal for Mortara was very useful not only as a risk mitigation approach, but also as a cost-effective tool for water suppliers. Furthermore, this approach will reduce public health risk, ensure a better compliance of water quality parameters with regulatory requirements, increase confidence of consumers and municipal authorities, and improve resource management due to intervention planning. Further, some new control measures are proposed by the WSP team within this work.

  18. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. The conventional production flow control and pressure control of the facility was replaced by the advanced control software called OPIR. To assess the differences between conventional and advanced

  19. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in Multipurpose Reservoirs: Case Study Applications in Indonesia, Mexico, and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Rodriguez, D.

    2017-12-01

    This research is focused on development of remote sensing methods to assess surface water pollution issues, particularly in multipurpose reservoirs. Three case study applications are presented to comparatively analyze remote sensing techniquesforo detection of nutrient related pollution, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Chlorophyll, as this is a major water quality issue that has been identified in terms of pollution of major water sources around the country. This assessment will contribute to a better understanding of options for nutrient remote sensing capabilities and needs and assist water agencies in identifying the appropriate remote sensing tools and devise an application strategy to provide information needed to support decision-making regarding the targeting and monitoring of nutrient pollution prevention and mitigation measures. A detailed review of the water quality data available from ground based measurements was conducted in order to determine their suitability for a case study application of remote sensing. In the first case study, the Valle de Bravo reservoir in Mexico City reservoir offers a larger database of water quality which may be used to better calibrate and validate the algorithms required to obtain water quality data from remote sensing raw data. In the second case study application, the relatively data scarce Lake Toba in Indonesia can be useful to illustrate the value added of remote sensing data in locations where water quality data is deficient or inexistent. The third case study in the Paso Severino reservoir in Uruguay offers a combination of data scarcity and persistent development of harmful algae blooms. Landsat-TM data was obteined for the 3 study sites and algorithms for three key water quality parameters that are related to nutrient pollution: Chlorophyll-a, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus were calibrated and validated at the study sites. The three case study applications were developed into capacity building/training workshops

  20. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  1. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  2. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  3. Water Resources Management in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources have become an increasingly important topic of discussion in natural resources and environmental management courses. To address the need for more critical thinking in the classroom and to provide an active learning experience for undergraduate students, we present a case study based on water competition and management in the…

  4. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  5. Energy, water and climate nexus: A case study of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    potential to offset the reliance on crude oil. This study investigated the biomass resource availability from agricultural residues for liquid biofuel (as transportation fuel) and bioelectricity. Our findings indicate that sustainably extracted agricultural re sidues could yield 1.11 million bone dry tons...... per year. Using current bioconversion efficiency rates, the residues could potentially yield 0.12-0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually that is enough to offset 18-48% of the national consumption of gasoline. For bioelectricity generation, the same residues could provide 0.76-2.02 TW h, or 15...... of agricultural residues. The study provides policy recommendations to help encourage modern bioenergy applications from residues in Cameroon....

  6. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  7. Isotopic variation in spring water and rain water of Sikkim: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diksha; Sinha, U.K.; Ansari, Md. Arzoo; Mendhekar, G.N.; Dash, Ashutosh; Dhakal, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stable isotopic signatures of surface water, rainwater and groundwater provide valuable information about interconnection between them. Stable isotopes of H (δ 2 H) and O (δ 18 O) have been widely employed by many researchers to understand rainwater, surface water and groundwater inter-connections. The Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL, δD= 8 x δ 18 O+10) the locus of precipitation water over whole of the globe, established by Craig, used to tell about the environment of water. For the objective spring water (namely Dhalay Khola, Lower Changey and Bhulkey) were collected from the study area (Sikkim) during May 2013, March 2013 and August 2014. Rainwater sample were also collected with increasing altitude. These samples were analyzed for environmental isotopes (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) by a isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IsoPrime-100) using pyrolysis mode of elemental analyzer for deuterium and gas equilibration method for 18 O. The precision (2 sigma) of (δ 2 H and δ 18 O are ±0.15 and ± 0.1‰ respectively

  8. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Bayrak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  9. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  10. Getting water right: A case study in water yield modelling based on precipitation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessacg, Natalia; Flaherty, Silvia; Brandizi, Laura; Solman, Silvina; Pascual, Miguel

    2015-12-15

    Water yield is a key ecosystem service in river basins and especially in dry regions around the World. In this study we carry out a modelling analysis of water yields in the Chubut River basin, located in one of the driest districts of Patagonia, Argentina. We focus on the uncertainty around precipitation data, a driver of paramount importance for water yield. The objectives of this study are to: i) explore the spatial and numeric differences among six widely used global precipitation datasets for this region, ii) test them against data from independent ground stations, and iii) explore the effects of precipitation data uncertainty on simulations of water yield. The simulations were performed using the ecosystem services model InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) with each of the six different precipitation datasets as input. Our results show marked differences among datasets for the Chubut watershed region, both in the magnitude of precipitations and their spatial arrangement. Five of the precipitation databases overestimate the precipitation over the basin by 50% or more, particularly over the more humid western range. Meanwhile, the remaining dataset (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - TRMM), based on satellite measurements, adjusts well to the observed rainfall in different stations throughout the watershed and provides a better representation of the precipitation gradient characteristic of the rain shadow of the Andes. The observed differences among datasets in the representation of the rainfall gradient translate into large differences in water yield simulations. Errors in precipitation of +30% (-30%) amplify to water yield errors ranging from 50 to 150% (-45 to -60%) in some sub-basins. These results highlight the importance of assessing uncertainties in main input data when quantifying and mapping ecosystem services with biophysical models and cautions about the undisputed use of global environmental datasets. Copyright

  11. Water quality monitoring: a case study of water pollution in minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigates the level of purity in Minna water and its environs. Water samples were collected from four water sources; Federal University of Technology (FUT), Minna water tank (Treated water), Maikunkele (Borehole), Chanchaga (Water treatment plant) and Tagwai dam (Raw). The following analyses of pH, Total ...

  12. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  13. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  14. Case study: design, operation, maintenance and water quality management of sustainable storm water ponds for roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Miklas

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this case study was to optimise design, operation and maintenance guidelines, and to assess the water treatment potential of a storm water pond system after 15 months of operation. The system was based on a combined silt trap, attenuation pond and vegetated infiltration basin. This combination was used as the basis for construction of a roof water runoff system from a single domestic property. United Kingdom Building Research Establishment and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, and German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste design guidelines were tested. These design guidelines failed because they did not consider local conditions. The infiltration function for the infiltration basin was logarithmic. Algal control techniques were successfully applied, and treatment of rainwater runoff from roofs was found to be largely unnecessary for recycling (e.g., watering plants). However, seasonal and diurnal variations of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen and pH were recorded.

  15. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  16. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  17. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  18. Assessment of food-water nexus by water footprint: a case study in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Si, B.

    2016-12-01

    It is important but challengeable to understand the water-food nexus complexity. The water footprint (WF), a relatively new index, is a comprehensive indicator that can be used to evaluate crop water production. This paper aims to 1) determine how water footprint changes at different crop rotational types; 2) investigate what is difference if WF is calculated by yield-based or protein-based; and 3) explore how virtual water flows are responding to regional meteorological, agricultural, and socio-economic factors. The result provided the water footprint and virtual water flow exemplified for Saskatchewan agri-food production industries. By using the water footprint, we determined the best rotation for pulse crops in terms of efficiency of water productivity and water-saving opportunity. While yield is a comprehensive index to assess the productivity (yield-based WF), it underestimated the contribution of some crops, such as pulse crops with relatively low yield but high protein contents (protein-based WF). Consequently, we concluded that water-saving benefits can be achieved by the development and adoption of water efficient technology and better virtual water flows may be achieved by increased area of low water footprint in Saskatchewan. Our finding improves the current concepts of water and food security, informs production and trade decisions, and thus suggests optimal strategies by reduced water footprints in terms of agricultural management.

  19. Case Study of Urban Water Distribution Networks Districting Management Based on Water Leakage Control

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S.; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Diao, K.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, water demand is rising and resources are diminishing. Most of the world's water systems have been highly successful in delivering high-quality water to large populations. However, most of these systems also incur a notable amount of loss in their operations. Water loss from the water supply system has long been a feature of operations management, even in the countries with a well-developed infrastructure and good operating practices. There is no doubt that the sustainable management...

  20. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a

  1. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  2. Urban food-energy-water nexus: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Shao, L.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between the food, energy and water sectors are of great importance to urban sustainable development. This work presents a framework to analyze food-energy-water (FEW) nexus of a city. The method of multi-scale input-output analysis is applied to calculate consumption-based energy and water use that is driven by urban final demand. It is also capable of accounting virtual energy and water flows that is embodied in trade. Some performance indicators are accordingly devised for a comprehensive understanding of the urban FEW nexus. A case study is carried out for the Beijing city. The embodied energy and water use of foods, embodied water of energy industry and embodied energy of water industry are analyzed. As a key node of economic network, Beijing exchanges a lot of materials and products with external economic systems, especially other Chinese provinces, which involves massive embodied energy and water flows. As a result, Beijing relies heavily on outsourcing energy and water to meet local people's consumption. It is revealed that besides the apparent supply-demand linkages, the underlying interconnections among food, water and energy sectors are critical to create sustainable urban areas.

  3. Virtual water flows and water-footprint of agricultural crop production, import and export: A case study for Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtull-Trauring, E; Bernstein, N

    2018-05-01

    Agriculture is the largest global consumer of freshwater. As the volume of international trade continues to rise, so does the understanding that trade of water-intensive crops from areas with high precipitation, to arid regions can help mitigate water scarcity, highlighting the importance of crop water accounting. Virtual-Water, or Water-Footprint [WF] of agricultural crops, is a powerful indicator for assessing the extent of water use by plants, contamination of water bodies by agricultural practices and trade between countries, which underlies any international trade of crops. Most available studies of virtual-water flows by import/export of agricultural commodities were based on global databases, which are considered to be of limited accuracy. The present study analyzes the WF of crop production, import, and export on a country level, using Israel as a case study, comparing data from two high-resolution local databases and two global datasets. Results for local datasets demonstrate a WF of ~1200Million Cubic Meters [MCM]/year) for total crop production, ~1000MCM/year for import and ~250MCM/year for export. Fruits and vegetables comprise ~80% of Export WF (~200MCM/year), ~50% of crop production and only ~20% of the imports. Economic Water Productivity [EWP] ($/m 3 ) for fruits and vegetables is 1.5 higher compared to other crops. Moreover, the results based on local and global datasets varied significantly, demonstrating the importance of developing high-resolution local datasets based on local crop coefficients. Performing high resolution WF analysis can help in developing agricultural policies that include support for low WF/high EWP and limit high WF/low EWP crop export, where water availability is limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources. (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Osama M.

    2014-12-01

    The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

  5. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  6. Water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP: a refinery case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dian Kurnia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP, has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering intra-facility water reuse strategies. For industrial sectors applying water reclamation and reuse schemes, it is paramount that the reclaimed water quality stays within the desired quality. The objective of WRAP is to establish a new methodology and knowledge, which will contribute to the sustainable development of industrial water management, and demonstrate its capabilities in identifying and addressing any potential hazards in the selected schemes adoption by the industries. A ‘what-if’ scenario was simulated using a refinery as a case study to show strategies on how to benefit reclaimed or reuse water based on reliable, applied and scientific research within the process integration area. In conclusion, the WRAP model will facilitate operators, consultants and decision makers to reuse water on a fit-for-use basis whilst avoiding contaminant accumulation in the overall system and production of sub-quality products from inadequate processes after several reuses.

  7. Sharing Water with Nature: Insights on Environmental Water Allocation from a Case Study of the Murrumbidgee Catchment, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Swainson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human use of freshwater resources has placed enormous stress on aquatic ecosystems in many regions of the world. At one time, this was considered an acceptable price to pay for economic growth and development. Nowadays, however, many societies are seeking a better balance between healthy aquatic ecosystems and viable economies. Unfortunately, historically, water allocation systems have privileged human uses over the environment. Thus, jurisdictions seeking to ensure that adequate water is available for the environment must typically deal with the fact that economies and communities have become dependent on water. Additionally, they must often layer institutions for environmental water allocation (EWA on top of already complex institutional systems. This paper explores EWA in a jurisdiction – New South Wales (NSW, Australia – where water scarcity has become a priority. Using an in-depth case study of EWA in the Murrumbidgee catchment, NSW, we characterise the NSW approach to EWA with the goal of highlighting the myriad challenges encountered in EWA planning and implementation. Sharing water between people and the environment, we conclude, is much more than just a scientific and technical challenge. EWA in water-scarce regions involves reshaping regional economies and societies. Thus, political and socio-economic considerations must be identified and accounted for from the outset of planning and decision-making processes.

  8. Contribution of virtual water to improving water security in Tunisia: a case study of wheat and olive growing farms in Zaghouan region

    OpenAIRE

    Souissi, Asma; Benalaya, Abdallah; Abdelkefi, Belhassen; Stambouli, Talel Ben Bechir; Ghezal, Lamia; Belaid, Rabeh; Naceur, Youssef; Oueslati, Marwa; Fekih, Saida; Benabdallah, Saker; Frija, Aymen

    2013-01-01

    Virtual water represents all freshwater used in the process of producing a commodity. In the case of agricultural products, many studies have focused on quantifying virtual water flows through international trade products. The concept of virtual water commercialization should be carefully studied as a potential solution for water scarcity, especially in countries facing risks of water shortage in a few years such as in Tunisia. The main idea of this paper is to optimize water u...

  9. Local Water Management of Small Reservoirs: Lessons from Two Case Studies in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmy Sally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is actively pursuing the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in its development plans. Several policy and institutional mechanisms have been put in place, including the adoption of a national IWRM action plan (PAGIRE and the establishment so far of 30 local water management committees (Comités Locaux de l’Eau, or CLE. The stated purpose of the CLE is to take responsibility for managing water at sub-basin level. The two case studies discussed in this paper illustrate gaps between the policy objective of promoting IWRM on the one hand, and the realities associated with its practical on-the-ground implementation on the other. A significant adjustment that occurred in practice is the fact that the two CLE studied have been set up as entities focused on reservoir management, whereas it is envisioned that a CLE would constitute a platform for sub-basin management. This reflects a concern to minimise conflict and optimally manage the country’s primary water resource and illustrates the type of pragmatic actions that have to be taken to make IWRM a reality. It is also observed that the local water management committees have not been able to satisfactorily address questions regarding access to, and allocation of, water, which are crucial for the satisfactory functioning of the reservoirs. Water resources in the reservoirs appear to be controlled by the dominant user. In order to correct this trend, measures to build mutual trust and confidence among water users 'condemned' to work together to manage their common resource are suggested, foremost of which is the need to collect and share reliable data. Awareness of power relationships among water user groups and building on functioning, already existing formal or informal arrangements for water sharing are key determinants for successful implementation of the water reform process underway.

  10. Secondary cycle water chemistry for 500 MWe pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) plant: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandakkar, A.; Subbarao, A.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    In turbine and secondary cycle system of 500 MWe PHWR, chemistry of steam and water is controlled in secondary cycle for prevention of corrosion in steam generators (SGs), feedwater system and steam system, scale and deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces and carry-over of solids by steam and deposition on steam turbine blades. Water chemistry of secondary side of SGs and turbine cycle is discussed. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MINE WATER, CONSIDERING EUROPEAN WATER LEGISLATION. CASE STUDY OF MEGALOPOLIS MINES

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Vassiliou, E.; Tsangaratos, P.; Ilia, I.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activities causes many environmental problems to the surrounding areas, as other industrial activities do also. However mine water pollution, is considered a tough task to handle, as it requires specific regulations, quite distinct from those applicable to most other industrial processes. Even though there are several federal laws and regulations in Greece and in the European Union that influences the mining industry and mine water management, still certain factors complicates their im...

  12. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  13. Predicting drivers and distributions of deep-sea ecosystems: A cold-water coral case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Brown, Colin

    2015-01-01

    pertusa as a case study (Rengstorf et al., 2014). The study shows that predictive models incorporating hydrodynamic variables perform significantly better than models based on terrain parameters only. They are a potentially powerful tool to improve our understanding of deep-sea ecosystem functioning......, facilitating species distribution modelling with high spatial detail. In this study, we used high resolution data (250 m grid size) from a newly developed hydrodynamic model to explore linkages between key physical drivers and occurrences of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa in selected areas of the NE...... and to provide decision support for marine spatial planning and conservation in the deep sea. Mohn et al., 2014.Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 122, 92-104. Rengstorf et...

  14. Modeling of Residential Water Demand Using Random Effect Model,Case Study: Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Sajadifar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to apply the “Partial Adjustment Model” and “Random Effect Model” techniques to the Stone-Greay’s linear expenditure system, in order to estimate the "Residential Seasonal Demand" for water in Arak city. Per capita water consumption of family residences is regressed on marginal price, per capita income, price of other goods, average temperature and average rainfall. Panel data approaches based on a sample of 152 observations from Arak city referred to 1993-2003. From the estimation of the Elasticity-price of the residential water demand, we want to know how a policy of responsive pricing can lead to more efficient household water consumption inArakcity. Results also indicated that summer price elasticity was twice the winter and price and income elasticity was less than 1 in all cases.

  15. Contamination of Community Potable Water from Land Grabbing: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Arduino

    2012-06-01

    The paper discusses the direct causes of water contamination (the use of fertilisers and pesticides and the presence of cattle and the indirect causes (unclear administrative boundaries, lack of participation and transparency, procedures not followed and limited resources. The negotiation process and its outcomes are described. From this study we conclude that stakeholder communication and transparency are key elements in anticipating and preventing the arising of such situations. Often, these are in short supply when large land deals occur. In this case, ex-post solutions were arrived at. Finally, the paper looks at the broader dimensions of land deals that pollute the water feeding a water supply scheme. Such situations are a clear violation of the human right to safe drinking water – an issue that has not yet been sufficiently documented in the literature and which merits further attention.

  16. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  17. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  18. Impact of Drinking Water Fluoride on Human Thyroid Hormones: A Case- Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Zohreh; Mirzaei, Masoud; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Azizi, Reyhane; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan

    2018-02-08

    The elevated fluoride from drinking water impacts on T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones. The aim was study impacts of drinking water fluoride on T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones inYGA (Yazd Greater Area). In this case- control study 198 cases and 213 controls were selected. Fluoride was determined by the SPADNS Colorimetric Method. T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones tested in the Yazd central laboratory by RIA (Radio Immuno Assay) method. The average amount of TSH and T 3 hormones based on the levels of fluoride in two concentration levels 0-0.29 and 0.3-0.5 (mg/L) was statistically significant (P = 0.001 for controls and P = 0.001 for cases). In multivariate regression logistic analysis, independent variable associated with Hypothyroidism were: gender (odds ratio: 2.5, CI 95%: 1.6-3.9), family history of thyroid disease (odds ratio: 2.7, CI 95%: 1.6-4.6), exercise (odds ratio: 5.34, CI 95%: 3.2-9), Diabetes (odds ratio: 3.7, CI 95%: 1.7-8), Hypertension (odds ratio: 3.2, CI 95%: 1.3-8.2), water consumption (odds ratio: 4, CI 95%: 1.2-14). It was found that fluoride has impacts on TSH, T 3 hormones even in the standard concentration of less than 0.5 mg/L. Application of standard household water purification devices was recommended for hypothyroidism.

  19. Energy-Water Microgrid Case Study at the University of Arizona's BioSphere 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, J.; Macknick, J.; Kandt, A.; Giraldez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Microgrids can provide reliable and cost-effective energy services in a variety of conditions and locations. To date, there has been minimal effort invested in developing energy-water microgrids that demonstrate the feasibility and leverage the synergies associated with designing and operating renewable energy and water systems in a coordinated framework. Water and wastewater treatment equipment can be operated in ways to provide ancillary services to the electrical grid and renewable energy can be utilized to power water-related infrastructure, but the potential for co-managed systems has not yet been quantified or fully characterized. Co-management and optimization of energy and water resources could lead to improved reliability and economic operating conditions. Energy-water microgrids could be a promising solution to improve energy and water resource management for islands, rural communities, distributed generation, Defense operations, and many parts of the world lacking critical infrastructure.The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Arizona have been jointly researching energy-water microgrid opportunities through an effort at the university's BioSphere 2 (B2) Earth systems science research facility. B2 is an ideal case study for an energy-water microgrid test site, given its size, its unique mission and operations, the existence and criticality of water and energy infrastructure, and its ability to operate connected-to or disconnected-from the local electrical grid. Moreover, the B2 is a premier facility for undertaking agricultural research, providing an excellent opportunity to evaluate connections and tradeoffs in the food-energy-water nexus. The research effort at B2 identified the technical potential and associated benefits of an energy-water microgrid through the evaluation of energy ancillary services and peak load reductions and quantified the potential for B2 water-related loads to be utilized and modified to provide

  20. Numerical case studies of vertical wall fire protection using water spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of vertical wall fire protection are evaluated with numerical method. Typical fire cases such as heated dry wall and upward flame spread have been validated. Results predicted by simulations are found to agree with experiment results. The combustion behavior and flame development of vertical polymethylmethacrylate slabs with different water flow rates are explored and discussed. Water spray is found to be capable of strengthening the fire resistance of combustible even under high heat flux radiation. Provided result and data are expected to provide reference for fire protection methods design and development of modern buildings.

  1. A case study for INPRO methodology based on Indian advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Under Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) a methodology (INPRO methodology) has been developed which can be used to evaluate a given energy system or a component of such a system on a national and/or global basis. The INPRO study can be used for assessing the potential of the innovative reactor in terms of economics, sustainability and environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues. India, a participant in INPRO program, is engaged in a case study applying INPRO methodology based on Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). AHWR is a 300 MWe, boiling light water cooled, heavy water moderated and vertical pressure tube type reactor. Thorium utilization is very essential for Indian nuclear power program considering the indigenous resource availability. The AHWR is designed to produce most of its power from thorium, aided by a small input of plutonium-based fuel. The features of AHWR are described in the paper. The case study covers the fuel cycle, to be followed in the near future, for AHWR. The paper deals with initial observations of the case study with regard to fuel cycle issues. (authors)

  2. Water reclamation for aquifer recharge at the eight case study sites: a cross case analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Corre, K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available , Tredoux, Gideon, Wintgens, Thomas, Cheng Xuzhou, Yu, Liang and Zhao, Xuan Abstract: Water scarcity combined with the quality deterioration of freshwater due to the rapid augmentation of population and industrial development is a major concern... stream_source_info Genthe_2012_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1118 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Genthe_2012_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Water...

  3. Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: A case study of grain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Engel, Bernie A; Wu, Pute

    2016-04-15

    Scarcity of water resources is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly for the main water consumer, agriculture. Virtual water flow (VWF) promotes water redistribution geographically and provides a new solution for resolving regional water shortage and improving water use efficiency in the world. Virtual water transfer among regions will have a significant influence on the water systems in both grain export and import regions. In order to assess the impacts of VWF related grain transfer on regional water resources conditions, the study takes mainland China as study area for a comprehensive evaluation of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress. Results show that Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai region are the major grain production regions as well as the major virtual water export regions. National water savings related to grain VWF was about 58Gm(3), with 48Gm(3) blue water and 10Gm(3) green water. VWF changes the original water distribution and has a significant effect on water resources in both virtual water import and export regions. Grain VWF significantly increased water stress in grain export regions and alleviated water stress in grain import regions. Water stress index (WSI) of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia has been increased by 138% and 129% due to grain export. Stress from water shortages is generally severe in export regions, and issues with the sustainability of grain production and VWF pattern are worthy of further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors : A case study for Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-01-01

    Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demand and supply of water-intensive commodities. This study aims to analyse the dynamics in virtual water trade of

  5. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006, thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands are under Federal jurisdiction. This paper explores how First Nations in Ontario are attempting to address SWP to improve drinking water quality in their communities even though these communities are not part of the Ontario SWP framework. The case studies highlight the gap between the regulatory requirements of the Federal and Provincial governments and the challenges for First Nations in Ontario from lack of funding to implement solutions to address the threats identified in SWP planning. This analysis of different approaches taken by Ontario First Nations shows that the Ontario framework for SWP planning is not an option for the majority of First Nations communities, and does not adequately address threats originating on reserve lands. First Nations attempting to address on-reserve threats to drinking water are using a variety of resources and approaches to develop community SWP plans. However, a common theme of all the cases surveyed is a lack of funding to support implementing solutions for the threats identified by the SWP planning process. Federal government initiatives to address the chronic problem of boil water advisories within Indigenous communities do not recognize SWP planning as a cost-effective tool for improving drinking water quality.

  6. Bayesian approaches for Integrated Water Resources Management. A Mediterranean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the first steps of a short-term/mid-term analysis of the water resources in the Guadalfeo Basin, Spain. Within the basin the recent construction of the Rules dam has required the development of specific management tools and structures for this water system. The climate variability and the high water demand requirements for agriculture irrigation and tourism in this region may cause different controversies in the water management planning process. During the first stages of the study a rigorous analysis of the Water Framework Directive results was done in order to implement the legal requirements and the solutions for the gaps identified by the water authorities. In addition, the stakeholders and water experts identified the variables and geophysical processes for our specific water system case. These particularities need to be taken into account and are required to be reflected in the final computational tool. For decision making process purposes in a mid-term scale, a bayesian network has been used to quantify uncertainty which also provides a structure representation of probabilities, actions-decisions and utilities. On one hand by applying these techniques it is possible the inclusion of decision rules generating influence diagrams that provides clear and coherent semantics for the value of making an observation. On the other hand the utility nodes encode the stakeholders preferences which are measured on a numerical scale, choosing the action that maximizes the expected utility [MEU]. Also this graphical model allows us to identify gaps and project corrective measures, for example, formulating associated scenarios with different event hypotheses. In this sense conditional probability distributions of the seasonal water demand and waste water has been obtained between the established intervals. This fact will give to the regional water managers useful information for future decision making process. The final display is very visual and allows

  7. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Firda Alfiana; Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint ...

  8. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  9. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  10. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  11. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, Alfiana Aulia; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  12. Simulation supported scenario analysis for water resources planning: a case study in northern italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.; Ortuani, B.; Maggi, D.

    2003-04-01

    The work presents the results of a comprehensive modelling study of surface and groundwater systems, including the interaction between irrigation and groundwater resources, for the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district, placed in the southern part of the densely-settled Lombardia plain (northern Italy). The area, of approximately 700 km2, has been selected as: a) it is representative of agricultural and irrigation practices in a wide portion of the plain of Lombardia; b) it has well defined hydrogeological borders, represented by the Adda, Po, and Lambro rivers (respectively East, South and West) and by the Muzza canal (North). The objective of the study is to assess the impact of land use and irrigation water availability on the distribution of crop water consumption in space and time, as well as on the groundwater resources in this wide portion of the Lombardia plain. To achieve this goal, a number of realistic management scenarios, currently under discussion with the regional water authority, have been taken into account. A standard 'base case' has been defined to allow comparative analysis of the results of different scenarios. To carry out the research, an integrated, distributed, catchment-scale simulation package, already developed and applied to the study area, has been used. The simulation system is based on the integration of two hydrological models - a conceptual vadose zone model and the groundwater model MODFLOW. An interface performs the explicit coupling in space and time between the two models. A GIS manages all the information relevant to the study area, as well as all the input, the spatially distributed parameters and the output of the system. The simulation package has been verified for the years 1999-2000 using land use derived from remote-sensed images, reported water availability for irrigation, observed water stage in rivers as well as groundwater level in the alluvial aquifer system.

  13. SmartStuff: A case study of a smart water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Nallathimmareddygari, Vindhya R; Pryor, Jonathan E

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) and miniature wearable biosensors have generated new opportunities for personalized eHealth and mHealth services. Smart objects equipped with physiological sensors can provide robust monitoring of activities of daily living and context for wearable physiological sensors. We present a case study of an intelligent water bottle that can precisely measure the amount of liquid in the bottle, monitor activity using inertial sensors, and physiological parameters using a touch and photoplethysmographic sensor. We evaluate two system configurations: a smart water bottle integrated into a personal body sensor network and a cloud based device. This paper presents system organization and the results from preliminary field testing of the prototype device.

  14. Mechanism of Urban Water Dissipation: A Case Study in Xiamen Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization have resulted in increasing water supply and water dissipation from water uses in urban areas, but traditional hydrological models usually ignores the dissipation from social water cycle. In order to comprehensively calculate the water vapor flux of urban natural - social binary water cycle, this study advanced the concept of urban water dissipation (UWD) to describe all form water transfer from liquid to gas in urban area. UWD units were divided according to the water consumption characteristics of the underlying surface, and experimental methods of investigation, statistics, observation and measurement were used to study the water dissipation of different units, determine the corresponding calculation method, and establish the UWD calculation model. Taking Xiamen Island as an example, the city's water dissipation in 2016 was calculated to be 850 mm and verified by water balance. The results showed that the contributions of water dissipation from the green land, building, hardened ground and water surface. The results means that water dissipation inside buildings was one main component of the total UWD. The proportion of water vapor fluxes exceeds the natural water cycle in the urban area. Social water cycle is the main part of the city's water cycle, and also the hot and focus of urban hydrology research in the future.

  15. Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts for urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, G.; Brattebo, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the urban water and wastewater network is directly related to both the quantity and the desired quality of the supplied water/treated wastewater - in other words, to the level of service provided to consumers. The level of service is dependent on not just the quantity and quality of the water but also the state of the infrastructure. Maintaining the infrastructure so as to be able to provide the required high level of service also demands energy. Apart from being a significant operational cost component, energy use also contributes to life-cycle environmental impacts. This paper studies the direct energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the water and wastewater system in Oslo; and presents a break-up among the different components of the network, of quantities, costs and environmental impacts. Owing to the diversity in the periods of time for which comprehensive data for the whole system are available, the study period is restricted to years 2000-2006. The per-capita annual consumption of energy in the operational phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh; and per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. The energy consumed on the upstream, per unit volume water supplied was around 0.4 kWh on average, while the corresponding value for the downstream was 0.8 kWh per cubic metre wastewater treated. The upstream Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged between 70 and 80 g per cubic metre of water supplied, about 22% greater on average than the corresponding specific GHG emissions on the downstream. -- Research highlights: → Annual per-capita energy consumption in the Operation and Maintenance (O and M) phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh. → Annual per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. → Upstream O and M energy consumption per

  16. Integrated production planning and water management in the food industry: A cheese production case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo; Hottenrott, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is increasingly relevant in the food industry. Exploiting water reuse opportunities in planning production activities is a key part of this. We study integrated water management and production planning in cheese production. For this, we develop a water-integrated lot

  17. Drivers of microbiological quality of household drinking water - a case study in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammed A; Gerber, Nicolas; Pangaribowo, Evita H

    2018-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the determinants of microbiological contamination of household drinking water under multiple-use water systems in rural areas of Ethiopia. For this analysis, a random sample of 454 households was surveyed between February and March 2014, and water samples from community sources and household storage containers were collected and tested for fecal contamination. The number of Escherichia coli (E. coli) colony-forming units per 100 mL water was used as an indicator of fecal contamination. The microbiological tests demonstrated that 58% of household stored water samples and 38% of protected community water sources were contaminated with E. coli. Moreover, most improved water sources often considered to provide safe water showed the presence of E. coli. The result shows that households' stored water collected from unprotected wells/springs had higher levels of E. coli than stored water from alternative sources. Distance to water sources and water collection containers are also strongly associated with stored water quality. To ensure the quality of stored water, the study suggests that there is a need to promote water safety from the point-of-source to point-of-use, with due considerations for the linkages between water and agriculture to advance the Sustainable Development Goal 6 of ensuring access to clean water for everyone.

  18. Validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypotheses in Water Pollution A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh Alishiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different environmental pollutions, water pollution is of especial importance due to the rather unchanging supply of this vital resource on a global scale and because of the dire consequences of its pollution for human health. The relationship between water production and its pollution can thus established and used as a measure of environmental degradation. This relationship can then be captured and analyzed in terms of environmental Kuznets hypotheses. It may be claimed that the early stages of economic growth is associated with lower per capita income and water pollution but the trend is reversed with increasing per capita income and improved economic growth. The present study was conducted using the panel data technique and the Kuznets environmental hypotheses were examined for the two groups of developed and developing countries under the two scenarios of using either per capita GDP or the share of industry to the added value in GDP as an indicator of economic growth. Results indicate that under both scenarios, Kuznets hypotheses are confirmed when studying the situation in developing countries but refuted in the case of developed countries.

  19. Fuzzifying historical peak water levels: case study of the river Rhine at Basel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological information comes from a variety of sources, which in some cases might be non-precise. In particular, this is an important issue for the available information on water stages during historical floods. An accurate estimation of the water level profile, together with an elevation model of the riverbed and floodplain areas is fundamental for the hydraulic reconstruction of historical flood events, allowing the back calculation of flood peak discharges, velocity and erosion fields, damages, among others. For the greatest floods during the last 1700 years, Wetter et al. (2011) reconstructed the water levels and historical discharges at different locations in the old city centre from a variety of historical sources (stone marks, official documents, paintings, etc). This work presents a model for the inherent unpreciseness of these historical water levels. This is, with the arithmetics of fuzzy numbers, described by their membership functions, in a similar fashion as the probability density function describes the uncertainty of a random variable. Additional to the in-site collected water stages from floodmarks and other documentary evidence (e.g. preserved in narratives and newspaper flood reports) are prone to be modeled in a fuzzy way. This study presents the use of fuzzy logic to transform historical information from different sources, in this case of flood water stages, into membership functions. This values might then introduced in the mathematical framework of Fuzzy Bayesian Inference to perform the statistical analyses with the rules of fuzzy numbers algebra. The results of this flood frequency analysis, as in the traditional non-fuzzy way, link discharges with exceedance probabilities or return periods. The main difference is, that the modeled discharge quantiles are not precise values, but fuzzy numbers instead, represented by their membership functions explicitly including the unpreciseness of the historical information used. Wetter, O., Pfister, C

  20. Aflaj’s Irrigation Water Demand/Supply Ratio: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Ghafri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical location of Oman in an arid zone, agricultural production depends fully on irrigation. The traditional irrigation systems (Aflaj, sing. falaj supply more than one third of water for agriculture. Falaj is defined in the context of this paper as a canal system which provides water for domestic and agricultural uses. Oman has 3,107 active Aflaj producing about 680 Mm3 of water per year. The main objective of this study was to estimate the irrigation performance of Aflaj in Oman. Falaj al-Dariz and al-Nujaid were chosen as case studies. Both Aflaj are located in an extremely arid environment, where the rainfall is low and evapotranspiration is high. The study utilized an approach to estimate the irrigation performance of Aflaj by considering the falaj as a single unit of irrigation. The irrigation demand/supply ratio (D/S was used in the analysis as a tool of evaluation. Date palm, the dominant crop irrigated by Aflaj, was selected for the analysis. In falaj al-Dariz the date palms were slightly under irrigated on a yearly basis. On a monthly basis, in winter, the D/S was below 0.6 and in summer it was above 1.0. On the other hand, falaj al-Nujaid was supplying too much water than the date palms needed all round the year. In winter the D/S ratio was as low as 0.25. Even in summer, the D/S ratio did not much exceed 1.0.

  1. Optimal allocation of physical water resources integrated with virtual water trade in water scarce regions: A case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanliang; Li, Yi; Zhuo, La; Zhang, Wenlong; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2018-02-01

    This study provides an innovative application of virtual water trade in the traditional allocation of physical water resources in water scarce regions. A multi-objective optimization model was developed to optimize the allocation of physical water and virtual water resources to different water users in Beijing, China, considering the trade-offs between economic benefit and environmental impacts of water consumption. Surface water, groundwater, transferred water and reclaimed water constituted the physical resource of water supply side, while virtual water flow associated with the trade of five major crops (barley, corn, rice, soy and wheat) and three livestock products (beef, pork and poultry) in agricultural sector (calculated by the trade quantities of products and their virtual water contents). Urban (daily activities and public facilities), industry, environment and agriculture (products growing) were considered in water demand side. As for the traditional allocation of physical water resources, the results showed that agriculture and urban were the two predominant water users (accounting 54% and 28%, respectively), while groundwater and surface water satisfied around 70% water demands of different users (accounting 36% and 34%, respectively). When considered the virtual water trade of eight agricultural products in water allocation procedure, the proportion of agricultural consumption decreased to 45% in total water demand, while the groundwater consumption decreased to 24% in total water supply. Virtual water trade overturned the traditional components of water supplied from different sources for agricultural consumption, and became the largest water source in Beijing. Additionally, it was also found that environmental demand took a similar percentage of water consumption in each water source. Reclaimed water was the main water source for industrial and environmental users. The results suggest that physical water resources would mainly satisfy the consumption

  2. Evaluation of some water saving devices in urban areas: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder A. Abdel Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Saving Devices (WSDs sustain demands for potable water, soften impacts on supply systems and inflict a positive effect on wastewater treatment systems. This study evaluated the effect of some WSDs in Oman. A questionnaire survey and some case studies were used. The survey results revealed that the pipe line system network for water supply accounted for about 67.7%, whereas the rest mainly use tankers. Around 37.2% of the participants received consumed 25000 - 45000 liters per household per month. Case studies showed no significant difference in household water usage before and after installation of WSDs due to pre-installed aerators. Toilet bags and dual flush toilets were not effective promoting users to flush. However, WSDs were significantly effective in restaurants, mosques, hotels and government buildings. Water consumption in shopping centres and hospitals slightly decreased. Retrofitting programs that involve replacement of existing plumbing equipment and residential water audit programs are recommended.

  3. Organic complexation of radionuclides in cement pore water: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the organic ligands EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), NTA (nitrilotriacetate), citrate and oxalate on the speciation of Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Pd, Tc, Sn, Zr, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm in cement pore waters is studied by means of chemical equilibria. Emphasis is laid on the development of a complete and consistent thermodynamic data base for the high pH range beyond pH 11. Missing data are estimated using free-energy relationships derived from a large number of experimentally determined stability constants compiled from the literature. In case where a sound estimation of stability constants is not possible due to the scarcity of quantitative information, at least upper limits are assessed for the stability of all possibly important species. Chemical equilibria were computed within the range of pH 11 to 13 and a range of Ca concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mol -1 (M). ETDA complexes predominate only in the case of Ni. In all other cases, the competition of Ca-organic or metal-hydroxo complexes successfully prevent any significant influence of EDTA, NTA, citrate or oxalate on the speciation of these radionuclides. (author) 10 figs., 9 refs

  4. Promoting inclusive water governance and forecasting the structure of water consumption based on compositional data: A case study of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yigang; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Huiwen; Yao, Tang; Li, Yan

    2018-09-01

    Water is centrally important for agricultural security, environment, people's livelihoods, and socio-economic development, particularly in the face of extreme climate changes. Due to water shortages in many cities, the conflicts between various stakeholders and sectors over water use and allocation are becoming more common and intense. Effective inclusive governance of water use is critical for relieving water use conflicts. In addition, reliable forecasting of the structure of water usage among different sectors is a basic need for effective water governance planning. Although a large number of studies have attempted to forecast water use, little is known about the forecasted structure and trends of water use in the future. This paper aims to develop a forecasting model for the structure of water usage based on compositional data. Compositional data analysis is an effective approach for investigating the internal structure of a system. A host of data transformation methods and forecasting models were adopted and compared in order to derive the best-performing model. According to mean absolute percent error for compositional data (CoMAPE), a hyperspherical-transformation-based vector autoregression model for compositional data (VAR-DRHT) is the best-performing model. The proportions of the agricultural, industrial, domestic and environmental water will be 6.11%, 5.01%, 37.48% and 51.4% by 2020. Several recommendations for water inclusive development are provided to give a better account for the optimization of the water use structure, alleviation of water shortages, and improving stake holders' wellbeing. Overall, although we focus on groundwater, this study presents a powerful framework broadly applicable to resource management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated water resources management : A case study in the Hehei river basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siqi; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2017-04-01

    The lack of water resources experienced in different parts of the world has now been recognized and analyzed by different international organizations such as WHO, the World Bank, etc. Add to this the growing urbanization and the fast socio-economic development, the water supply of many urban areas is already or will be severely threatened. Recently published documents from the UN Environmental Program confirms that severe water shortage affects 400 million people today and will affect 4 billion people by 2050. Water nowadays is getting scarce, and access to clean drinking water and water for agricultural usage is unequally distributed. The biggest opportunity and challenge for future water management is how to achieve water sustainability to reduce water consumption. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. We take the Heibe river basin where agriculture water there accounted for 90% of total water consumption as an example to study the impacts of IWRM on regional water resources. We calculated the elasticity of substitution values between labor and land, water by each irrigation areas to find the variable elastic value among irrigation areas, and the water-use efficiency based on NPP estimation with the C-fix model and WUE estimation with NPP and ET. The empirical analysis indicated that the moderate scale of farmland is 0.27-0.53hm2 under the condition of technical efficiency of irrigation water and production. Agricultural water use accounted for 94% of the social and economic water consumption in 2012, but water efficiency and water productivity were both at a low stage. In conclusion, land use forms at present in Heihe river basin have a detrimental impact on the availability of ecological water use. promoting water

  6. Public choice in water resource management: two case studies of the small-scale hydroelectric controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soden, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Hydroelectric issues have a long history in the Pacific Northwest, and more recently have come to focus on developing environmentally less-obtrusive means of hydroelectric generation. Small-scale hydroelectric represents perhaps the most important of these means of developing new sources of renewable resources to lessen the nation's dependence on foreign sources of energy. Each potential small-scale hydroelectric project, however, manifests a unique history which provides a highly useful opportunity to study the process of collective social choice in the area of new energy uses of water resources. Utilizing the basic concepts of public choice theory, a highly developed and increasingly widely accepted approach in the social sciences, the politicalization of small-scale hydroelectric proposals is analyzed. Through the use of secondary analysis of archival public opinion data collected from residents of the State of Idaho, and through the development of the two case studies - one on the Palouse River in Eastern Washington and the other at Elk Creek Falls in Northern Idaho, the policy relevant behavior and influence of major actors is assessed. Results provide a useful test of the utility of public-choice theory for the study of cases of natural-resources development when public involvement is high.

  7. Activation of a water molecule coordinated to manganese: four study cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassalle-Kaiser, B.

    2008-10-01

    The daunting energy consumption of western societies calls for the development of renewable energies. Among them, hydrogen stands as a major candidate. The cleanest way of producing hydrogen is water electro- or photolysis. This reaction is carried out in natural photosynthesis by a manganese-oxo cluster, the functioning of which remains unknown. Insight into this mechanism would greatly help the search for low-cost water splitting catalysts. Our contribution to this field is the understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the activation of water by manganese complexes. This manuscript describes our attempts to generate electrochemically mononuclear manganese(IV) complexes bearing a fully deprotonated water molecule (oxo ligand). We have studied four different cases, which reflect different possible coordination spheres capable of stabilizing such species. In the first chapter, we will give a brief overview of the present energetic challenges faced by western societies. In the second chapter, we will present general considerations about manganese chemistry and a description of the structure and functioning of the water oxidizing enzyme. We will also describe the basic requirements for the splitting of water and present the goals of our work. In the third chapter, we will present the synthesis of a new family of tetradentate ligands, together with the synthesis and full characterization of the corresponding nickel(II) complexes. The first results obtained with the manganese analogue will also be shown. Chapter four presents the formation and the full characterization of a mononuclear manganese(IV)-oxo complex, by electrochemical oxidation of a manganese(II)-aqua complex. We will present different pathways to generate this species and show which intermediates are involved in this 2 e - , 2 H + reaction. Chapter five describes the formation of a mononuclear manganese(IV) complex, by electrochemical oxidation of a manganese(III)-hydroxo complex. The

  8. Electrolytic corrosion of water pipeline system in the remote distance from stray currents—Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zakowski​

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by the harmful effects of stray currents was presented. The failure occurred at a site distant from the sources of these currents namely the tramway and railway traction systems. Diagnosis revealed the stray currents flow to pipeline over a remote distance of 800/1000 m from the point of failure. At the point of failure stray currents flowed from the pipeline to the ground through external insulation defects, causing the process of electrolytic corrosion of the metal. Long distance between the affected section of the pipeline and the sources of stray currents excludes the typical protection against stray currents in the form of electrical polarized drainage. Corrosion protection at this point can be achieved by using the earthing electrodes made of magnesium, which will also provide cathodic current protection as galvanic anode.

  9. Water footprint assessment in North Eastern region of Romania: A case study for Iasi County, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ene, S.A.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Teodosiu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors affect the water consumption pattern such as growing world population, climate changes, industrial and agricultural practices, etc. The present study provides for the first time a year-to-year analysis of water use for agricultural production, domestic water supply and industrial

  10. Personal Water Footprint in Taiwan: A Case Study of Yunlin County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events have affected the environment and water resources in Taiwan for the last two decades. Heavy rainfall, typhoons, and rising sea levels have caused severe flooding along the Southwest Coast in Taiwan. Yunlin County, an important agricultural region, will be significantly affected by climate changes, especially in coastal areas with severe land subsidence. Therefore, using the concept of the water footprint and questionnaire surveys, this study examines personal water footprints in townships in Yunlin County to explore the effectiveness and sustainability of water management. The purpose of the water footprint concept is to quantify environmental burdens imposed by individuals’ demand for water. An individual water footprint involves direct and indirect water usage that is associated with personal habits. Analytical results show that the most individual water consumption is highest along coastal areas, such as Kouhu and Taixi, and mountainous areas, such as Gukeng, Douliu, and Linnei. Furthermore, one-way ANOVA of individuals’ daily water footprint reveals that individual water footprints vary significantly among Douliu, Gukeng, and Mailiao. The mean daily water footprint per capita in Douliu and Gukeng significantly exceeds that in Mailiao. This study considers the location quotients of industries in these three townships, which indicate that the location quotients of the accommodation and food and beverage industries in Douliu and Gukeng significantly exceed those of Mailiao. The individual virtual water use that is associated with the aforementioned industries is large. Clearly, individual water use habits in townships are related to the industry type. Douliu and Gukeng are major centers of the tertiary industry, which has a higher location quotient than in Mailiao. Mailiao is a major center of manufacturing as a secondary industry. Therefore, flourishing regions with tertiary industries have high virtual water

  11. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Hirsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good

  12. A Method of Evaluating Water Resource Assets and Liabilities: A Case Study of Jinan City, Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concepts of water resource development and utilization have caused serious hydrological and environmental issues in some regions. In addition, policy issues in China have led to a severe water crisis. The quantitative accounting of water resources is a theoretical approach to solving these problems. In this paper, 13 indicators were selected from four classes, including resources, the environment, society, and efficiency, and a case study of Jinan, Shandong Province, was performed using a set pair analysis model to calculate the water resource assets from 2011–2015. In previous methods of water resource accounting, the water quality was not considered; therefore, the loss coefficient of water resource assets was proposed to improve the reliability of accounting. According to the relationships among the unit price of water, water quantity, and water quality, physical and quantitative accounting methods were used to create water balance sheets from 2011–2015. The calculation results showed that the physical change in water resource assets in Jinan City was −30 million m 3 , and water resource assets initially increased and then decreased. In 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, water resource assets totalled 36.5 million USD, 45.9 million USD, 66.7 million USD, 35.5 million USD, and 37.5 million USD, respectively (at 6.4588, 6.3125, 6.1932, 6.2166, 6.2284 USRMB, respectively. This initial accounting provides quantitative and physical support for the improved management of water resources.

  13. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firda Alfiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  14. Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined.

  15. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  16. Strategic decision making under climate change: a case study on Lake Maggiore water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Micotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water resources planning processes involve different kinds of decisions that are generally evaluated under a stationary climate scenario assumption. In general, the possible combinations of interventions are mutually compared as single alternatives. However, the ongoing climate change requires us to reconsider this approach. Indeed, what have to be compared are not individual alternatives, but families of alternatives, characterized by the same structural decisions, i.e. by actions that have long-term effects and entail irrevocable changes in the system. The rationale is that the structural actions, once they have been implemented, cannot be easily modified, while the management decisions can be adapted to the evolving conditions. This paper considers this methodological problem in a real case study, in which a strategic decision has to be taken: a new barrage was proposed to regulate Lake Maggiore outflow, but, alternatively, either the present barrage can be maintained with its present regulation norms or with a new one. The problem was dealt with by multi-criteria decision analysis involving many stakeholders and two decision-makers. An exhaustive set of indicators was defined in the participatory process, conducted under the integrated water resource management paradigm, and many efficient (in Pareto sense regulation policies were identified. The paper explores different formulations of a global index to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the classes of alternatives under both stationary and changing hydrological scenarios in order to assess their adaptability to the ongoing climate change.

  17. Strategic decision making under climate change: a case study on Lake Maggiore water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micotti, M.; Soncini Sessa, R.; Weber, E.

    2014-09-01

    Water resources planning processes involve different kinds of decisions that are generally evaluated under a stationary climate scenario assumption. In general, the possible combinations of interventions are mutually compared as single alternatives. However, the ongoing climate change requires us to reconsider this approach. Indeed, what have to be compared are not individual alternatives, but families of alternatives, characterized by the same structural decisions, i.e. by actions that have long-term effects and entail irrevocable changes in the system. The rationale is that the structural actions, once they have been implemented, cannot be easily modified, while the management decisions can be adapted to the evolving conditions. This paper considers this methodological problem in a real case study, in which a strategic decision has to be taken: a new barrage was proposed to regulate Lake Maggiore outflow, but, alternatively, either the present barrage can be maintained with its present regulation norms or with a new one. The problem was dealt with by multi-criteria decision analysis involving many stakeholders and two decision-makers. An exhaustive set of indicators was defined in the participatory process, conducted under the integrated water resource management paradigm, and many efficient (in Pareto sense) regulation policies were identified. The paper explores different formulations of a global index to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the classes of alternatives under both stationary and changing hydrological scenarios in order to assess their adaptability to the ongoing climate change.

  18. Measuring the Impact of Industrialization and Financial Development on Water Resources: A Case Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid ZAMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study examines the impact of industrialization and financial development on water resources, in the specific context of Pakistan. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The result reveals that economic growth positively linked with the water resource, as water plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. Thus limiting this resource would affect the process of economic growth. Industrial processes have a negative environmental impact which causing water pollution. Financial development has an indirect effect on water consumption, as it shows that private firms finds more funding opportunities in a country, therefore, avoid dirty industry game.

  19. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  20. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  1. Policy Entrepreneurs and Change Strategies: Lessons from Sixteen Case Studies of Water Transitions around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Meijerink

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of policy entrepreneurs in realizing water policy transitions. The central questions are to what extent have policy entrepreneurs played a role in realizing major change in water policies, who are these policy entrepreneurs, and what strategies have they used to bring about change? The policy science literature suggests that policy entrepreneurs have an "arsenal" of possible strategies for achieving change. Based on a comparative analysis of water policy changes in 15 countries around the globe and the European Union, we investigate which strategies have in practice been used by policy entrepreneurs, to what effect, and which lessons for managing water transitions we can draw from this. The comparative case analysis shows that individuals play complementary roles; hence, entrepreneurship in water management is often collective entrepreneurship. Strategies of coalition building, the manipulation of decision making forums, and the strategic framing of issues and windows are crucial to understanding water policy change, which suggests that the management of water policy transitions is a highly political game. We conclude by listing recommendations for those who would like to direct water policy change.

  2. Social Acceptance for Reclaimed Water Use: A Case Study in Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ravishankar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of water to the peri-urban areas of Bengaluru is groundwater. Access to groundwater is through tankers, private borewells, Bruhat Bengaluru MahanagaraPalike (Urban Local Body borewells, and public stand posts. All modes other than tankers provide water to the community free of charge. Reclaimed water from sewage treatment plants (STPs is in use by industries and some gated communities and multistoried apartments for toilet flushing and landscaping. For individual households in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru, it could be an additional water source replacing expensive water supply through tankers; reducing demand for groundwater (a finite resource; improving the sanitation system by providing drainage systems and preventing groundwater contamination from black and grey water. Consequently, this research paper investigates the willingness of residents in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru to use reclaimed water for non-potable end uses. To investigate residents’ willingness and key motivations for the use of reclaimed water, a survey of residents in the peri-urban ward of Bellandur was conducted. In this region, the sewerage board had prepared a media advertisement to create awareness of—and to sell—reclaimed water to other users, including local residents. This advertisement was shown to respondents, asking if they were willing to accept and buy the reclaimed water at 15 Indian Rupees (INR per kiloliter. Sixty-seven percent of residents who were household owners were willing to buy reclaimed water, 20% were concerned about hygiene, and 33% of respondents lacked trust in the public agency with respect to water quality standards. The study concludes that public awareness from key stakeholders is essential for the reuse of reclaimed water. It also recommends stringent regulation by levying fees for groundwater extraction in addition to making reclaimed water readily available and supplied free of charge to the consumers. In addition

  3. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  4. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Giannoccaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT PROCESS - A CASE STUDY FOR DISPOSAL IN THE NIGER DELTA

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    BONIFACE A. ORIJI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Produced water is the interstitial reservoir water that flows to the surface with the crude oil into the production separators. This study addressed the effects of some chemicals on produced water and the challenges of finding the optimal concentrations of these chemicals for treating produced water. In this study, produced water treatment was carried out in an oil production platform located in the Niger Delta so as to determine the effect of a particular scale inhibitor, biocide, demulsifier and water clarifier, also to obtain the optimum concentrations of these chemicals in the treatment of produced water. The physico-chemical properties and microbial content of the produced water were determined. The results showed that the conductivity, hardness, pH and alkalinity reduced with increasing concentration of the scale inhibitor. The total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC, heterotrophic fungi count (THFC and the Sulphate reducing bacteria count (SRBC were found to reduce with increasing concentration of biocide and exposure time. The increase in biocide concentration from 64 PPM to 100 PPM resulted in the reduction of THBC by 99.78%, THFC by 81.32% and SRBC 99.85%. The water clarifier gave the optimum concentration for oil and grease in the produced water at 7.3 PPM.

  6. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoccaro, G.; Castillo, M.; Berbel, J.

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP) for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA) is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA) are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis. (Author)

  7. Nitrates in municipal drinking water and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an ecological cancer case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) development has been inconclusive. A matched cancer case-control and a nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between mortality attributed to NHL and nitrate exposure from Taiwan's drinking water. All deaths due to NHL in Taiwan residents from 2000 through 2006 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) levels of drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate exposure via drinking water. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for NHL death for those with high nitrate levels in their drinking water, as compared to the lowest tertile, were 1.02 (0.87-1.2) and 1.05 (0.89-1.24), respectively. The results of the present study show that there was no statistically significant association between nitrates in drinking water at levels in this investigation and increased risk of death attributed to NHL.

  8. Nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from bladder cancer: an ecological case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and bladder cancer development is controversial. A matched cancer case-control with nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between bladder cancer mortality occurrence and nitrate exposure from Taiwan drinking water. All bladder cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 1999 through 2003 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth,and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate exposure via drinking water. The adjusted odds ratios for bladder cancer death for those with high nitrate levels in their drinking water were 1.76 (1.28-2.42) and 1.96 (1.41-2.72) as compared to the lowest tertile. The results of the present study show that there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from bladder cancer.

  9. Measuring the Impact of Industrialization and Financial Development on Water Resources: A Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid ZAMAN; Muhammad Mushtaq KHAN; Mehboob AHMAD

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study examines the impact of industrialization and financial development on water resources, in the specific context of Pakistan. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The result reveals that economic growth positively linked with the water resource, as water plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. Thus limiting this resource would affect the process of economic growth. Industrial processes have a negative environmental impact ...

  10. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  11. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  12. Drinking water quality in urban areas of pakistan a case study of gujranwala city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Rashid, H.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the drinking water quality of Gujranwala city. Samples were collected from 16 locations including: 4 tube wells, 4 overhead reservoirs (OHR) and 8 house connections. Twelve physicochemical and two bacteriological parameters were tested, before and after monsoon and compared with National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). The results demonstrated that most of the physicochemical parameters, except lead, nickle and chromium were within NSDWQ before and after monsoon. Bacteriological and heavy metal contamination was found before and after the monsoon. Possible reasons of contamination are: no disinfection, old and leaking water pipes, poor drainage during monsoon and possible cross connections between water and sewerage lines. It is recommended to practice disinfection, laying of water and sewerage pipes on opposite sides of streets and periodic water quality monitoring. (author)

  13. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water. Copyright

  14. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO 2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water

  15. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico, 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  16. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  17. Sustainability of national consumption from a water resources perspective: The case study for France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. It has been estimated that 20% of the water consumption and pollution in the world relates to the production of export goods. This study analyzes how French

  18. Evaluation of drinking water quality indices (case study: Bushehr province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Jafarzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internal corrosion and the formation of scale in water distribution pipes are the most important problems for an urban water distribution system. Physical, chemical, or biological factors can lead to these two processes. Internal corrosion and scale formation can impact health, economy, and aesthetics. This study assessed the physicochemical quality parameters and evaluated the potential for corrosion and scale formation in drinking water at the distribution systems of 5 selected cities in Bushehr province (Kangan, Dashtestan, Dashti, Bushehr, and Ganaveh from 2009-2012. Methods: This study was carried out based on laboratory data collected from monthly samplings of tap water in the Water and Wastewater Company of Bushehr province during the years 2009-2012. Internal corrosion and scale formation rates were calculated using the Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, and Puckorius indices. Results: The results of the Ryznar, Puckorius, Aggressive and Langelier indices indicated that the drinking water in the 5 selected cities of Bushehr province was corrosive. Moreover, the majority of parameters used to determine water quality exceeded Iran’s national standards. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is problem of water corrosion and scaling in drinking water of distribution systems in selected cities.

  19. Economic Evaluation and Overall Assessment of Water Harvesting Ponds based on Scorecard System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, P. P.; Kumar, Santosh; Kiku, Karmchand

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out an economic analysis of three (03) water harvesting ponds situated in the district of Lakhimpur (Assam), India. Economic analysis was carried out using three important economic criteria, namely Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and the Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). Ponds of the study area were compared with adopting score card system. All the water harvesting ponds were found economically viable as the BCR was more than unity at 12% discount rate. Net present worth was the highest for the water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Assam, Narayanpur and the least for water harvesting pond of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti. The IRR was found to be the highest (60%) for water harvesting ponds of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (48%) and water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm (19.2%).Water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Narayanpur scored the highest score (84 marks) followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (80 marks) and St. Xavier's school, Harmoti (61 marks).

  20. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  1. Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint.

  2. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  3. Industrial wastewater minimization using water pinch analysis: a case study on an old textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Wong, C L; Manan, Z A

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater minimization can be conducted using four main strategies: (i) reuse; (ii) regeneration-reuse; (iii) regeneration-recycling; and (iv) process changes. This study is concerned with (i) and (ii) to investigate the most suitable approach to wastewater minimization for an old textile industry plant. A systematic water networks design using water pinch analysis (WPA) was developed to minimize the water usage and wastewater generation for the textile plant. COD was chosen as the main parameter. An integrated design method has been applied, which brings the engineering insight using WPA that can determine the minimum flowrate of the water usage and then minimize the water consumption and wastewater generation as well. The overall result of this study shows that WPA has been effectively applied using both reuse and regeneration-reuse strategies for the old textile industry plant, and reduced the operating cost by 16% and 50% respectively.

  4. Drinking water quality in Pakistan: a case study of Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Majeed, A.; Ashraf, M.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, major cities of Pakistan are facing problems of shortage of municipal water supplies as the water requirements are increasing due to rapid urbanization. The water being supplied to many cosmopolitan cities and towns is generally of poor quality. Microbial contamination of drinking water is responsible for directly or indirectly spreading major infections and parasitic diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Hepatitis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Guinea worm. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has launched a major programme of water quality monitoring in the country to document the existing water quality status. The PCRWR has recently completed water quality assessment studies in twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. For monitoring purposes, grids of 2x2 and 3x3 km were established for Islamabad and Rawalpindi respectively. In total, thirty-nine water-sampling points were established. Apart from the groundwater samples, eight samples from surface water sources in Islamabad and one from Rawalpindi were collected. Water samples were collected in 200 ml sterilized containers during July 2001. In both cities, most of water samples except for Simly Reservoir in Islamabad, and Chitti Tanki in Rawalpindi were found fit with respect to color, odor and taste. The average EC values were 0.56 and 0.81 dS m/sup -1/ for Islamabad and Rawalpindi, respectively. The pH of collected samples varied from 7 to 8.3. Arsenic, chloride, chromium, fluoride, nitrate, sodium, and water hardness were within the safe limit. The Lead concentration however, was found within safe limits in only 21% samples. The quality of drinking water in both cities in respect of bacterial contamination was very poor. Only 25% samples in Islamabad and 13% samples in Rawalpindi were found fit for drinking purpose. Water samples collected from the points nearest to the source were free from bacterial contamination. It is concluded that the problem of bacterial

  5. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  6. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Jalil Mohd Faizal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs. THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  7. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs) Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab; Hamidin, Nasrul; Anas Nagoor Gunny, Ahmad; Nihla Kamarudzaman, Ain

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP) located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  8. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2017-05-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) 3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and 6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  10. Cumulative impoundment evaporation in water resource management within the mid-Atlantic: A case study in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D.; Burgholzer, R.; Kleiner, J.; Brogan, C. O.; Julson, C.; Withers, E.

    2017-12-01

    Across the eastern United States, successful management of water resources to satisfy the competing demands for human consumption, industry, agriculture, and ecosystems requires both water quality and water quantity considerations. Over the last 2 decades, low streamflows during dry summers have increased scrutiny on water supply withdrawals. Within Virginia, a statewide hydrologic model provides quantitative assessments on impacts from proposed water withdrawals to downstream river flow. Currently, evaporative losses are only accounted for from the large reservoirs. In this study, we sought to provide a baseline estimate for the cumulative evaporation from impoundments across all of the major river basins in Virginia. Virginia provides an ideal case study for the competing water demands in the mid-Atlantic region given the unique tracking of water withdrawals throughout the river corridor. In the over 73,000 Virginia impoundments, the cumulative annual impoundment evaporation was 706 MGD, or 49% of the permitted water withdrawal. The largest reservoirs (>100 acres) represented over 400 MGD, and 136 MGD for the smaller impoundments (water loss (evaporation + demand), with some areas where impoundment evaporation was greater than human water demand. Seasonally, our results suggest that cumulative impoundment evaporation in some watersheds greatly impacts streamflow during low flow periods. Our results demonstrate that future water supply planning will require not only understanding evaporation within large reservoirs, but also the thousands of small impoundments across the landscape.

  11. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  12. Dating gasoline releases using ground-water chemical analyses: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.A.; Perez, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents case studies where geochemical data were analyzed in spatial and temporal relation to documented gasoline releases at typical service station sites. In particular, the authors present ground-water analytical data for sites where (1) the date of the gasoline release is known with a good degree of confidence, (2) the release is confined to a relatively short period of time so as to be considered essentially instantaneous, (3) antecedent geochemical condition are known or can be reasonably expected to have been either unaffected by previous hydrocarbon impacts or minor in comparison to known release events, and (4) where geologic materials can be classified as to structure and composition. The authors' intent is to provide empirical data regarding the hydrogeological fate of certain gasoline components, namely the compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of gasoline weathering as a means of comparing releases in given hydrogeologic environments. Trends seen in a variety of comparative hydrocarbon compound ratios may provide a basis for evaluating relative release dates

  13. Adaptive management and environmental decision making. A case study application to water use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Robin; Failing, Lee; Higgins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive management (AM) techniques are one of the principal tools proposed by environmental decision makers to provide flexible and responsive management approaches over time. However, the record of successful applications is surprisingly small. We believe that this in part reflects the lack of an intuitively plausible framework for evaluating AM initiatives. This paper outlines such a framework, based on the insights of decision analysis, for evaluating the use of AM as a technique to improve environmental management decisions. British Columbia's Water Use Plan (WUP) process, which has developed operating plans for more than 20 major hydroelectric facilities, is introduced as a case-study example. The discussion emphasizes that decisions to adopt adaptive management strategies involve judgments concerning tradeoffs across a variety of economic, environmental, and social objectives. As a result, adaptive management initiatives need to be carefully evaluated based on their merits relative to other alternatives. Within an AM framework, alternative experimental designs should be evaluated because the design of a preferred experiment involves choices among different levels of investment, the quality of available and desired future information, and different ecological, economic, and social risks. (author)

  14. Application of remote sensing techniques for conserving scarce water resources: a case study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, A; Alam, N; Asghar, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan, which was once a water surplus, is now a water deficit country according to Malin Falkenmark criteria. The conventional wisdom of managing canal water supplies, which usually results in over- or under-irrigation, is not sufficient to meet the challenge of water demand in future. This paper introduces the use of modem tools like Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and CROPWAT to improve the management of the existing irrigation systems. This study was conducted for the Pehure High Level Canal (PHLC) and the Upper Swat Canal (USC) system in the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Crop identification at distributary level was made from multi-temporal Remote Sensing satellite images, using various image processing techniques, such as supervised, unsupervised classification and spectral mixture analysis. Cropped areas were calculated for each individual crop from these classified images, and then crop water requirement at distributary level was estimated using CROPWAT. Assuming all other parameters of the CROPWAT model optimistic, the calculated crop area was of major concern. The supervised classification with support of unsupervised classification and ground truth information has proven to be the best option and cost-effective technique for calculating the actual cropped area. The results of this study can be used while devising guidelines for water managers to release the canal supplies based, on crop water requirement. This practice will help in avoiding wastage of canal water at farm level, which can be optimally used for increasing irrigated areas and crop productivity in the area. (author)

  15. Summer Season Water Temperature Modeling under the Climate Change: Case Study for Fourchue River, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that human-induced climate change is unavoidable and it will have effects on physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquatic habitats. This will be especially important for cold water fishes such as trout. The objective of this study is to simulate water temperature for future periods under the climate change situations. Future water temperature in the Fourchue River (St-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska, QC, Canada were simulated by the CEQUEAU hydrological and water temperature model, using meteorological inputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. The result of the study indicated that water temperature in June will increase 0.2–0.7 °C and that in September, median water temperature could decrease by 0.2–1.1 °C. The rise in summer water temperature may be favorable to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis growth, but several days over the Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature (UILT are also likely to occur. Therefore, flow regulation procedures, including cold water releases from the Morin dam may have to be considered for the Fourchue River.

  16. XBT fall rate in waters of extreme temperature: A case study in the Antarctic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Saran, A.K.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Vethamony, P.; Araligidad, N.; Bailey, R.

    are significantly different from those reported earlier for tropical and subtropical regions. The comprehensive study of Hanawa et al. (making use of controlled XBT-CTD data, mostly from tropical and subtropical waters) showed that the manufacturer's equation...

  17. Effect of arsenic contaminated drinking water on human chromosome: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Asha Lata; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Srivastava, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of ground water has become a serious problem all over the world. Large number of people from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal of India are suffering due to consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water. Study was carried out on 30 individuals residing in Ballia District, UP where the maximum concentration of arsenic was observed around 0.37 ppm in drinking water. Blood samples were collected from them to find out the problem related with arsenic. Cytogenetic study of the blood samples indicates that out of 30, two persons developed Klinefelter syndrome.

  18. Cr(VI) and Conductivity as Indicators of Surface Water Pollution from Ferrochrome Production in South Africa: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock-Hattingh, M. M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Tiedt, L. R.

    2015-10-01

    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface waters. In the remaining case study areas, drinking water, originating from groundwater, was severely polluted with Cr(VI). The main factors causing pollution were surface run-off and/or seepage, while atmospheric deposition did not seem to contribute significantly. The extinction of diatoms during a severe Cr(VI) surface water pollution event (concentrations up to 216 µg/L) in one of the case study areas was also observed, which clearly indicates the ecological impact of such surface water pollution events.

  19. Grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Batchelli, L; Balaguer, M D; Puig, S; Colprim, J

    2013-01-01

    Grey water has long been considered a promising option for dealing with water scarcity and reuse. However, factors such as lack of macronutrients and low carbon content make its treatment challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the applicability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology to on-site grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation. The results demonstrated that the regenerated water complied with microbiological parameters concerning restriction of solids and organic matter removal. Denitrification was not fully accomplished, but ammonium was totally oxidised and low concentrations of nitrates were achieved. Effluent with good appearance and no odour was used in an experimental study to irrigate a grid system containing natural and artificial grass sections. The conclusion is that SBR technology offers a promising treatment for grey water.

  20. Benefits of Mars ISRU Regolith Water Processing: A Case Study for the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Paz, Aaron; Mueller, Robert

    2016-01-01

    ISRU of Mars resources was baselined in 2009 Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, but only for Oxygen production using atmospheric CO2. The Methane (LCH4) needed for ascent propulsion of the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) would need to be brought from Earth. However: Extracting water from the Martian Regolith enables the production of both Oxygen and Methane from Mars resources: Water resources could also be used for other applications including: Life support, radiation shielding, plant growth, etc. Water extraction was not baselined in DRA5.0 due to perceived difficulties and complexity in processing regolith. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) requested studies to look at the quantitative benefits and trades of using Mars water ISRUPhase 1: Examined architecture scenarios for regolith water retrieval. Completed October 2015. Phase 2: Deep dive of one architecture concept to look at end-to-end system size, mass, power of a LCH4/LO2 ISRU production system

  1. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  2. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Maria J.; Jafvert, Chad T.; Nies, Loring F., E-mail: nies@purdue.edu

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July–October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods. - Highlights: • Indirect water reuse is ubiquitous with limited quantitative documentation of it. • Water data are uncoordinated

  3. Water quality monitoring: A comparative case study of municipal and Curtin Sarawak's lake samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand Kumar, A.; Jaison, J.; Prabakaran, K.; Nagarajan, R.; Chan, Y. S.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, particle size distribution and zeta potential of the suspended particles in municipal water and lake surface water of Curtin Sarawak's lake were compared and the samples were analysed using dynamic light scattering method. High concentration of suspended particles affects the water quality as well as suppresses the aquatic photosynthetic systems. A new approach has been carried out in the current work to determine the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the suspended particles present in the water samples. The results for the lake samples showed that the particle size ranges from 180nm to 1345nm and the zeta potential values ranges from -8.58 mV to -26.1 mV. High zeta potential value was observed in the surface water samples of Curtin Sarawak's lake compared to the municipal water. The zeta potential values represent that the suspended particles are stable and chances of agglomeration is lower in lake water samples. Moreover, the effects of physico-chemical parameters on zeta potential of the water samples were also discussed.

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Surface Water: A Case Study from Michigan, USA to Inform Management of Rural Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Dreelin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1 explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2 examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risks between rural and urban environments; and (3 synthesize available information to gain a better understanding of risk and risk management for rural water supplies. Our results indicate that Cryptosporidium and Giardia were more prevalent in rural versus urban environments based on the number of positive samples. Genotyping showed that both the human and animal types of the parasites are found in rural and urban environments. Rural areas had a higher incidence of disease compared to urban areas based on the total number of disease cases. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were both positively correlated (p < 0.001 with urban area, population size, and population density. Finally, a comprehensive strategy that creates knowledge pathways for data sharing among multiple levels of management may improve decision-making for protecting rural water supplies.

  5. The Study of Tourists' Behavior in Water Usage in Hotel Business: Case Study of Phuket Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pensiri; K. Nantaporn; P. Parichut

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is very important to the economy of many countries due to the large contribution in the areas of employment and income generation. However, the rapid growth of tourism can also be considered as one of the major uses of water user, and therefore also have a significant and detrimental impact on the environment. Guest behavior in water usage can be used to manage water in hotels for sustainable water resources management. This research presents a study of hotel guest water usage behavio...

  6. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  7. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-08-01

    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future

  8. The Potential of Using Rain Water in Thailand; Case study Bangsaiy Municipality, Ayutthaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaporn Areerachakul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater has been widely use in developing countries including Thailand. In the study area, Ayutthaya, rainwater is not much in use due to the quality, abundance and low tariff of municipal water supply. However a survey of residents has shown that there is interest in using rainwater for drinking. The community purchases bottled water and treats water by boiling or by on-site purification devices. A high level of demand for rainwater use was found in this study and this is attributed to past practices and a local culture of using rainwater. It was found that more than 90% of respondents were interested in using rainwater if it was of good quality. Piped water tariffs are currently very low in the range of 4 to 5 THB per m3. Approximately 70% of households from a questionnaire survey were satisfied with the current tariff. However, it should be noted that the true cost of water should be 9-11 THB per m3. From the same survey, 63% of respondents who currently purchase bottled water are interested in using rainwater as drinking water subject to its acceptable quality. The estimation cost of pilot design is 50,000 to 80,000 THB or 1,200 to 2,500 US dollars.

  9. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  10. Investigating the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Bottled Water and Comparing with its Standard: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-09-01

    Results: Brand No. 1, the concentration of zinc ion was larger in Brand 2 while in Brand No. 2 had larger copper, nickel, and aluminum ions. The results indicated that the concentration of the measured metal ions were below the allowable limit of drinking water standard across all of the studied samples. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results from the investigated parameters, it can be concluded that the bottled water of both brands poses no health issue and is drinkable. Considering the changes in the concentration of ions and the increasing trend of consumption of bottled waters, their monitoring and qualitative control of pollutants are very crucial in terms of public health.

  11. Evapotranspiration management based on the application of SWAT for balancing water consumption: A case study in Guantao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Gan, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Rapid social and economic development results in increased demand for water resources. This can lead to the unsustainable development and exploitation of water resources which in turn causes significant environmental problems. Conventional water resource management approaches, such as supply and demand management strategies, frequently fail to restore regional water balance. This paper introduces the concept of water consumption balance, the balance between actual evapotranspiration (ET) and target ET, and establishes a framework to realize regional water balance. The framework consists of three stages: (1) determination of target ET and actual ET; (2) quantification of the water-saving requirements for the region; and (3) reduction of actual ET by implementing various water saving management strategies. Using this framework, a case study was conducted for Guantao County, China. The SWAT model was utilized to aid in the selection of the best water saving management strategy by comparing the ET of different irrigation methods and crop pattern adjustments. Simulation results revealed that determination of SWAT model parameters using remote sensing ET is feasible and that the model is a valuable tool for ET management. Irrigation was found to have a greater influence on the ET of winter wheat as compared to that of maize, indicating that reduction in winter wheat cultivation is the most effective way to reduce regional ET. However, the effect of water-saving irrigation methods on the reduction of ET was not obvious. This indicates that it would be difficult to achieve regional ET reduction using water-saving irrigation methods only. Furthermore, selecting the best water saving management strategy by relying solely on the amount of reduced ET was insufficient, because it ignored the impact of water conservation measures on the livelihood of the agricultural community. Incorporating these considerations with our findings, we recommend changing the current irrigation

  12. Evaluation of water balance in a population of older adults. A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Kolyzoi, Kleoniki; Lysandropoulos, Athanasios; Sfendouraki, Kalliopi; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2018-04-01

    Older adults are at risk for dehydration and its' potentially life-threatening consequences. Unrecognized dehydration can complicate chronic medical problems and increase morbidity. The objective of the study was to estimate water balance, intake and loss in elderly people living in Greece using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ). WBQ was administered in winter to 108 independents (65-81yrs) (Group A), 94 independents (82-92yrs) (Group B) and 51 hospitalized (65-92yrs) (Group C). A database from previous study of 335 adults (18-65yrs) (Control Group) used for comparison. Mean estimates of water balance, intake and loss were, respectively, for Group A -749 ± 1386 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group B -38 ± 933 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group C 64 ± 1399 mL/day, 2586 ± 1071 mL/day and 2522 ± 1048 mL/day and for Control Group -253 ± 1495 mL/day, 2912 ± 1025 mL/day and 3492 ± 2099 mL/day. Significant differences were detected in water balance, intake and loss (p < 0.01). Water balance and water intake in Group A was the lowest. For Groups A, B, C and Control, contribution of solid foods to water intake was 36%, 29%, 32%, 25%, of drinking water was 32%, 48%, 45%, 47%, of beverages was 32%, 23%, 23% and 28% respectively. Significant differences observed in the contribution of drinking water and beverages (p < 0.01). Group A had lower water balance and water intake. Groups B and C had lower water intake from beverages. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water use conflicts in northern Tanzania. A case study of Rundugai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Rundugai river catchment, Pangani basin Hzai District. ... content and structural-functional analysis techniques were used for qualitative data analysis. Five types of key stakeholders/actors involved in regulating and negotiating ...

  14. Assessing the Consistency and Microbiological Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices by Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Water at Home: A Case Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L.; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice—key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. Methods and Findings We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential of HWT to prevent waterborne diseases. PMID:25522371

  15. Optimization of turbine positioning in water distribution networks. A Sicilian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Barbara; Messineo, Simona; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The potential energy of water in Water Distribution Networks (WDNs), is usually dissipated by Pressure Reduction Valves (PRVs), thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs), to produce energy in a small network with the aim to avoid dissipation in favour of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN located in a town close to Palermo (Sicily), where users often install private tanks, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions. As expected, the economic benefit of PATs installation in WDNs is affected by the presence of private tanks, whose presence deeply modifies the network from designed condition. The analysis is carried out by means of a mathematical model, which is able to simulate dynamically water distribution networks with private tanks and PATs. As expected, the advantage of PATs' installation in terms of renewable energy recovery is strictly conditioned by their placement in the WDN.

  16. Simplifying dynamic river water quality modelling: A case study of inorganic nitrogen dynamics in the Crocodile River (South Africa).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality Model No. 1, which is one of the most comprehensive basic river water quality models available in literature. The applicability of the simplified model in data limited situations was investigated using a case study of inorganic nitrogen (nitrate...

  17. Integrating Surface Water Management in Urban and Regional Planning, Case Study of Wuhan in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that would enhance the sustainability of urban development by integrating the surface water system in the urban and regional planning process. Theoretically, this study proposes that proactive-integrated policy and

  18. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  19. Study of Ground water Groundwater Potentiality and Sea Water Intrusion Along along the Coastal Plain, Wadi Thuwal, KSA- A Case Study Based on DC Resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour A. Al-Garni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study mainly aims to outline zones that have groundwater potentiality with good quality and those which are affected by sea water intrusion. The electrical resistivity data were acquired over an area of about 170 km2 of a coastal plain, Wadi Thuwal, which is bounded by the Red Sea in the west and the volcanic hills in the east.  In such an area, resistivity measurements, using n-layering model, reveal generally reveal a wide range of resistivity values which do not reflect the reality. Hence, the statistical analysis has to be involved to overcome this problem and to make the final interpretation reliable.  In our case, the n-layer models were modified to another statistical geoelectric models (SLM, consisting of  a number of layers equivalent to the stratigraphic layering beneath each VES site. The modified models were used to outline the depth to the bed rock, groundwater accumulation zones and  water table as well as to define the effect of sea water intrusion through the study area. Check alignment above

  20. The association between campylobacteriosis, agriculture and drinking water: a case-case study in a region of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, E; Mak, S; Otterstatter, M; Taylor, M; Zubel, M; Takaro, T K; Kuo, M; Michel, P

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water source, rural/urban environment and socioeconomic status (SES) according to the location of their residence using geographical information systems analysis methods. The odds of campylobacteriosis compared to enteric disease controls were higher for individuals serviced by private wells than municipal surface water systems (odds ratio 1·4, 95% confidence interval 1·1-1·8). In rural settings, the odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in November (P = 0·014). The odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in individuals aged ⩾15 years, especially in those with higher SES. In this region of BC, campylobacteriosis risk, compared to other enteric diseases, seems to be mediated by vulnerable drinking water sources and rural factors. Consideration should be given to further support well-water users and to further study the microbiological impact of agriculture on water.

  1. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study: Horroud River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Fatemeh; Haghizadeh, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Surface waters, especially rivers are the most important sources of water supply for drinking and agricultural purposes. Water with desirable quality is necessary for human life. Therefore, knowledge of water quality and its temporal changes is of particular importance in sustainable management of water resources. In this study, available data during 20 years from two hydrometry stations located in the way of Horroud River in Lorestan province were used and analyzed using Aq.QA software. Piper, Schoeller, Stiff, and Wilcox diagram were drawn and Mann-Kendal test was used for determining data trend. According to Wilcox diagram, water of this river in both stations is placed in c2s1 class which is good for agricultural purposes, and according to Schoeller diagram, there is no restrict for drinking purposes. Results of Man-Kendal test show increasing trend for colorine, EC, TDS while decreasing trend for potassium in Kakareza station. On the other hand in Dehnu station, positive trend was seen in calcium and colorine while negative trend for sulfate and potassium. For other variables, no specific trend was found.

  2. Hydro power potentials of water distribution networks in public universities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Adebola KOYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Universities in Southwestern Nigeria are densely populated student-resident campuses, so that provision of regular potable water and electricity are important, but power supply is not optimally available for all the necessary activities. This study assesses the hydropower potential of the water distribution networks in the Universities, with the view to augmenting the inadequate power supplies. The institutions with water distribution configuration capable of accommodating in-pipe turbine are identified; the hydropower parameters, such as the flow characteristics and the pipe geometry are determined to estimate the water power. Global positioning device is used in estimating the elevations of the distribution reservoirs and the nodal points. The hydropower potential of each location is computed incorporating Lucid® Lift-based spherical turbine in the pipeline. From the analysis, the lean and the peak water power are between 1.92 – 3.30 kW and 3.95 – 7.24 kW, respectively, for reservoir-fed distribution networks; while, a minimum of 0.72 kW is got for pipelines associated with borehole-fed overhead tanks. Possible applications of electricity generation from the water distribution networks of the public universities are recommended.

  3. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: A case study on Lena River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, André, E-mail: andrerd@gmail.com; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A.R.; Vilar, Vítor J.P., E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km{sup 2} watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between − 26% and 23% for calibration and − 30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. - Highlights: • An integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management is presented. • An insight into the

  4. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  5. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan

    2010-04-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Can volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in Kirazli area (Kirazli and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity), major anion and cation (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate), heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, cupper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc), and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium) were determined in water samples taken from these springs during 2005 through 2007. The chemical analyses showed that aluminum concentrations were found to be two orders of magnitude greater in Kirazli waters (mean value 13813.25 microg/L). The levels of this element exceeded the maximum allowable limits given in national and international standards for drinking-water quality. In addition, Balaban and Kirazli springs are >55 years old according to their tritium levels; Kirazli spring is older than Balaban spring. Kirazli spring is also more enriched than Balaban spring based in oxygen-18 and deuterium values. Furthermore, Kirazli spring water has been in contact with altered rocks longer than Balaban spring water, according to its relatively high chloride and electrical conductivity values.

  6. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... immunosuppression associated with HIV/AIDS puts them at a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer. 47. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as HIV infected, with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl. He was started on an antiretroviral treatment regimen comprising zidovudine, lamivudine and ...

  7. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion.

  8. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham; Luisa T. M. Profeta; Timothy J. Johnson; Robert J. Yokelson; Alexander Laskin; Julia Laskin

    2011-01-01

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of...

  9. The cost of water hyacinth control in South Africa: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology, ecology and impacts of water hyacinth are well studied, but sound and cost-effective management of it remains an enormous challenge in South Africa. Since the 1970s, control programmes have focused on the use of herbicides, with some success, while biological and integrated control have historically ...

  10. Investigating the potability of water from dug wells: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akurugu Bismark

    the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential .... Figure 1. Map of Ghana and Bolgatanga municipality showing the location of the study area. Sample ..... high above ground (at least 1 m) and sited at least 30 m away from any ...

  11. PREDICTION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX USING BACK PROPAGATION NETWORK ALGORITHM. CASE STUDY: GOMBAK RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIS GORASHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to enable prediction of water quality parameters with conjunction to land use attributes and to find a low-end alternative for water quality monitoring techniques, which are typically expensive and tedious. It also aims to ensure sustainable development, which is essentially has effects on water quality. The research approach followed in this study is via using artificial neural networks, and geographical information system to provide a reliable prediction model. Back propagation network algorithm was used for the purpose of this study. The proposed approach minimized most of anomalies associated with prediction methods and provided water quality prediction with precision. The study used 5 hidden nodes in this network. The network was optimized to complete 23145 cycles before it reaches the best error of 0.65. Stations 18 had shown the greatest fluctuation among the three stations as it reflects an area of on-going rapid development of Gombak river watershed. The results had shown a very close prediction with best error of 0.67 in a sensitivity test that was carried afterwards.

  12. Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, D.A.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard study was conducted aboard the cruise ship Coral Princess during a scheduled cruise from San Pedro, CA, USA to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The investigation involved three members of the global TestNet group, with experience in certification testing of ballast water treatment

  13. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  14. Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shadeed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions, the availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development. This paper aims to evaluate the potential for rainwater harvesting in the arid to semi-arid Faria Catchment, in the West Bank, Palestine. Under current conditions, the supply-demand gap is increasing due to the increasing water demands of a growing population with hydrologically limited and uncertain supplies. By 2015, the gap is estimated to reach 4.5 × 106 m3. This study used the process-oriented and physically-based TRAIN-ZIN model to evaluate two different rainwater harvesting techniques during two rainfall events. The analysis shows that there is a theoretical potential for harvesting an additional 4 × 106 m3 of surface water over the entire catchment. Thus, it is essential to manage the potential available surface water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. Then a valuable contribution to bridging the supply-demand gap can be made.

  15. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  16. Effective management of water systems in a chemical industry: a case study at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahalad, B.; Pandey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes about the important methods of water management in general followed by a description of the water system and measures taken/to be implemented at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru in particular in order to effectively tackle the effluent water by reuse of the treated effluents

  17. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  18. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    status of the environment. Several multivariate models are used for source apportionment studies, as they pinpoint the possible factors or sources that influence the water quality (Morales et al., 1999; Wunderlin et al., 2001; Petersen et al., 2001... and statistical approaches. Ecology 74: 2201– 2214. Morales, M. M., Martih, P., Llopis, A., Campos, L., and Sagrado, J. 1999. An environmental study by factor analysis of surface seawater in the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean). Analytica Chimica Acta 394...

  19. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  20. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  1. Impact of shale gas development on water resources: a case study in northern poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86% of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  2. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources: A Case Study in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86 % of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  3. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  4. A case study characterizing animal fecal sources in surface water using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, John P; Shattuck, Michelle D; Aytur, Semra A; Carey, Richard; McDowell, William H

    2017-08-01

    Water quality impairment by fecal waste in coastal watersheds is a public health issue. The present study provided evidence for the use of a mitochondrial (mtDNA) marker to detect animal fecal sources in surface water. The accurate identification of fecal pollution is based on the notion that fecal microorganisms preferentially inhabit a host animal's gut environment. In contrast, mtDNA host-specific markers are inherent to eukaryotic host cells, which offers the advantage by detecting DNA from the host rather than its fecal bacteria. The present study focused on sampling water presumably from non-point sources (NPS), which can increase bacterial and nitrogen concentrations to receiving water bodies. Stream sampling sites located within the Piscataqua River Watershed (PRW), New Hampshire, USA, were sampled from a range of sites that experienced nitrogen inputs such as sewer and septic systems and suburban runoff. Three mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene marker assays (human, bovine, and canine) were tested from surface water. Nineteen sites were sampled during an 18-month period. Analyses of the combined single and multiplex assay results showed that the proportion of occurrence was highest for bovine (15.6%; n = 77) compared to canine (5.6%; n = 70) and human (5.7%; n = 107) mtDNA gene markers. For the human mtDNA marker, there was a statistically significant relationship between presence vs. absence and land use (Fisher's test p = 0.0031). This result was evident particularly for rural suburban septic, which showed the highest proportion of presence (19.2%) compared to the urban sewered (3.3%), suburban sewered (0%), and agricultural (0%) as well as forested septic (0%) sites. Although further testing across varied land use is needed, our study provides evidence for using the mtDNA marker in large watersheds.

  5. Comparison of POCIS passive samplers vs. composite water sampling: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Dumoulin, David; Howsam, Michael; Mondamert, Leslie; Goossens, Jean-François; Prygiel, Jean; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-12-31

    The relevance of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was evaluated for the assessment of concentrations of 46 pesticides and 19 pharmaceuticals in a small, peri-urban river with multi-origin inputs. Throughout the period of POCIS deployment, 24h-average water samples were collected automatically, and showed the rapid temporal evolution of concentrations of several micropollutants, as well as permitting the calculation of average concentrations in the water phase for comparison with those estimated from POCIS passive samplers. In the daily water samples, cyproconazol, epoxyconazol and imidacloprid showed high temporal variations with concentrations ranging from under the limit of detection up to several hundreds of ngL -1 . Erythromycin, cyprofloxacin and iopromide also increased rapidly up to tens of ngL -1 within a few days. Conversely, atrazine, caffeine, diclofenac, and to a lesser extent carbamazepine and sucralose, were systematically present in the water samples and showed limited variation in concentrations. For most of the substances studied here, the passive samplers gave reliable average concentrations between the minimal and maximal daily concentrations during the time of deployment. For pesticides, a relatively good correlation was clearly established (R 2 =0.89) between the concentrations obtained by POCIS and those gained from average water samples. A slight underestimation of the concentration by POCIS can be attributed to inappropriate sampling rates extracted from the literature and for our system, and new values are proposed. Considering the all data set, 75% of the results indicate a relatively good agreement between the POCIS and the average water samples concentration (values of the ratio ranging between 0,33 and 3). Note further that this agreement between these concentrations remains valid considering different sampling rates extracted from the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy recovery in SUDS towards smart water grids: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Helena M.; Teyssier, Charlotte; Samora, Irene; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a methodology for urban flood adaptation and energy recovery solutions is resting on the concept of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) as a measure to reduce risks of urban flooding while fully utilizing the available resources. Flood drainage systems are infrastructures essential in urban areas, which include retention ponds that can be used as water storage volumes to damp floods and simultaneously to produce energy, constituting innovative solutions to be integrated in future smart water grid′s designs. The consideration of urban flooding as a problem caused by excess water that can be harvested and re-used is expected to provide a comprehensive representation of a water-energy nexus for future urban areas. The study comprises an optimization of energy recovery in SUDS of a small district area of Lisbon down-town through the use of a low-head hydropower converter. The status-quo solution based on a basin catchment for the average expected runoff is analysed, with influence of the tidal backwater effect of the Atlantic Ocean which causes difficulties to the drainage of excess flow. The methodology used to reach the flow damping and the optimized solution for energy production is presented. -- Highlights: •An innovative solution for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). •Use of retention ponds to reduce risks of urban flooding while producing energy. •Use of recently developed hydropower converters for low heads. •Solution to be integrated in future smart water networks for increasing efficiency. •Water and energy nexus for sustainable operation towards future smart cities

  7. Environmental quality of transitional waters: the lagoon of Venice case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, C; Gottardo, S; Critto, A; Chiarato, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-01-01

    The health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters such as coastal lagoons, is regulated by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires the classification of the water bodies' environmental quality and the achievement of a good ecological status by 2015. In the Venice lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, the achievement of a good ecological status is hampered by several anthropogenic and natural pressures, such as sediment and water chemical contamination, and sediment erosion. In order to evaluate the lagoon's environmental quality according to the WFD (i.e. 5 quality classes, from High to Bad), an integrated Weight-of-Evidence methodology was developed and applied to classify the quality of the lagoon water bodies, integrating biological, physico-chemical, chemical, ecotoxicological, and hydromorphological data (i.e. Lines of Evidence, LOE). The quality assessment was carried out in two lagoon habitat typologies (previously defined on the basis of morphological, sediment, and hydrodynamic characteristics) which were selected taking into account the ecological gradient from sea to land, and the differences in anthropogenic pressure and contamination levels. The LOE classification was carried out by using indicators scored by comparing site specific conditions to reference conditions measured in lagoon reference sites, or provided by local, national or European regulations (e.g. Environmental Quality Standards, EQS, for chemicals). Finally, the overall quality status for each water body was calculated by a probabilistic approach, i.e. by reporting the final result as the frequency distribution of quality classes. The developed procedure was applied by using data and information concerning selected LOE and collected from monitoring programs and research studies carried out in the last 15 years in the lagoon of Venice. A set of sampling stations characterized by spatially and temporally

  8. The surface water storage problem in arid regions: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most dams lose capacity as a result of three principal phenomena: leakage, sedimentation and evaporation. The study of these phenomena is particularly important as they can also endanger the dam's stability. Here, we examine the case of the Gargar dam in western Algeria. This dam is located in an arid zone where ...

  9. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9192-2; Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0701] Climate Change... period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of... vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate the types of analyses, models, and...

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN TERRITORY. CASE STUDY: DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN DÂNGĂU MARE, CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ALEXE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of technical infrastructure in territory. Case study: drinking water supply in Dângău Mare, Cluj County. Water represents an important element in life. Accessibility, water quantity and quality show the standard of living of one community. This article presents a case study, the one of water supply in Dângău Mare from Cluj County. The purpose of this analysis is to reveal the benefits of applying some measures regarding water supply in the rural area, as well as the dysfunction abilities which derive from a bad management (eg. lack of sewage system. Dângău Mare lies near the Gilău Mountains and possesses important and rich resources of surface and underground waters varying under qualitative ratio. The hydrological resources of Dângău Mare are made up of river/rivulet networks (Mireş, Blidaru, Agârbiciu, phreatic waters and natural springs. The identification and delimitation of the Dângău Mare territory represents the first stage of this study, followed by the consultation of bibliographic and cartographic sources, field surveys, to obtain the qualitative and quantitative pieces of information. The second stage consists in the analyzation and classification of information, the integrated study of phenomena and elaboration of cartographic models using GIS. At the end of this study we have made the SWOT analysis to emphasize the characteristics of favourability, the anomalies and the opportunities to improve and develop the territory of Dângău Mare from Cluj County.

  11. Enacting resilience for adaptive water governance: a case study of irrigation modernization in an Australian catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Ayre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance relies on the collaboration of a diverse set of stakeholders in multiple institutions and organizations at different times and places. In the context of unprecedented water policy and management reform in Australia over the past decade, we add to insights from resilience scholarship, which identifies adaptive governance as critical to improving complex social-ecological systems, such as water management. We present empirical research with agricultural industry stakeholders who are responding to a major change initiative to renew or modernize the largest irrigation system in Australia's Murray Darling Basin and who ask: "What can a resilience assessment intervention contribute to adaptive water governance in this context?" Using resilience approaches and connecting these with insights from science and technology studies (STS, we found that a particular resilience assessment intervention supported dairy industry stakeholders to manage the complexity, uncertainty, and diversity of an irrigation modernization governance challenge. It did so by explicitly accounting for, representing, and aligning different water governing practices through the use of resilience concepts, a particular resilience assessment tool, and a participatory process for engaging social actors. Possibilities for adaptive governance emerged from the intervention in the form of new joint strategic actions and new understandings, alliances, and roles between people and institutions for addressing irrigation modernization.

  12. CCN and IN Effects on Cloud Properties and Precipitation - Case Studies from CalWater 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Leung, L.; Comstock, J. M.; Tomlinson, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to modify cloud microphysical processes, which could potentially change the location, intensity, and type of precipitation. Dust aerosols are often observed over California in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia. Although anthropogenic pollution has been postulated to contribute to reduction of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the effects of dust aerosols on the winter clouds and precipitation has not been examined in detail particularly with model simulations. We incorporate recent progress in ice nucleation parameterizations to link dust with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with WRF, to exclusively look into how dust can possibly affect cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cases under different environmental conditions with atmospheric river (AR) and Sierra barrier jet (SBJ) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. It is shown that increasing IN concentrations or adding a dust layer at 4-6 km as IN enhances surface rain and snow due to enhanced production of ice and snow in clouds. However, increasing CCN suppresses surface rain and snow, and significantly redistributes surface precipitation upwind and downwind of the mountains, with important implication to improving our understanding of the impacts of aerosols on orographic precipitation and water supply in the region.

  13. A simple chemical free arsenic removal method for community water supply - A case study from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, B.; Chatterjee, S.; Rott, U.; Kauffman, H.; Bandopadhyay, A.; DeGroot, W.; Nag, N.K.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Mukherjee, S.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a simple chemical free method that was successfully used by a team of European and Indian scientists ( (www.qub.ac.uk/tipot)) to remove arsenic (As) from groundwater in a village in West Bengal, India. Six such plants are now in operation and are being used to supply water to the local population ( (www.insituarsenic.org)). The study was conducted in Kasimpore, a village in North 24 Parganas District, approximately 25 km from Kolkata. In all cases, total As in treated water was less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg L -1 . The plant produces no sludge and the operation cost is 1.0 US$ per day for producing 2000 L of potable water. - This work presents the chemical free arsenic removal method from groundwater and its successful implementation in West Bengal for community water supply.

  14. The Application of Linear and Nonlinear Water Tanks Case Study in Teaching of Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangshun; Li, Zhiang

    2018-02-01

    In the traditional process control teaching, the importance of passing knowledge is emphasized while the development of creative and practical abilities of students is ignored. Traditional teaching methods are not very helpful to breed a good engineer. Case teaching is a very useful way to improve students’ innovative and practical abilities. In the traditional case teaching, knowledge points are taught separately based on different examples or no examples, thus it is very hard to setup the whole knowledge structure. Though all the knowledge is learned, how to use the knowledge to solve engineering problems keeps challenging for students. In this paper, the linear and nonlinear tanks are taken as illustrative examples which involves several knowledge points of process control. The application method of each knowledge point is discussed in detail and simulated. I believe the case-based study will be helpful for students.

  15. Behavior of microorganisms in drinking water treatment by inductively coupled plasma system: Case study in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmiarti, Reni; Hazmi, Ariadi; Martynis, Munas; Sutopo, Ulung Muhammad; Li, Fusheng

    2018-02-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, such as total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and other coliforms (OC), were removed from groundwater by inductively coupled plasma system treatment in continuous flow experiments. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of flowrate and frequency on the behavior of microorganisms in drinking water treatment using inductively coupled plasma system (ICPS). The results showed that after 120 minutes of ICPS treatment, the removal efficiency with respect to TC, FC and OC decreased with increasing flowrate. The removal efficiency of FC was achieved at 100% in all runs. Compared to FC, the removal efficiencies with respect to TC and FC were lower than those with respect to TC and OC in the following order: FC >OC> TC. The disinfection yield of TC and OC significantly increased when the removal efficiency increased. The electromagnetic flux varied from 8.08±0.46 to 10.54±0.19 W/cm2. The results in the present work can be used to design a new technology for drinking water treatment to remove all pathogenic bacteria without using hazardous chemicals.

  16. Decoupling Water Consumption and Environmental Impact on Textile Industry by Using Water Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020. The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in the blue water footprint, grey water footprint, and the total water footprint of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2003, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013 and weakly decoupled for four years (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010. A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling had not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint mainly increased along with the production scale. On the contrary, technical level is the most important factor in inhibiting the water footprint. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.

  17. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Zaiha Arman; Mohd Ismid Mohd Said; Shamila Azman; Muhammad Hazim Mat Hussin

    2013-01-01

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  18. Explore the advantage of High-frequency Water Quality Data in Urban Surface Water: A Case Study in Bristol, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Han, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water system is an essential component in a smart city for its sustainability and resilience. The freshness and beauty of the water body would please people as well as benefit the local aquatic ecosystems. Water quality monitoring approach has evolved from the manual lab-based monitoring approach to the manual in-situ monitoring approach, and finally to the latest wireless-sensor-network (WSN) based solutions in recent decades. The development of the in-situ water quality sensors enable humans to collect high-frequency and real-time water quality data. This poster aims to explore the advantages of the high-frequency water quality data over the low-frequency data collected manually. The data is collected by a remote real-time high-frequency water quality monitor system based on the cutting edge smart city infrastructure in Bristol - `Bristol Is Open'. The water quality of Bristol Floating Harbour is monitored which is the focal area of Bristol with new buildings and features redeveloped in the past decades. This poster will first briefly introduce the water quality monitoring system, followed by the analysis of the advantages of the sub-hourly water quality data. Thus, the suggestion on the monitoring frequency will be given.

  19. Risks to Drinking Water from Oil and Gas Wellbore Construction and Integrity: Case Studies and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation examines various published reports from two drinking water contamination cases, and discuss the potential roles of wellbore construction and integrity and hydraulic fracturing in the resultant drinking water contamination.

  20. Suitability assessment of the urban water management transition in the Indonesian context - A case study of Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholihah, Mar'atus; Anityasari, Maria; Maftuhah, Diesta Iva

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing urban population, the increasing impact of climate change, and the constantly decreasing availability of the good quality water become the major triggers that force urban water professionals to continuously focus on sustainable urban water management (SUWM). The city as a focal point of population growth in the world has become a critical object for its resiliency, not only in terms of the environmental deterioration but also of the water supplies security. As a response to the current condition, the framework of urban water management transition has been introduced as a sort of transformation for a city to achieve SUWM. Water Sensitive City (WSC) is the ultimate goal of this framework which integrates water access and supply security, public health protection, flood prevention, environmental protection and livability, and economic sustainability. Recently, the urban water management transition and WSC concept are going to be implemented in some cities in Indonesia, including Surabaya. However, in addition to provide a wide range of benefits, the implementation of WSC also brings challenges. In terms of geographical and social aspect, public policy, and the citizen behavior, the cities in Indonesia are undoubtedly different with those in Australian where the concept was developed. Hence, assessing the suitability of urban water management transition in the Indonesian context can be perceived as the most important phase in this whole plan. A case study of Surabaya would be identified as a baseline to measure whether the proposed sequence of urban water management transition is suitable for Indonesian local context. The research aimed to assess the suitability of the framework to be implemented in Indonesia and to propose the modified framework which is more suitable for local context in Indonesia.

  1. Disinfection byproduct formation in drinking water sources: A case study of Yuqiao reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongyan; He, Xizhen; Zhang, Yan; Du, Tingting; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the potential formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination of 20 water samples collected from different points of Yuqiao reservoir in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter and ammonia decreased downstream the reservoir, while the specific UV absorbance (SUVA: the ratio of UV 254 to dissolved organic carbon) increased [from 0.67 L/(mg*m) upstream to 3.58 L/(mg*m) downstream]. The raw water quality played an important role in the formation of DBPs. During chlorination, haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the major DBPs formed in most of the water samples, followed by trihalomethanes (THMs). CHCl 3 and CHCl 2 Br were the major THM species, while trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were the major HAA species. Chloramination, on the other hand, generally resulted in lower concentrations of THMs (CHCl 3 ), HAAs (TCAA and DCAA), and haloacetonitriles (HANs). All the species of DBPs formed had positive correlations with the SUVA values, and HANs had the highest one (R 2  = 0.8). The correlation coefficients between the analogous DBP yields and the SUVA values in chlorinated samples were close to those in chloraminated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of drinking water copper in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Hunasgi, Santosh; Colbert, Serryth; Merkx, M A W; Brennan, Peter A

    2014-07-01

    Although oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is thought to be multifactorial in origin, the chewing of areca nut is thought to be the main cause. Alkaloids and tannins in areca nut are responsible for fibrosis, but recent evidence has suggested that copper ions are also an important mediator, and in a small pilot study we recently found that OSMF was significantly associated with a raised concentration of copper in drinking water. We have further investigated this association in a heterogeneous population in Hyderabad-Karnataka, India, a region with a high incidence of the condition. We evaluated 3 groups, each of 100 patients: those with OSMF who chewed gutkha, those who chewed gutkha but did not have OSMF, and healthy controls who did not chew gutkha. The difference between the groups in the mean concentration of copper in water measured by atomic absorption spectrometry was significant (p<0.001). There were also significant differences between the groups in mean concentrations of serum copper, salivary copper, and ceruloplasmin (p<0.001). Our results confirm that copper in drinking water contributes to the pathogenesis of OSMF, but ingestion of copper is unlikely to be the sole cause. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metal leaching in drinking water domestic distribution system: an Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metal contamination of tap water in seven public buildings in Brescia (Italy). Two monitoring periods were performed using three different sampling methods (overnight stagnation, 30-min stagnation, and random daytime). The results show that the water parameters exceeding the international standards (Directive 98/83/EC) at the tap were lead (max = 363 μg/L), nickel (max = 184 μg/L), zinc (max = 4900 μg/L), and iron (max = 393 μg/L). Compared to the total number of tap water samples analyzed (122), the values higher than limits of Directive 98/83/EC were 17% for lead, 11% for nickel, 14% for zinc, and 7% for iron. Three buildings exceeded iron standard while five buildings exceeded the standard for nickel, lead, and zinc. Moreover, there is no evident correlation between the leaching of contaminants in the domestic distribution system and the age of the pipes while a significant influence is shown by the sampling methods.

  4. Temporal variability in water quality parameters--a case study of drinking water reservoir in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Han, Lu; Stanley, Craig D

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate changes in water quality parameters during 1983-2007 in a subtropical drinking water reservoir (area: 7 km(2)) located in Lake Manatee Watershed (area: 338 km(2)) in Florida, USA. Most water quality parameters (color, turbidity, Secchi depth, pH, EC, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, cations, anions, and lead) were below the Florida potable water standards. Concentrations of copper exceeded the potable water standard of water quality threshold of 20 μg l(-1). Concentrations of total N showed significant increase from 1983 to 1994 and a decrease from 1997 to 2007. Total P showed significant increase during 1983-2007. Mean concentrations of total N (n = 215; 1.24 mg l(-1)) were lower, and total P (n = 286; 0.26 mg l(-1)) was much higher than the EPA numeric criteria of 1.27 mg total N l(-1) and 0.05 mg total P l(-1) for Florida's colored lakes, respectively. Seasonal trends were observed for many water quality parameters where concentrations were typically elevated during wet months (June-September). Results suggest that reducing transport of organic N may be one potential option to protect water quality in this drinking water reservoir.

  5. Variation of heavy metal concentrations in water and freshwater fish in Niger Delta Waters - a case study of Benin river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.O.; Okolo, P.O.

    2003-01-01

    Levels of Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined in water and fish samples from three different locations in the Benin river. The sampling points were chosen such that Gbokoda, a village between Koko and Ogheye where a flow station (Olague flow station or crude oil well) is situated serves as a pollution point source and Koko as a baseline concentration point. Three species of fish each, that are top feeder, Tilapia mariae (which is herbivorous and feeds mainly on floating phytoplankton), middle feeder, Pseudotolithus elongates (that is ominivorous) and bottom feeder, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (also ominivorous) were used for the study. The mean wet weight of the species sampled at the different locations ranged between 385.17 - 417.44g. The maximum concentration levels observed in water samples for Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn were 3.50 x 10/sup -4/g.1, 1.24 x 10/sup -3/g/l, 3.10 x 10/sup -3/g/l and 1.50 x 10/sup -3/g/l, respectively. The mean concentration levels determined for the various species of fish are: for Cd, Tilapia mariae 7.30 x 10/sup -5/, Pseudotolithus elongates 8.67 x 10/sup -4/ nigrodigitatus 1.581 x 10/sup -4, for Fe, Tilapia mariae 5.500 x 10/sup -3/, Pseudotolithus elongates 4.700 x 10/sup -3/ and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 3.9133 x 10/sup -3/ for Zn, Tilapia mariae 4.4240 x 10/sup -3/, Pseudotolithus elongates 3.4100 x 10/sup -3/ and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 9.6730 x 10/sup -3/ for Zn, Tilapia mariae 5.467 x 10/sup -3/, Pseudotolithus elongates 5.067 x 10/sup -3/ and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 8.833 x 10/sup -3/. (all values are g/g of fish).(author)

  6. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  7. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  8. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  9. Water governance challenges for rural supply: A case study of two local municipalities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, ZW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available . W Nkuna Student Number: 10544403 Supervisor: Prof. C J dew. Rautenbach Department: Geography, Geo-informatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria ABSTRACT In South Africa water is regarded as constitutional right and government has therefore... the water needs of rural communities. Issues such as poverty, water resources challenges and lack of capacity and skills at municipalities create problems which leave rural communities with no alternative but to rely on unsafe water sources for their water...

  10. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  11. Public Awareness of Drinking Water Safety and Contamination Accidents: A Case Study in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand public awareness about drinking water safety and water contamination accidents in rural areas of China, two rural counties of Hainan Province were selected as pilot sites for investigation. We explored the degree of public satisfaction with drinking water quality, public trust of drinking water safety, and public awareness about drinking water problems and solutions. The results showed that 80.3% of respondents were satisfied with the quality of their drinking water. About 78.8% of respondents paid special attention or comparatively high attention to drinking water quality and contamination accidents, especially regarding potential damage to the human body and health, the influence scope, and the causes of accidents. A total 52.4% of respondents solved drinking water problems by themselves; few respondents complained to the health department or called the local telephone hotline. Age and sex did not play significant roles in the degree of public satisfaction with water quality or in the public perception of water pollution accidents; however, residents in rural areas within a drinking water quality monitoring network were more satisfied with their drinking water quality and more aware of drinking water contamination accidents than in areas outside of such a network. Respondents with higher education levels had greater awareness than those with lower education levels with respect to water quality and water pollution accidents.

  12. Application of Water Evaluation and Planning Model for Integrated Water Resources Management: Case Study of Langat River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, W. K.; Lai, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Due to the effects of climate change and the increasing demand on water, sustainable development in term of water resources management has become a major challenge. In this context, the application of simulation models is useful to duel with the uncertainty and complexity of water system by providing stakeholders with the best solution. This paper outlines an integrated management planning network is developed based on Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) to evaluate current and future water management system of Langat River Basin, Malaysia under various scenarios. The WEAP model is known as an integrated decision support system investigate major stresses on demand and supply in terms of water availability in catchment scale. In fact, WEAP is applicable to simulate complex systems including various sectors within a single catchment or transboundary river system. To construct the model, by taking account of the Langat catchment and the corresponding demand points, we defined the hydrological model into 10 sub-hydrological catchments and 17 demand points included the export of treated water to the major cities outside the catchment. The model is calibrated and verified by several quantitative statistics (coefficient of determination, R2; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE and Percent bias, PBIAS). The trend of supply and demand in the catchment is evaluated under three scenarios to 2050, 1: Population growth rate, 2: Demand side management (DSM) and 3: Combination of DSM and reduce non-revenue water (NRW). Results show that by reducing NRW and proper DSM, unmet demand able to reduce significantly.

  13. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  14. Energy and Water Use Related to the Cultivation of Energy Crops: a Case Study in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dalla Marta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of agrobiomasses, as a source of energy, to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was confirmed by several studies. Biomass from agriculture represents one of the larger and more diverse sources to exploit and in particular ethanol and diesel have the potential to be a sustainable replacement for fossil fuels, mainly for transport purposes. However, the cultivation of energy crops dedicated to the production of biofuels presents some potential problems, e.g., competitiveness with food crops, water needs, use of fertilizers, etc., and the economic, energy, and environmental convenience of such activity depends on accurate evaluations about the global efficiency of the production system. In this study, the processes related to the cultivation of energy crops were analyzed from an energy and water cost perspective. The crops studied, maize (Zea mais and sunflower (Helianthus annuus, were identified for their different water requirements and cultivation management, which in turns induces different energy costs. A 50-year climatic series of meteorological data from 19 weather stations scattered in the Tuscany region was used to feed the crop model CropSyst for the simulation of crop production, water requirement, and cultivation techniques. Obtained results were analyzed to define the real costs of energy crop cultivation, depending on energy and water balances. In the energy crop cultivation, the only positive energy balance was obtained with the more efficient system of irrigation whereas all the other cases provided negative balances. Concerning water, the results demonstrated that more than 1.000 liters of water are required for producing 1 liter of bioethanol. As a consequence, the cultivation of energy crops in the reserved areas of the region will almost double the actual water requirement of the agricultural sector in Tuscany.

  15. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  16. Long-term Evaluation of Landuse Changes On Landscape Water Balance - A Case Study From North-east Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehenkel, M.

    In this paper, long-term effects of different afforestation scenarios on landscape wa- ter balance will be analyzed taking into account the results of a regional case study. This analysis is based on using a GIS-coupled simulation model for the the spatially distributed calculation of water balance.For this purpose, the modelling system THE- SEUS with a simple GIS-interface will be used. To take into account the special case of change in forest cover proportion, THESEUS was enhanced with a simple for- est growth model. In the regional case study, model runs will be performed using a detailed spatial data set from North-East Germany. This data set covers a mesoscale catchment located at the moraine landscape of North-East Germany. Based on this data set, the influence of the actual landuse and of different landuse change scenarios on water balance dynamics will be investigated taking into account the spatial distributed modelling results from THESEUS. The model was tested using different experimen- tal data sets from field plots as well as obsverded catchment discharge. Additionally to such convential validation techniques, remote sensing data were used to check the simulated regional distribution of water balance components like evapotranspiration in the catchment.

  17. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, S; Cooper, C; Kellingray, S; Russell, G; Hughes, H; Coggon, D

    2000-01-22

    Although the benefits of water fluoridation for dental health are widely accepted, concerns remain about possible adverse effects, particularly effects on bone. Several investigators have suggested increased rates of hip fracture in places with high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water, but this finding has not been consistent, possibly because of unrecognised confounding effects. We did a case-control study of men and women aged 50 years and older from the English county of Cleveland, and compared patients with hip fracture with community controls. Current addresses were ascertained for all participants; for those who agreed to an interview and who passed a mental test, more detailed information was obtained about lifetime residential history and exposure to other known and suspected risk factors for hip fracture. Exposures to fluoride in water were estimated from the residential histories and from information provided by water suppliers. Analysis was by logistic regression. 914 cases and 1196 controls were identified, of whom 514 and 527, respectively, were interviewed. Among those interviewed, hip fracture was strongly associated with low body-mass index (p for trend water ranged from 0.15 to 1.79 ppm. Current residence in Hartlepool was a good indicator for high lifetime exposure to fluoride. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio associated with an average lifetime exposure to fluoride > or =0.9 ppm was 1.0 [95% CI 0.7-1.5]. There is a low risk of hip fracture for people ingesting fluoride in drinking water at concentrations of about 1 ppm. This low risk should not be a reason for withholding fluoridation of water supplies.

  18. Reducing Agricultural Water Footprints at the Farm Scale: A Case Study in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed regions in the world. Reducing agricultural water use has long been the basis of local policy for sustainable water use. In this article, the potential to reduce the life cycle (cradle to gate water footprints of wheat and maize that contribute to 94% of the local cereal production was assessed. Following ISO 14046, consumptive and degradative water use for the wheat-maize rotation system was modeled under different irrigation and nitrogen (N application options. Reducing irrigation water volume by 33.3% compared to current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but the water scarcity footprint and water eutrophication footprint were decreased by 27.5% and 23.9%, respectively. Similarly, reducing the N application rate by 33.3% from current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but led to a 52.3% reduction in water eutrophication footprint while maintaining a similar water scarcity footprint. These results demonstrate that improving water and fertilizer management has great potential for reducing the crop water footprints at the farm scale. This situation in Beijing is likely to be representative of the challenge facing many of the water-stressed regions in China, where a sustainable means of agricultural production must be found.

  19. Integrated water and renewable energy management: the Acheloos-Peneios region case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvinos, Antonios; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tegos, Aristotelis; Rozos, Evangelos; Papalexiou, Simon-Michael; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yiannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Tyralis, Christos; Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tzouka, Katerina; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Within the ongoing research project "Combined Renewable Systems for Sustainable Energy Development" (CRESSENDO), we have developed a novel stochastic simulation framework for optimal planning and management of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems, in which hydropower plays the dominant role. The methodology and associated computer tools are tested in two major adjacent river basins in Greece (Acheloos, Peneios) extending over 15 500 km2 (12% of Greek territory). River Acheloos is characterized by very high runoff and holds ~40% of the installed hydropower capacity of Greece. On the other hand, the Thessaly plain drained by Peneios - a key agricultural region for the national economy - usually suffers from water scarcity and systematic environmental degradation. The two basins are interconnected through diversion projects, existing and planned, thus formulating a unique large-scale hydrosystem whose future has been the subject of a great controversy. The study area is viewed as a hypothetically closed, energy-autonomous, system, in order to evaluate the perspectives for sustainable development of its water and energy resources. In this context we seek an efficient configuration of the necessary hydraulic and renewable energy projects through integrated modelling of the water and energy balance. We investigate several scenarios of energy demand for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, assuming that part of the demand is fulfilled via wind and solar energy, while the excess or deficit of energy is regulated through large hydroelectric works that are equipped with pumping storage facilities. The overall goal is to examine under which conditions a fully renewable energy system can be technically and economically viable for such large spatial scale.

  20. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Improved USLE-K factor prediction: A case study on water erosion areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K-factor is an essential factor in soil erosion prediction and conservation practises. The major obstacles to any accurate, large-scale soil erodibility estimation are the lack of necessary data on soil characteristics and the misuse of variable K-factor calculators. In this study, we assessed the performance of available erodibility estimators Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC and the Geometric Mean Diameter based (Dg model for different geographic regions based on the Chinese soil erodibility database (CSED. Results showed that previous estimators overestimated almost all K-values. Furthermore, only the USLE and Dg approaches could be directly and reliably applicable to black and loess soil regions. Based on the nonlinear best fitting techniques, we improved soil erodibility prediction by combining Dg and soil organic matter (SOM. The NSE, R2 and RE values were 0.94, 0.67 and 9.5% after calibrating the results independently; similar model performance was showed for the validation process. The results obtained via the proposed approach were more accurate that the former K-value predictions. Moreover, those improvements allowed us to effectively establish a regional soil erodibility map (1:250,000 scale of water erosion areas in China. The mean K-value of Chinese water erosion regions was 0.0321 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1 with a standard deviation of 0.0107 (t ha h·(ha MJ mm−1; K-values present a decreasing trend from North to South in water erosion areas in China. The yield soil erodibility dataset also satisfactorily corresponded to former K-values from different scales (local, regional, and national.

  2. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  3. A Water Chemistry Perspective on Flowback Reuse with Several Case Studies, March 30, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses the reuse of frac flowback from a water chemistry perspective. Two examples of flowback reuse, where a minimal water treatment has been used, describe the rationale for why the practice is considered acceptable.

  4. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  5. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and water conservation figures dominantly. This focus on soil and water conservation is due to its being perceived as a way to address both productivity and environmental sustainability questions. Land deg...

  6. An analytic-geospatial approach for sustainable water resource management: a case study in the province of Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Casadei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a strategic, but also highly vulnerable, natural resource. This because the increasing demand from multiple uses, in many cases competing amongst them, seems to influence the concepts of sustainability of the exploitation. From the operational point of view, the studied system is an integrated decision support system. It is not only a platform to exchange information and assessments, but also a tool for conflict resolution, in the management of water resources, to obtain the consensus among all participants in the decisional processes. So the canonical “top-down” approach has been replaced with a “bottom-up” approach where all stakeholders become decision makers themselves. The application of the aforementioned approach was studied for the Tiber River basin and has been applied to the Province of Perugia area. The study focused to the building of a spatial database of hydrological data and multipurpose water withdrawals, together with the setting of the evaluation model for the surface water resources. This model bases its algorithms on regionalization procedures of flow parameters. For the definition of the river condition, hydrological indices calculated from the hydrological database have been used, while for the existing withdrawals, an analysis procedure has been developed, that from the point of interest directly selected on the map, finds out the upstream basin and, by means of overlay procedures, identifies the upstream water uses and the total flow that could be extracted. The potential of the system and the technologies used are contained in a WEB platform that allows the analysis of the database of water uses/withdrawals on the cartography, and the comparison with the hydrogeological characteristics of the sub-basin examined. The purpose of this study is to provide software tools that can be used as a support in water resource evaluation and management policies at the basin scale.

  7. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miner-Nordstrom, L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  8. Control options for river water quality improvement: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated. When a river is impacted by high rates of freshwater withdrawal (in its ...

  9. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  10. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  11. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates

  12. Voluntary Management of Residential Water Demand in Low and Middle-Low Income Households: Case Study of Soacha (colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources availability is a global concern due to increasing demands, decreasing quality and uncertain spatio-temporal variability (United Nations, 2009). In urban contexts research on efficient water use is a priority to cope with the future vulnerability of water supplies as a result of the impacts of climate change (Bates et al, 2008). Following the proposed methodologies of He and Kua (2013) for implementing programs to promote sustainable energy consumption, we focused on the use of educational strategies to promote a voluntary rationalization of residential water demand. We collaborated with three schools in Soacha (Colombia) where students ranging from 12 to 15 years participated in the project as promoters of educational campaigns inside their families, covering 120 low and middle-low income households. Three intervention or treatment strategies (i.e. e-learning, in-person active learning activities and graphical learning tools) were carried out over a period of 5 months. We analyzed the effects of the treatments strategies in reducing water consumption rates and the dependence of this variable on socio-demographic, economic, environmental, and life quality factors by using personal interviews and self reported water saving technics. The results showed that educational campaigns have a positive effect on reducing consumption in the households. Graphical learning tools accounted for the highest reduction in water consumption. Moreover, the results of the study suggests that socio-economic factors such as type of house, social level, income, and life quality variables significantly affect the variability in water consumption, which is an important fact to consider in similar cases where communities face difficult socio-economic conditions, displacement or high rates of urban growth.

  13. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  14. Water shortage risk assessment considering large-scale regional transfers: a copula-based uncertainty case study in Lunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Liu, Yinzhu; Sun, Bowen

    2018-06-05

    The risk of water shortage caused by uncertainties, such as frequent drought, varied precipitation, multiple water resources, and different water demands, brings new challenges to the water transfer projects. Uncertainties exist for transferring water and local surface water; therefore, the relationship between them should be thoroughly studied to prevent water shortage. For more effective water management, an uncertainty-based water shortage risk assessment model (UWSRAM) is developed to study the combined effect of multiple water resources and analyze the shortage degree under uncertainty. The UWSRAM combines copula-based Monte Carlo stochastic simulation and the chance-constrained programming-stochastic multiobjective optimization model, using the Lunan water-receiving area in China as an example. Statistical copula functions are employed to estimate the joint probability of available transferring water and local surface water and sampling from the multivariate probability distribution, which are used as inputs for the optimization model. The approach reveals the distribution of water shortage and is able to emphasize the importance of improving and updating transferring water and local surface water management, and examine their combined influence on water shortage risk assessment. The possible available water and shortages can be calculated applying the UWSRAM, also with the corresponding allocation measures under different water availability levels and violating probabilities. The UWSRAM is valuable for mastering the overall multi-water resource and water shortage degree, adapting to the uncertainty surrounding water resources, establishing effective water resource planning policies for managers and achieving sustainable development.

  15. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection has several oral manifestations, including oral candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia. Occasionally unusual presentations requiring rigorous investigations are seen, and in these cases the diagnosis sometimes remains a dilemma owing to limited investigation facilities.1-3 We present the case of a patient who.

  16. Solvent Flux Method (SFM): A Case Study of Water Access to Candida antarctica Lipase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven P; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2014-11-11

    The solvent flux method (SFM) was developed to comprehensively characterize the influx of solvent molecules from the solvent environment into the active site of a protein in the framework of molecular dynamics simulations. This was achieved by introducing a solvent concentration gradient as well as partially reorienting and rescaling the velocity vector of all solvent molecules contained within a spherical volume enclosing the protein, thus inducing an accelerated solvent influx toward the active site. In addition to the detection of solvent access pathway within the protein structure, it is hereby possible to identify potential amino acid positions relevant to solvent-related enzyme engineering with high statistical significance. The method is particularly aimed at improving the reverse hydrolysis reaction rates in nonaqueous media. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) binds to a triglyceride-water interface with its substrate entrance channel oriented toward the hydrophobic substrate interface. The lipase-triglyceride-water system served as a model system for SFM to evaluate the influx of water molecules to the active site. As a proof of principle for SFM, a previously known water access pathway in CALB was identified as the primary water channel. In addition, a secondary water channel and two pathways for water access which contribute to water leakage between the protein and the triglyceride-water interface were identified.

  17. Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

    2012-12-01

    The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

  18. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Analysis of Changes in Water Supply Yields and Costs under Climate Change. A Case Study in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and WaterSHED Center, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts, 02155 (United States); McCluskey, M. [CDM, Inc., Denver, Colorado (United States); Vogel, R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and WaterSHED Center, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts, 02155 (United States); Strzepek, K. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, and Environment and Behavior Program, Institute for Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Using China as a case study, a methodology is presented to estimate the changes in yields and costs of present and future water production systems under climate change scenarios. Yield is important to consider because it measures the actual supply available from a river basin. Costs are incurred in enhancing the natural yield of river basins by the construction and operation of reservoirs and ground water pumping systems. The interaction of ground and surface waters within a river basin and instream flow maintenance are also modeled. The water demands considered are domestic, irrigation, and instream flow needs. We found that under climate change the maximum yields of some basins in China may increase or decrease, depending upon location, and that in some basins it may cost significantly more or it may not be possible to meet the demands. While our results for China could be improved with more hydrologic and economic data, we believe that the cost curves developed have suitable accuracy for initial analysis of water supply costs in Integrated Assessment Models.

  20. Water Storage Instead of Energy Storage for Desalination Powered by Renewable Energy—King Island Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Tafech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we scrutinized the energy storage options used in mitigation of the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for desalination process. In off-grid islands and remote areas, renewable energy is often combined with appropriate energy storage technologies (ESTs to provide a consistent and reliable electric power source. We demonstrated that in developing a renewable energy scheme for desalination purposes, product (water storage is a more reliable and techno-economic solution. For a King Island (Southeast Australia case-study, electric power production from renewable energy sources was sized under transient conditions to meet the dynamic demand of freshwater throughout the year. Among four proposed scenarios, we found the most economic option by sizing a 13 MW solar photovoltaic (PV field to instantly run a proportional RO desalination plant and generate immediate freshwater in diurnal times without the need for energy storage. The excess generated water was stored in 4 × 50 ML (mega liter storage tanks to meet the load in those solar deficit times. It was also demonstrated that integrating well-sized solar PV with wind power production shows more consistent energy/water profiles that harmonize the transient nature of energy sources with the water consumption dynamics, but that would have trivial economic penalties caused by larger desalination and water storage capacities.

  1. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-09-01

    The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" and the "Standards for Tasty Water" devised for city water. The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study-Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND-showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health water studied here fulfills the "Water Index of Taste," "Water Index of Health," "Standard for Tasty Water" and "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people.

  2. Contribution to the study of radioactivity of drinking water in Madagascar. Case study of the locality of Alasora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAVOSON, Heritiana N.

    2007-01-01

    Among the radioactive parameters which pollute water, the radon is a radioactive gas of natural origin. It comes from the desintegration of radium-226, which itself is coming from uranium-238 present in the earth crust. It infiltrates in underground water and generates solid daughters. The ingestion of radon and its daughters results in a medical risk to the exposed people. The interest of this study is to detect the presence of the short half-life radionuclides, radon and radium in drinking water of the Alasora rural district Antananarivo, Madagascar. For measurement, portable Triathler LSC, model 425-034 was used. Results obtained from 11 sites confirm the presence of the short half life radionuclides such as the Po-218, Po-214, Bi-214 and the Pb-214 in the samples. So, the gross alpha at first measurement varies from 13700± 100 Bq -1 to 85500±300 Bq.l -1 . Results also confirm the presence of radon in excess or not supported, by the fact that radium in the samples is lower than the detection limit. To confirm the presence of radium and the origin of the radionuclides in the water, more studies are needed. Compared to the legal limit, the studied zone does not show high radioactivity level. However, it is necessary to reduce any risk of exposure. For this purpose, it is not advised to drink the water immediately after collection. [fr

  3. Economic feasibility study for improving drinking water quality: a case study of arsenic contamination in rural Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Perez Carrera, Alejo; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Economic studies are essential in evaluating the potential external investment support and/or internal tariffs available to improve drinking water quality. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a useful tool to assess the economic feasibility of such interventions, i.e. to take some form of action to improve the drinking water quality. CBA should involve the market and non-market effects associated with the intervention. An economic framework was proposed in this study, which estimated the health avoided costs and the environmental benefits for the net present value of reducing the pollutant concentrations in drinking water. We conducted an empirical application to assess the economic feasibility of removing arsenic from water in a rural area of Argentina. Four small-scale methods were evaluated in our study. The results indicated that the inclusion of non-market benefits was integral to supporting investment projects. In addition, the application of the proposed framework will provide water authorities with more complete information for the decision-making process.

  4. Water and sanitation in Nigeria: a case study of Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and sanitation have been recognized as critical to ensure good quality of life. This paper examines the existing water supply and sanitation in Ondo State, Nigeria with a view to determine the extent of deficiency and what will be required to meet the Millennium Development Goals that seeks to halve the Population of ...

  5. Water supply and demand management strategies in the Galapagos: A case study of Santa CRuz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources on many islands in the world have been severely strained by increases in visitors. Santa Cruz Island, a tourism hub in the Galapagos, is facing significant challenges of too many people and not enough available water. There are no permanent freshwater resources on Santa Cruz, and the

  6. Argentina. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochat, V.; Natenzon, C.E.; Murgida, A.M.

    2006-03-01

    Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Argentina with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

  7. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and

  8. An Integrated Interdisciplinary Faculty-Student Learning Community Focused on Water Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willermet, Cathy; Drake, Eron; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Chhetri, Pratik; Upadhaya, Samik

    2014-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power," brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  9. Drought mitigation interventions by improved water management - a case study from Punjab Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrar-ul-Haq

    2002-01-01

    The Paper describes the main features of the water scarcity management plan that was implemented during the last two Rabi seasons, to optimize wheat production in the Punjab province. Due to severe drought conditions in the country, the river flows remained well below the normal range, resulting in overall 18% and 43% shortfall in canal water supplies during the Rabi seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001, respectively. In order to address the adverse impacts of the serious water shortage, Punjab Irrigation Department formulated a comprehensive and action oriented plan, in consultation with the Agriculture Department and the farmers representatives. The main thrust of the plan focused on conserving water during the slack demand periods and its reallocation during sensitive growth stages priority canal water allocation to the saline groundwater areas and providing one to two watering to the non-perennial areas. The implementation of Rabi Plan was closely monitored throughout the crop season by the senior irrigation managers and the needed adjustment were made in timely response to the actual water availability. The information regarding the Plan and its subsequent operation was disseminated through the media and the Extension Wing of Agriculture Department. In order to improve internal water management regime, as well as to ensure farmers participation in planning and efficient operation of the canals, water Allocation Committees at the canal command level and canal division level were established throughout the province. As a consequence of the innovative and bold water management interventions, the province harvested bumper wheat-crops, despite serious water shortages. The paper highlights the need for close and continuous monitoring of the planned operations, as well as the significance of other non water inputs, like realistic support price, timely sowing of wheat, improved availability of fertilizers, better seeds, and efficient extension services. The experience

  10. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Houborg, Rasmus; Rosas, Jorge; Ershadi, Ali; Anderson, Martha; Hain, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  11. [A case study regarding the technical and public health feasibility of collecting water from fog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, César A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L; García-Ubaque, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the collection of water for human consumption from fog nets in San Antonio (Cundinamarca department). Water was collected from fog using a prototype 6 m²sensor unit which was installed In the area for 53 days; this water was analysed to assess its quality regarding human consumption. The collection area's average daily volume was 43.26 L/day and the parameters evaluated met the minimum values established by local regulations for drinking water (RAS 2000), except for pH. This technique represents an alternative for obtaining water fit for human consumption and can be scaled-up to produce the quantity needed for communities living in low rainfall areas. It can thereby lead to improving such populations' health conditions. Its economic feasibility should thus be assessed regarding its implementation and sustainability.

  12. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-11-12

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  13. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    water where it is a scarce resource. Linkage of water & Energy to the land has been established through irrigated agriculture which has seen an increasing trend in the case study area. A detail scenario planning for regional water-energy demand and supply in conjunction with different climate change and economic growth scenarios are considered. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, environmental etc.). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial transformation and the management of uncertainty by means of comparisons at a qualitative level in terms of the decision maker preferences. Result shows that such an integrated ("nexus") approach is likely to build resilience and reduces vulnerability to the combination of pressures acting upon the Mediterranean region's water systems, including climate-related shocks.

  14. Assessing Urban Water Management Sustainability of a Megacity: Case Study of Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyowon Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cities are facing various water-related challenges caused by rapid urbanization and climate change. Moreover, a megacity may pose a greater risk due to its scale and complexity for coping with impending challenges. Infrastructure and governance also differ by the level of development of a city which indicates that the analysis of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM and water governance are site-specific. We examined the status of IWRM of Seoul by using the City Blueprint® Approach which consists of three different frameworks: (1 Trends and Pressures Framework (TPF, (2 City Blueprint Framework (CBF and (3 the water Governance Capacity Framework (GCF. The TPF summarizes the main social, environmental and financial pressures that may impede water management. The CBF assesses IWRM of the urban water cycle. Finally, the GCF identifies key barriers and opportunities to develop governance capacity. The results indicate that nutrient recovery from wastewater, stormwater separation, and operation cost recovery of water and sanitation services are priority areas for Seoul. Furthermore, the local sense of urgency, behavioral internalization, consumer willingness to pay, and financial continuation are identified as barriers limiting Seoul’s governance capacity. We also examined and compared the results with other mega-cities, to learn from their experiences and plans to cope with the challenges in large cities.

  15. Hybrid solution and pump-storage optimization in water supply system efficiency: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.; Ramos, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental targets and saving energy have become ones of the world main concerns over the last years and it will increase and become more important in a near future. The world population growth rate is the major factor contributing for the increase in global pollution and energy and water consumption. In 2005, the world population was approximately 6.5 billion and this number is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050 [United Nations, 2008. (www.un.org), accessed on July]. Water supply systems use energy for pumping water, so new strategies must be developed and implemented in order to reduce this consumption. In addition, if there is excess of hydraulic energy in a water system, some type of water power generation can be implemented. This paper presents an optimization model that determines the best hourly operation for 1 day, according to the electricity tariff, for a pumped storage system with water consumption and inlet discharge. Wind turbines are introduced in the system. The rules obtained as output of the optimization process are subsequently introduced in a hydraulic simulator, in order to verify the system behaviour. A comparison with the normal water supply operating mode is done and the energy cost savings with this hybrid solution are calculated

  16. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  17. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  18. Water for Agriculture in a Vulnerable Delta: A Case Study of Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Sundarban lies in the south-western part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and supports a 4.43 million strong population. The agrarian economy of Sundarban is dominated by rainfed subsistence rice farming. Unavailability of upstream fresh water, high salinity of river water of up to 32ppt, soil salinity ranging between 2dSm-1 to 19dSm-1, small land holdings of per capita 840 sq. metre and inadequate irrigation facilities are serious constraints for agricultural production in Sundarban. This paper assesses Cropping Intensity, Irrigation Intensity and Man-Cropland Ratio from Agriculture Census (2010-11) data and estimates the seasonal water demand for agriculture in different blocks of Sundarban. The research exposes the ever increasing population pressure on agriculture with an average Man Cropland Ratio of 1745 person/sq.km. In 2010-2011, the average cropping intensity was 129.97% and the irrigation intensity was 20.40%. The highest cropping and irrigation intensity have been observed in the inland blocks where shallow ground water is available for agriculture on the contrary, the lowest values have been observed in the southern blocks, due to existence of saline shallow ground water. The annual water demand for agriculture in Sundarban has been estimated as 2784 mcm. Available water from 70000 freshwater tanks and around 8000 numbers of shallow tube wells are not sufficient to meet the agricultural water demand. Existing irrigation sources and rainfall of 343 mcm fall far short of the water demand of 382 mcm during peak dry Season. Unavailability of fresh water restricts the food production, which endangers the food security of 87.5% of the people in Sundarban. To ensure the food security in changing climatic condition, expansion of irrigation network and harnessing of new water sources are essential. Large scale rainwater harvesting, rejuvenation and re-connection of disconnected river channels, artificial recharge within shallow aquifer to bring down its

  19. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  20. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  1. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Graham, Alexandra L; Profeta, Luisa T M; Johnson, Timothy J; Yokelson, Robert J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2011-02-15

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR-MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of elemental formulas. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba-containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal-containing species that were re-emitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, dispersion, and persistence of metal-containing aerosols, as well as their environmental effects, is needed.

  2. Evaluation of coastal waters receiving fish processing waste: Lota Bay as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Ramón; Rudolph, Anny; Contreras, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Liquid wastes from the fish meal and oil processing industries produce serious environmental impacts in coastal embayments on the coasts of Chile and Peru. This article presents an analysis of an environmental monitoring program at Lota Bay, a shallow coastal indentation in central Chile (37 degrees S) exposed to industrial fishing activity. The study of the environmental impact produced by waste effluents permitted making an evaluation of the bay's capacity for seasonal recovery from this impact. Seasonal cruises were carried out during 1994 and in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Variables analyzed included salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonium concentration and surface oil and grease. The hydrographic regime of Lota Bay follows a seasonal pattern, where, typical of most SE pacific embayments, waters from subsuperficial oxygen minimum zones moved into the bay. The percentages of dissolved oxygen were critical in the area of organic waste discharge. The impact of wastewater is related to the type and status of the fishery, including: (i) overloads of plant production lines, (ii) maintenance and cleaning of installations, and (iii) degree of shipboard fishing conservation. Major alterations were observed in summer, when the highest discharge of organic load occurred. In winter, an improvement in the re-aeration conditions reduced the impact. Remedial measures implemented beginning in 1997 arose from the monitoring program and had to be separated into two recovery factors including (a) internal management of plants and (b) treatment of plant effluents.

  3. Shutdown decay heat removal analysis of a Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactor: Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramond, W.R.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Sanders, G.A.

    1987-03-01

    This is one of six case studies for USI A-45 Decay Heat Removal (DHR) Requirements. The purpose of this study is to identify any potential vulnerabilities in the DHR systems of a typical Babcock and Wilcox PWR, to suggest possible modifications to improve the DHR capability, and to assess the value and impact of the most promising alternatives to the existing DHR systems. The systems analysis considered small LOCAs and transient internal initiating events, and seismic, fire, extreme wind, internal and external flood, and lightning external events. A full-scale systems analysis was performed with detailed fault trees and event trees including support system dependencies. The system analysis results were extrapolated into release categories using applicable past PRA phenomenological results and improved containment failure mode probabilities. Public consequences were estimated using site specific CRAC2 calculations. The Value-Impact (VI) analysis of possible alternatives considered both onsite and offsite impacts arriving at several risk measures such as averted population dose out to a 50-mile radius and dollars per person rem averted. Uncertainties in the VI analysis are discussed and the issues of feed and bleed and secondary blowdown are analyzed

  4. Multi-criteria analysis towards the new end use of recycled water for household laundry: a case study in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; O'Halloran, K; Thompson, M; Muthukaruppan, M

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to put forward several management alternatives regarding the application of recycled water for household laundry in Sydney. Based on different recycled water treatment techniques such as microfiltration (MF), granular activated carbon (GAC) or reverse osmosis (RO), and types of washing machines (WMs), five alternatives were proposed as follows: (1) do nothing scenario; (2) MF+existing WMs; (3) MF+new WMs; (4) MF-GAC+existing WMs; and (5) MF-RO+existing WMs. Accordingly, a comprehensive quantitative assessment on the trade-off among a variety of issues (e.g., engineering feasibility, initial cost, energy consumption, supply flexibility and water savings) was performed over the alternatives. This was achieved by a computer-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using the rank order weight generation together with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) outranking techniques. Particularly, the generated 10,000 combinations of weights via Monte Carlo simulation were able to significantly reduce the man-made errors of single fixed set of weights because of its objectivity and high efficiency. To illustrate the methodology, a case study on Rouse Hill Development Area (RHDA), Sydney, Australia was carried out afterwards. The study was concluded by highlighting the feasibility of using highly treated recycled water for existing and new washing machines. This could provide a powerful guidance for sustainable water reuse management in the long term. However, more detailed field trials and investigations are still needed to effectively understand, predict and manage the impact of selected recycled water for new end use alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CASE STUDY: Jordan — Dealing with the water deficit in Jordan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... So researchers in Jordan found a way to reuse household wastewater ... is using more water than can be replenished by rainfall and other natural sources. ... providing training in system maintenance and irrigation techniques.

  6. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben

    2015-01-01

    requires an integration of the policy into the broader water resources management context supported with legislation and regulations which spell out clearly institutional responsibilities, and rewards and punishments for compliance or otherwise. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses......, which have been identified as key stakeholders for the policy implementation, not only lack the commitment to implement the policy but also perceive low quality water reuse as a practice that can endanger public health. We conclude that effective implementation of the low quality water reuse policy...

  7. Bi-objective Optimization of the Water Distribution Networks (Case Study: Sahand City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikjoofar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To design an urban water network in addition to minimizing the cost, improving the water pressure is very important. Then in this paper a bi-objective optimization model for the new city of Sahand in Northwestern Iran is developed.  Due to its non-linearity and the huge number of variables, the genetic algorithm has been utilized to solve it. Several Pareto solutions have been obtained and then based on the game theory approach (the area monotonic solution, the most efficient point was provided. The solution is simulated by the WaterGems software and the elements of the network are designed. This optimum solution shows a decrease of 13% in total cost in addition to the improved water pressure.

  8. The challenges of rural water supply: a case study of rural areas in Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothetha, M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available , administrative challenges, issues that relate to policy, and political interference. For many rural communities water sources and infrastructure are available, but not maintained, as a result become unusable and thus non operational. It was also clear from...

  9. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  10. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  11. Economic benefits of arsenic removal from ground water--a case study from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Joyashree

    2008-07-01

    People living in almost 50% of the districts in West Bengal are exposed to arsenic contaminated water. This paper seeks to estimate the economic costs imposed by arsenic-related health problems. We use data from a primary survey of 473 households carried out in the districts of North 24 Parganas and Midnapore. We take into account household actions to either decrease the exposure of family members to unsafe water or to alleviate the health effects of consuming arsenic-contaminated water. This allows us to assess the benefits of arsenic-safe water by estimating a three equation system that includes averting actions, medical expenditures and a sickness function. We find that by reducing arsenic concentration to the safe limit of 50 microg/l, a representative household will benefit by Rs 297 ($7) per month. The current cost of supplying filtered piped water by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation to households is Rs 127 ($3) per month per household. Thus, investing in safe drinking water is economically feasible and households are willing to pay for such investments if made aware of the effective gain in welfare. Poor households, who make up the highest proportion of arsenic-affected households and incur the largest number of sick days, will be major beneficiaries of such investments.

  12. Safe water supply without disinfection in a large city case study: Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, A; Petersohn, D

    2000-01-01

    Berlin's water supplies originate exclusively from groundwater. For sustainable water management, river water is treated by flocculation and filtration and used either for artificial groundwater recharge (rivers Spree and Havel) or for bank filtration (Nordgraben and Lake Tegel). Drinking water chlorination was abandoned in Berlin (West) in 1978, and in Berlin (East) in 1992, following German unification. Chlorine consumption for the purpose of weekly performance checks in the chlorination plants of Berlin's 11 waterworks and occasional chlorination within the pipe system following pipe burst events amounts to 2500 kg per year. Based on the annual water demand of 250 million cubic metres, this is equivalent to 0.01 mg of chlorine per litre. Microbiological monitoring at the 11 waterworks and at 383 sampling points within the pipe system shows CFU at less than 10/1 ml-1 and coliforms and E. coli invariably at 0/100 ml-1. In view of the low AOX content, a multiplication of bacteria within the pipe system can be expected to occur not at all or only to a small extent. Resource protection measures, filter backwashing and pipe system maintenance in observance of the relevant technical rules will continue to ensure that the quality of Berlin's drinking water meets stringent hygiene requirements without chlorination.

  13. The State and Water Resources Development through the Lens of History: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets contemporary challenges to good water governance in South Africa within an important historical context. While it is correct to say that 'the world water crisis is a crisis of governance', it is problematic to assume that all states can follow a similar path toward environmentally sustainable, economically efficient and socially equitable water resources governance and management. The nexus of decision-making power varies within and beyond states, and over time. Gramsci (1971 describes this as the "constellation of social forces". Where this constellation of social forces achieves consensus, a 'historic bloc' is said to emerge giving rise to a particular state form. The South African state form has varied greatly over several centuries, giving rise to various historic blocs. The resulting body of laws and policies and the varied forms of infrastructure that were developed to harness water for multiple social practices over time constitute a complex political ecological terrain not easily amenable to oversimplified frameworks for good water governance. This article outlines the role of water in the history of South Africa’s multiple state forms. It shows that over time, water policy, law and institutions came to reflect the increasingly complex needs of multiple actors (agriculture, mining, industry, cities, the newly enfranchised represented by different state forms and their characteristic political regimes: the Dutch East India Company; the British Empire; the Union of South Africa; the apartheid and post-apartheid republics. Authoritarian, semi-authoritarian and democratic state forms have all used central-state power to serve particular interests. Through time, this constellation of social forces has widened until, today, the state has taken upon itself the task of providing "some water for all forever" (slogan of the Department of Water Affairs. As this article suggests, despite the difficult challenges presented by a

  14. case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    particularly in patients who commence ART with low CD4 counts and established opportunistic infections. IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS ...

  15. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-01

    Sep 1, 2010 ... of the two diseases surgery can be successful, recovery can be similar to that .... lymphocytes predominated in 68% of cases, and that there was an .... using ferritin is the fact that it acts as an acute-phase reactant and will be ...

  16. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Kosinski, Karen C.; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N.; Ayamgah, Gilbert A.; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M.; Plummer, Jeanine D.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. Despite providing the highest and most flexible level of service with better microbiological water quality to their users, these systems remain vulnerable to rural water sustainability challenges. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public stan...

  17. Effects of Water Management Strategies on Water Balance in a Water Scarce Region: A Case Study in Beijing by a Holistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigong Peng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation is facing increasing pressure from other competitive water users to reduce water consumption in a water scarce region. Based on the Basin-wide Holistic Integrated Water Assessment (BHIWA model, the effects of water management strategies on water balance in the dry regions of North China were analyzed. The results show that, with the decrease of irrigation water supply reliability (IWSR and the increase of irrigation water use efficiency (WUE, irrigation water use decreased significantly, leading to reduced agriculture water consumption, and sustained ground water levels. Compared with the increase of WUE, the decrease of IWSR contributes more to reducing irrigation water consumption and protecting groundwater. Sensitivity tests show that among various water cycle components, irrigation water use is most sensitive to changes, followed by agriculture water consumption, and then groundwater level. Reducing IWSR is an effective strategy to reduce irrigation water consumption and promote sustainable water resources management, which could be the support of basic data and theory for regional water resources planning.

  18. Algorithmic network monitoring for a modern water utility: a case study in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, A; Gutner, S; Rosenberg, A; Scolnicov, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, deployment, and use of TaKaDu, a real-time algorithmic Water Infrastructure Monitoring solution, with a strong focus on water loss reduction and control. TaKaDu is provided as a commercial service to several customers worldwide. It has been in use at HaGihon, the Jerusalem utility, since mid 2009. Water utilities collect considerable real-time data from their networks, e.g. by means of a SCADA system and sensors measuring flow, pressure, and other data. We discuss how an algorithmic statistical solution analyses this wealth of raw data, flexibly using many types of input and picking out and reporting significant events and failures in the network. Of particular interest to most water utilities is the early detection capability for invisible leaks, also a means for preventing large visible bursts. The system also detects sensor and SCADA failures, various water quality issues, DMA boundary breaches, unrecorded or unintended network changes (like a valve or pump state change), and other events, including types unforeseen during system design. We discuss results from use at HaGihon, showing clear operational value.

  19. Salinity in drinking water and the risk of (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in coastal Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneire Ehmar Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the aetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between salinity in drinking water and the risk of (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in a coastal community. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Dacope, Bangladesh among 202 pregnant women with (preeclampsia or gestational hypertension, enrolled from the community served by the Upazilla Health Complex, Dacope and 1,006 matched controls from the same area. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from all participants. Urinary sodium and sodium levels in drinking water were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. FINDINGS: Drinking water sources had exceptionally high sodium levels (mean 516.6 mg/L, S.D 524.2. Women consuming tube-well (groundwater were at a higher disease risk than rainwater users (p900.01 mg/L, compared to <300 mg/L in drinking water (ORs 3.30 [95% CI 2.00-5.51], 4.40 [2.70-7.25] and 5.48 [3.30-9.11] (p-trend<0.001. Significant associations were seen for both (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension separately. INTERPRETATION: Salinity in drinking water is associated with increased risk of (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in this population. Given that coastal populations in countries such as Bangladesh are confronted with high salinity exposure, which is predicted to further increase as a result of sea level rise and other environmental influences, it is imperative to develop and evaluate affordable approaches to providing water with low salt content.

  20. Studies on water turbine runner which fish can pass through: In case of single stage axial runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukimari; Maeda, Takao; Nagoshi, Osamu; Ieda, Kazuma; Shinma, Hisako; Hagimoto, Michiko

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between water turbine runner design and operation and the safe passage of fish through the turbine is studied. The kinds of fish used in the tests are a dace, a sweet fish and a small salmon. A single stage axial runner is used. The velocity and pressure distributions were measured inside the turbine casing and along the casing wall. Many pictures showing fish passing through the rotating runner were taken and analyzed. The swimming speed of the fish was examined from video recordings. Fish pass through the runner more rapidly when they can determine and choose the easier path. Injury and mortality of fish are affected by the runner speed and the location of impact of the runner on the fish body

  1. Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made...... available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years....

  2. Programmes of measures under the water framework directive – a comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    The water framework directive requires programmes of measures composed by the Member States, in order to achieve its environmental objectives. This article examines three programmes of measures for river basins in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, with a focus on the differences in how the programmes...... direct the authorities’ activities with regard to water management. It concludes that there are major differences in the precision of the measures, the range of legal instruments used, and in the focus on active and direct management of the aquatic environment. The Danish programme seems to facilitate...

  3. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems:a danisk case study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.; Neve, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promis...

  4. Design of condenser for 500 MWe pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.; Subbarao, A.; Chaudhary, K.

    1996-01-01

    Condenser forms the major heat sink in the power plants. In recent years, power plant availability and performance have become great concern to the industry. The detailed design of the condenser and its associated cooling water (CW) system require careful optimisation of parameters which include material selection, cooling water flow rate, condenser surface areas, turbine exhaust pressures etc. This is required to produce a design offering maximum efficiency and reliability and minimum maintenance. The various parameters involved in condenser design are discussed. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Conflicts about water: a case study about conflict and contest in Dutch rural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Frouws, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch countryside forms the scene for pressing problems of management and allocation of land and water. These problems underscore the need for comprehensive rural policies. For that purpose, area-based rural policy has been initiated. This new policy is part of a larger policy shift, labelled in

  6. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  7. A corporate water footprint case study: The production of Gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivas Ibáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the water footprint (WF for 1 L of gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup produced by an agrifood company located in south-eastern Spain, one of the driest regions in Europe. An overview of the main environmental impacts of its WF was carried out by identifying hotspots (high risks areas based on a Water Stress indicator. The total WF calculated for 1 L gazpacho is 580.5 L, which mostly stems from the supply chain (99.9%, olive oil being the major contributor to total WF despite the very low amount used (2%. Most of the WF comes from green water (69%, 23% from blue and 8% represents the grey water. Pollution due to micropollutants such as pesticides, which are not yet regulated, has been taken into account in the WF calculation, pointing out that new regulation of micropollutants is needed to avoid their exclusion in the operational grey WF.

  8. Biodesalination: A Case Study for Applications of Photosynthetic Bacteria in Water Treatment1[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezaga, Jaime M.; Amtmann, Anna; Biggs, Catherine A.; Bond, Tom; Gandy, Catherine J.; Honsbein, Annegret; Karunakaran, Esther; Lawton, Linda; Madsen, Mary Ann; Minas, Konstantinos; Templeton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of freshwater is a serious problem in many regions worldwide, and is expected to become even more urgent over the next decades as a result of increased demand for food production and adverse effects of climate change. Vast water resources in the oceans can only be tapped into if sustainable, energy-efficient technologies for desalination are developed. Energization of desalination by sunlight through photosynthetic organisms offers a potential opportunity to exploit biological processes for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures in particular can generate a large biomass in brackish and seawater, thereby forming a low-salt reservoir within the saline water. The latter could be used as an ion exchanger through manipulation of transport proteins in the cell membrane. In this article, we use the example of biodesalination as a vehicle to review the availability of tools and methods for the exploitation of cyanobacteria in water biotechnology. Issues discussed relate to strain selection, environmental factors, genetic manipulation, ion transport, cell-water separation, process design, safety, and public acceptance. PMID:24610748

  9. Suitability Evaluation of Surface Water for Irrigation: a Case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    Fluoride, chemical oxygen demand, sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, Nitrate-Nitrogen and free carbon dioxide fall within the ... This supply volume exceeds the crop water requirement of sugar cane crop which is dominantly cultivated around .... referred to as sodium absorption ratio (SAR). This was estimated using ...

  10. Secondary transmission of cryptosporidiosis associated with well water consumption: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Natania Carol Cavalcante; Bezerra, Camila Loredana Pereira Alves Madeira; Almeida, Jéssica Jacinto Salviano de; Fernandes, Tatiane Uetti Gomes; Luz, Kleber Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a very prominent disease in the field of public health, and usually causes diarrhea. We describe two immunocompetent patients who presented with chronic diarrhea that was ultimately found to be caused by continuous exposure to well water contaminated with the microbial cysts (oocysts) of the Cryptosporidium spp parasite. We describe the patients' histories and possible explanations for their prolonged symptoms.

  11. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  12. Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rinaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessments (LCAs play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has been focusing the attention of consumers and producers towards environmentally sustainable products. This work presents a comprehensive approach for the joint evaluation of carbon (CF and water (WF footprint of the wine industry from a cradle to grave perspective. The LCA analysis is carried out following the requirements of international standards (ISO/TS 14067 and ISO 14046. A complete review of the water footprint methodology is presented and guidelines for all the phases of the evaluation procedure are provided, including acquisition and validation of input data, allocation, application of analytic models, and interpretation of the results. The strength of this approach is the implementation of a side-by-side CF vs. WF assessment, based on the same system boundaries, functional unit, and input data, that allows a reliable comparison between the two indicators. In particular, a revised methodology is presented for the evaluation of the grey water component. The methodology was applied to a white and a red wine produced in the same company. A comparison between the two products is presented for each LCA phase along with literature results for similar wines.

  13. Implications of bulk water transfer on local water management institutions: A case study of the Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Dhruba; Bhattarai, Madhusudan; Basnet, Govinda

    2008-01-01

    "To mitigate a drinking water crisis in Kathmandu valley, the Government of Nepal initiated the Melamchi Water Supply Project in 1997, which will divert water from the Melamchi River to Kathmandu city's water supply network. In the first phase, the Project will divert 170,000 cubic meters of water per day (at the rate of 1.97M3/sec), which will be tripled using the same infrastructure as city water demand increases in the future. The large scale transfer of water would have farreaching implic...

  14. Consumption of low-moderate level arsenic contaminated water does not increase spontaneous pregnancy loss: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2014-10-13

    Previous work suggests an increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss linked to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water sources (>10 μg/L). However, there has been little focus to date on the impact of low-moderate levels of iAs in drinking water (control study in Timis County, Romania. We recruited women with incident spontaneous pregnancy loss of 5-20 weeks completed gestation as cases (n = 150), and women with ongoing pregnancies matched by gestational age (±1 week) as controls (n = 150). Participants completed a physician-administered questionnaire and we collected water samples from residential drinking sources. We reconstructed residential drinking water exposure histories using questionnaire data weighted by iAs determined using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between iAs exposure and loss, conditioned on gestational age and adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, education and prenatal vitamin use. We explored potential interactions in a second set of models. Drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 175.1 μg/L, with median 0.4 μg/L and 90th%tile 9.4 μg/L. There were no statistically significant associations between loss and average or peak drinking water iAs concentrations (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01), or for daily iAs intake (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.02). We detected modest evidence for an interaction between average iAs concentration and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.057) and for daily iAs exposure and prenatal vitamin use (P = 0.085). These results suggest no increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss in association with low to moderate level drinking water iAs exposure. Though imprecise, our data also raise the possibility for increased risk among cigarette smokers. Given the low exposures overall, these data should reassure pregnant

  15. Analysis of profitability of using a heat recovery system from grey water discharged from the shower (case study of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordana, Sabina; Słys, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The paper analyses the profitability of the use of Drain Water Heat Recovery units. An original simulation model was used for this purpose, and a detached residential building located in Poland was selected as the test facility. The conducted analysis proved that the type of the hot water heater has decisive influence on the profitability level of such an investment. Application of the abovementioned technology is particularly profitable, when water is heated with the use of an electrical device. When the energy source in the system is a gas water heater, the obtained calculation results are not as favourable, and the period of investment return in many cases exceeds the expected service life of these devices. Moreover, the analysis demonstrated that the potential energy savings, and thus also the financial savings, may be in both cases increased as a result of simultaneous intake of water from various water taps.

  16. On-farm renewables and resilience: a water-energy-food nexus case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, Lindsay

    2017-04-01

    On farm renewables diversify farm income sources (or reduce energy costs) and are thus generally considered to increase farm resilience. Whilst they clearly contribute to renewable energy production targets they can also affect water quality either positively (e.g. use of farmyard manure for anaerobic digestion) or negatively (particularly during construction). Here the interactions within the water-energy-food nexus are examined as they relate to on-farm renewables, where possible quantifying the relative magnitude of feedbacks between the three sectors. Particular focus is given to the dynamics of the system in changing climatic conditions. These analyses reveal a complex picture, with trade-offs between the 'resilience' in different parts of the nexus. This highlights the need for dialogue between stakeholders to identify the key functions in each sector that would be susceptible to particular climatic stresses so that these can be prioritised during planning.

  17. Case study: evaluation of the performance of water treatment units by the use of tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    Very often, water treatment systems do not reach the expected performance due to disturbances of hydraulic order, which cause malfunctioning in the flow through such systems. Tracer techniques have proved to be very useful to obtain information on the system or a part of it, by means of observation of the released tracer or observation of the released tracer during its progress into the system or at the output of the same. This paper is a report of the behavior of a set of both sand settlement unit and hydraulic flocculators in a potable water plant, through the analysis of radiotracers response curves or residence time distribution curves. The tracers released into the system consists in an aqueous solution of Iodine-131 with very low activity, in order to get a dynamic behave similar to the one of the fluid under investigation

  18. Combining scientific and societal challenges: a water supply case study from the Koster Islands, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Banzhaf, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Until now, groundwater in coastal areas has not received much attention in Sweden, neither from water authorities nor the research community. Extractable volumes from bedrock aquifers are too small for the public water supply of larger permanent settlements. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in attractive coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources during the summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. This situation is exacerbated as municipalities receive increasing applications to build summerhouses, or to convert existing ones into permanent residencies. In view of such rising demands, as well as the growing awareness of potential environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. However, the responsibility for private wells is left almost exclusively to their owners, and obligations in the water sector are distributed over a wide range of authorities which operate on local, regional, and national scales (1). Therefore, it remains unclear how to deal with and administer the related challenging questions which are of varying legal, social, economic, environmental, and hydrological natures. Here, we present intermediate results of an ongoing investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms an "in-a-nutshell" example of a coastal zone with such groundwater use. With around 300 annual permanent residents, but up to 6000 summer overnight guests in peak season, water supply, largely based on 800 private wells, is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and even the current operation is considered unsustainable, leaving the municipality to decide how to secure future supply. The municipality favors a "large scale technical solution" (either a pipeline from the mainland or a large desalination plant) while many locals prefer to keep the existing private wells. While

  19. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  20. Ground water chlorinated ethenes in tree trunks: case studies, influence of recharge, and potential degradation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don A. Vroblesky; Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Clifton C. Casey; Gregory J. Harvey; Paul M. Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) was detected in cores of trees growing above TCE-contaminated ground at three sites: the Carswell Golf Course in Texas, Air Force Plant PJKS in Colorado, and Naval Weapons Station Charleston in South Carolina. This was true even when the depth to water was 7.9 m or when the contaminated aquifer was confined beneath ~3 m of clay. Additional ground...

  1. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  2. Sustainable Waste Water Treatment in Developing Countries: A Case Study of IIT Kharagpur Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sutapa; Bokshi, Sanjit

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of wastewater and its reuse in irrigation and agriculture can mitigate the inevitable scarcity of safe drinking water in coming decades. For developing countries like India and especially in its under-privileged regions, it is high time to focus on sustainable wastewater treatment which will be economical and easy to construct, operate and maintain by unskilled users without much dependency on electricity. Addressing this issue, various sustainable methods of wastewater treatment was critically analyzed and the Waste Stabilization Pond system was selected. A facility was designed for 20,000 residents of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur campus based on its geo-climatic and wastewater characteristics. Detailed calculations were carried out to demonstrate the effluent quality with reduced BOD and E-coli is suitable for unrestricted irrigation. This project with minor customisation can act as a prototype for adjacent vast rural areas where land is available but water, electricity and skilled technicians are not. If implemented, this project will bear social benefits beyond campus such as water supply to drought prone areas, better harvest and rural employment. Moreover, it underpins government' several initiatives to develop rural infrastructure and inclusive growth of the country.

  3. Modeling the Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Net-Zero Water Management: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D; Fallon, Howard J

      While municipal direct potable water reuse (DPR) has been recommended for consideration by the U.S. National Research Council, it is unclear how to size new closed-loop DPR plants, termed "net-zero water (NZW) plants", to minimize cost and energy demand assuming upgradient water distribution. Based on a recent model optimizing the economics of plant scale for generalized conditions, the authors evaluated the feasibility and optimal scale of NZW plants for treatment capacity expansion in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Local data on population distribution and topography were input to compare projected costs for NZW vs the current plan. Total cost was minimized at a scale of 49 NZW plants for the service population of 671,823. Total unit cost for NZW systems, which mineralize chemical oxygen demand to below normal detection limits, is projected at ~$10.83 / 1000 gal, approximately 13% above the current plan and less than rates reported for several significant U.S. cities.

  4. Flood monitoring and damage assessment using water indices: A case study of Pakistan flood-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI of McFeeters (1996, Water Index (WI introduced by Rogers and Kearney (2004, referred to as Red and Short Wave Infra-Red (RSWIR and WI suggested as the best by Ji et al. (2009, referred to as Green and Short Wave Infra-Red (GSWIR for delineating and mapping of surface water using MODIS (Terra near real time images during 2012 floods in Pakistan. The results from above indices have been compared with Landsat ETM+ classified images aiming to assess the accuracy of the indices. Accuracy assessment has been performed using spatial statistical techniques and found NDWI, RSWIR and GSWIR with kappa coefficient (κ of 46.66%, 70.80% and 60.61% respectively. It has been observed using statistical analysis and visual interpretation (expert knowledge gained by past experience that the NDWI and GSWIR have tendencies to underestimate and overestimate respectively the inundated area. Keeping in view the above facts, RSWIR has proved to be the best of the three indices. In addition, assessment of the damages has been carried out considering accumulated flood extent obtained from RSWIR. The information derived proved to be essential and valuable for disaster management plan and rehabilitation.

  5. Ethanolamine properties and use for feedwater pH control: A pressurized water reactor case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.L.; Polidoroff, C.T.; Cortese, S.; Cushner, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Ethanolamine (ETA) as a feedwater pH control additive has been recently used to minimize corrosion of secondary water components in the nuclear power industry pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The use of ETA is compared with ammonia. Relative volatility effects on various parts of the system are analyzed and chemistry changes are presented. Materials of construction and the use of existing plant equipment for ETA service are discussed. Properties of ETA as well as safety, storage and handling issues are compared with ammonia. Health d aquatic toxicity are reviewed. warnings, safety, handling guidelines, biodegradability an Diablo Canyon Power Plant used ammonia for pH control from 1985 until a change over to ETA in 1993/1994. Full flow condensate polishers that are required to protect the plant from saltwater cooling incursions limit the amount of pH additive. Iron levels in the secondary water systems are compared before and after changing to ETA and replacement of corrosion-susceptible piping. Iron reduction benefits are assessed along with other effects on the feedwater nozzles, low pressure turbine, polisher resin capacity and polisher regeneration system

  6. Investigating the Wicked Problems of (Un)sustainability Through Three Case Studies Around the Water-Energy-Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, E. P.; Curren, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Effective engagement with the problems of sustainability begins with an understanding of the nature of the challenges. The entanglement of interacting human and Earth systems produces solution-resistant dilemmas that are often portrayed as wicked problems. As introduced by urban planners Rittel and Webber (1973), wicked problems are "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" arising from complexity in both biophysical and socio-economic systems. The wicked problem construct is still in wide use across diverse contexts, disciplines, and sectors. Discourse about wicked problems as related to sustainability is often connected to discussion of complexity or complex systems. In preparation for life and work in an uncertain, dynamic and hyperconnected world, students need opportunities to investigate real problems that cross social, political and disciplinary divides. They need to grapple with diverse perspectives and values, and collaborate with others to devise potential solutions. Such problems are typically multi-casual and so intertangled with other problems that they cannot be resolved using the expertise and analytical tools of any single discipline, individual, or organization. We have developed a trio of illustrative case studies that focus on energy, water and food, because these resources are foundational, interacting, and causally connected in a variety of ways with climate destabilization. The three interrelated case studies progress in scale from the local and regional, to the national and international and include: 1) the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill with examination of the multiple immediate and root causes of the disaster, its ecological, social, and economic impacts, and the increasing risk and declining energy return on investment associated with the relentless quest for fossil fuels; 2) development of Australia's innovative National Water Management System; and 3) changing patterns of food production and the intertwined challenge of

  7. Assimilating InSAR Maps of Water Vapor to Improve Heavy Rainfall Forecasts: A Case Study With Two Successive Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Pedro; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Nico, Giovanni; Catalão, João.; Pinto, Paulo; Tomé, Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    Very high resolution precipitable water vapor maps obtained by the Sentinel-1 A synthetic aperture radar (SAR), using the SAR interferometry (InSAR) technique, are here shown to have a positive impact on the performance of severe weather forecasts. A case study of deep convection which affected the city of Adra, Spain, on 6-7 September 2015, is successfully forecasted by the Weather Research and Forecasting model initialized with InSAR data assimilated by the three-dimensional variational technique, with improved space and time distributions of precipitation, as observed by the local weather radar and rain gauge. This case study is exceptional because it consisted of two severe events 12 hr apart, with a timing that allows for the assimilation of both the ascending and descending satellite images, each for the initialization of each event. The same methodology applied to the network of Global Navigation Satellite System observations in Iberia, at the same times, failed to reproduce observed precipitation, although it also improved, in a more modest way, the forecast skill. The impact of precipitable water vapor data is shown to result from a direct increment of convective available potential energy, associated with important adjustments in the low-level wind field, favoring its release in deep convection. It is suggested that InSAR images, complemented by dense Global Navigation Satellite System data, may provide a new source of water vapor data for weather forecasting, since their sampling frequency could reach the subdaily scale by merging different SAR platforms, or when future geosynchronous radar missions become operational.

  8. Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Hannah; Mactaggart, Islay; White, Sian; Dionicio, Carlos; Cañas, Rafael; Naber, Jonathan; Polack, Sarah; Biran, Adam

    2018-01-01

    To assess the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) access and appropriateness of people with disabilities compared to those without, in Guatemala. A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire. Households including people with disabilities were more likely to use an improved sanitation facility compared to control households (age-sex-adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), but otherwise there were no differences in WASH access at the household level. At the individual level, people with disabilities reported greater difficulties in relation to sanitation (mean score 26.2, SD 26.5) and hygiene access and quality (mean 30.7, SD 24.2) compared to those without disabilities (15.5, 21.7, p<0.001; 22.4, 19.1, p<0.01). There were no differences in different aspects of water collection between people with and without disabilities in this context where over 85% of participants had water piped into their dwelling. Among people with disabilities, older adults were more likely to experience difficulties in hygiene and sanitation than younger people with disabilities. People with disabilities in Guatemala experience greater difficulties in accessing sanitation facilities and practicing hygienic behaviours than their peers without disabilities. More data collection is needed using detailed tools to detect these differences, highlight which interventions are needed, and to allow assessment of their effectiveness.

  9. The role of water and sediment connectivity in integrated flood management: a case study on the island of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Victor; van Westen, Cees; Ettema, Janneke; van den Bout, Bastian

    2016-04-01

    Disaster Risk Management combines the effects of natural hazards in time and space, with elements at risk, such as ourselves, infrastructure or other elements that have a value in our society. The risk in this case is defined as the sum of potential consequences of one or more hazards and can be expressed as potential damages. Generally, we attempt to reduce risk by better risk management, such as increase of resilience, protection and spatial planning. Caribbean islands are hit by hurricanes and tropical storms with a frequency of 1 to 2 every 10 years, with devastating consequences in terms of flash floods and landslides. The islands basically consist of a central (volcanic) mountain range, with medium and small sized catchments radiating outward towards the ocean. The coastal zone is inhabited, while the ring road network is essential for functioning of the island. An example of a case study is given for the island of Saint Lucia. Recorded rainfall intensities during tropical storms of 12 rainfall stations surpass 200 mm/h, causing immediate flash floods. Very often however, sediment is a forgotten variable in flash flood management: protection and mitigation measures as well as spatial planning all focus on the hydrology, the extent and depth of flood water, and sometimes of flood velocities. With recent developments, the opensource model LISEM includes hydrology and runoff, flooding, and erosion, transport and deposition both in runoff, channel flow and flood waters. We will discuss the practical solutions we implemented in connecting slopes, river channels and floodplains in terms of water and sediment, and the strength and weaknesses we have encountered so far. Catchment analysis shows two main effects: on the one hand in almost all cases upstream flooding serves as a temporary water storage that prevents further damage downstream, while on the other hand, erosion upstream often blocks bridges and decreases channel storage downstream, which increases the

  10. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  11. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    .5 l) were recovered. The aim of the work is to evaluate if water processing affects similarly all of taxa or instead, differences exists in the preservation of certain types of remains. To evaluate this, taxonomic and taphonomic analyses were carried out, including the recording of alterations...... the taxa present at the site. The results presented here warn against straightforward interpretations of wood charcoal frequencies in terms of original composition of past vegetation, and suggest that it would be advisable to use more than one recovery technique, along with recording of different types...

  12. Application of cooperative and non-cooperative games in large-scale water quantity and quality management: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two cooperative and non-cooperative methodologies are developed for a large-scale water allocation problem in Southern Iran. The water shares of the water users and their net benefits are determined using optimization models having economic objectives with respect to the physical and environmental constraints of the system. The results of the two methodologies are compared based on the total obtained economic benefit, and the role of cooperation in utilizing a shared water resource is demonstrated. In both cases, the water quality in rivers satisfies the standards. Comparing the results of the two mentioned approaches shows the importance of acting cooperatively to achieve maximum revenue in utilizing a surface water resource while the river water quantity and quality issues are addressed.

  13. A water treatment case study for quantifying model performance with multilevel flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil K. Nielsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems are a key focus of research on developing control rooms to aid operators in making reliable decisions and reducing incidents caused by human errors. For this purpose, models of complex systems can be developed to diagnose causes or consequences for specific alarms. Models applied in safety systems of complex and safety-critical systems require rigorous and reliable model building and testing. Multilevel flow modeling is a qualitative and discrete method for diagnosing faults and has previously only been validated by subjective and qualitative means. To ensure reliability during operation, this work aims to synthesize a procedure to measure model performance according to diagnostic requirements. A simple procedure is proposed for validating and evaluating the concept of multilevel flow modeling. For this purpose, expert statements, dynamic process simulations, and pilot plant experiments are used for validation of simple multilevel flow modeling models of a hydrocyclone unit for oil removal from produced water. Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Model Validation, Multilevel Flow Modeling, Produced Water Treatment

  14. A Water-Damaged Home and Health of Occupants: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, J.D.; Gray, M.R.; Kilburn, K.H.; Kilburn, K.H.; Dennis, D.P.; Yu, A.

    2012-01-01

    A family of five and pet dog who rented a water-damaged home and developed multiple health problems. The home was analyzed for species of mold and bacteria. The diagnostics included MRI for chronic sinusitis with ENT and sinus surgery, and neurological testing for neuro cognitive deficits. Bulk samples from the home, tissue from the sinuses, urine, nasal secretions, placenta, umbilical cord, and breast milk were tested for the presence of trichothecene, aflatoxins, and Ochratoxin A. The family had the following diagnosed conditions: chronic sinusitis, neurological deficits, coughing with wheeze, nose bleeds, and fatigue among other symptoms. An infant was born with a total body flare, developed multiple Cafe-au-Lait pigmented skin spots and diagnoses with NF1 at age 2. The mycotoxins were detected in bulk samples, urine and nasal secretions, breast milk, placenta, and umbilical cord. Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Acinetobacter, Penicillium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were cultured from nasal secretions (father and daughter). RT-PCR revealed A. fumigatus DNA in sinus tissues of the daughter. The dog had 72 skin lesions (sebaceous glands and lipomas) from which trichothecene and ochratoxin A. were detected. The health of the family is discussed in relation to the most recent published literature regarding microbial contamination and toxic by-products present in water-damaged buildings.

  15. An economic inquisition of water quality trading programs, with a case study of Jordan Lake, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebi, Marzieh; Hoag, Dana L; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak; Osmond, Deanna L

    2017-05-15

    A water quality trading (WQT) program was promulgated in North Carolina to address water quality issues related to nutrients in the highly urbanizing Jordan Lake Watershed. Although WQT programs are appealing in theory, the concept has not proved feasible in several attempts between point and nonpoint polluters in the United States. Many application hurdles that create wedges between success and failure have been evaluated in the literature. Most programs, however, face multiple hurdles; eliminating one may not clear a pathway to success. Therefore, we identify and evaluate the combined impact of four different wedges including baseline, transaction cost, trading ratio, and trading cost in the Jordan Lake Watershed program. Unfortunately, when applied to the Jordan Lake program, the analysis clearly shows that a traditional WQT program will not be feasible or address nutrient management needs in a meaningful way. The hurdles individually would be difficult to overcome, but together they appear to be unsurmountable. This analysis shows that there is enough information to pre-identify potential hurdles that could inform policy makers where, and how, the concept might work. It would have saved time, energy, and financial resources if North Carolina had done so before embarking to implement their program in the Jordan Lake Watershed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrochemistry and Characteristics of Groundwater: Case Study Water Contamination at Citarum River Upstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sapari Dwi Hadian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rancaekek and Sayang area, West Java, are the area where many industrial factories are located.Thus, the region becomes the targeted destination for industrial development.The  population in the area is rising due to the growth of industries causing the regional development becomes uncontrollable. In addition, the constant increment of waste and also poor-coordinated disposal systems may result in groundwater contamination in the areas. The rapid growth of the area increase the need for groundwater as well as the need for more research about contamination at Rancaekek and Sayang. The research aims to explore the spread of groundwater contamination in the area. The research method is carried out based on the analysis of Geological Mapping, Hydrogeological Mapping and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the area. Chemical analyses of the groundwater were conducted through laboratory test of groundwater samples at specific spots of dug wells. The lab test results were further analyzed to determine the contamination zone. The findings reveal that the distribution of contamination in the area follow the shallow ground water flow patterns, the water contamination contains heavy metal and there is degradation of soil fertility. The findings suggest the stakeholders to delineate the contaminated area, and increase the dissemination of environmental awareness.

  17. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  18. A Water-Damaged Home and Health of Occupants: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Dwayne Thrasher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of five and pet dog who rented a water-damaged home and developed multiple health problems. The home was analyzed for species of mold and bacteria. The diagnostics included MRI for chronic sinusitis with ENT and sinus surgery, and neurological testing for neurocognitive deficits. Bulk samples from the home, tissue from the sinuses, urine, nasal secretions, placenta, umbilical cord, and breast milk were tested for the presence of trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and Ochratoxin A. The family had the following diagnosed conditions: chronic sinusitis, neurological deficits, coughing with wheeze, nose bleeds, and fatigue among other symptoms. An infant was born with a total body flare, developed multiple Cafe-au-Lait pigmented skin spots and diagnoses with NF1 at age 2. The mycotoxins were detected in bulk samples, urine and nasal secretions, breast milk, placenta, and umbilical cord. Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Acinetobacter, Penicillium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were cultured from nasal secretions (father and daughter. RT-PCR revealed A. fumigatus DNA in sinus tissues of the daughter. The dog had 72 skin lesions (sebaceous glands and lipomas from which trichothecenes and ochratoxin A. were detected. The health of the family is discussed in relation to the most recent published literature regarding microbial contamination and toxic by-products present in water-damaged buildings.

  19. Case Study of a Small Scale Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Mixed Brackish Water and STP Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A case study on utilizing reverse osmosis (RO technology to fulfill fresh water needs at a mall and a hotel has been done on Bali Island, Indonesia. A mix of brackish water and sewage treatment plant (STP effluent was used as feed water in the RO system. The system used 36 membrane elements (CSM RE 8040 BLN arranged into two stages: 8 pressure vessels (PVs in the first stage and 4 PVs in the second stage, each loaded with 3 membranes. The objectives of this research were to assess the cleaning effectivity in the plant, to evaluate the cleaning of 1 membrane element using a CIP system, and to assess the use of the membrane for filtration in the pre-treatment system. SEM and FTIR analysis indicated that the foulants on the membrane surface were dominated by organic foulants and inorganic deposits. To clean the discarded membrane the proposed method used NaOH solution (pH 12 and pH 13 and citric acid (pH 2 and pH 3. All membranes displayed a dramatic decline in rejection of about 80%. Based on the rejection tests of SO42-, Cl-, turbidity reduction approached 100%. It can be concluded that an RO membrane that has undergone selectivity decline can be re-used as a filtration membrane in the pre-treatment system.

  20. Improving microcystin monitoring relevance in recreative waters: A regional case-study (Brittany, Western France, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Vezie, Chantal; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are known as a health hazard in recreative and distributed waters. Monitoring data from 2004 to 2011 were collected at regional scale to characterize exposition parameters to microcystins in Brittany (Western France). The data show that cyanobacteria populations are experiencing a composition shift leading to a longer duration of cell densities higher than WHO alert levels 2 and 3. Microcystins however appear to be more frequently detected with subacute concentrations in low cell density samples than in high cell density samples or during bloom episodes. Positive relations are described between microcystin concentrations, detection frequencies and cyanobacteria biovolumes, allowing for a novel definition of alert levels and decision framework following WHO recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. First-Principles View on Photoelectrochemistry: Water-Splitting as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hellman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemistry is truly an interdisciplinary field; a natural nexus between chemistry and physics. In short, photoelectrochemistry can be divided into three sub-processes, namely (i the creation of electron-hole pairs by light absorption; (ii separation/transport on the charge carriers and finally (iii the water splitting reaction. The challenge is to understand all three processes on a microscopic scale and, perhaps even more importantly, how to combine the processes in an optimal way. This review will highlight some first-principles insights to the above sub-processes, in~particular as they occur using metal oxides. Based on these insights, challenges and future directions of first-principles methods in the field of photoelectrochemistry will be discussed.

  2. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships and the geographical origin of 27 of the 34 species and of 3 of the 9 subspecies of Iberian endemic Dytiscidae are studied, based on species level phylogenies constructed with two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I. All Iberian endemic species for which more than one specimen was included were monophyletic with the exception of the complex Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. The genus Stictotarsus as presently defined is polyphyletic, containing three different lineages: the S. duodecimpustulatus group —including the Iberian endemic S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (new combination and the S. griseostriatus and S. roffii groups, which are in need of a new generic name. The genus Oreodytes is found to be paraphyletic, although with low bootstrap support. The species Nebrioporus (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858 (new combination is transferred from the subgenus Zimmermannius to Nebrioporus. The Iberian populations of Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 and the endemic subspecies Oreodytes davisii rhianae Carr, 2001, O. sanmarkii alienus (Sharp, 1872 and Hydroporus normandi normandi Régimbart, 1903 do not form well characterised lineages, as measured with the mitochondrial markers used in this study. The Iberian endemic species of Dytiscidae are divided in three groups according to the type of vicariant origin: 1 within-Iberian species, when the sister species (or clade of the Iberian endemic is also and Iberian endemic; 2 Iberian/European, when the sister occurs in Europe north of the Pyrenees; and 3 Iberian/North African, when the sister occurs in North Africa. Within-Iberian endemics are found to be on average older than Iberian/European and Iberian/North African species, they have

  3. LIVERPOOL @ SHANGHAI, The waterfront as a brandscape in Liverpool Waters case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Attademo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liverpool was an important maritime since the 18th century. In the 20th century this economic model declined and the waterfront started shrinking, eroding the core centre of the city. Since then Liverpool administration started stimulating new investments: the symbolic marine backgrounds, central places for the city of production, were turned into city of consumption benchmarks. Transforming into a brandscape the old waterscape perspective, Liverpool creates a twin-city relationship with Shanghai (China, trying to attract new investors from China to accelerate the regeneration. With the "One city, Nine towns" plan (2001, Shanghai provided itself of a branding strategy and of an efficacious urban planning perspective all at one time, using well-known European styles to realize its expansion areas along the waterfront.Working on this model, Liverpool Waters proposal re-designs the waterfront skyline in a Shanghai style, with disproportionate towers, refusing the city waterscape heritage, listed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The main landmark of the area, a skyscraper called Shanghai Tower, is not an attempt to embody Shanghai culture or urban environment, but rather to line up to its lifestyle and social-economic conditions, to put the city onto the global market with a positive etiquette.The overall proposal establishes a generic relation with water, neglecting Liverpool marine heritage, moving the attention from the old waterscape (with its core in the historic Pier Head to a new town brandscape. The entire city dematerializes itself on the back of the proposed new picture.The paper tries to evaluate the parallelism in this approach to branding strategies and related regeneration actions, according also to an analytical verification through a project: the proposal for a new tower in Shanghai waterfront to create a balance between the proposition of a successful, vibrant brandscape and the respect of geographical and historical factors.

  4. The effects of water rock interaction and the human activities on the occurrence of hexavalent chromium in waters. The case study of the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria; Stamatis, George; Gartzos, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, particularly of the toxic hexavalent chromium, are recorded in surface and ground waters in many areas, and constitute one of the most severe environmental problems nowadays. The natural genesis of chromium is associated with the geological environment (peridotites and serpentintites). Chromium is structured in many minerals, mainly in spinel (e.g. chromite), in silicate minerals such as phyllosilicate serpentine minerals, chlorite, talc and chain-silicate minerals of pyroxene and amphibole group. Chromium is found in two forms in soils, waters and rocks, the hexavalent and the trivalent one. The relation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) strongly depends on pH and oxidative properties of the area; however, in most cases, Cr(III) is the dominating variant. The natural oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium can be achieved by manganese oxides, H2O2, O2 gas and oxy-hydroxides of trivalent iron. Anthropogenic factors may also cause the process of chromium's oxidation. In the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium were recently measured in spring- and drill- waters. In this work, we study the effect of the geological environment and of the anthropogenic activities on the water quality with emphasis on chromium. A detailed geochemical, petrological and mineralogical study of rocks and soils was carried out by means of optical microscopy, XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS. Ground and surface water samples were physically characterized and hydrochemically studied by means of ICP and AAF. Combined result evaluation indicates a natural source for the trivalent chromium in waters, attributed to the alteration of Cr-bearing minerals of the ultramafic rocks. However the oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium results from anthropogenic activities, mainly from intensive agricultural activities and the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides causing nitrate pollution in groundwater. It has been shown

  5. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (CASE STUDY: ARDABIL REGIONAL WATER COMPANY'S MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ebrahimpoor‎

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dimensions of social intelligence, social skills, social information processing, social awareness, social desirability of organizational performance. Methods: This research was a descriptive study. The population in this study comprised all experts, assistants and managers of regional water companies in Ardabil province, and was about 164 randomly selected people. And to gather data from field methods the means of questionnaires were used. Tromso questionnaire was chosen and designed to measure social intelligence and organizational performance by assessing specific questions about Balanced Scorecard as independent variable. To achieve the multiplier effect of each variable on the dependent variable, Pearson correlation test was performed. Results indicated that social skills, social information processing, social awareness and social desirability of improving organizational performance had the most important part in social information processing, and social awareness and social skills played a secondary role in improving performance.

  6. A NEW MULTI-SPECTRAL THRESHOLD NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE WATER INDEX (MST-NDWI WATER EXTRACTION METHOD – A CASE STUDY IN YANHE WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate remote sensing water extraction is one of the primary tasks of watershed ecological environment study. Since the Yanhe water system has typical characteristics of a small water volume and narrow river channel, which leads to the difficulty for conventional water extraction methods such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. A new Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation of the NDWI (MST-NDWI water extraction method is proposed to achieve the accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed. In the MST-NDWI method, the spectral characteristics of water bodies and typical backgrounds on the Landsat/TM images have been evaluated in Yanhe watershed. The multi-spectral thresholds (TM1, TM4, TM5 based on maximum-likelihood have been utilized before NDWI water extraction to realize segmentation for a division of built-up lands and small linear rivers. With the proposed method, a water map is extracted from the Landsat/TM images in 2010 in China. An accuracy assessment is conducted to compare the proposed method with the conventional water indexes such as NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Enhanced Water Index (EWI, and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI. The result shows that the MST-NDWI method generates better water extraction accuracy in Yanhe watershed and can effectively diminish the confusing background objects compared to the conventional water indexes. The MST-NDWI method integrates NDWI and Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation algorithms, with richer valuable information and remarkable results in accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed.

  7. A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated

  8. Risk-based modelling of surface water quality: a case study of the Charles River, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Neil R.; Wagener, Thorsten; Wheater, Howard S.; Chapra, Steven C.

    2003-04-01

    A model of phytoplankton, dissolved oxygen and nutrients is presented and applied to the Charles River, Massachusetts within a framework of Monte Carlo simulation. The model parameters are conditioned using data from eight sampling stations along a 40 km stretch of the Charles River, during a (supposed) steady-state period in the summer of 1996, and the conditioned model is evaluated using data from later in the same year. Regional multi-objective sensitivity analysis is used to identify the parameters and pollution sources most affecting the various model outputs under the conditions observed during that summer. The effects of Monte Carlo sampling error are included in this analysis, and the observations which have least contributed to model conditioning are indicated. It is shown that the sensitivity analysis can be used to speculate about the factors responsible for undesirable levels of eutrophication, and to speculate about the risk of failure of nutrient reduction interventions at a number of strategic control sections. The analysis indicates that phosphorus stripping at the CRPCD wastewater treatment plant on the Charles River would be a high-risk intervention, especially for controlling eutrophication at the control sections further downstream. However, as the risk reflects the perceived scope for model error, it can only be recommended that more resources are invested in data collection and model evaluation. Furthermore, as the risk is based solely on water quality criteria, rather than broader environmental and economic objectives, the results need to be supported by detailed and extensive knowledge of the Charles River problem.

  9. Water supply and demand management in the Galápagos : A case study of Santa Cruz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources in tourist islands have been severely threatened, especially in the Galápagos Islands, where the increased local population has generated attractive income from the tourist services. In addition, the data regarding water supply and demand are scarce. This study investigates water

  10. The Assessment of Green Water Based on the SWAT Model: A Case Study in the Hai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the utilization of green water have attracted increasing attention. By gathering the related hydrological, meteorological, and geographic data, the spatiotemporal distribution of green water in HRB and the impacts of land use types on green water are analyzed based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model in this study. Furthermore, three new indices are proposed for evaluation, including the maximum possible storage of green water (MSGW, the consumed green water (CGW, and the utilizable green water (UGW. The results show that (1 the MSGW is relatively low in plain areas and its spatial distribution is significantly associated with the soil type; (2 according to the evaluation results of CGW and UGW in HRB, a further improvement of utilization efficiency of green water could be achieved; (3 in general, the utilization efficiency of precipitation in farmlands is higher than other land use types, which means that the planting of appropriate plants could be helpful to enhance the utilization efficiency of green water. Our results summarize the spatiotemporal distribution of green water resource and provide a reference for water resources management in other water-short agricultural areas.

  11. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine......In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...

  12. Analysis of Drinking Water Supply System Encompassing The Catchment, The Reservoir and The Treatment Facility (A Case Study of Osman Sagar Drinking Water Supply System, Hyderabad, India)

    OpenAIRE

    Balijepalli, Valli Priya

    2009-01-01

    Unregulated urban growth and unscientific approach towards source protection led to the degradation and loss of fresh water lakes in Hyderabad. Osman Sagar is one of the few lakes that still retains its fresh water status. In recent times it witnessed drastic fluctuations in its inflows resulting in reduced drinking water supply. The study emphasizes the need to improve the overall water management based on the integration of scientific assessment and appropriate management strategies.

  13. Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera defatted cake versus seed in the treatment of unsafe drinking water : case study of surface and well waters in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Rosillon, Francis; Traore, Alfred S.; Dianou, Dayéri

    2013-01-01

    Safe drinking water access for rural populations in developing countries remains a challenge for a sustainable develop-ment, particularly in rural and periurban areas of Burkina Faso. The study aims to investigate the purifying capacity of Moringa oleifera defatted cake as compared to Moringa oleifera seed in the treatment of surface and well waters used for populations alimentation. A total of 90 water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles from 3 dams’ water reservoirs, a river, an...

  14. Modelling as a means to promote water diplomacy in Southern Africa: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Carvalho Resende, Tales; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef; Puri, Shaminder; Kenabatho, Piet; Amakali, Maria; Majola, Kwazikwakhe; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    visualization of large spatial datasets; this is demonstrated by running fourteen case studies using the FREEWAT platform. Among these, the STAS is a particularly representative case study aiming at facilitating the link between science based analysis and stakeholder participation aiming at the adoption of sound transboundary management policies. Due to the scarcity of surface water, water-demanding activities in the study area rely only on groundwater. The first version of the model is developed adapting an existing model of the Namibian part of the aquifer: so far, the groundwater body is discretized using rectangular cells about 40 km2 wide and a stack of three aquifers divided respectively by three aquitards with variable thicknesses and heterogeneous hydraulic properties. The model setup is then revised integrating outcomes from the GGRETA project and extended until the groundwater body limits. Also, boundary conditions and hydrologic stresses (i.e., rainfall infiltration and abstraction for irrigation purposes) were re-defined according to maps and datasets available from the GGRETA project. The involvement of the UNESCO-IHP within the FREEWAT Consortium supports the coordination and integration of previous research outcomes (e.g., from the GGRETA project) and the model development to achieve a full characterization of the STAS current and forecast dynamics and possibly highlighting any existing knowledge gaps. This will be

  15. Evaluation of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Alternative Source of Drinking Water: A Case Study of Nzhelele River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Popoola, Elizabeth O; Msagati, Titus A M

    2018-01-01

    Access to clean and safe drinking water is still a problem in developing countries and more pronounced in rural areas. Due to erratic supply of potable, rural dwellers often seek for an alternative source of water to meet their basic water needs. The objective of this study is to monitor the microbiological and physicochemical water quality parameters of Nzhelele River which is a major alternative source of drinking water to villages along its course in Limpopo province of South Africa. Membrane filtration method was employed in evaluating the levels of E. coli and Enterococci in the river water from January-June, 2014. Specialized multimeter was used to measure the pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity of the river water. Ion Chromatograph was used to measure major anions such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate in the water. High levels of E. coli (1 x 10 2 - 8 x 10 4 cfu/100 mL) and enterococci (1 x 10 2 - 5.7 x 10 3 cfu/100 mL) were found in the river water and exceeded their permissible limits of 0 cfu/100 mL for drinking water. Turbidity values ranged from 1.12-739.9 NTU. The pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate levels were below their permissible limits for drinking water. The river water is contaminated with faecal organisms and is unfit for drinking purposes. However, the levels of the major anions accessed were within the permissible limits of drinking water.

  16. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  17. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  18. An application of the AHP in water resources management: a case study on urban drainage rehabilitation in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, A. P. M.; Rahmad, D.; Sembiring, R. A.; Iskandar, R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper illustrates an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a potential decision-making method in water resource management related to drainage rehabilitation. The prioritization problem of urban drainage rehabilitation in Medan City due to limited budget is used as a study case. A hierarchical structure is formed for the prioritization criteria and the alternative drainages to be rehabilitated. Based on the AHP, the prioritization criteria are ranked and a descending-order list of drainage is made in order to select the most favorable drainages to have rehabilitation. A sensitivity analysis is then conducted to check the consistency of the final decisions in case of minor changes in judgements. The results of AHP computed manually are compared with that using the software Expert Choice. It is observed that the top three ranked drainages are consistent, and both results of the AHP methods, calculated manually and performed using Expert Choice, are in agreement. It is hoped that the application of the AHP will help the decision-making process by the city government in the problem of urban drainage rehabilitation.

  19. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  20. Influence of alkalinity, hardness and dissolved solids on drinking water taste: A case study of consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Lee, Wei-Li; Han, Jia-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Two surveys of consumer satisfaction with drinking water conducted by Taiwan Water Supply Corp. are presented in this study. The study results show that although a lot of money was invested to modify traditional treatment processes, over 60% of local residents still avoided drinking tap water. Over half of the respondents felt that sample TT (from the traditional treatment process) was not a good drinking water, whether in the first or second survey, whereas almost 60% of respondents felt that samples PA, PB, CCL and CT (from advanced treatment processes) were good to drink. For all drinking water samples, respondent satisfaction with a sample primarily depended on it having no unpleasant flavors. Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration plans to revise the drinking water quality standards for TH and TDS in the near future. The new standards require a lower TH concentration (from currently 400mg/L (as CaCO(3)) to 150mg/L (as CaCO(3))), and a lower TDS maximum admissible concentration from the current guideline of 600 to 250mg/L. Therefore, this study also evaluated the impacts on drinking water tastes caused by variations in TH and TDS concentrations, and assessed the need to issue more strict drinking water quality standards for TH and TDS. The research results showed that most respondents could not tell the difference in water taste among water samples with different TDS, TH and alkalinity. Furthermore, hardness was found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and complying with more strict standards would lead most water facilities to invest billions of dollars to upgrade their treatment processes. Consequently, in terms of drinking water tastes alone, this study suggested that Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration should conduct more thorough reviews of the scientific literature that provides the rationale for setting standards and reconsider if it is necessary to revise drinking water quality standards for TH and

  1. Water quality assessment and analysis for rehabilitate and management of wetlands: a case study in Nanhai wetland of Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jing tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland plays an irreplaceable role in many aspects and waters are important part of wetland, the water quality can easily reflect the situation of Wetland. In this study, water quality was assessed on the basis of 5 parameters (DO, NH4+-N, TN, TP and CODcr that were monitored monthly at 5 sites (N1,N2,N3,N4 and N5from April, 2014 to March, 2015 of the Nanhai Lake in Baotou, China by water pollution index method and comprehensive water quality identification index method. The twelve monitoring months were divided into wet season (Mar., Aug. and Sep., normal season (Jan., Feb., Apr., Nov. and Dec. and dry season (May., Jun. and Jul.. The assessment results determined using the water pollution index method showed that the water quality of all the five monitoring sites were inferior Ⅴ, the main contamination was COD. The comprehensive water quality identification index showed that the water quality of the Nanhai Lake were classesⅤ, except for the N2 in wet season and dry season, the N1 in dry season and the N5 in normal season, which were classes inferiorⅤ. All the five monitoring sites don’t achieving the desired water quality standard. According to the analysis, domestic discharge, industrial activities and developed recreation were major threats to water quality of Nanhai Lake.

  2. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic micropollutants in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China: A case study of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Yang, Haohan; Dong, Huike; Ma, Binni; Sun, Hongwei; Pan, Ting; Jiang, Runren; Zhou, Ranran; Shen, Jie; Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua

    2018-08-01

    Water diversion has been increasingly applied to improve water quality in many water bodies. However, little is known regarding pollution by organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water diversion projects, especially at the supplier, and this pollution may threaten the quality of transferred water. In the present study, a total of 110 OMPs belonging to seven classes were investigated in water and sediment collected from a supplier of the Yangtze River within four water diversion projects. A total of 69 and 58 target OMPs were detected in water and sediment, respectively, at total concentrations reaching 1041.78 ng/L and 5942.24 ng/g dry weight (dw). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pharmaceuticals were the predominant pollutants identified. When preliminarily compared with the pollution in the receiving water, the Yangtze River generally exhibited mild OMPs pollution and good water quality parameters, implying a clean water source in the water diversion project. However, in Zongyang and Fenghuangjing, PAHs pollution was more abundant than that in the corresponding receiving water in Chaohu Lake. Ammonia nitrogen pollution in the Wangyu River was comparable to that in Taihu Lake. These findings imply that water diversion may threaten receiving waters in some cases. In addition, the risks of all detected pollutants in both water and sediment were assessed. PAHs in water, especially phenanthrene and high-molecular-weight PAHs, posed high risks to invertebrates, followed by the risks to fish and algae. Pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics and antidepressants, may also pose risks to algae and fish at a number of locations. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe OMPs pollution in water diversion projects, and the results provide a new perspective regarding the security of water diversion projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  4. A climate risk assessment of clean water supply in an urban area: A case study of South Tangerang city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastiti, S. I. W.; Kusnoputranto, H.; Boer, R.; Utomo, S. W.

    2018-03-01

    The demand for clean water in South Tangerang, Indonesia, is very high. At present, this demand is mostly met by groundwater that is much influenced by climate variability, land cover change, and human activities. The local company on water services (PDAM) provides clean water services for only about 9% of the population. The climate risk assessment conducted by South Tangerang Government in 2016 indicates that several areas are potentially exposed to a high risk of climate change. Survey and in-depth interview with communities and sectoral officers suggest that a risk to clean water supply in this city is increasing. This study aims to assess climate potential risks on clean water supply based on the 2016 study. We adopted the method of that study by modifying some of the vulnerability indicators that can represent clean water access and supply. The results of the study demonstrate that many wards in South Tangerang would be exposed to high climate risks of clean water supply. By 2021, about 54% of wards would be exposed from high to the very very high risk of clean water supply. These results signify the tangible need of adaptation actions, to prevent the worsening impacts of climate on clean water supply.

  5. Diabetic and sympathetic influences on the water permeability barrier function of human skin as measured using transepidermal water loss: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Ji Woong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables.This case-control study included 42 participants with chronic diabetes and 43 matched healthy controls. The diabetic group underwent a nerve conduction study and sympathetic skin response (SSR) test to confirm the presence of DSPN and PAN, respectively. Different skin regions were analyzed using the noninvasive Tewameter instrument (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). The impacts of PAN, DSPN, age, and diabetes duration on the values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were each analyzed and compared between the groups.Regardless of the presence of DSPN or PAN, the TEWL values as measured on the distal extremities were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group. In the diabetic group, participants with abnormal SSR test results showed decreased TEWL values in the finger, sole, and first toe, as compared with participants with normal SSR test results. In the control group, age showed a negative correlation with the TEWL values with respect to some measured regions. However, in the diabetic group, there was no significant correlation between either patient age or diabetes duration and TEWL values.The presence of a long-term hyperglycemic state can reduce the permeability barrier function of the skin, a phenomenon that might be related to the presence of an impaired peripheral sympathetic nervous system, rather than peripheral sensorimotor

  6. Control options for river water improvement: a case study of TDS and inorganic nitrogen in the Crocodile river (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available for the evaluation of short-term (monthly) basin-wide water quality management options. Keywords: Dynamic model; flow regulation; water quality management; tank in series model Introduction As the demand for water increases in line with human population pressure... flows can cause accelerated sedimentation and increases total dissolved solids (TDS) concen- trations in downstream reaches of the river (Qader, 1998; Mokhlesur et al., 2000). Many other studies have also shown that extremely low flows can have...

  7. Piper-PCA-Fisher Recognition Model of Water Inrush Source: A Case Study of the Jiaozuo Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Source discrimination of mine water plays an important role in guiding mine water prevention in mine water management. To accurately determine water inrush source from a mine in the Jiaozuo mining area, a Piper trilinear diagram based on hydrochemical experimental data of stratified underground water in the area was utilized to determine typical water samples. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA was used for dimensionality reduction of conventional hydrochemical variables, after which mutually independent variables were extracted. The Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source recognition model was established by combining the Piper trilinear diagram and Fisher discrimination theory. Screened typical samples were used to conduct back-discriminate verification of the model. Results showed that 28 typical water samples in different aquifers were determined through the Piper trilinear diagram as a water sample set for training. Before PCA was carried out, the first five factors covered 98.92% of the information quantity of the original data and could effectively represent the data information of the original samples. During the one-by-one rediscrimination process of 28 groups of training samples using the Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source model, 100% correct discrimination rate was achieved. During the prediction and discrimination process of 13 samples, one water sample was misdiscriminated; hence, the correct prediscrimination rate was 92.3%. Compared with the traditional Fisher water source recognition model, the Piper-PCA-Fisher water source recognition model established in this study had higher accuracy in both rediscrimination and prediscrimination processes. Thus it had a strong ability to discriminate water inrush sources.

  8. An analysis of strategy plan on business performance of a water utility : a Midvaal water company case study / Erven Sello Malatji

    OpenAIRE

    Malatji, Erven Sello

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the strategic management process of a water utility in South Africa. The research focused on Midvaal Water Company, a section 21 water utility based in South Africa, North West Province town of Klerksdorp. The objectives of the study were; (a) to assess the organisational level of knowledge when it comes to SMP, (b) to determine different perceptions with regards to SMP between management and employees, (c) to determine the organisational profiles (ag...

  9. An approach to industrial water conservation--a case study involving two large manufacturing companies based in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agana, Bernard A; Reeve, Darrell; Orbell, John D

    2013-01-15

    This study presents the application of an integrated water management strategy at two large Australian manufacturing companies that are contrasting in terms of their respective products. The integrated strategy, consisting of water audit, pinch analysis and membrane process application, was deployed in series to systematically identify water conservation opportunities. Initially, a water audit was deployed to completely characterize all water streams found at each production site. This led to the development of a water balance diagram which, together with water test results, served as a basis for subsequent enquiry. After the water audit, commercially available water pinch software was utilized to identify possible water reuse opportunities, some of which were subsequently implemented on site. Finally, utilizing a laboratory-scale test rig, membrane processes such as UF, NF and RO were evaluated for their suitability to treat the various wastewater streams. The membranes tested generally showed good contaminant rejection rates, slow flux decline rates, low energy usage and were well suited for treatment of specific wastewater streams. The synergy between the various components of this strategy has the potential to reduce substantial amounts of Citywater consumption and wastewater discharge across a diverse range of large manufacturing companies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, N.; Shahmim, M.A.; Elahi, A.; Khan, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  11. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  12. "I don't want to go back to the farm": A case study of Working for Water beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Hough

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to clearing invasive alien plants, the Working for Water (WfW Programme, as a South African government public works programme, provides short-term employment and training to empower the poor in finding alternative employment within the labour market. Several studies indicate that its beneficiaries become financially dependent on WfW projects and tend to be reluctant to leave the programme. The sociological reasons for this reluctance, however, remain largely unstudied. We therefore address this gap by reporting on a case study of four WfW projects in the Western Cape Province. Face-to-face interviews with beneficiaries suggest that a number of push and pull factors contribute to their dependency on WfW. Chief among these factors is a fear among previous farmworkers of returning to farm work. It was found that the latter can be linked to a historical power-relations legacy between landowners and farmworkers, mainly created by institutional racism still prevailing on many Western Cape farms. These findings bear important implications for the implementation of a new draft WfW policy aimed at encouraging private landowners to employ WfW beneficiaries on their land as clearers of invasive alien plants.

  13. Integrated planning for regional development planning and water resources management under uncertainty: A case study of Xining, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z. H.; Zhao, H. J.; Wang, H.; Lu, W. T.; Wang, J.; Guo, H. C.

    2017-11-01

    Economic restructuring, water resources management, population planning and environmental protection are subjects to inner uncertainties of a compound system with objectives which are competitive alternatives. Optimization model and water quality model are usually used to solve problems in a certain aspect. To overcome the uncertainty and coupling in reginal planning management, an interval fuzzy program combined with water quality model for regional planning and management has been developed to obtain the absolutely ;optimal; solution in this study. The model is a hybrid methodology of interval parameter programming (IPP), fuzzy programing (FP), and a general one-dimensional water quality model. The method extends on the traditional interval parameter fuzzy programming method by integrating water quality model into the optimization framework. Meanwhile, as an abstract concept, water resources carrying capacity has been transformed into specific and calculable index. Besides, unlike many of the past studies about water resource management, population as a significant factor has been considered. The results suggested that the methodology was applicable for reflecting the complexities of the regional planning and management systems within the planning period. The government policy makers could establish effective industrial structure, water resources utilization patterns and population planning, and to better understand the tradeoffs among economic, water resources, population and environmental objectives.

  14. Sedimentation and Its Impacts/Effects on River System and Reservoir Water Quality: case Study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundu, Colleta; Tumbare, Michael James; Kileshye Onema, Jean-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Sediment delivery into water sources and bodies results in the reduction of water quantity and quality, increasing costs of water purification whilst reducing the available water for various other uses. The paper gives an analysis of sedimentation in one of Zimbabwe's seven rivers, the Mazowe Catchment, and its impact on water quality. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to compute soil lost from the catchment as a result of soil erosion. The model was used in conjunction with GIS remotely sensed data and limited ground observations. The estimated annual soil loss in the catchment indicates soil loss ranging from 0 to 65 t ha yr-1. Bathymetric survey at Chimhanda Dam showed that the capacity of the dam had reduced by 39 % as a result of sedimentation and the annual sediment deposition into Chimhanda Dam was estimated to be 330 t with a specific yield of 226 t km-2 yr-1. Relationship between selected water quality parameters, TSS, DO, NO3, pH, TDS, turbidity and sediment yield for selected water sampling points and Chimhanda Dam was analyzed. It was established that there is a strong positive relationship between the sediment yield and the water quality parameters. Sediment yield showed high positive correlation with turbidity (0.63) and TDS (0.64). Water quality data from Chimhanda treatment plant water works revealed that the quality of water is deteriorating as a result of increase in sediment accumulation in the dam. The study concluded that sedimentation can affect the water quality of water sources.

  15. A resilience perspective to water risk management: case-study application of the adaptation tipping point method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonius, Berry; Ashley, Richard; Jeuken, Ad; Nasruddin, Fauzy; Pathirana, Assela; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2010-05-01

    start the identification and analysis of adaptive strategies at the end of PSIR scheme: impact and examine whether, and for how long, current risk management strategies will continue to be effective under different future conditions. The most noteworthy application of this approach is the adaptation tipping point method. Adaptation tipping points (ATP) are defined as the points where the magnitude of change is such that the current risk management strategy can no longer meet its objectives. In the ATP method, policy objectives, determining aspirational functioning, are taken as the starting point. Also, the current measures to achieve these objectives are described. This is followed by a sensitivity analysis to determine the optimal and critical boundary conditions (state). Lastly, the state is related to pressures in terms of future change. It should be noted that in the ATP method the driver for adopting a new risk management strategy is not future change as such, but rather failing to meet the policy objectives. In the current paper, the ATP method is applied to the case study of an existing stormwater system in Dordrecht (the Netherlands). This application shows the potential of the ATP method to reduce the complexity of implementing a resilience-focused approach to water risk management. It is expected that this will help foster greater practical relevance of resilience as a perspective for the planning of water management structures.

  16. Does improved access to water supply by rural households enhance the concept of safe water at the point of use? A case study from deep rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagals, P

    2006-01-01

    The concept of safe water is defined by three principles: the health-related quality must be suitable, the supply/source must be accessible and the water must constantly be available in quantities sufficient for the intended use. If any one (or more) of these three elements is missing from a water services improvement programme, providing safe water is not successfully achieved. A study in a deep rural area in South Africa showed that providing small communities, using untreated river water as their only water source, with good quality water through a piped distribution system and accessible at communal taps did not fall within our parameters of safe water. The parameters for measuring the three principles were: absence of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples; accessibility by improving tap distances to within 200 m from each household; availability by assessing whether households have at least 25 L per person per day. Results show that although E. coli levels were reduced significantly, households were still consuming water with E. coli numbers at non-compliant levels. Access (distance) was improved from an average of 750 m from households to river source to an average of 120 m to new on-tap source points. This did not result in significant increases in household quantities, which on average remained around 18 L per person per day.

  17. Influential third party on water right conflict: A Game Theory approach to achieve the desired equilibrium (case study: Ilam dam, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjanian, Hossein; Abdolabadi, Hamid; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Sarang, Amin

    2018-05-15

    Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts. In this paper, we analyzed the conflict of water allocation in Ilam dam among organizational stakeholders. We defined the strategies based on the background of the game and organizational objectives. The influence power of stakeholders and the numerical weights of strategies were quantified based on the expert judgment method. The relative priorities of strategies were then calculated for each state of the conflict. We used the GMCR + model to study the actions of stakeholders. Results suggest that the Jihad Agriculture Organization and the Water and Wastewater Company withdraw more water; hence, there exists no water to meet the environmental water right. In this case, the participation of the third party, such as the Governorship and the Justice can change the future of the conflict, and result in moving to the optimal state. However, results from Inverse GMCR analysis demonstrate that Justice is the most influential third party that can move the conflict towards a desired equilibrium (optimal case). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study on the effect of workaholism on human resource productivity: A case study of managers of East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Water Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available These days, work is considered as an integral part of the human life and many people spend significant amount of their time in different organizations and departments to earn income. Unlimited organizational pressures and demands facing people have made them allocate much of their time on working. Because of these pressures, people are becoming increasingly subject to workaholism. On the other hand, leaders and managers are trying to improve performance and activities of their respective organizations. Therefore, different concepts such as productivity are turned to the major subject of the management and organizational studies within the same organizations. Note that today changeable and competitive environment and the available limited resources and facilities have turned the concept of productivity into one the most important preoccupations of management within modern organizations. In view of the limited studies and information available in Iran on workaholism and its adverse consequences, the present research intends to investigate and identifies the impacts of workaholism components on human resource productivity. In the present, research the descriptive-survey research method is used and where statistical community includes 130 managers of the East Azerbaijan Water and Waste Company. Using the correlation coefficient and linear regression technique the research tries to investigate the relationships between the concepts of workaholism and human resource productivity and demonstrates how they are applied in above-mentioned community.

  19. Optimization of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers Using Water-Alternating Gas (WAG) Scheme - Case Study for Utsira Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R. K.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, C.

    2013-12-01

    For optimization of CO2 storage and reduced CO2 plume migration in saline aquifers, a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimizer has been developed which is combined with the DOE multi-phase flow and heat transfer numerical simulation code TOUGH2. Designated as GA-TOUGH2, this combined solver/optimizer has been verified by performing optimization studies on a number of model problems and comparing the results with brute-force optimization which requires a large number of simulations. Using GA-TOUGH2, an innovative reservoir engineering technique known as water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection has been investigated to determine the optimal WAG operation for enhanced CO2 storage capacity. The topmost layer (layer # 9) of Utsira formation at Sleipner Project, Norway is considered as a case study. A cylindrical domain, which possesses identical characteristics of the detailed 3D Utsira Layer #9 model except for the absence of 3D topography, was used. Topographical details are known to be important in determining the CO2 migration at Sleipner, and are considered in our companion model for history match of the CO2 plume migration at Sleipner. However, simplification on topography here, without compromising accuracy, is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of WAG operation on CO2 migration without incurring excessive computational cost. Selected WAG operation then can be simulated with full topography details later. We consider a cylindrical domain with thickness of 35 m with horizontal flat caprock. All hydrogeological properties are retained from the detailed 3D Utsira Layer #9 model, the most important being the horizontal-to-vertical permeability ratio of 10. Constant Gas Injection (CGI) operation with nine-year average CO2 injection rate of 2.7 kg/s is considered as the baseline case for comparison. The 30-day, 15-day, and 5-day WAG cycle durations are considered for the WAG optimization design. Our computations show that for the simplified Utsira Layer #9 model, the

  20. Integration of population census and water point mapping data-A case study of Cambodia, Liberia and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim A

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 has expanded the Millennium Development Goals' focus from improved drinking-water to safely managed water services. This expanded focus to include issues such as water quality requires richer monitoring data and potentially integration of datasets from different sources. Relevant data sets include water point mapping (WPM), the survey of boreholes, wells and other water points, census and household survey data. This study examined inconsistencies between population census and WPM datasets for Cambodia, Liberia and Tanzania, and identified potential barriers to integrating the two datasets to meet monitoring needs. Literatures on numbers of people served per water point were used to convert WPM data to population served by water source type per area and compared with census reports. For Cambodia and Tanzania, discrepancies with census data suggested incomplete WPM coverage. In Liberia, where the data sets were consistent, WPM-derived data on functionality, quantity and quality of drinking water were further combined with census area statistics to generate an enhanced drinking-water access measure for protected wells and springs. The process revealed barriers to integrating census and WPM data, including exclusion of water points not used for drinking by households, matching of census and WPM source types; temporal mismatches between data sources; data quality issues such as missing or implausible data values, and underlying assumptions about population served by different water point technologies. However, integration of these two data sets could be used to identify and rectify gaps in WPM coverage. If WPM databases become more complete and the above barriers are addressed, it could also be used to develop more realistic measures of household drinking-water access for monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  2. Achieving the sustainable development goals: a case study of the complexity of water quality health risks in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rochelle; Wandschneider, Philip; Felsot, Allan; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-07-15

    Suppose 35 % of the households with children under 5 years of age in a low-income suburban neighborhood in a developing country have diarrhea where improved water sources are available. Clearly, something is amiss-but what? In addition to focusing on the need to examine water quality among water sources that meet the 'improved' category when assessing health risk, the relative importance of the range of transmission routes for diarrhea is unknown. In Malawi, relevant baseline data affecting human health are simply not available, and acquiring data is hampered by a lack of local analytical capacity for characterizing drinking water quality. The objective of this work is to develop a risk communication program with partnership among established regional development professionals for effectively meeting the sustainable development goals. A field study was conducted in the city of Mzuzu, Malawi, to study water quality (total coliform and Escherichia coli) and human dimensions leading to development of a public health risk communication strategy in a peri-urban area. A structured household questionnaire was administered to adult residents of 51 households, encompassing 284 individuals, who were using the 30 monitored shallow wells. The water quality data and human dimension questionnaire results were used to develop a household risk presentation. Sixty-seven percent and 50 % of well water and household drinking water samples, respectively, exceeded the WHO health guideline of zero detections of E. coli. Technology transfer was advanced by providing knowledge through household risk debriefing/education, establishing a water quality laboratory at the local university, and providing training to local technicians. Communicating the science of water quality and health risks in developing countries requires sample collection and analysis by knowledgeable personnel trained in the sciences, compiling baseline data, and, ultimately, an effective risk presentation back to

  3. Optimization of conditions the precipitate elimination from the water supply pipelines (case study: Esfezar village in Southern Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Kardan Moghaddam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This Study explores the influence of CaCO3 sedimentation in the Qanat system of Esfezar area in Southern Khorasan Province. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the decrease in transient water hardness in the drinking water supply network in the areas neighboring the Esferaz Qanat. The significance of the study lies in the fact that the Qanat under study is the only source of drinking water in the region. For the purposes of this study, experiments were carried out using a reservoir in which water pH was increased by adding lime to form sediments. Chemical coagulants were also added to accelerate the sedimentation process. From among the coagulants of FeSO4, Fe2(SO43, and CuSO4 used, optimizations revlead that Fe2 (SO43 yielded the best results at pH=9/5 in drinking water given the quality parameters of EC:440dS and pH = 7.7. Dimension analysis using the Reynolds Number was also conducted to simulate the qanat discharge, which was further calibrated against experimental results. The results obtained from the model showed that using a spiral pipe and Fe2(SO43 as the coagulant led to reduced transient hardness of water. The results also revealed that CaCO3 sedimentation reduced in the local water supply network.

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  6. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  7. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Miechel, Clayton; O'Halloran, Kelly; Muthukaruppan, Muthu; Listowski, Adnrzej

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ 2 = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ 2 = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water

  8. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: h.ngo@uts.edu.au [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Miechel, Clayton [Port Macquarie-Hastings Council, Port Macquarie, NSW 2444 (Australia); O' Halloran, Kelly [Gold Coast Water, Gold Coast, MC 9726 (Australia); Muthukaruppan, Muthu [City West Water, Sunshine, VIC 3020 (Australia); Listowski, Adnrzej [Sydney Olympic Park Authority, Sydney Olympic Park, NSW 2127 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ{sup 2} = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ{sup 2} = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water.

  9. Assessing The Ecosystem Service Freshwater Production From An Integrated Water Resources Management Perspective. Case Study: The Tormes Water Resources System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2014-05-01

    The Ecosystem Services are defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life. A strongly related concept is the Integrated Water Resources Management. It is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. From these definitions, it is clear that in order to cover so many water management and ecosystems related aspects the use of integrative models is increasingly necessary. In this study, we propose to link a hydrologic model and a water allocation model in order to assess the Freshwater Production as an Ecosystem Service in anthropised river basins. First, the hydrological model allows determining the volume of water generated by each sub-catchment; that is, the biophysical quantification of the service. This result shows the relevance of each sub-catchment as a source of freshwater and how this could change if the land uses are modified. On the other hand, the water management model allocates the available water resources among the different water uses. Then, it is possible to provide an economic value to the water resources through the use of demand curves, or other economic concepts. With this second model, we are able to obtain the economical quantification of the Ecosystem Service. Besides, the influence of water management and infrastructures on the service provision can be analysed. The methodology is applied to the Tormes Water Resources System, in Spain. The software used are EVALHID and SIMGES, for hydrological and management aspects, respectively. Both models are included in the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL for water resources planning and management. A scenario approach is presented to illustrate the potential of the methodology, including the current

  10. Residential water usage: A case study of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rizaiza, Omar S.

    1991-05-01

    Socioeconomic and climatological data of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia have been used to develop several models to estimate the residential water usage for different kinds of houses. The developed models correlate the residential water usages with temperature, income, family size, price of water, and availability of a garden within the house. The study shows that the residential water uses in houses supplied by a public pipe network are 1.4-2 times greater than the residential water uses in houses supplied by tankers. It also shows that the price elasticities are very similar to those estimated in the United States. Income elasticities, on the other hand, are lower than those typically found in more industrialized countries.

  11. A Quantitative Method for Long-Term Water Erosion Impacts on Productivity with a Lack of Field Experiments: A Case Study in Huaihe Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water erosion causes reduced farmland productivity, and with a longer period of cultivation, agricultural productivity becomes increasingly vulnerable. The vulnerability of farmland productivity needs assessment due to long-term water erosion. The key to quantitative assessment is to propose a quantitative method with water loss scenarios to calculate productivity losses due to long-term water erosion. This study uses the agricultural policy environmental extender (APEX model and the global hydrological watershed unit and selects the Huaihe River watershed as a case study to describe the methodology. An erosion-variable control method considering soil and water conservation measure scenarios was used to study the relationship between long-term erosion and productivity losses and to fit with 3D surface (to come up with three elements, which are time, the cumulative amount of water erosion and productivity losses to measure long-term water erosion. Results showed that: (1 the 3D surfaces fit significantly well; fitting by the 3D surface can more accurately reflect the impact of long-term water erosion on productivity than fitting by the 2D curve (to come up with two elements, which are water erosion and productivity losses; (2 the cumulative loss surface can reflect differences in productivity loss caused by long-term water erosion.

  12. Evaluation of Seasonal, ANN, and Hybrid Models in Modeling Urban Water Consumption A Case Study of Rash City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Nematollah Mousavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting future water consumption in cities to plan for the required capacities in urban water supply systems (including water transmission networks and water treatment facilities depends on the application of behavioral models of uban water consumption. Being located in the North-South corridor, Rasht City is assuming a new role to play in the national economy as a foreign trade center. It will, thus, be necessary to review its present urban infrastructure in order to draft the required infrastructural development plans for meeting the city’s future water demands. The three Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA, Artificial Neural Network (ANN, and SARIMABP approaches were employed in present study to model and forecast Rasht urban water consumption using monthly time series for the period 2001‒2008 of urban water consumption in Rasht. The seasonal unit root test was applied to develop the relevant SARIMA model. Results showed that all the seasonal and non-seasonal unit roots are present in all the frequencies in the monthly time series for Rasht urban water consumption. Using a proper filter, the SAIMA patterns were estimated. In a second stage the SARIMA output was used to determine the ANN output and the hybrid SARIMABP structure was accordingly constructed. The values for Rasht urban water consumption predicted by the three models indicated the superiority of the SARIMABP hybrid model as evidenced by the forecast error index of 0.41% obtained for this model. The other two models of SARIMA and ANN were, however, found to yield acceptable results for urban water managers since the forecasting error recorded for them was below 1%.

  13. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  14. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  15. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  16. Water quality monitoring: A comparative case study of municipal and Curtin Sarawak's lake samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A Anand; Prabakaran, K; Nagarajan, R; Jaison, J; Chan, Y S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, particle size distribution and zeta potential of the suspended particles in municipal water and lake surface water of Curtin Sarawak's lake were compared and the samples were analysed using dynamic light scattering method. High concentration of suspended particles affects the water quality as well as suppresses the aquatic photosynthetic systems. A new approach has been carried out in the current work to determine the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the suspended particles present in the water samples. The results for the lake samples showed that the particle size ranges from 180nm to 1345nm and the zeta potential values ranges from -8.58 mV to -26.1 mV. High zeta potential value was observed in the surface water samples of Curtin Sarawak's lake compared to the municipal water. The zeta potential values represent that the suspended particles are stable and chances of agglomeration is lower in lake water samples. Moreover, the effects of physico-chemical parameters on zeta potential of the water samples were also discussed. (paper)

  17. Preliminary studies on membrane filtration for the production of potable water: a case of Tshaanda rural village in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molelekwa, Gomotsegang F; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area) is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July) was 2 cfu/100 ml and was 2419.2 cfu/100 ml) before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml) which is within the WHO recommended level of water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF.

  18. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  19. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M.; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case?control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008?2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) cont...

  20. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  1. Piped water supply interruptions and acute diarrhea among under-five children in Addis Ababa slums, Ethiopia: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Medhin, Girmay; Kloos, Helmut; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    The problem of intermittent piped water supplies that exists in low- and middle-income countries is particularly severe in the slums of sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about whether there is deterioration of the microbiological quality of the intermittent piped water supply at a household level and whether it is a factor in reducing or increasing the occurrence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. This study aimed to determine the association of intermittent piped water supplies and point-of-use (POU) contamination of household stored water by Escherichia coli (E. coli) with acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. A community-based matched case-control study was conducted from November to December, 2014. Cases were defined as under-five children with acute diarrhea during the two weeks before the survey. Controls were matched by age and neighborhood with cases by individual matching. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and E. coli analysis of water from piped water supplies and household stored water. A five-tube method of Most Probable Number (MPN)/100 ml standard procedure was used for E. coli analysis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used for data analysis by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics. During the two weeks before the survey, 87.9% of case households and 51.0% of control households had an intermittent piped water supply for an average of 4.3 days and 3.9 days, respectively. POU contamination of household stored water by E. coli was found in 83.3% of the case households, and 52.1% of the control households. In a fully adjusted model, a periodically intermittent piped water supply (adjusted matched odds ratio (adjusted mOR) = 4.8; 95% CI: 1.3-17.8), POU water contamination in household stored water by E. coli (adjusted mOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.1-10.1), water

  2. Water Stream in Bidet Toilet Commode as a Cause of Anterior Anal Fissure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Garg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Water used as a single sharp stream in toilet commode for post defecation cleansing is a common practice in several countries across the globe including India. Repeated hitting of the anus by water stream could potentially cause injury to the anal canal epithelium and lead to development of fissure-in-ano. As the water stream is emanating from the backside of the toilet commode, the possible injury, if any, would be on the anterior anal canal. Objectives The present study aimed at determining whether water stream usage in toilet commodes increased the incidence of anterior fissure-in-ano; this was determined by the incidence of anterior fissure-in-ano the study and control groups. Methods All consecutive fissure-in-ano patients referring to a colorectal clinic from February 2012 to 2015 were included in the study. The patients were classified as a study group (who were using water stream for cleansing purposes in toilet commodes and a control group (patients who were not using water stream. The characteristics and location (position of the fissure-in-ano was noted. Results In this study, 165 patients were prospectively enrolled. Male/female ratio was 96/69, and the mean age was 36.3 ± 11.2 years. The anterior fissure-in-ano in the study group was 55.9% (47/84, while it was 17.3 % (14/81 in the control group (P < 0.0001, odds ratio: 6.08, 95% CI: 2.96 - 12.47]. Conclusions Water used as a single sharp stream to cleanse after defecation in toilet commodes is hazardous and should be avoided.

  3. Identification, measurement, and assessment of water cycle of unhusked rice agricultural phases: Case study at Tangerang paddy field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, N.; Laurence; Johannes, H. P.

    2017-11-01

    According to one of UN reports, water scarcity has happened all around the world, including Indonesia. Irrigation sector takes up 70% of world water consumption and potentially increases 20% due to the population explosion. Rice is accounted for 69% of agricultural products contributions in Indonesia’s water footprint. Therefore, evaluation of water cycle was essential to raise awareness among practitioners. Data collections were conducted in the functional unit of one-hectare rice field located in Tangerang. This study used CropWat 8.0 and SimaPro software. Identification involved data such as climate, crop, and soil. Nursery became the highest water consumed phase, requiring 419 mm in height. Measurement through water footprint resulted in consumption of green water footprint for 8,183,618.5 liters (62.9%), followed by grey for 4,805,733.2 liters (36.9%) and blue for 23,902.36 liters (0.2%). The grey consumption was exceeding the average, which indicated high doses of pesticides. Life Cycle Assessment showed negative impacts of fertilizers that caused damages like fossil depletion, respiratory health, and eutrophication.

  4. Implementation of Water Safety Plans (WSPs): A Case Study in the Coastal Area in Semarang City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyono; Ginandjar, P.; Saraswati, L. D.; Pangestuti, D. R.; Martini; Jati, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    An area of 508.28 hectares in North Semarang is flooded by tidal inundation, including Bandarharjo village, which could affect water quality in the area. People in Bandarharjo use safe water from deep groundwater, without disinfection process. More than 90% of water samples in the Bandaharjo village had poor bacteriological quality. The aimed of the research was to describe the implementation of Water Safety Plans (WSPs) program in Bandarharjo village. This was a descriptive study with steps for implementations adopted the guidelines and tools of the World Health Organization. The steps consist of introducing WSPs program, team building, training the team, examination of water safety before risk assessment, risk assessment, minor repair I, examination of water safety risk, minor repair II (after monitoring). Data were analyzed using descriptive methods. WSPs program has been introduced and formed WSPs team, and the training of the team has been conducted. The team was able to conduct risks assessment, planned the activities, examined water quality, conduct minor repair and monitoring at the source, distribution, and households connection. The WSPs program could be implemented in the coastal area in Semarang, however regularly supervision and some adjustment are needed.

  5. Performance of constructed evaporation ponds for disposal of smelter waste water: a case study at Portland Aluminum, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S A; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Coates, M; Hill, R J

    2001-06-01

    The construction of evaporative ponds and wetlands for the disposal of waste water high in ionic concentrations is a waste disposal strategy currently considered by many industries. However, the design, construction and management of these ponds and wetlands are not straightforward as complex chemical interactions result in both spatial and temporal changes in water quality. The effects of evaporation and drainage on the water quality in two constructed ponds, an adjacent man-made wetland and local groundwater at Portland Aluminium were investigated. The minimum volume of water entering the ponds during the study period was 0.96 +/- 0.16 ML per month. The predicted theoretical evaporative capacity of the two ponds was calculated to be 0.30 +/- 0.07 ML per month. More water enters the ponds than it is theoretically possible to evaporate under the ambient weather conditions at Portland, yet the ponds do not overflow, suggesting percolation through the pond lining. No spatial differences in solute concentrations (fluoride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions) were found within the waters of either pond, although temporal differences were apparent. The results support the conclusion that the ponds are not impermeable, and that much of the waste water entering the ponds is being lost through seepage. The impacts on local groundwater chemistry of this seepage are addressed. Significant correlations exist between solute presence within and between the ponds. wetland and groundwater. Fluoride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in pond waters throughout the duration of the experiment. Pond sediments revealed a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the concentration of all monitored ions resulting from the chemical heterogeneity of the material making up the pond linings. Adsorption isotherms for fluoride indicate that the adsorption capacity of the pond linings remains high for this ion

  6. Improving the relevance and impact of decision support research: A co-production framework and water management case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Dilling, L.; Basdekas, L.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    In light of the unpredictable effects of climate change and population shifts, responsible resource management will require new types of information and strategies going forward. For water utilities, this means that water supply infrastructure systems must be expanded and/or managed for changes in overall supply and increased extremes. Utilities have begun seeking innovative tools and methods to support planning and decision making, but there are limited channels through which they can gain exposure to emerging tools from the research world, and for researchers to uptake important real-world planning and decision context. A transdisciplinary team of engineers, social and climate scientists, and water managers designed this study to develop and apply a co-production framework which explores the potential of an emerging decision support tool to enhance flexibility and adaptability in water utility planning. It also demonstrates how to improve the link between research and practice in the water sector. In this study we apply the co-production framework to the use of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs). MOEAs have shown promise in being able to generate and evaluate new planning alternatives but they have had little testing or application in water utilities. Anchored by two workshops, this study (1) elicited input from water managers from six water suppliers on the Front Range of Colorado, USA, to create a testbed MOEA application, and (2) evaluated the managers' responses to multiobjective optimization results. The testbed consists of a Front Range-relevant hypothetical water supply model, the Borg MOEA, hydrology and demand scenarios, and a set of planning decisions and performance objectives that drive the link between the algorithm and the model. In this presentation we describe researcher-manager interactions at the initial workshop that served to establish relationships and provide in-depth information to researchers about regional water management

  7. A Fuzzy Linear Programming Model for Improving Productivity of Electrical Energy in Potable Water Supply Facilities (Case study: Sistan Water Supply Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Baradaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operational issues in urban drinking water production and distribution systems is to assign a plan for running hours of water supplying electric pumps. The cost of consuming electricity in these pumps allocates most of water and wastewater companies operational costs to itself which is dependent to their running hours. In this paper, meanwhile having a field study in Sistan rural water and wastewater company, the constraints for specifying electric pumps operational time in water supplying resources such as restrictions in fulfilling demand, supply potable water with suitable quality and uselessness of electric pumps have been identified. Due to uncertainty and fuzziness of the constraints, a linear programming model with fuzzy restrictions for determining electric pumps running hours per day is submitted with the aim to minimize electricity consumption and cost. After collecting and using required data for model, it proved that using the proposed model could reduce the costs of electrical energy and increase productivity up to 23 percent per month. The proposed mathematical fuzzy programming is able to specify electric pumps scheduling plan for water supply resources with the aim to reduce the costs of consuming energy.

  8. Life-history responses of insects to water-deficit stress: a case study with the aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Deguang; Dai, Peng; Li, Shirong; Ahmed, Syed Suhail; Shang, Zheming; Shi, Xiaoqin

    2018-05-29

    Drought may become one of the greatest challenges for cereal production under future warming scenarios, and its impact on insect pest outbreaks is still controversial. To address this issue, life-history responses of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), from three areas of different drought levels were compared under three water treatments. Significant differences were identified in developmental time, fecundity and adult weight among S. avenae clones from moist, semiarid and arid areas under all the three water treatments. Semiarid and arid area clones tended to have higher heritability for test life-history traits than moist area clones. We identified significant selection of water-deficit on the developmental time of 1st instar nymphs and adult weight for both semiarid and arid area clones. The impact of intermediate and severe water-stress on S. avenae's fitness was neutral and negative (e.g., decreased fecundity and weight), respectively. Compared with arid-area clones, moist- and semiarid-area clones showed higher extents of adaptation to the water-deficit level of their respective source environment. Adult weight was identified as a good indicator for S. avenae's adaptation potential under different water-stress conditions. After their exposure to intermediate water-deficit stress for only five generations, adult weight and fecundity tended to decrease for moist- and semiarid-area clones, but increase for arid-area clones. It is evident from our study that S. avenae clones from moist, semiarid and arid areas have diverged under different water-deficit stress, and such divergence could have a genetic basis. The impact of drought on S. avenae's fitness showed a water-level dependent pattern. Clones of S. avenae were more likely to become adapted to intermediate water-deficit stress than severe water-deficit stress. After continuous water-deficit stress of only five generations, the adaptation potential of S. avenae tended to decrease for moist

  9. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Support and Modeling for the Boiling Water Reactor Station Black Out Case Study Using RELAP and RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schroeder, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Aldrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nielsen, Joe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Dan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Bie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated. In order to evaluate the impact of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the impact of power uprate on the safety of a boiled water reactor system. The case study considered is a loss of off-site power followed by the loss of diesel generators, i.e., a station black out (SBO) event. Analysis is performed by using a thermo-hydraulic code, i.e. RELAP-5, and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at INL, i.e. RAVEN. Starting from the event tree models contained in SAPHIRE, we built the input file for RELAP-5 that models in great detail system dynamics under SBO conditions. We also interfaced RAVEN with RELAP-5 so that it would be possible to run multiple RELAP-5 simulation runs by changing specific keywords of the input file. We both employed classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. We also employed advanced data analysis and visualization tools that helped us to correlate simulation outcome such as maximum core temperature with a set of input uncertain parameters. Results obtained gave a detailed overview of the issues associated to power uprate for a SBO accident scenario. We were able to quantify how timing of safety related events were impacted by a higher reactor core power. Such insights can provide useful material to the decision makers to perform risk-infomed safety margins management.

  11. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil and Water Conservation Prioritization Using Geospatial Technology – a Case Study of Part of Subarnarekha Basin, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of land use and land cover have exploited the natural resources. Soil, water and forests are degraded, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Deforestation in recent years has led to changes in the environment and more of soil erosion and loss of potable water. In order to conserve and sustainably use soil and water, a watershed management approach is necessary. It helps in restoring water by increasing the infiltration and reducing the erosion of soil. Such measures should be propagated in rainfall deficit areas. The present study has attempted to study the upper watershed part of Subarnarekha basin in Jharkhand state of India. Remote sensing satellite data (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS 2013 was used for delineation of the land use/land cover and vegetation index maps. Several thematic layers like slope, drainage and rainfall were integrated to achieve a priority area map using spatial multicriteria decision making. It delineated high medium and low priority areas within the watershed for soil and water conservation. The high priority area was 16.63% of the total study area. Further, the causes were analysed and conservation measures proposed.

  13. Identification of Important Parameter from Leachate Solid Waste Landfill on Water Quality, Case Study of Pesanggrahan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanidar, R.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Cipayung Landfill takes waste generation from Depok City approximately ± 750 tons/day of solid waste. The south and west boundaries of the landfill is Pesanggarahan River which 200m faraway. The objectives of this study are to indicate an important parameter which greatly affects the water quality of Pesanggrahan River and purpose the dynamic model for improving our understanding of the dynamic behavior that captures the interactions and feedbacks important parameter in river in order to identify and assess the effects of the treated leachate from final solid waste disposal activity as it responds to changes over time in the river. The high concentrations of BOD and COD are not the only cause significantly affect the quality of the pesanggrahan water, it also because the river has been contaminated in the upstream area. It need the water quality model to support the effectiveness calculation of activities for preventing a selected the pollutant sources the model should be developed for simulating and predicting the trend of water quality performance in Pesanggrahan River which can potentially be used by policy makers in strategic management to sustain river water quality as raw drinking water.

  14. Preliminary studies on membrane filtration for the production of potable water: a case of Tshaanda rural village in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomotsegang F Molelekwa

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration (UF systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July was 2 cfu/100 ml and was 2419.2 cfu/100 ml before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml which is within the WHO recommended level of <10 cfu/100 ml. Additionally, during the wet/rainy season E. coli and enterococci were unacceptably high (40.4 cfu/100 ml and 73.3 cfu/100 ml, respectively before UF but were completely removed following UF, which are within the WHO and SANS recommended limit. The values for electrical conductivity (EC and turbidity were constantly within the WHO recommended limits of 300 µS/cm corrected at 25°C and <5 NTU, respectively, before and after UF, during dry season and wet season. This suggests that there is no need for pre-treatment of the water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF.

  15. A mixed-methods approach to assessing success in transitioning water management institutions: a case study of the Platte River Basin, Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hoffman Babbitt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To address increasing conflicts between surface water and groundwater users, the state of Nebraska has adopted a more localized and integrated approach in managing water resources. Integrated approaches offer promise in better managing connected water resources within the state; however, little review of the potential benefits and/or challenges of these actions has been conducted. This case study uses both qualitative and quantitative data collection efforts to take an in-depth look at how this new and innovative management system is working through the eyes of stakeholders living and working in the basin. Data collection reveals that overall the current water management system is working relatively well, even though it is still in its infancy. However, the system could be further improved by ensuring all that stakeholder interests are represented, providing increased opportunities to participate, and continuing to work toward more holistic and proactive water management.

  16. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  17. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  18. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  19. Impacts of Mackenzie gas project on water supply systems of northern communities : Fort Simpson as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathrani, M.; Johnson, K.

    2007-01-01

    The proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) is a 1220-kilometre natural gas pipeline system along the Mackenzie Valley of Canada's Northwest Territories. The line will connect northern onshore gas fields with North American markets. Four major Canadian oil and gas companies and a group representing the Aboriginal peoples of Canada's Northwest Territories are partners in the proposed MGP. The MGP is currently in the project definition stage that involves examining the effect of the project on northern communities. Fort Simpson is located on an island, on the forks of the Mackenzie and Liard Rivers and is proposed as the major route for the MGP with the construction of barge handling areas, storage areas, camps/housing units and use of air and highway facilities. These activities are expected to result in burden on local civil infrastructure systems including water supply systems. Although the environmental impacts of the project on the community's infrastructure systems are projected by the MGP proponents, the local authority wanted to conduct its own assessment of the impacts on local water supply system. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the amount of water used by the community based upon available water use records and the current operational and maintenance costs based upon available financial documents. The study also estimated future water requirements based upon MGP activities and associated population growth. Current and future economic rates were also determined. 13 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Comparison of “Morning Olifera Seed Extract and Magnafloc LT25” in Removal of Water Turbidity Case Study: Tehran’s Jalalieh (1 Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khan ahmadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation-flocculation is one of the most important processes for water treatment, commonly used all over the world. The use of synthetic polymers known as “Polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid is now wide spread in water treatment plants. Tehran’s “Jalalieh WTP” has been using an anionic polyelectrolyte under the trade name of “Magna Floc LT25” for a number of years MagnaFloc LT25 (MF-LT25 is a synthetic coagulant with high molecular weight, produced in granular and powder form. The application of this coagulant aid is known to be most effective if injected to water after addition of main coagulant (Ferric Chloride in Tehran’s WTP.  However the use of synthetic polymers in treatment of drinking water has always been under question due to extract of MO seed contains proteins soluble in water which have high coagulating properties. This pilot scale study was performed to compare the coagulating properties of seed extract of MO to MF-LT25, The tests were carried out on Tehran’s raw water in Jalalieh treatment plant. Several turbidity ranges such as 5, 20, 100, and 200 NTU were used representing real seasonal turbidities of influent water to treatment plant. Optimum concentration of the coagulant and coagulant aid was determined within water pH values of 6, 7 and 8, using common “Jar Test” technique. The extract of Moringa Oleifera seed in optimum concentration of 10, 14,25,35 mg/L and optimum pH of 8 is capable in removal of 96.5, 97.4, 98.5 and 99% of water turbidity range of 5, 20, 100, and 200 NTU respectively. Under similar conditions, MF-LT25 removal efficiency were found 97, 98.1, 98.4 and 99.4% of water turbidity range of 5, 20, 100, and 200 NTU at optimum concentrations of 0.015, 0.02, 0.025, 0.03 mg/L respectively. The results also showed that the extract of Moringa Oleifera seed is a powerful coagulating agent, at alkalinity pH values, and is more effective for high turbid waters. It compared well with synthetic

  1. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  2. Identification of source and recharge zones in an aquifer system from water stable isotope. Case Study Bajo Cauca Antioqueno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio B, Paola Andrea; Betancur V, Teresita

    2008-01-01

    Hydrology and hydrogeochemical are auxiliary techniques to valid conceptual hydrogeology an recharge models. Stable isotopes from water trace sources and path flow and Tritium indicates age. This paper is about the use of D 18, D 2H y 3H to study the aquifer system on Bajo Cauca antioqueno

  3. Decision Tree Analysis Of Processes Generating Water-Related Building Damage : A Case Study In Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Piasecki, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the main failure mechanisms behind water-related building damage and to investigate to what extent these processes are related to characteristics of buildings and rainfall events. Results are based on the mining of property level insurance damage data, for

  4. Modelling the impact of rural land use scenarios on water management: a FREEWAT approach to the Bakumivka catchment case study, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Grodzynskyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bakumivka River’s catchment, Ukraine serves as a case study to the application of FREEWAT to the ground and surface water management. The main objective of the study is to find out the optimal spatial distribution of the water supplied to the farms by modifying the land cover pattern of the catchment. An integrated numerical model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the water budget components. The model includes four model layers, representing the main hydrostratigraphic units, different types of boundary conditions assigned along the area’s boundaries, major components of the water balance introduced through source and sink layers. It was implemented through the FREEWAT software. Three water management scenarios were developed in order to compare different spatial patterns of land cover and distribution of water within the Bakumivka River’s basin. The scenarios represent continuum from market oriented pattern to environmentally sounding pattern of land cover. The objective of the modeling exercise is to obtain mass balances and maps representing three scenarios of water management. Each map shows distribution of the areas where the water balance is optimal, insufficient (dry or excessive (wet for vegetation (land cover of particular type.The simulation shows that changing spatial land cover pattern is an effective measure to reduce water supply to the farms, however it does not prevent water logging in the areas adjacent to the flood plains and drying on summer stress periods in lands of sandyloam soils. Irrigation should be excluded in the areas with sandy and sandyloam soils. The flood plain with peat bogs despite the high water head in spring and late summer stress periods should be irrigated to prevent peat fires. The intrusion of eco-corridors to the land cover pattern in the catchment is positive from ecological perspective, but could prevent drainage causing water logging in the arable lands.

  5. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  6. Study of Mechanisms for Development and Strengthening of Water User Cooperatives (Case Study of Aras River Basin): Application of AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rohallah maghabl

    2014-01-01

    Water user cooperatives were formed due to consideration to people's empowerment and participation in water investment and management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of development and strengthening of water user cooperatives in the Aras River Basin. The study population consisted of the management board members of the water user cooperatives in the Aras Basin in the year 2012. Respondents were selected by purposeful stratified sampling method. Having the data col...

  7. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  8. Modeling the hydrologic effects of land and water development interventions: a case study of the upper Blue Nile river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Over 67% of the Ethiopian landmass has been identified as very vulnerable to climate variability and land degradation. These problems are more prevalent in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN, often called Abay) river basin covering a drainage area of about 199,800 km2. The UBN River runs from Lake Tana (NW Ethiopia) to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. To enhance the adaptive capacity to the high climate variability and land degradation in the basin, different land and water management measures (stone/soil bunds, runoff collector trenches, exclosures) have been extensively implemented, especially since recent years. Moreover, multipurpose water harvesting schemes including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD, reservoir area of ca. 4000 km2) and 17 other similar projects are being or to be implemented by 2025. However, impact studies on land and water management aspects rarely include detailed hydrological components especially at river basin scale, although it is generally regarded as a major determinant of hydrological processes. The main aim of this study is therefore to model the significance of land and water management interventions in surface runoff response at scale of UBN river basin and to suggest some recommendations. Spatially-distributed annual surface runoff was simulated for both present-day and future (2025) land and water management conditions using calibrated values of the proportional loss model in ArcGIS environment. Average annual rainfall map (1998-2012) was produced from calibrated TRMM satellite source and shows high spatial variability of rainfall ranging between ca. 1000 mm in the Eastern part of the basin to ca. 2000 mm in the southern part of the basin. Present-day land use day condition was obtained from Abay Basin Master Plan study. The future land use map was created taking into account the land and water development interventions to be implemented by 2025. Under present-day conditions, high spatial variability of annual runoff depth was observed

  9. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  10. Importance of isotope hydrology techniques in water resources management: A case study of the Makutupora basin in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senguji, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Makutupora groundwater basin has been the main source of water supply for Dodoma town since 1950s. the water is mainly used for domestic water supply to over one million inhabitants, for industrial purposes and livestock watering. Conventional hydrogeological investigations have been carried out in the basin to gather information on the groundwater potential of the basin to meet the ever-increasing demand for water. However, firm conclusions could not be reached with conventional methods. This paper highlights on the isotope techniques applied in an integrated manner with conventional hydrogeological methods to study the groundwater regime of the Makutupora basin. Results of isotope techniques have provided adequate information on recharge locations, recharge rates and age of groundwater in the basin, that is very important and open up prospects for further investigations using isotope techniques. The ongoing investigation in the basin regarding pollution and depletion of the groundwater resource, has not succeeded in defining specific pumping limits or groundwater protection zones. Isotope data are sought to provide a clear basis for regulatory and future groundwater management in the Makutupora basin. (author)

  11. Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwa Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0, which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop water requirement (CWR. CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use.

  12. The Importance of Water Temperature Fluctuations in Relation to the Hydrological Factor. Case Study – Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc Gianina Maria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in most components of the climate over the past 50 years, including air and water temperature, is a real phenomenon, as attested by the numerous specialized researches according to IPCC (2013. The water temperature is one of the most important climatic components in analyzing the hydrological regime of the Bistrita River (Romania. The thermal regime of the Bistrita River basin and the frost phenomena associated with the risk factor are particularly important and frequently appear in this area. In recent years, under the Siret Water Basin Administration, this parameter was permanently monitored, so we could do an analysis, which shows that the water temperature fluctuations, influenced by air temperature, lead to the emergence of the ice jam phenomenon. The present study aims to analyze the water temperature, as compared to the air temperature, and the effect of these components on the liquid flow regime (the values were recorded at the hydrological stations on the main course of the Bistrita River. The negative effects resulted from the ice jam phenomenon require developing methods of damage prevention and defense. The frost phenomena recorded after the construction of the Bicaz dam are analyzed in this article

  13. Applicability of Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement in a Tea Estate Catchment: The Pussellawa Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. P. R. Weerakoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water in agricultural catchments is prone to pollution from agricultural runoff containing nutrients and pesticides, and contamination from the human population working and residing therein. This study examined the quality of water in a drainage stream which runs through a congested network of ‘line houses’ (low-income housing, typically found arranged in straight ‘lines’ on estates in the tea estate catchment area of Pussellawa in central Sri Lanka. The study evaluated the applicability of vertical subsurface flow (VSSF and horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF constructed wetlands for water polishing, as the residents use the stream water for various domestic purposes with no treatment other than possibly boiling. Water flow in the stream can vary significantly over time, and so investigations were conducted at various flow conditions to identify the hydraulic loading rate (HLR bandwidth for wetland polishing applications. Two wetland models of 8 m × 1 m × 0.6 m (length × width × depth were constructed and arranged as VSSF and HSSF units. Stream water was diverted to these units at HLRs of 3.3, 4, 5, 10, 20, and 40 cm/day. Results showed that both VSSF and HSSF wetland units were capable of substantially reducing five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS, fecal coliform (FC, total coliform (TC, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N up to 20 cm/day HLR, with removal efficiencies of more than 64%, 60%, 90%, 93%, 70%, and 59% for BOD5, TSS, FC, TC, NH4+-N, and NO3−-N, respectively, in the VSSF wetland unit; and more than 66%, 62%, 91%, 90%, 53%, and 77% for BOD5, TSS, FC, TC, NH4+-N, and NO3−-N, respectively, in the HSSF wetland unit.

  14. [A case-control study on the relationship of crocidolite pollution in drinking water with the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Dayao County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jing; Peng, Wenjia; Jia, Xianjie; Wei, Binggan; Yang, Linsheng; Hu, Liming; Lu, Rong'an

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship of crocidolite pollution in drinking water with the risk of gastrointestinal cancer's death in Dayao County. A 1:2 matched case-control study involving 54 death cases of gastrointestinal cancer from a population-based cohort of twenty-seven years and 108 controls matched by age, gender, death time, etc was conducted to analyze the effect of local water condition on the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Dayao County. Results from logistic regression analysis suggested the longer of asbestos furnace use over time, the higher the mortality risk of gastrointestinal cancer (6 - 10 years: OR = 2.920, 95% CI 1.501 - 5.604. 11 - 15 years: OR = 3.966, 95% CI 2.156 -7.950. Over 15 years: OR = 4.122, 95% CI 1.211 - 7. 584). Drinking unboiled water leaded to an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 - 1.88). Type of drinking water was associated with gastrointestinal cancer. When compared with drinking tap water, OR for drinking well water was 1.770 (95% CI 1.001 - 2.444), 2.442 for drinking river water (95% CI 0.956 - 3.950), 2.554 for drinking house and field ditch water (95% CI 1.961 - 6.584), and 3.121 for drinking pond water (95% CI 1.872 - 6.566). Related factors of drinking water in crocidolite-contaminated area in Dayao County were significantly associated with the mortality of gastrointestinal cancer.

  15. Estimates of Soil Moisture Using the Land Information System for Land Surface Water Storage: Case Study for the Western States Water Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P. W.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Levoe, S.; Reager, J. T., II; David, C. H.; Kumar, S.; Li, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is one of the critical factors in terrestrial hydrology. Accurate soil moisture information improves estimation of terrestrial water storage and fluxes, that is essential for water resource management including sustainable groundwater pumping and agricultural irrigation practices. It is particularly important during dry periods when water stress is high. The Western States Water Mission (WSWM), a multiyear mission project of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is operated to understand and estimate quantities of the water availability in the western United States by integrating observations and measurements from in-situ and remote sensing sensors, and hydrological models. WSWM data products have been used to assess and explore the adverse impacts of the California drought (2011-2016) and provide decision-makers information for water use planning. Although the observations are often more accurate, simulations using land surface models can provide water availability estimates at desired spatio-temporal scales. The Land Information System (LIS), developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, integrates developed land surface models and data processing and management tools, that enables to utilize the measurements and observations from various platforms as forcings in the high performance computing environment to forecast the hydrologic conditions. The goal of this study is to implement the LIS in the western United States for estimates of soil moisture. We will implement the NOAH-MP model at the 12km North America Land Data Assimilation System grid and compare to other land surface models included in the LIS. Findings will provide insight into the differences between model estimates and model physics. Outputs from a multi-model ensemble from LIS can also be used to enhance estimated reliability and provide quantification of uncertainty. We will compare the LIS-based soil moisture estimates to the SMAP enhanced 9 km soil moisture product to understand the

  16. Oil-in-water nanocontainers as low environmental impact cleaning tools for works of art: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero

    2007-05-22

    A novel class of p-xylene-in-water microemulsions mainly based on nonionic surfactants and their application as low impact cleaning tool in cultural heritage conservation is presented. Alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and Triton X-100 surfactants allow obtaining very effective low impact oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions as alternatives to pure organic solvents for the removal of polymers (particularly Paraloid B72 and Primal AC33) applied during previous conservation treatments. The ternary APG/p-xylene/water microemulsions have been characterized by quasi elastic light scattering to obtain the hydrodynamic radius and the polydispersity of the microemulsion droplets. Laplace inversion of the correlation function CONTIN analysis provided evidence of acrylic copolymers solubilization into the oil nanodroplets. Contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) data confirmed that microemulsions were effective in removing polymer coatings. The phase diagram of APG microemulsions showed that a reduction >90% (compared to the conventional cleaning methods) of the organic solvent can be achieved by using o/w microemulsions. The microemulsions were successfully tested in two real cases: (1) the APG based microemulsion was used in a Renaissance painting by Vecchietta in Santa Maria della Scala, Siena, Italy, degraded by the presence of a polyacrylate coating applied during a previous restoration and (2) a Triton X-100 oil-in-water microemulsion containing (NH4)2CO3 in the water continuous phase. The association of ammoniun carbonate to the microemusion led to the swelling of an organic deposit (mainly asphaltenes deposited on the fresco in the Oratorio di San Nicola al Ceppo in Florence, still contamined by the water of the Arno river during the 1966 flood) and a very efficient removal of highly insoluble inorganic deposits (mainly gypsum) strongly associated to asphaltenes. These innovative systems are

  17. Water Use Efficiency Improvement against a Backdrop of Expanding City Agglomeration in Developing Countries—A Case Study on Industrial and Agricultural Water Use in the Bohai Bay Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Bai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Most city agglomerations of developing countries face water shortages and pollution due to population growth and industrial aggregation. To meet such water security challenges, policy makers need to evaluate water use efficiency at the regional or basin level because the prosperity of city agglomerations is indispensable to the sustainable development of the region or basin. To solve the issue, this paper adopts a non-directional distance function within the framework of environmental production technology to measure water use efficiency. Based on the distance between actual water use efficiency and the ideal efficiency, it calculates the potential reduction space of water input and pollutants by slack adjustment. Added to the Malmquist index, it forms a non-radial Malmquist water use performance index, which can be divided into technological change and technical efficiency change, to measure dynamic water use efficiency. Further, water use efficiency change is analyzed from the perspectives of technological improvement and institutional construction. Bohai Bay city agglomeration, a typical water-deficient city agglomeration in China, is taken as a case study, and data on water resource, environment, and economy from 2011 to 2014 have been used. In conclusion, there is much space for water use efficiency improvement on the whole. However, even having considered potential reduction space of water input and pollutant discharge under current environmental production technology, it is still not enough to support the city agglomeration’s sustainable development. To relieve current potential water safety hazards, not only technical improvement but also institution innovation for highly efficient water use should be kept accelerating in Bohai Bay region. In terms of urban water management in developing countries, the research conclusion is of theoretical and practical significance.

  18. Flow-Signature Analysis of Water Consumption in Nonresidential Building Water Networks Using High-Resolution and Medium-Resolution Smart Meter Data: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Eoghan; Mulligan, Sean; Comer, Joanne; Hannon, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water consumption activities can be an effective mechanism to achieve efficient water network management. This approach, largely enabled by the advent of smart metering technologies, is gradually being practiced in domestic and industrial contexts. In particular, identifying water consumption habits from flow-signatures, i.e., the specific end-usage patterns, is being investigated as a means for conservation in both the residential and nonresidential context. However, the quality of meter data is bivariate (dependent on number of meters and data temporal resolution) and as a result, planning a smart metering scheme is relatively difficult with no generic design approach available. In this study, a comprehensive medium-resolution to high-resolution smart metering program was implemented at two nonresidential trial sites to evaluate the effect of spatial and temporal data aggregation. It was found that medium-resolution water meter data were capable of exposing regular, continuous, peak use, and diurnal patterns which reflect group wide end-usage characteristics. The high-resolution meter data permitted flow-signature at a personal end-use level. Through this unique opportunity to observe water usage characteristics via flow-signature patterns, newly defined hydraulic-based design coefficients determined from Poisson rectangular pulse were developed to intuitively aid in the process of pattern discovery with implications for automated activity recognition applications. A smart meter classification and siting index was introduced which categorizes meter resolution in terms of their suitable application.

  19. Evaluation of Reductive Option of Water Hammer Phenomenon for a Water Conveyance System, A Case Study of Shahid Shirdom Residential District-Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomars roshangar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden changes in the boundary conditions of water transmission systems, such as sudden opening and closing of valves or abrupt on and off switching of pumps and turbines cause a transient flow called ‘water hammer’. In this study, comparisons were made between the effective parameters including pipeline material, on the one hand, and the equipment and tools available for reducing the effects of water hammer, on the other. For this purpose, a practical example of a water transmission line from a pumping station located near Shahid Shirdom Residential District to the upstream reservoir in Tehran was used for modeling by the Bentley Hammer XMV: 8 software. The results obtained for the different parameters and options were compared and it was revealed that, regarding the pipe material, GRP pipes reduced pressure by 49.1 Kpa compared to the Asbestos cement pipes and by 50.3 Kpa compared to the iron pipes. Comparison of the results for the protective systems indicated that the surge tank outperformed the other alternatives in controlling pressure such that maximum pressure was reduced by 3.9 bar when using surge tanks compared to the flywheel and by 5 bar compared to the check valve. Finally, it was found that the concurrent use of the surge tank and the flywheel would be the most ideal method for controlling the water hammer effects.

  20. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as an instrument of water resource management: a case study from a GIS-based Water Safety Plan in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienand, I; Nolting, U; Kistemann, T

    2009-01-01

    Following international developments and the new WHO Drinking Water Guidelines (WHO 2004) a process-orientated concept for risk, monitoring and incident management has been developed and implemented in this study. The concept will be reviewed with special consideration for resource protection (first barrier of the multi-barrier system) and in turn, for the Water Safety Plan (WSP) which adequately considers-beyond the current framework of legal requirements-possible new hygienic-microbiologically relevant risks (especially emerging pathogens) for the drinking water supply. The development of a WSP within the framework of risk, monitoring and incident management includes the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). In the present study, GIS was used for visualization and spatial analysis in decisive steps in the WSP. The detailed process of GIS-supported implementation included the identification of local participants and their tasks and interactions as an essential part of risk management. A detailed ecological investigation of drinking water conditions in the catchment area was conducted in addition to hazard identification, risk assessment and the monitoring of control measures. The main task of our study was to find out in which steps of the WSP the implementation of GIS could be integrated as a useful, and perhaps even an essential tool.

  1. The impact of pesticides use on surface water and groundwater: a case study in the Kadjebi District, Volta Region, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraj, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    The Kadjebi district is predominantly made up of farming communities, hence, the major economic activities in the area are the cultivation of cocoa, ginger, maize, vegetables. The extensive use of organochlorines, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids have raised concerns about potential adverse effect on human health and the environment. This study aims at assessing the impact of pesticide use on surface water and groundwater in the Kadjebi District of the Volta Region of Ghana. Results of the study revealed that about 92.6% of farmers used one or more pesticides obtained from agro-chemical shops, Cocoa Marketing Board, cooperative societies and relatives in labelled and unlabeled containers. Of these numbers, 62% admitted not having access to services of the extension officers on the use and application of pesticides, hence, believe that, the more the chemical applied the faster and better the result. 18% of the farmers reported positively to the use of protective gears to cover the whole body during pesticide application, 12% cover only the face while 45% do not use any protective gear. On the disposal of the pesticide containers, 51% indicated that, they re-use the containers for food and water storage after thoroughly washing with soap and water. The data obtained also showed a high risk of pesticide poisoning and occupational exposure, about 68% of the respondents reported clinical symptoms of pesticide poisoning such as nausea, headache, blurred vision, eye irritation, dizziness, vomiting and skin irritation. About 51% of water samples analyzed showed positive detections of pesticide residues while all sediments samples showed positive detections of pesticides residues varying from one to five different types of pesticides residues. The common pesticides residues found in the samples were Deltamethrine, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Dieldrin, Fenvaerate, Lambda-cyhal, p,p’ DDT. Synthetic pyrethroids (72%) were the dominant residues detected. Deltamethrine

  2. Spatiotemporal Variation of Dissolved Carbon in Semi-humid/arid Inland Waters: A Case Study from Songnen Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 34 waters across the semi-humid/arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with 320 samples collected in 2011-2012. Large variations in both the concentration and quality of DOC are revealed, ranging from 0.47 mgL-1 to 720 mgL-1, which is mainly caused by the hydro-climatic condition in the plain. Large variations of DOC and DIC concentrations are observed between open (mean ± sd: 5.6 ± 2.4 mgL-1, 57.4 ± 34.7 mgL-1) and closed lakes (43.3 ± 7.9 mgL-1, 172.9 ± 113.3 mgL-1). Temporally, higher DOC and DIC concentrations are measured for ice-underlying water in winter than ice-free seasons. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations are higher after high discharge events with terrigenous sources of CDOM/DOC dominated, while autochthonous sources also contributed to CDOM/DOC concentrations during algal bloom seasons. An interesting result of this study is that the non-outflow conditions for various water catchments had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity and dissolved carbon parameters, e.g. salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.83, p DOC (R2 = 0.79, p DOC/DIC from salinity measurements for thousand of waters dispersed in the semi-arid Songnen Plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. E250:365, DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM components and sources. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in open waters than closed waters.

  3. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-L. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2–3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL, which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1 LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2 RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3 Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  4. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-liang; Feng, Jing-jing; Rong, Li-ming; Zhao, Ting-ning

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2-3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW) in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL), which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1) LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2) RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3) Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  5. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  6. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling land subsidence due to shallow-water hydrocarbon production: A case study in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambolati, G.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Janna, C.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    One major environmental concern of subsurface fluid withdrawal is land subsidence. The issue of a reliable estimate and prediction of the expected anthropogenic land subsidence is particularly important whenever the production of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) occurs from large reservoirs located close to deltaic zones (e.g., Mississippi, Po, Nile, Niger, Yellow rivers) or shallow-water with low-lying coastlands (e.g., Northern Caspian sea, Dutch Wadden Sea). In such cases even a small reduction of the ground elevation relative to the mean sea level may impact seriously on human settlements and natural environment. The monitoring of the ongoing land subsidence has been significantly improved over the last decade by SAR-based interferometry. These measurements can be quite effectively used to map the process and calibrate geomechanical models for predicting the future event. However, this powerful methodology cannot be implemented off-shore. Although permanent GPS stations can be established to monitor the movement of the production facilities usually installed above the gravity center of a reservoir, an accurate characterization of the settlement bowl affecting the sea bottom, with a possible migration toward the shore, is a challenge still today. In the present communication the case study of the Riccione gas reservoir is discussed. The field is located in the near-shore northern Adriatic Sea, approximately 15 km far from the coastline, where the seawater height is about 20 m. The gas-bearing strata are 1100 m deep and are hydraulically connected to a relatively weak aquifer. Production of 70% of the cumulative reserves as of 2006 yielded a pore pressure decrease of 60 bars. Reliable geometry and geomechanical properties of the depleted formations were detected with the aid of a 3D seismic survey and a borehole equipped with radioactive markers, respectively. The latter pointed out that the Riccione formations are characterized by an unusually high oedometer

  8. Incorporating palaeoclimate data into water security planning and decision making - a case study from southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiem, Anthony; Vance, Tessa; Tozer, Carly; Roberts, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers in the water sector need to deal with existing hydroclimatic variability and uncertainty about future changes to climate and catchment conditions. Identifying solutions for hydroclimatic risk adaptation strategies that are both optimal and robust in the presence of variability and uncertainty presents a difficult challenge. A major reason for this challenge is the fact that the instrumental record in Australia is short ( 60-130 years) and fails to encompass enough climate variability to allow the calculation of robust statistics around the baseline risk of extreme events (e.g. multi-year droughts, decadal periods with clustering of major flood events). This climate variability is documented pre-1900 in palaeoclimate records from sources such as corals, tree-rings, freshwater and marine sediments. Despite being remote from Queensland, a high resolution and highly correlated palaeoclimate record from the Law Dome ice cores in Antarctica (Vance et al. 2015) is also now available and has identified eight mega-droughts (lasting from 5-39 years) during 1000-2009 AD. Most importantly, the palaeoclimate information confirms that the post-1900 instrumental period (i.e. the period on which all water resources infrastructure, policy, operation rules and strategies is based) does not capture the full range of variability that has occurred. Other work also clearly shows that, out to 2050 at least, impacts associated with natural variability significantly exceed even the worst-case climate change scenarios (i.e. obtained from Global Climate Models run under the highest emission scenarios). This presentation will demonstrate how the Law Dome ice cores from Antarctica have been used to produce a highly accurate, 1000 year, annual and seasonal resolution, hydroclimate reconstruction (i.e. precipitation and streamflow) for the southeast Queensland region of Australia. We will then show how the palaeoclimate data has been incorporated into the South East Queensland

  9. Application of a water quality model for determining instream aeration station location and operational rules: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Melching

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Instream aeration has been used as a supplement to secondary treatment or a substitute for tertiary treatment for meeting dissolved oxygen (DO standards in rivers. Many studies have used water quality models to determine the number, location, and capacity of instream aeration stations (IASs needed to meet DO standards in combination with other pollution control measures. DO concentrations have been improved in the North Shore Channel and North Branch Chicago River by the Devon Avenue IAS for more than 35 years. A study was initiated to determine whether it was better to rehabilitate or relocate this station and to determine appropriate operational guidance for the IAS at the selected location. A water quality model capable of simulating DO concentrations during unsteady flow was used to evaluate the proper location for an IAS and operational guidance for this IAS. Three test years, a dry year, a wet year, and an extreme year, were considered in the evaluation. The study found that the Devon Avenue IAS should be rehabilitated as this location performed as well as or better than any of 10 alternative locations. According to the new operational guidance for this IAS, the amount of time with blowers operating could be substantially reduced compared to traditional operations while at the same time the attainment of the DO standards could be increased. This study shows that a carefully designed modeling study is key to effective selection, location, and operation of IASs such that attainment of DO standards can be maximized while operation hours of blowers can be minimized. Keywords: Instream aeration, Dissolved oxygen, Water quality modeling, Water quality management, Computer simulation

  10. Assessing food security in water scarce regions by Life Cycle Analysis: a case study in the Gaza strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Food security is a major issue in Palestine for both political and physical reasons, with direct effects on the local population living conditions: the nutritional level of people in Gaza is classified by FAO as "insecure". As most of the protein supply comes from irrigated agricultural production and aquaculture, freshwater availability is a limiting factor to food security, and the primary reason for frequent conflicts among food production processes (e.g. aquaculture, land livestock or different types of crops). In this study we use Life Cycle Analysis to assess the environmental impacts associated to all the stages of water-based protein production (from agriculture and aquaculture) in the Gaza strip under different agricultural scenarios and hydroclimatic variability. As reported in several recent studies, LCA seems to be an appropriate methodology to analyze agricultural systems and assess associated food security in different socio-economic contexts. However, we argue that the inherently linear and static nature of LCA might prove inadequate to tackle with the complex interaction between water cycle variability and the food production system in water-scarce regions of underdeveloped countries. Lack of sufficient and reliable data to characterize the water cycle is a further source of uncertainty affecting the robustness of the analysis. We investigate pros and cons of LCA and LCA-based option planning in an average size farm in Gaza strip, where farming and aquaculture are family-based and integrated by reuse of fish breeding water for irrigation. Different technological solutions (drip irrigation system, greenhouses etc.) are evaluated to improve protein supply and reduce the pressure on freshwater, particularly during droughts. But this use of technology represent also a contribution in increasing sustainability in agricultural processes, and therefore in economy, of Gaza Strip (reduction in chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc.).

  11. Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flow Model To Evaluate Regional Water Security: A Case Study In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater service, as the most important support ecosystem service, is essential to human survival and development. Many studies have evidenced the spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services and raised the concept of ecosystem service flow. However, rather few