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  1. Postpartum hemorrhage prevention: a case study in northern rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Kane; Bailey, Joanne Motiño; Sacks, Emma; Medina, Lilian; Piñeda, Hector Oqueli Lopez

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. Safe Motherhood policies have been directed towards the reduction of PPH by recommending active management of third-stage labor as the standard of care. One component of active management involves routine use of a uterotonic agent within 1 minute of the delivery of the baby. A case study at Clínica Materno-Infantil, a free-standing public birth center in Honduras, is presented, focusing on methods to reduce PPH. The nursing staff was trained to estimate blood loss and in methods to manage PPH, including elements of active management of the third stage of labor. Medical records were reviewed and an analysis of PPH management compared to estimated blood loss (EBL) was conducted. There was no significant correlation between PPH management techniques and EBL (r = .060; P = .368). There was a statistically significant (P Materno-Infantil, routine use of a uterotonic agent appears beneficial and further implementation of active management of the third stage of labor appears warranted.

  2. Does output market development affect irrigation water institutions? Insights from a case study in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of changing external conditions on irrigation water institutions in northern China. To this end, we perform a case study analysis of the impact of output market development on irrigation water transactions, using survey data collected among 315 hou

  3. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.

  4. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

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    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  5. Resorts, second home owners and distance: a case study in northern Finland

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    Pekka Kauppila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors for the site selection of a second home is the space-time dimension. For example, the popularity of second home tourism in the hinterland of population centres is based on the short distance between second homes and the permanent residence of second home owners. In the case of peripheral resorts, however, the main reason for a large number of second homes is the attractiveness of the area associated with a high level of touristic elements. The study examines the municipalities of residence of the second home owners in four large resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in northern Finland. After analysing the geographical distribution of the owners with maps and diagrams the aim of the paper is to present a distance model for the resorts located in a northern periphery from the viewpoint of the regions of destination. Generally speaking, the model resembles a U-letter. In this respect, the resorts have three zones – day trip, weekend and vacation – and each of them has their own characteristics based on accessibility and regional structure, the number and structure of population (potential owners and land ownership. In the planning context, the proposed model can be utilised as a tool for the marketing of resorts as a second home environment as well as for analysing and comparing the overall attractiveness of resorts.

  6. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

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    Mariassunta Galli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  7. Lacustrine responses to decreasing wet mercury deposition rates: results from a case study in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gay, David A.; Maki, Ryan P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Wiener, James G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a case study comparing metrics of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination for four undeveloped lakes in Voyageurs National Park to wet atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg), sulfate (SO4–2), and hydrogen ion (H+) in northern Minnesota. Annual wet Hg, SO4–2, and H+ deposition rates at two nearby precipitation monitoring sites indicate considerable decreases from 1998 to 2012 (mean decreases of 32, 48, and 66%, respectively). Consistent with decreases in the atmospheric pollutants, epilimnetic aqueous methylmercury (MeHgaq) and mercury in small yellow perch (Hgfish) decreased in two of four lakes (mean decreases of 46.5% and 34.5%, respectively, between 2001 and 2012). Counter to decreases in the atmospheric pollutants, MeHgaq increased by 85% in a third lake, whereas Hgfish increased by 80%. The fourth lake had two disturbances in its watershed during the study period (forest fire; changes in shoreline inundation due to beaver activity); this lake lacked overall trends in MeHgaq and Hgfish. The diverging responses among the study lakes exemplify the complexity of ecosystem responses to decreased loads of atmospheric pollutants.

  8. The Northern Ireland Early Onset Psychosis Study: Phenomenology and Co-Morbidity in the First 25 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Karen; Short, Mary; Harvey-Smith, Diane; Rushe, Teresa M.; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing psychotic disorders in young people is difficult. High rates of co-morbidity may be one reason for this difficulty, but it may also be the case that current diagnostic categories are not the most useful when approaching the care of young people with psychotic symptoms. The Northern Ireland Early Onset Psychosis Study is the first study…

  9. Interhousehold variability and its effects on seed circulation networks: a case study from northern Cameroon

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    Jean Wencélius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed ethnographic case study of sorghum seed acquisitions in a smallholder farming society in northern Cameroon. The effects of variability in household demographics and socioeconomic status on observed patterns of seed provisioning are explored alongside other variables such as age and gender. Our data set comprised 223 seed acquisition events. Independence tests (Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were carried out to test for significant dependencies between individual- or household-level characteristics and properties of seed acquisition events (categories of seed source, social relationship of exchange, and type of landrace. Results indicate that wealth is a structuring factor of the local seed circulation network in as much as it is highly correlated with household composition and size. Members from wealthy households benefit from a more diverse set of seed sources. Their greater number of coresidents and the importance of intrahousehold dynamics of seed transactions also play a role in making wealthy farmers more seed secure than others. The methodological implications of our findings indicate that when documenting seed exchange networks, the collection of data through a single informant or the undertaking of social network analyses at the household level may induce important biases.

  10. The need for sustainable development of the small-scale fisheries - A case study from the Northern Province, Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    Nimalan, Nadanasabesan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to explore the present situation of the coastal small-scale fishery in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka and to bring an overall picture of the coastal small-scale fishery. To attain this, a strength, weakness, opportunity and threat matrix was formulated. The study also point out the main bottlenecks of sustainable fishery development. Finally the study recommends ways to improve the present situation. The study used case study research methodology. T...

  11. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  12. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melak, Dawit [Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Kalman, David [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parra, Roxana [Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 μg/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 μg/L (median = 60 μg/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 μg/L.

  13. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

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    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  14. Spatiotemporal Bayesian Networks for Malaria Prediction: Case Study of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddawy, Peter; Kasantikul, Rangwan; Hasan, A H M Imrul; Rattanabumrung, Chunyanuch; Rungrun, Pichamon; Suksopee, Natwipa; Tantiwaranpant, Saran; Niruntasuk, Natcha

    2016-01-01

    While a diversity of modeling technique have been used to create predictive models of malaria, no work has made use of Bayesian networks. Bayes nets are attractive due to their ability to represent uncertainty, model time lagged and nonlinear relations, and provide explanations of inferences. This paper explores the use of Bayesian networks to model malaria, demonstrating the approach by creating a village level model with weekly temporal resolution for Tha Song Yang district in northern Thailand. The network is learned using data on cases and environmental covariates. The network models incidence over time as well as evolution of the environmental variables, and captures time lagged and nonlinear effects. Out of sample evaluation shows the model to have high accuracy for one and two week predictions.

  15. Maternal Folate and Vitamin B12 Status and Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran: A Case Control Study

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    Mohammad-Jafar Golalipour

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the serum level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in neural tube defects pregnancies (NTD and healthy controls in Northern Iran.Methods: This case-control study was performed on women with neural tube defects pregnancies and controls with unaffected pregnancies in Northern Iran during 2006. Twenty three pregnant women whose pregnancies were diagnosed as NTD by a second-trimester ultrasonographic examination were recruited as cases. The control group (n=23 consisted of women who were selected among socio-economic status (SES matched women who had a normal targeted ultrasound during the second trimester with documented normal fet al outcome. Fetal NTD was suspected with targeted second-trimester ultrasound during the 16th week of gestation and confirmed with high maternal serum α-fetoprotein levels. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and alpha fetoprotein were evaluated after target ultrasonography.Findings: Serum alpha fetoprotein level (mean ± SD in cases and controls was 120.2±64.1 and 50±33.5 iu/ml, respectively (P<0.05. The mean ± SD folate in cases and controls was 8.4±4.2 versus 9.3±4.2 ng/ml, respectively. This difference was not significant. Folate deficiency was found in 30.4% of the cases and 13% of the controls (OR = 2.9, 95%: 0.54-19.8. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 13 % of cases and 17.7% of the controls (OR=0.7, 95%: 0.1-4.9.Conclusion: This study showed that the probability of having a newborn with NTDs in maternal folate deficiency is three times higher than with normal folate in Northern Iran.

  16. Maternal Folate and Vitamin B12 Status and Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Elahm; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Golalipour, Mohammad-Jafar

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the serum level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in neural tube defects pregnancies (NTD) and healthy controls in Northern Iran. Methods This case-control study was performed on women with neural tube defects pregnancies and controls with unaffected pregnancies in Northern Iran during 2006. Twenty three pregnant women whose pregnancies were diagnosed as NTD by a second-trimester ultrasonographic examination were recruited as cases. The control group (n=23) consisted of women who were selected among socio-economic status (SES) matched women who had a normal targeted ultrasound during the second trimester with documented normal fet al outcome. Fetal NTD was suspected with targeted second-trimester ultrasound during the 16th week of gestation and confirmed with high maternal serum α-fetoprotein levels. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and alpha fetoprotein were evaluated after target ultrasonography. Findings Serum alpha fetoprotein level (mean±SD) in cases and controls was 120.2±64.1 and 50±33.5 iu/ml, respectively (P<0.05). The mean±SD folate in cases and controls was 8.4±4.2 versus 9.3±4.2 ng/ml, respectively. This difference was not significant. Folate deficiency was found in 30.4% of the cases and 13% of the controls (OR=2.9, 95%: 0.54–19.8). Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 13% of cases and 17.7% of the controls (OR=0.7, 95%: 0.1-4.9). Conclusion This study showed that the probability of having a newborn with NTDs in maternal folate deficiency is three times higher than with normal folate in Northern Iran. PMID:23056699

  17. Intensification of Mediterranean Goat Production Systems: A Case Study in Northern Morocco

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    Olivia Florence Godber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important contributors to both food and financial security of the resource poor, particularly in marginal environments such as those in the Mediterranean region. To fully understand the feasibility and potential consequences of any intensification or husbandry changes that could contribute to higher outputs, it is important to have a thorough prior understanding of the functional dynamics of these systems. Here the current performance of ten goat holdings in the northern region of Morocco, classified as either commercial milk producers, commercial cheese producers or non-commercial dairy producers, was recorded, based on the Food and Agricultural Organisation and International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (FAO-CIHEAM technical and economic indicators, to assess whether intensification of dairy production was financially viable. Fecundity and prolificacy rates were comparatively lower than those achieved by many European Mediterranean herds. Both kid and doe mortality were higher on commercial dairy holdings, where dairy sales provided an additional, rather than alternative, source of income to goat sales. Despite this, due to significantly higher expenditure on supplementary feed, gross margin per doe did not differ significantly between holding types. With the exception of indigenous Greek herds, all European Mediterranean herds outperform those of northern Morocco. The study suggests that a low level of supplementary feeding is constraining goat dairy production in northern Morocco, and that the current high cost and limited availability of additional supplementary feed restricts the financial viability of intensification. Alternative feeding strategies within a participatory approach that might ameliorate these problems, and value chain constraints, are discussed.

  18. Impacts of SST anomalies on the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation: a case study for the northern winter 1995/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, T.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departmento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Mechoso, C.R.; Ma, H.Y. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The present paper selects the northern winter of December 1995-February 1996 for a case study on the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. In the Atlantic, the selected winter was characterized by positive SST anomalies over the northern subtropics and east of Newfoundland, and negative anomalies along the US coast. A weak La Nina event developed in the Pacific. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low, precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa was anomalously high, and precipitation over northern Europe was anomalously low. The method of study consists of assessing the sensitivity of ensemble simulations by the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model (UCLA AGCM) to SST anomalies from the observation, which are prescribed either in the World Oceans, the Atlantic Ocean only, or the subtropical North Atlantic only. The results obtained are compared with a control run that uses global, time-varying climatological SST. The ensemble simulations with global and Atlantic-only SST anomalies both produce results that resemble the observations over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. It is suggested that the anomalous behavior of the atmosphere in the selected winter over those regions, therefore, was primarily determined by conditions within the Atlantic basin. The simulated fields in the tropical North Atlantic show anomalous upward motion and lower (upper) level convergence (divergence) in the atmosphere overlying the positive SST anomalies. Consistently, the subtropical jet intensifies and its core moves equatorward, and precipitation increases over northern Africa and southern Europe. The results also suggest that the SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic only do not suffice to produce the atmospheric anomalies observed in the basin during the selected winter. The extratropical SST anomalies would provide a key contribution through increased

  19. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

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    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  20. Numerical Study on Microphysical Processes of Two Different Snowfall Cases in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; WANG Pengyun; LI Xiang; LU Ying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two snowfall cases under different weather conditions in northern China are simulated by using the meso scale model MM5. Two-way nesting structure of domains is designed for each case. Among the explicit schemes of MM5, the Reisner graupel scheme is selected to describe the microphysical process.The simulated snow-bands of two cases are basically consistent with observations. The simulated results of microphysical processes are mainly discussed. The hydrometeors and their sources and sinks under different weather backgrounds are described. The feedback effects of microphysical processes on the thermal and dynamic processes are also discussed. Method that outputs the accumulative sources and sinks per hour is used to analyze the distribution characteristics of hydrometeors during the strongest snowfall period. Two sensitivity tests (called heat test and drag test) are conducted to examine the effects of microphysical processes on cloud produced by the latent heat and drag force.Results have shown that the distribution of particles has a close relation with temperature. The temperature of Beijing snowfall is under 0℃ and there exist vapor and solid phase particles, while Liaoning snowfall has vapor, liquid, and solid phase particles due to the warm temperature. The distribution of these particles is not the same at different development stages. From the analyses of the characteristics of sources and sinks, it is found that snow is mainly produced by the deposition and accretion with ice. Cloud water is crucial to graupel. The melting of ice-phase particles enhances the rain production. The results of heat tests and drag tests reveal that the microphysical processes have interacted with the dynamic and thermal processes. Latent heat release of hydrometeors feeds back positively on snowfall while the drag force not.At last, comparisons of simulated results have been done between the two different kinds of snowfall cases.The microphysical processes of

  1. Ways of healthy aging: a case study of elderly people in a Northern Thai village.

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    Danyuthasilpe, Chuleekorn; Amnatsatsue, Kwanjai; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Steckler, Allan B

    2009-12-01

    This ethnographic study was conducted to explore ways of healthy aging and the influence of culture on health-related behaviors in a rural community in Northern Thailand. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions, participant observations and field notes were used to understand the lives of seven healthy Thai older adults aged 75 years and over. Data were collected from March 2007 to February 2008, with ongoing ethnographic analysis involving coding, identifying patterns, generalizing and making reflective notes to elucidate the cultural patterns of behavior. All informants perceived health as interrelated with their life styles, which was, in turn, closely related to their cultural roots, suggesting that culture influences the health of all members of smaller, closely knit communities, including the elderly, by integrating physical, social and spiritual health for older adults and their families.

  2. Detection of cyclonic eddy generated by looping tropical cyclone in the northern South China Sea:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jianyu; KAWAMURA Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    A case study on the cyclonic eddy generated by the tropical cyclone looping over the northern South China Sea (NSCS) is presented, using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data and AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST) data.Three cases relating to the tropical cyclone events (Typhoon Kai-Tak in July 2000, Tropical Storm Russ in June 1994 and Tropical Storm Maria in August-September 2000) over the NSCS have been analyzed. For each looping tropical cyclone case, the cyclonic eddy with an obvious sea level depression appears in the sea area where the tropical cyclone takes a loop form, and lasts for about 2 weeks with a slight variation in location. The cold core with the SST difference greater than 2 ℃ against its surrounding areas is also observed by the satellite-derived SST data.

  3. Detection of cyclonic eddy generated by looping tropical cyclone in the northern South China Sea:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jianyu; KAWAMURA Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    A case study on the cyclonic eddy generated by the tropical cyclone looping over the northern South China Sea (NSCS) is presented, using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data and AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST) data.Three cases relating to the tropical cyclone events (Typhoon Kai-Tak in July 2000, Tropical Storm Russ in June 1994and Tropical Storm Maria in August-September 2000) over the NSCS have been analyzed. For each looping tropical cyclone case, the cyclonic eddy with an obvious sea level depression appears in the sea area where the tropical cyclone takes a loop form, and lasts for about 2 weeks with a slight variation in location. The cold core with the SST difference greater than 2 ℃ against its surrounding areas is also observed by the satellite-derived SST data.

  4. Plants Species Diversity in Hyrcanian Hardwood Forests, Northern Iran (Case Study: Mazandaran Province

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    Kambiz Abrari Vajari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type

  5. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

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    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  6. Application of GIS/AHP in siting sanitary landfill: a case study in Northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Doratli, Naciye

    2012-09-01

    The present study utilized a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment to evaluate the suitability of potential landfill sites in Northern Cyprus. To determine the most suitable landfill site, one of the MCE techniques, called analytical hierarchy process (AHP), was combined with a GIS to examine 12 criteria: distance from waste generation centres; distance from roads; slope; distance from surface waters; distance from groundwater areas; distance from environmentally sensitive areas; vegetation types; soil productivity; soil permeability; distance from settlements; distance from cultural sites; distance from stone quarries. The relative importance weights of these criteria were estimated using AHP and criteria maps were developed by using GIS spatial analysis. At the final stage two different suitability maps were produced using two different groups of weights. The first group suitability map had 11 052 (ha) with high suitability class, whereas the high suitability areas decreased to 5982 (ha) in the second group. Moreover, the seven potential sites identified within the first group decreased to four in the second suitability map. However, potential sites such as Gungor, Degirmenlik, Kirklar and Cayonu had similarities with higher suitability values and these same locations were regarded as suitable according to the both first and second suitability map results.

  7. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monnier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR. The rock glacier is a young (probably <6000 yr and active landform. The GPR survey consisted of two CMP measurements and four constant-offset profiles. From CMP measurements, the radar wave velocity in exposed shallow massive ice is 0.165–0.17 m ns−1. The constant-offset GPR data was processed and analysed in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy and model the radar wave velocity in two dimensions. The integration of the morphology, the velocity models, and the stratigraphy emphasized, in the upper half of the rock glacier, the good correspondence between high radar wave velocities (>0.15–0.16 m ns−1 and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of a glacial massive ice core embedded into diamictons. Our study of the Sachette rock glacier highlights possible significance of rock glaciers and interactions between glacier and permafrost in alpine environments.

  8. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-08-04

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9-32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count.

  9. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  10. Balancing Identity and Diversity in Faith-Based Nursing Education: A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Bodil; Karvinen, Ikali; Damsma-Bakker, Alica; Ylönen, Merja; Oosterhoff-Zielman, Marjanne; Fanuelsen, Olav; van Leeuwen, Réné

    2015-01-01

    The role of faith-based nursing education is contested in today's Northern European societies, which are often described as postmodern, pluralist, or secular. Although faith-based institutions played pioneering roles in the early development of nursing education, many today downplay their religious roots and have transformed themselves into modern…

  11. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  12. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    S. Monnier; C. Camerlynck; F. Rejiba; Kinnard, C.; Galibert, P.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The rock glacier is a young (probably 0.15–0.16 m ns−1) and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of ...

  13. The carbon budget in the northern Adriatic Sea, a winter case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, G.; Azzaro, M.; Bastianini, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bernardi Aubry, F.; Bianchi, F.; Burca, M.; Cantoni, C.; Caruso, G.; Casotti, R.; Cozzi, S.; Del Negro, P.; Fonda Umani, S.; Giani, M.; Giuliani, S.; Kovacevic, V.; La Ferla, R.; Langone, L.; Luchetta, A.; Monticelli, L. S.; Piacentino, S.; Pugnetti, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Socal, G.; Spagnoli, F.; Ursella, L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a winter carbon budget for the northern Adriatic Sea, obtained through direct measurements during two multidisciplinary cruises and literature data. A box model approach was adopted to integrate estimates of stocks and fluxes of carbon species over the total area. The oligotrophy at the basin scale and the start of primary productivity well before the onset of spring stratification were observed. In winter, the system underwent a complete reset, as the mixing of water masses erased any signal of previous hypoxia or anoxia episodes. The northern Adriatic Sea was phosphorus depleted with respect to C and N availability. This fact confirms the importance of mixing with deep-sea water for P supply to biological processes on the whole. Despite the abundant prokaryotic biomass, the microbial food web was less efficient in organic C production than phytoplankton. In the upper layer, the carbon produced by primary production exceeded the fraction respired by planktonic community smaller than 200 µm. On the contrary, respiration processes prevailed in the water column below the pycnocline. The carbon budget also proved that the northern Adriatic Sea can be an effective sink for atmospheric CO2 throughout the entire winter season.

  14. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  15. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation – a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW to an extensively managed (GE to an intensively managed grassland site (GI, all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10–60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by δ13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i conversion to grassland, (ii historical drainage as well as

  16. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  17. Case study - northern Prudhoe Bay development planning using three-dimensional seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Three three-dimensional seismic surveys have been acquired by the Prudhoe Bay unit working interest owners for the purpose of development planning. The most recent of these surveys, the Northern Tier three-dimensional seismic survey, was acquired in 1986 and provides the subject matter for this paper. A new dual-source recording method was extensively field tested prior to its application in production data acquisition. This method of acquisition reduced costs by approximately 25% as compared to conventional (single-source) recording. The 54 mi/sup 2/ subsurface coverage area consists of 118,000 depth points, and cost $4.2 million for acquisition and processing, roughly twice the cost of two development wells in this area. Interactive interpretation of the data volume helps in placing the 80-acre infill wells in the main development area, and helps to identify areas of development potential in the structurally complex northern portion of the field. Traverses are created along the proposed paths of horizontal and high-angle wells to reduce the risk of structural complications during drilling and completion. Predicting target depths to within +- 25 ft and ensuring standoff from faults of 300 - 500 ft are the primary goals of the interpretation. Interaction among the various geoscience and engineering disciplines is common in all phases of this project.

  18. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  19. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia.A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality.Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women's Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.11, as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14-4.18. Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17-14.30, as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37-4.85. Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman's lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model.The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women's Development Army, enhancing husbands' involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous illnesses or non-users of contraceptive services

  20. Rapid appraisal of biomass resources: a case study of northern Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millington, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)); Crosetti, M. (RCG/Hagler Bailly, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of woody biomass stocks in the northern Governorates of the Republic of Yemen was undertaken in 1988. Sample sites for field measurements were selected in a stratified sample framework based on land-use zones. The data collected on trees and shrubs in the sample plots were used to estimate woody biomass stocks (both as total above-ground volume and wet weight) using equations developed for N. E. Africa. Wood productivity was estimated using a rainfall-productivity equation. These estimates were aggregated to provide a national estimate of woody biomass. Dead wood stocks were also estimated. A map of woody biomass supply areas and the main fuelwood supply routes was constructed from primary and secondary data. This map was used to place the results of the inventory in a spatial context, and to provide a qualitative means of validating the spatial variability in the woody biomass stock estimates. (author).

  1. Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)

  2. Resort-oriented tourism development and local tourism networks – a case study from northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Kulusjärvi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In tourism studies, it has been widely recognized that resort-oriented tourism development creates challenges for regional development, mainly due to its enclave nature and lack of regional economic linkages. However, there have been relatively few studies on the destination-scale cooperative networks, although, they are vital in increasing the positive regional economic impacts of tourism development. This paper is an empirical qualitative study exploring the connections between resort-oriented tourism development and tourism business cooperation in the case study area of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination in Northeast Finland. The interest is on how the local cooperative networks of the Ruka tourist resort are spatially constructed within the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted for ten tourism actors located in the Ruka resort. The results show that the businesses located in the Ruka resort cooperate at the regional scale mainly in marketing, while their partners in production cooperation are located mostly within the resort, particularly in its very core area. The resort appears to function as a basis for spatial identification for tourism actors, which, in turn, affects entrepreneurs’ motivation to cooperate at the local and regional scale. Tourism entrepreneurs operating in the very core of the resort perceive the area as the principal area for their operations, and therefore, they do not particularly engage with the surrounding areas and businesses or with other actors located there. Thus, for smaller enterprises outside the core, it can be difficult to benefit from the resort’s core’s growth via network relations. This contributes mainly to the development of the core areas alone, creates challenges for sustainable regional economic development in the destination region, and hinders the resort’s tourism growth in the long run.

  3. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and kidney cancer in uniquely exposed Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007-2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of 1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer.

  4. Legacies in Urban Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Gully Network in Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, C. E.; Claessens, L.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Increased stormwater runoff from urban surfaces could lead to erosion and gully formation in areas of steep topographic relief. To reduce these impacts, stormwater management practices are currently required through federal and state stormwater regulations. Before 1990, stormwater was not regulated and would often be directly routed into adjacent lands. Particularly in areas of steep terrain, this would potentially induce erosion and gully formation. This study reports on a wide-scale examination of gully formation from urban stormwater, using a model that examines the increase of runoff from impervious cover and the potential for gully formation. Here we report on a case study for an area on the University of Delaware campus. The area is located in the Piedmont region and drains into the White Clay Creek, a National Wild and Scenic River. Pre-regulation development in this area has led to the formation of a series of gullies with distinct morphological characteristics. This study examines in detail the reach-scale and contributing area controls on gully formation. We conducted a GIS analysis of the local hydrologic network, determined peak flow of each gully, developed a gully susceptibility model that we compared with the site characteristics, and sampled the sediment concentrations of the gully flow during storm events. We also characterized historical land use data and performed field observations for our analysis. We found that the development changed the hydrology of the site, altering the contributing areas of each gully. In addition, field observations revealed distinct rates of incision across gullies as well as along different sections of each gully. We also found that the gullies are still actively eroding, contributing large sediment loads to the downstream White Clay Creek. Our research provides a better understanding of the local and regional factors governing erosion and gully formation. The model that we created will help to identify sites that

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection and liver disease: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesenfeld Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii may cause liver disease. However, the impact of the infection in patients suffering from liver disease is unknown. Therefore, through a case-control study design, 75 adult liver disease patients attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and 150 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers did not differ significantly in patients (10/75; 13.3% and controls (16/150; 10.7%. Two (2.7% patients and 5 (3.3% controls had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies (P = 0.57. Seropositivity to Toxoplasma did not show any association with the diagnosis of liver disease. In contrast, seropositivity to Toxoplasma in patients was associated with consumption of venison and quail meat. Toxoplasma seropositivity was more frequent in patients with reflex impairment (27.8% than in patients without this impairment (8.8% (P = 0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma seropositivity in patients was associated with consumption of sheep meat (OR = 8.69; 95% CI: 1.02-73.71; P = 0.04 and rabbit meat (OR = 4.61; 95% CI: 1.06-19.98; P = 0.04. Conclusions Seropositivity to Toxoplasma was comparable among liver disease patients and controls. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of Toxoplasma with liver disease. Consumption of venison, and rabbit, sheep, and quail meats may warrant further investigation.

  6. Optimal environmental conditions to detect moisture in ancient buildings: case studies in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Nicola; Rosi, Lorenzo

    1998-03-01

    IR thermography allows to identify the thermal anomalies due to moisture in ancient walls. Wet zones can appear warmer or colder in IR images, according to the atmospheric conditions during the scanning; furthermore, thermal monitoring, even in qualitative thermography, allows to obtain a more effective diagnosis of the defects because it records thermal behaviors of the material in different environmental conditions. Thermographic system allows an accurate analysis of transpiration effects on buildings and precise measurements of water content starting from environmental temperature, relative balance and wind speed. These variables play a major role in the causes of damages in buildings. Particularly, the evaluation of transpiration is essential to determine the evaporative rate of water content within the wall. The research has been carried out on two ancient buildings during a period of several months. The main experimental tests were on the church of 'Guardia di Sotto', Corsico, a seventeenth century building on the bank of Pavese Canal. Five thermal scanning have been disposed in different seasons from March 14, 1996 to June 16, 1997. The causes of the wet zones were identified at the basis of the walls were rising damp and rain spread in the ground. The repeated thermographies and thermo-hygrometric test allowed to distinguish the size and the location of the areas damaged by the different causes. In other cases studied - Addolorate Church, Gessate the thermal scanning and the other supporting tests confirmed the list of optimal environmental condition required to detect humidity in walls by thermography.

  7. Synergies of solar energy use in the desalination of seawater: A case study in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Edward L.

    2016-05-01

    The mining industry is a great consumer of water for hydrometallurgical processes. Despite the efforts in minimizing the use of fresh water through reuse, recycling and process intensification, water demand for mining is expected to rise a 40% from 2013 to 2020. For seawater to be an alternative to groundwater, it must be pumped up to the mine (thousands of meters uphill) and desalinated. These processes require intensive energy and investment in desalination and piping/pumping facilities. A conventional solution for this process would be desalination by reverse osmosis at sea level, powered by electricity from the grid, and further pumping of the desalinated water uphill. This paper compares the feasibility of two solar technologies versus the "conventional" option. LCOW (Levelized Cost of Water) was used as a comparative indicator among the studied solutions, with values for a lifetime of 10, 15, 20 and 25 years, calculated using a real discount rate equal to 12%. The LCOW is lower in all cases for the RO + grid solution. The cost of desalination, ignoring the contribution of pumping, is similar for the three technologies from twenty years of operation. The use of solar energy to desalinate sea water for consumption in the mines of the Atacama region is technically feasible. However, due to the extra costs from pumping whole seawater, and not just the desalinated water, solar solutions are less competitive than the conventional process.

  8. Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-06-01

    The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

  9. Case study: northern Prudhoe Bay development planning using three-dimensional seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, T.P.

    1988-02-01

    A new dual-source recording method was extensively field tested prior to its application in production data acquisition. This method of acquisition reduced costs by approximately 25% as compared to conventional (single-source) recording. The 54 mi/sup 2/ subsurface coverage area consists of 118,000 depth points, and cost $4.2 million for acquisition and processing, roughly twice the cost of two development wells in this area. Interactive interpretation of the data volume helps in placing the 80-acre infill wells in the main development area, and helps to identify areas of development potential in the structurally complex northern portion of the field. Traverses are created along the proposed paths of horizontal and high-angle wells to reduce the risk of structural complications during drilling and completion. Predicting target depths to within /plus minus/ 25 ft and ensuring standoff from faults of 300-500 ft are the primary goals of the interpretation. Interaction among the various geoscience and engineering disciplines is common in all phases of this project.

  10. Biostratigraphy, sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the northern Danube Basin: Ratkovce 1 well case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ratkovce 1 well, drilled in the Blatné depocenter of the northern Danube Basin penetrated the Miocene sedimentary record with a total thickness of 2000 m. Biostratigraphically, the NN4, NN5 and NN6 Zones of calcareous nannoplankton were documented; CPN7 and CPN8 foraminifer Zones (N9, 10, 11 of the global foraminiferal zonation; and MMi4a; MMi5 and MMi6 of the Mediterranean foraminiferal zonation were recognized. Sedimentology was based on description of well core material, and together with SP and RT logs, used to characterize paleoenvironmental conditions of the deposition. Five sedimentary facies were reconstructed: (1 fan-delta to onshore environment which developed during the Lower Badenian; (2 followed by the Lower Badenian proximal slope gravity currents sediments; (3 distal slope turbidites were deposited in the Lower and Upper Badenian; (4 at the very end of the Upper Badenian and during the Sarmatian a coastal plain of normal marine to brackish environment developed; (5 sedimentation finished with the Pannonian-Pliocene shallow lacustrine to alluvial plain deposits. The provenance analysis records that the sediment of the well-cores was derived from crystalline basement granitoides and gneisses and from the Permian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary cover and nappe units of the Western Carpathians and the Eastern Alps. Moreover, the Lower Badenian volcanism was an important source of sediments in the lower part of the sequence.

  11. Speleothems Recording Geomagnetic Excursions: a Case Study from Cobre Cave in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavon-Carrasco, F.; Osete, M. L.; Martin-chivelet, J.; Egli, R.; Rossi, C.; Muñoz-García, B.; Heller, F.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite speleothems, such as stalagmites and flowstones, have an enormous potential in palaeomagnetism, since they may grow continuously through thousands of years, the lock-in of remanent magnetisation is nearly instantaneous and ages of speleothems can be determined using high precision U-series radiometric dating techniques. However, the typically very low concentration of ferromagnetic minerals resulting in very weak natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) has limited their usage. In addition, secondary processes that could affect magnetization are poorly understood. Here we show results from a stalagmite from northern Spain (Cobre Cave) that recorded the Blake geomagnetic excursion. Two types of samples exhibiting different magnetic properties are observed. Isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) experiments indicate major contributions from low coercivity minerals in all samples. In white samples only ferrimagnetic minerals are detected whereas in light-brown samples variable amounts of high coercivity minerals can also be observed. The low coercivity IRM is thermally demagnetized at 550°C indicating the presence of magnetite. Maximum unblocking temperatures over 550°C of the high coercivity component suggest the additional presence of haematite in light-brown samples. Upon demagnetisation, all samples exhibited a directionally stable low-coercivity/low-unblocking temperature component that is considered as the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) carried by fine magnetite. The ChRM exhibited normal and reversed directions recording the Blake Geomagnetic Excursion which could be radiometrically dated between 116.5 ± 0.7 kyr BP and 112.0 ± 1.9 kyr BP. The second component carried by haematite has directions being always close to the present day field direction and is considered as a secondary component. Reliability of relative paleo-intensity (RPI) determinations is discussed.

  12. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  13. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  14. Education Collaboration to Promote School Participation in Northern Ghana: A Case Study of a Complementary Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the perceived benefits and challenges of the collaboration model of a complementary education program which operates in marginalized communities in northern Ghana. The scope of the paper includes the background, collaboration as a transformative process, research methodology, findings, and discussion. The study revealed that:…

  15. Environmental transformations and cultural changes: A multidisciplinary case study for the Late Glacial and Final Palaeolithic from Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, F.; Tolksdorf, J. F.; Viehberg, F.; Schwarz, A.; von Bramann, U.; Bittmann, F.; Kaiser, K.; Schwalb, A.; Staesche, U.; Breest, K.; Pott, R.; Veil, S.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to younger periods, studies integrating archaeological and environmental records for the Palaeolithic are still rare. Especially our knowledge about interactions between the drastic climatic/environmental changes and cultural developments during the Late Glacial is very limited. This multidisciplinary case study from river Jeetzel, a western Elbe tributary in Northern Germany, combines high resolution palaeoenvironmental investigations with fine-scaled archaeological research on stratified and surface sites. Various dating methods (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen and plant macro-remains, ostracods, diatoms and green algae) on river palaeochannel sediments allow detailed reconstruction of interactions between Late Glacial climate, vegetation and fluvial developments. Biostratigraphical analyses on stratified archaeological sites and dating of charcoal / bone fragments from artefact scatters place the Late Palaeolithic occupation of Early Federmesser groups in an environmental context. Thus the former production of hitherto unknown amber art (amongst others a figurine representing a moose) can be ascribed to the Older Dryas and Early Allerød, which are the periods of main Late Glacial afforestation. Therewith our investigations suggest that Final Palaeolithic cultural changes may have been triggered by climatic and environmental transformations.

  16. The northern European geoid: a case study on long-wavelength geoid errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    The long-wavelength geoid errors on large-scale geoid solutions, and the use of modified kernels to mitigate these effects, are studied. The geoid around the Nordic area, from Greenland to the Ural mountains, is considered. The effect of including additional gravity data around the Nordic/Baltic ...

  17. Evolution of Hydrological Drought in Human Disturbed Areas: A Case Study in the Laohahe Catchment, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study on the evolution of hydrological drought in nonstationary environments is conducted over the Laohahe catchment in northern China. Using hydrometeorological observations during 1964–2009, meteorological and hydrological droughts are firstly analyzed with the threshold level method. Then, a comprehensive analysis on the changes within the catchment is conducted on the basis of hydrological variables and socioeconomic indices, and the whole period is divided into two parts: the undisturbed period (1964–1979 and the disturbed period (1980–2009. A separating framework is further introduced to distinguish droughts induced by different causes, that is, the naturalized drought and human-induced drought. Results showed that human activities are more inclined to play a negative role in aggravating droughts. Drought duration and deficit volume in naturalized conditions are amplified two to four times and three to eight times, respectively, when human activities are involved. For the two dry decades 1980s and 2000s, human activities have caused several consecutive drought events with rather long durations (up to 29 months. These results reflect the considerable impacts of human activities on hydrological drought, which could provide some theoretical support for local drought mitigation and water resources management.

  18. Use of Sediment Budgets for Watershed Erosion Control Planning: A Case Study From Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.

    2002-05-01

    Erosion, sedimentation and peak flow increases caused by forest management for commercial timber production may negatively affect aquatic habitat of endangered anadromous fish such as coho salmon ({\\ it O. kisutch}). This paper summarizes a portion of a Watershed Analysis study performed for Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, CA, focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates and downstream sediment routing and water quality in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Hillslope, road and bank erosion, channel sedimentation and sediment rates were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. The resulting sediment budget was validated through comparison using recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield collected by a community watershed group at a downstream monitoring site with technical assistance from the US Forest Service. Another check on the sediment budget was provided by bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study provide sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments for use in the TMDL process. The sediment budget also identifies the most significant sediment sources and suggests a framework within which effective erosion control strategies can be developed.

  19. Carbon account of forest ecosystems as a fuzzy system: a case study for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Kraxner, F.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider practicality of a verified account of Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget for forest ecosystems (FCA) that supposes reliable assessment of uncertainties, i.e. understanding "uncertainty of uncertainties". The FCA is a fuzzy (underspecified) system, of which membership function is inherently stochastic. Thus, any individually used method of FCA is not able to estimate structural uncertainties and usually reported "within method" uncertainties are inevitably partial. Attempting at estimation of "full uncertainties" of the studied system we follow the requirements of applied systems analysis integrating the major methods of terrestrial ecosystems carbon account, assessing the uncertainties "within method" for intermediate and final indicators of FCA with their following mutual constrains. Landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) 1) serves for strict systems designing the account, 2) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 3) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data (12 RS products used) within GEO-wiki platform and other relevant information based on special optimization algorithms. Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. "Within method" results and uncertainties (including LEA, process-based models, eddy covariance, and inverse modelling) are harmonized based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000-2010; uncertainties of the FCA for individual years were estimated in limits of 25%. We discussed strengths and weaknesses of the approach, system requirements to different methods of FCA, information

  20. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern Tanzania: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Rolv

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the paucity of epidemiological information on maternal deaths, and the high maternal mortality estimates found earlier in the study area, our objective was to assess determinants of maternal deaths in a rural setting in the highlands of northern Tanzania by comparing the women dying of maternal causes with women from the same population who had attended antenatal clinics in the same time period. Methods A case-control study was done in two administrative divisions in Mbulu and Hanang districts in rural Tanzania. Forty-five cases of maternal death were found through a comprehensive community- and health-facility based study in 1995 and 1996, while 135 antenatal attendees from four antenatal clinics in the same population, geographical area, and time-span of 1995–96 served as controls. The cases and controls were compared using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, were used as an approximation of relative risk, and were adjusted for place of residence (ward and age. Further adjustment was done for potentially confounding variables. Results An increased risk of maternal deaths was found for women from 35–49 years versus 15–24 years (OR 4.0; 95%CI 1.5–10.6. Women from ethnic groups other than the two indigenous groups of the area had an increased risk of maternal death (OR 13.6; 95%CI 2.5–75.0. There was an increased risk when women or husbands adhered to traditional beliefs, (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.0–4.5 and (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.2–5.7, respectively. Women whose husbands did not have any formal education appeared to have an increased risk (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.0–5.0. Conclusion Increasing maternal age, ethnic and religious affiliation, and low formal education of the husbands were associated with increased risk of maternal death. Increased attention needs to be given to formal education of both

  1. Assessing Site Availability of Aspen and Northern Hardwoods for Potential Feedstock Development in Michigan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wood and wood byproducts as biomass feedstocks is of increasing interest as a source of ethanol and electricity. Second generation woody feedstock sources in Michigan, e.g., hybrid poplar and hybrid willow (Populus spp., and native forests, particularly aspen and northern hardwoods, are a potential source of woody biomass for these uses. This study provides a geographic information system (GIS framework for assessing the current spatial extent of aspen and northern hardwoods and their proximity to roads. Additionally, the potential for expanding the area of these feedstock sources based on pre-European settlement vegetation cover is assessed. Utilizing GIS technology to compile, edit and analyze available geospatial data (e.g., present day and pre-European settlement land use/cover, soils, road infrastructure, and land ownership for counties located in the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula and northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan provides a robust framework for various management scenarios to be evaluated in a cost effective manner and foster better decision making.

  2. Monitoring Algal Blooms in Inland Waters From Space-Borne Observation; A Case Study From Northern Africa, Lake Nasser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Becker, R.

    2004-05-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to explore techniques and to develop and calibrate methodologies that combine inferences from field and remote sensing data to quantify temporal and spatial variations in lake physical parameters, and to examine their effects on primary productivity, and carbon sequestration rates in artificial lakes. The Case II waters of Lake Nasser (6000 km2) in southern Egypt were used as a test site. The construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1960's has had major impacts on the landscape in southern Egypt. It gave rise to Lake Nasser, an extensive (capacity: 1.6 x 1011 m3, length: 500 km, average width: 12 km, average depth 30m) reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. In this study, we analyzed temporal (1980-2004) satellite images acquired over Lake Nasser to investigate spatial and temporal variations in aquatic parameters (e.g., chlorophyll and suspended matter) across the lake, and to test the usefulness of a variety of sensors and algorithms typically used for studies of larger water systems for this specific site. The investigated datasets include Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The following patterns were identified. First, we detected a general enrichment in chlorophyll and in suspended matter upstream compared to the downstream and in the tributaries (Khors) compared to the main channel. This observation is consistent with the reported variations in sediment thickness along the length of the Lake. Thick deposits of up to 25 m were reported at the 2nd Cataract some 350 km south of the Aswan High Dam compared to 1m thick deposits in the vicinity of the Dam. Second, we observed a general and progressive increase in suspended matter and chlorophyll content in the autumn consistent with patterns of annual flooding which carry excess silt, clay, and nutrients. Future work will focus on 1) characterizing trends in carbon

  3. Study on Meteorological Disaster Risk Assessment System of Northern Henan:A Case Study of Huixian City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjian; ZHU; Xinzhou; ZANG; Shiping; Duan; Huailiang; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data and geological disaster information of Huixian in northern Henan during 1961-2009, four disaster-inducing factors like rainstorm, hail, gale and geological disasters were analyzed, and then a meteorological disaster risk evaluation index system was established to zone meteorological disaster risk, finally the meteorological disaster risk zoning map was obtained. The results show that rainstorm, hail and geographical disasters appeared more frequently in mountains than plains; on the contrary, gale occurred more frequently in plains. These conclusions could provide scientific and technological support and theoretical foundation for preventing meteorological disasters in Huixian.

  4. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  5. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  6. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, A.P.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of {sup 137}Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. A Regional Ensemble Forecast System for Stratiform Precipitation Events in Northern China.Part Ⅰ: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiangshan; Fanyou KONG; LEI Hengchi

    2012-01-01

    A single-model,short-range,ensemble forecasting system (Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Regional Ensemble Forecast System,IAP REFS) with 15-km grid spacing,configured with multiple initial conditions,multiple lateral boundary conditions,and multiple physics parameterizations with 11 ensemble members,was developed using the Weather and Research Forecasting Model Advanced Research modeling system for prediction of stratiform precipitation events in northern China.This is the first part of a broader research project to develop a novel cloud-seeding operational system in a probabilistic framework.The ensemble perturbations were extracted from selected members of the National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Ensemble Forecasting System (NCEP GEFS) forecasts,and an inflation factor of two was applied to compensate for the lack of spread in the GEFS forecasts over the research region.Experiments on an actual stratiform precipitation case that occurred on 5-7 June 2009 in northern China were conducted to validate the ensemble system.The IAP REFS system had reasonably good performance in predicting the observed stratiform precipitation system.The perturbation inflation enlarged the ensemble spread and alleviated the underdispersion caused by parent forecasts.Centering the extracted perturbations on higher-resolution NCEP Global Forecast System forecasts resulted in less ensemble mean root-mean-square error and better accuracy in probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (PQPF).However,the perturbation inflation and recentering had less effect on near-surface-level variables compared to the mid-level variables,and its influence on PQPF resolution was limited as well.

  8. On the Coastal Dynamics of Sea Level Rise: A case study in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most prominent aspects of global climate change is sea level rise (SLR). With over half of the U.S. population living within 50 miles of the coast, SLR has the potential to considerably impact both human and ecological habitats. Effects of SLR will be felt along coastal beaches, estuarine waters, barrier islands, submerged aquatic vegetation beds, sand and mud flats, oyster reefs and tidal and freshwater wetlands. The Gulf of Mexico coast sustains a diverse habitat including delta marshes, lower river floodplain forests, and oyster reefs, which provide critical habitats for many commercially important species. How we choose to study these complex processes and the adaptation tools that we develop may determine our ability to sustain the human and ecological habitats. The purpose of this presentation is to examine the dynamic effects of SLR to the coasts and coastal habitats of the Northern Gulf of Mexico and to compare and contrast those results with a simpler bathtub model (static) approach. Dynamic assessments will be presented through integrated models representing wave, tidal, overland, bay and biological processes. The models are applied to regions of the Northern Gulf to simulate hydrodynamic properties including waves, tides, and surge, and to estimate impacts to coastal marshes, wetlands and estuaries. Results strongly indicate the importance of simulating the dynamical processes.

  9. Vegetation NPP Distribution Based on MODIS Data and CASA Model——A Case Study of Northern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jinguo; NIU Zheng; WANG Chenli

    2006-01-01

    Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is one of the important biophysical variables of vegetation activity, and it plays an important role in studying global carbon cycle, carbon source and sink of ecosystem, and spatial and temporal distribution of CO2. Remote sensing can provide broad view quickly, timely and multi-temporally, which makes it an attractive and powerful tool for studying ecosystem primary productivity, at scales ranging from local to global. This paper aims to use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to estimate and analyze spatial and temporal distribution of NPP of the northern Hebei Province in 2001 based on Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model.The spatial distribution of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (APAR) of vegetation and light use efficiency in three geographical subregions, that is, Bashang Plateau Region, Basin Region in the northwestern Hebei Province and Yanshan Mountainous Region in the Northern Hebei Province were analyzed, and total NPP spatial distribution of the study area in 2001 was discussed. Based on 16-day MODIS Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) product, 16-day composite NPP dynamics were calculated using CASA model; the seasonal dyamics of vegetation NPP in three subregions were also analyzed. Result reveals that the total NPP of the study area in 2001 was 25.1877×106 gC/(m2·a), and NPP in 2001 ranged from 2 to 608 gC/(m2·a), with an average of 337.516 gC/(m2·a). NPP of the study area in 2001 accumulated mainly from May to September (DOY 129-272), high NPP values appeared from June to August (DOY 177-204), and the maximum NPP appeared from late July to mid-August (DOY 209-224).

  10. Strategies for achieving energy neutrality in biological nutrient removal systems - a case study of the Slupsk WWTP (northern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Ewa; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Makinia, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a model-based evaluation of technological upgrades on the energy and cost balance in a large biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Slupsk (northern Poland). The proposed upgrades include chemically enhanced primary sludge removal and reduction of the nitrogen load in the deammonification process employed for reject water treatment. Simulations enabled to estimate the increased biogas generation and decreased energy consumption for aeration. The proposed upgrades may lead the studied WWTP from the energy deficit to energy neutrality and positive cost balance, while still maintaining the required effluent standards for nitrogen. The operating cost balance depends on the type of applied coagulants/flocculants and specific costs of electric energy. The choice of the coagulant/flocculent was found as the main factor determining a positive cost balance.

  11. An integrated approach for analysing earthquake-induced surface effects: A case study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldini, D.; Genevois, R.; Panizza, M.; Puccinelli, A.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    This paper illustrates research addressing the subject of the earthquake-induced surface effects by means of a multidisciplinary approach: tectonics, neotectonics, seismology, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, soil/rock mechanics have been considered. The research is aimed to verify in areas affected by earthquake-triggered landslides a methodology for the identification of potentially unstable areas. The research was organized according to regional and local scale studies. In order to better emphasise the complexity of the relationships between all the parameters affecting the stability conditions of rock slopes in static and dynamic conditions a new integrated approach, Rock Engineering Systems (RES), was applied in the Northern Apennines. In the paper, the different phases of the research are described in detail and an example of the application of RES method in a sample area is reported. A significant aspect of the study can be seen in its attempt to overcome the exclusively qualitative aspects of research into the relationship between earthquakes and induced surface effects, and to advance the idea of beginning a process by which this interaction can be quantified.

  12. Potential of environmental DNA to evaluate Northern pike (Esox lucius) eradication efforts: An experimental test and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  13. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunker, Kristine J; Sepulveda, Adam J; Massengill, Robert L; Olsen, Jeffrey B; Russ, Ora L; Wenburg, John K; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  14. Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: case study in northern coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-03-01

    To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations.

  15. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  16. Quantification and multivariate analysis of water erosion in the Mediterranean region. A case study of the Isser basin. northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggane, Houari; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the specifisity of erosion stems from a particularly contrasted climate, drought, and from summer and autumn severe thunderstorms. The process of erosion generates substantial loss of soil and affects any kind of crop. The adopted approach aims to establish regression models in order to highlight the relationship between solid and liquid flows at four measurement stations in the Isser catchement area, northern Ageria. The Power Model seems to explain this relationship. The quantification and temporal analysis of solid matter transport showed that the rates of erosion are high along the study area. The annual mean solid matter transport for the whole basin is about 2 200 t/km2.year, of which the main part is recorded in autumn during peak flows. The different factors involved in the process of water erosion are determined in advance in order to establish a model between the predictand variable, which is the specific erosion, and other predictors. Besides, a functional relationship has been highlighted between water erosion and the mean slope, the drainage density and the lithology index.

  17. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  18. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mercuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  19. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  20. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques for Intensity Zonation within a Landslide Area: A Case Study in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tofani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of remote sensing techniques, based on SAR interferometry for the intensity zonation of the landslide affecting the Castagnola village (Northern Apennines of Liguria region, Italy. The study of the instability conditions of the landslide started in 2001 with the installation of conventional monitoring systems, such as inclinometers and crackmeters, ranging in time from April 2001 to April 2002, which allowed to define the deformation rates of the landslide and to locate the actual landslide sliding surface, as well as to record the intensity of the damages and cracks affecting the buildings located within the landslide perimeter. In order to investigate the past long-term evolution of the ground movements a PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis has been performed making use of a set of ERS1/ERS2 images acquired in 1992–2001 period. The outcome of the PSI analysis has allowed to confirm the landslide extension as mapped within the official landslide inventory map as well as to reconstruct the past line-of-sight average velocities of the landslide and the time-series deformations. Following the high velocities detected by the PSI, and the extensive damages surveyed in the buildings of the village, the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBInSAR system has been installed. The GBInSAR monitoring system has been equipped during October 2008 and three distinct campaigns have been carried out from October 2008 until March 2009. The interpretation of the data has allowed deriving a multi-temporal deformation map of the landslide, showing the up-to-date displacement field and the average landslide velocity. A new landslide boundary has been defined and two landslide sectors characterized by different displacement rates have been identified.

  1. Selecting the Location of a Nautical Tourism Port by Applying PROMETHEE And GAIA Methods Case Study – Croatian Northern Adriatic

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Kovačić

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the multi-criteria analysis methods, PROMETHEE I and II and GAIA, used for selecting the location of a nautical tourism port. In an example of the selected location of a nautical tourism port in the Northern Adriatic, the author has used an analytic and graphical evaluation for solving such a problem. Particular attention has been paid to the use of GAIA method, which is suitable for visualisation of the problem characteristics through geometrical interpreta...

  2. Thallium-rich rust scales in drinkable water distribution systems: A case study from northern Tuscany, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Cristian; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lepore, Giovanni O; d'Acapito, Francesco; Vezzoni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    Following the detection of a severe thallium contamination of the drinkable water from the public distribution system of Valdicastello Carducci-Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy), and the identification of the source of contamination in the Molini di Sant'Anna spring (average Tl content≈15μgL(-1)), the replacement of the contaminated water with a virtually Tl-free one (Tl<0.10μgL(-1)) caused an increase in Tl concentration in the drinkable water. This suggested that the pipeline interior had become a secondary source of Tl contamination, promoting its mineralogical and geochemical study. Rust scales samples taken from several pipeline segments, as well as leaching products obtained from these samples, were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence chemical analyses, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Thallium-rich rust scales (up to 5.3wt% Tl) have been found only in pipeline samples taken downstream the water treatment plant, whereas the sample taken upstream contains much less Tl (~90μgg(-1)). The Tl-rich nature of such scales is related to the occurrence of nano- and micro-spherules of Tl2O3 and less abundant nanocrystalline μm-sized encrustations of TlCl. Leaching experiments on Tl-rich rust scales indicate that a fraction of the available Tl is easily dissolved in tap water; X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that monovalent thallium occurs in water equilibrated with the rust scales, probably related to the dissolution of TlCl encrustations. Therefore, Tl dissolved as Tl(+) only in the water from the Molini di Sant'Anna spring was partially removed through oxidative precipitation of Tl2O3 and precipitation of TlCl. This highlights the critical role played by the addition of chlorine-based oxidants in water treatment plants that could favour the deposition of Tl-rich coatings within the pipelines, giving rise to unexpected secondary sources of

  3. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  4. The association between the polymorphisms in a sodium channel gene SCN7A and essential hypertension: a case-control study in the Northern Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Li, Mei; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Chuang; Lou, Yuqing; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Ya; Wang, Zuoguang; Wen, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Nax , an α-subunit of the sodium channel encoded by the SCN7A gene, has been deemed to be a sensor of the concentration of sodium in the brain and may be involved in salt intake behavior. We inferred that Nax /SCN7A may participate in the regulation of blood pressure and the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH). The present case-control study involving 615 hypertensives and 617 normotensives was performed to investigate the association between SCN7A polymorphisms and EH in the Northern Han Chinese population. The three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3791251, rs6738031, rs7565062) in the exons of SCN7A were genotyped with the TaqMan assay. Significant association between SNP rs7565062 and EH was found under the addictive and dominant genetic models (P = 0.024, OR = 1.283, 95%CI [1.033-1.592]; P = 0.013, OR = 1.203, 95%CI [1.040-1.392]; respectively). The three SNPs were in close pair-wise linkage disequilibrium with each other and the haplotype analyses indicated that haplotype G-A-T was significantly associated with increased risk of EH (P = 0.023, OR = 1.290). In conclusion, our data showed that SNP rs7565062 of SCN7A was significantly associated with EH and the allele T of rs7565062 or the related haplotype G-A-T will be a genetic risk factor for EH in the Northern Han Chinese population.

  5. Connection of Farmland Consolidation Construction Works in Northern Anhui Plain:A Case Study of Si County of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HE; Zhongxiang YU; Chen YAO

    2016-01-01

    The connection of farmland consolidation construction works was studied,to provide theoretical and practical basis for bringing into play optimal functions.It employed theoretical analysis method,case analysis method,and experience summary method.Through empirical study of Si County in Anhui Province,it further analyzed connection of four works:land consolidation,irrigation and drainage,field roads,farmland protection,and ecological and environmental protection,to provide methods and possibilities for coordination and connection of four works.It is required to take the land consolidation as a system,take full consideration of all aspects,attach great importance to connection of four works,so as to bring into full play optimal functions and realize sustainable use of land resources and sustainable development of social economy.

  6. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  7. Maternal outcome in multiple versus singleton pregnancies inNorthern Tanzania:A registry-based case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enid Simon Chiwanga; Gileard Massenga; Pendo Mlay; Joseph Obure; Michael Johnson Mahande

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare maternal outcome of multiple versus singleton pregnancies at a tertiary hospital inTanzania.Methods:A case control study was designed using maternally linked data fromKilimanjaroChristianMedicalCentre(KCMC) medical birth registry for the period of2000-2010.A total of822 multiple gestations(cases) were matched with822 singletons(controls) with respect to maternal age at delivery and parity.The odds ratio(ORs) with95% confidence intervals (CIs) for adverse maternal outcome between singleton and multiple gestations were computed in a multivariable logistic regression model.Results:Of the33997 births, there were822(2.1%) multiples.Compared with singletons, women with multiple gestations had increased risk for preeclampsia(OR2.6;95%CI:1.7-3.9), preterm labour(OR5.6;95%CI:4.2-7.4), antepartum haemorrhage(OR1.6;95%CI:1.1-2.3), anaemia(OR2.0;95%CI:1.6-2.6) and caesarean section (OR1.5;95%CI:1.4-1.7).In addition, there were six maternal deaths among women with multiple gestations, of which all were attributed to postpartum haemorrhage.This accounted for a case fatality rate of15.8%.Conclusions:Multiple gestations are associated with adverse maternal outcomes.Close follow-up and timely interventions may help to prevent poor outcomes related to multiple gestations.These findings suggest the needs for clinicians to counsel women with multiple gestations during prenatal care regarding the potential risks.

  8. Effect of Wind Turbine Noise on Workers' Sleep Disorder: A Case Study of Manjil Wind Farm in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Milad; Monnazzam, Mohammad Reza; Zakerian, Sayedabbolfazl; Yousefzadeh, Arsalan

    2015-04-01

    Noise from wind turbines is one of the most important factors affecting the health, welfare, and human sleep. This research was carried out to study the effect of wind turbine noise on workers' sleep disorder. For this, Manjil Wind Farm, because of the greater number of staff and turbines than other wind farms in Iran, was chosen as case study. A total number of 53 participants took part in this survey. They were classified into three groups of mechanics, security, and official. In this study, daytime sleepiness data of workers were gathered using Epworth Sleepiness Scales (ESS) was used to determine the level of daytime sleepiness among the workers. The 8-h equivalent sound level (LAeq,8h) was measured to determine the individuals' exposure at each occupational group. Finally, the effect of sound, age, and workers' experience on individuals' sleep disorder was analyzed through multiple regression analysis in the R software. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between age, workers' experience, equivalent sound level, and the level of sleep disorder. When age is constant, sleep disorder will increase by 26% as per each 1 dB increase in equivalent sound level. In situations where equivalent sound level is constant, an increase of 17% in sleep disorder is occurred as per each year of work experience. Because of the difference in sound exposure in different occupational groups. The effect of noise in repairing group was about 6.5 times of official group and also 3.4 times of the security group. Sleep disorder effect caused by wind turbine noise in the security group is almost two times more than the official group. Unlike most studies on wind turbine noise that address the sleep disorder among inhabitants nearby wind farms, this study, for the first time in the world, examines the impact of wind turbine noise on sleep disorder of workers who are more closer to wind turbines and exposed to higher levels of noise. So despite all the

  9. A case study for natural cascading hazard: the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we study the events triggered by the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif as a case study that shows how one hazard can be the main cause of another hazard occurring. The reconstruction of the chain of hazards triggered by the episode has been done on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, event geographical location, and socio-economic impact. The episode has been studied through the analysis of the issues published in six different newspapers between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888. We have collected the data of the ancient meteorological station of the University of Oviedo, and those contained in parish documents. Field work consisted in visual inspection and interviews to the contemporary residents. The information has been stored and crossed for statistical analysis using a logical database structure that has been designed with this purpose. The snowfall episode consisted in four consecutive snowstorms that occurred between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with an average depth ranging between 5 and 7 m. The snow accumulations were the main cause of material damage, affecting 27 high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities. However, we have to consider that the newspapers only reflected those events affecting densely populated areas along with those which affected vital economic spaces (railway lines, roads in mountain passes, etc.). There were more than 200 interruptions with the traffic flow and communication outages, hampering economic activities. Snow built up on the roofs added extra weight to the structure of the buildings so more than 900 constructions collapsed, killing three persons and causing the loss of more than 19.000 head of cattle. Moreover, these snow accumulations were the basis of an episode of sixty-four snow avalanches that, undoubtedly, meant the main personal damage with a number of dead and wounded that reached 29 and 23 respectively. During the snowfall

  10. Determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia, unmatched case -control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Omer; G/Mariam, Yemane; Fekadu, Abel; Wasihun, Yitbarek; Endris, Kedir; Bitew, Abebayehu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions. Objective To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia. Methods A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G.C. The sample size was determined by using Epi Info version 7.1.5.2. Study subjects were selected using consecutive sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, entered using Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to see the determinants of anemia. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-valueanemia. Conclusions Inadequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables, inadequate consumption of chicken, trimester of the current pregnancy, HIV infection and medication were the determinants of anemia among pregnant women. Therefore, anemia prevention strategy should include promotion of adequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables and chicken, increase meal pattern during the entire pregnancy and strengthen the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission/antenatal care programs. PMID:28288159

  11. Diversity, flexibility, and the resilience effect: lessons from a social-ecological case study of diversified farming in the northern Great Plains, USA

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    Liz Carlisle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological systems are considered resilient when they are capable of recovering from externally forced shocks. Thus, whether a given system is identified as resilient depends on a number of contested definitions: what constitutes a shock, what constitutes a discrete system, and what constitutes acceptable performance. Here, I present a case study in which outcomes apparent to both the researcher and the study subjects demonstrated resilience in effect: a group of farmers in the northern Great Plains in the north-central United States realized economically sufficient production during a low rainfall year when many others in the region did not. However, the researcher's attempt to model this case as a resilient system was continually challenged by qualitative findings, suggesting that these farmers did not experience the officially decreed "drought" year as a shock. Moreover, the social and ecological processes that produced a "resilience effect" functioned as open systems, and were not readily bounded, even in analytical terms. This is not to suggest that resilience is not an operationalizable concept. Rather, the series of processes which produce a resilience effect may be best understood within a broad framework attentive to diversity, flexibility, and relationships at multiple scales - instead of quantitative models focused on discrete moments of disturbance and adaptation.

  12. Psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: A matched case-control study in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Misgina, Kebede Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted to assess psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among PLHIV on ART. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered technique using structured pre-tested questionnaire, record review using a checklist and anthropometric measurements. Cases were selected by simple random sampling and controls purposively to match the selected cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relevant associations by STATA version 12. Results The psychosocial factors independently associated with malnutrition were ever consuming alcohol after starting ART [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8–12.3], ever smoking cigarette after starting ART [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3–25.5], depression [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1], not adhering to ART [AOR = 6.8,95% CI: 2.0–23.0] and being in the second lowest wealth quintile [AOR = 4.3,95% CI: 1.1–17.7]. Conclusion Ever consuming alcohol and ever smoking cigarette after starting ART, depression, not adhering to ART and being in the second lowest wealth quintile were significantly associated with malnutrition. Therefore; policies, strategies, and programs targeting people living with HIV should consider psychosocial factors that can impact nutritional status of people living with HIV enrolled on ART. PMID:28301592

  13. Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Qinghai; WANG; Yanxin; MA; Teng; LI; Luxiu

    2005-01-01

    Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956―2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies.

  14. Food-Chain Model of Grassland Degradation and Its Restoration Process in Northern Tibet Plateau: A Case Study in Nierong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; ZENG Yunying; LIU Shuzhen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the model of grassland climate ecological productivity, the process of grassland degradation and its restoration mechanism in northern Tibetan Plateau were discussed by the model of food-chain in which the environmental and human factors were corrected. The results of case study in Nierong County showed that:① the climate trend of becoming warmer, more droughts and gales were conflicted with the restoration of grassland degradation, even under level of perfect management the climate ecological productivity was declined from 89.3 kg/m2 of 1983 to 71.8 kg/m2 of 2003; ② from 1983 to 2003, the population increased fast, while the variation of livestock on hand was little, and the cost of its maintaining is rapid grassland degradation; ③ on the present condition of overgrazing, the livestock on hand can be maintained on the level of theoretical carrying capacity in 2033 by applying the mechanism of food-chain in grassland ecological system controlled with expected coefficients, so that to realize the policy of determining the quantity of livestock according to grass growth.

  15. Memorialization, Graffiti and Artifact Movement: A Case Study of Cultural Impacts on WWII Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Jennifer F.

    2015-04-01

    Cultural tourism in the Pacific has always offered an underwater option for those who snorkel or are certified to dive. In addition to the coral reefs and marine life, World War II (WWII) shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks and other submerged vehicles draw hundreds of tourists to the Pacific each year. While it is encouraging that so many are interested in the cultural heritage of battlefields, these same visitors can cause considerable amounts of damage. This paper presents a case study of cultural impacts on submerged WWII sites in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) where diving heritage tourism is a growing industry. Cultural impacts in the CNMI include a diverse range of direct and indirect impacts including vandalism, the act of memorialization, looting and collecting souvenirs, anchor and mooring damage, and moving artifacts. What is often viewed as detrimental cultural impacts by archaeologists and managers can also be examined as behavior that reflects various stakeholders' values and attitudes towards heritage sites. As such, these behaviors can and should be examined and considered concurrently during research and management discussions.

  16. Development of a risk based remedial strategy for an MGP site in northern Italy - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, R.; Battaglia, A.; Goldstein, R.; Wilson, D. [AEM, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The `Officina del Gas della Bovisa`, or Bovisa MGP, started operations in 1908, to generate gas for distribution to the city of Milan, Italy. From its inception to 1969, gas was manufactured at the Bovisa site by distillation of coal. By 1969, the coal distillation plant was decommissioned and totally replaced with a plant for the production of gas via the reforming of light petroleum hydrocarbons and mixing of air with methane. In 1981, the Bovisa MGP and the Milan distribution network were taken over by Azienda Energetica Municipale (AEM), Milan, which started the process of changing over gas service to methane. This `methanization` project was completed in 1994, at which time all gas production equipment at the Bovisa site was decommissioned. A site remediation feasibility study was carried out, first involving a site investigation through soil sampling, then a risk assessment and feasibility study.

  17. Variability and Controls of Plant Phenology in Drylands: A Novel Case Study from the Northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, N. R.; Browning, D. M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    By mid century, arid ecosystems will likely comprise the largest terrestrial biome on the planet largely as a result of anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. The size, extent, increased prevalence of shrubs, and large pool of soil carbon are just some of the underlying reasons why it is important to advance our understanding of biogeochemical cycling and energy balance in these landscapes and how change may alter feedbacks with other components of the Earth System. Although substantial progress has been made over the past decade, few studies have simultaneously examined how plant stress can constrain larger scale phenomenon (e.g. plant and landscape phenology), and how large scale phenomenon (e.g. climatic extremes and variability) can impact relatively small scale processes such as plant photosynthetic stress. This study, conducted in a creosote shrubland on the USDA Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in southern New Mexico during 2012-2015, documents seasonal changes in plant and landscape phenology (NPN protocols and phenocams) across four different land cover types (LCTs). The selected LCTs includes grassland, grassland-tobosa playa, shrubland-sandy ridge, and shrubland where each vegetative growth is captured with Windscape "PlantCams" between 11:00 am and 2:00 pm MST. An image processing program (Phenology Analyzer Software), developed in-house has been used to process and analyze imagery. Regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen at the plant and landscape scale to enable inter-comparison of plant phenological trends within and between LCTs using a well-acceted greenness index (Richardson et al. 2007). Timing of green-up was similar between sites but peak greenness varied between LCTs. Shrubland greenness was substantially greater than values from other LCTs. Ongoing analysis is also exploring the utility of alternate color spaces (HSV and L*a*b*) for describing plant phenology using custom phenocams maintained on the JER by UTEP Systems Ecology Lab. This

  18. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships.

  19. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primus Che Chi

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services.This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach.The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities

  20. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

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    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  1. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  2. Natural Recovery and Planned Intervention in Coastal Wetlands: Venice Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy as a Case Study

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    Chiara Facca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming.

  3. Study of Self-Purification Capacity in the Semi- Arid Zones: Case of Wadi Cheliff, (Northern Algeria

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    Mokadem Maamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study and predict the self-purification capacity of wadi Cheliff (in the section Oum Drou –Chlef. This was done primarily by measuring the Dissolved Oxygen (DO downstream of a pre-selected pollution discharge point on wadi Cheliff and then predicting the same using the modified Streeter-Phelps equations. Twelve sampling stations are chosen, on a section of approximately 8.5 km of the wadi Cheliff (Oum Drou - Chlef, to collect data with knowing the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, pH, stream velocity, stream depth and distance. Predicted DO deficit trend lines were first fitted by retaining the original re-aeration coefficient component, k2, of the modified Streeter-Phelps equation (United States Geological Survey equation and subsequently by substituting it with our reaeration coefficient model. It was found that the latter displayed better predictive capacity. Results also demonstrated that the self-purification capacity of the river which is already limited by the relatively low DO saturation level is further threatened by the wastes being discharged into it at varying intervals. Some of these wastes are non-biodegradable which slows down the self-purification processes of the wadi. To preserve the underground layers of the area and to ensure a water of good quality for the irrigation, the Wadi Cheliff must be, necessarily, to protect from any pollution.

  4. Valuing and Sustaining (or Not the Ability of Volunteer Community Health Workers to Deliver Integrated Community Case Management in Northern Ghana: A Qualitative Study.

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    Karen Daniels

    Full Text Available Within the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM programme, the traditional health promotion and prevention role of community health workers (CHWs has been expanded to treatment. Understanding both the impact and the implementation experience of this expanded role are important. In evaluating UNICEF's implementation of iCCM, this qualitative case study explores the implementation experience in Ghana.Data were collected through a rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during a field visit in May 2013 to Accra and the Northern Region of Ghana. We sought to understand the experience of iCCM from the perspective of locally based UNICEF staff, their partners, researchers, Ghana health services management staff, CHWs and their supervisors, nurses in health facilities and mothers receiving the service. Our analysis of the findings showed that there is an appreciation both by mothers and by facility level staff for the contribution of CHWs. Appreciation was expressed for the localisation of the treatment of childhood illness, thus saving mothers from the effort and expense of having to seek treatment outside of the village. Despite an overall expression of value for the expanded role of CHWs, we also found that there were problems in supporting and sustaining their efforts. The data showed concern around CHWs being unpaid, poorly supervised, regularly out of stock, lacking in essential equipment and remaining outside the formal health system.Expanding the roles of CHWs is important and can be valuable, but contextual and health system factors threaten the sustainability of iCCM in Ghana. In this and other implementation sites, policymakers and key donors need to take into account historical lessons from the CHW literature, while exploring innovative and sustainable mechanisms to secure the programme as part of a government owned and government led strategy.

  5. Authigenic albite formation due to water-rock interactions - Case study: Magnus oilfield (UK, Northern North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nana; Fu, Yunjiao; Schulz, Hans-Martin; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of this contribution to test whether organic-inorganic interactions could induce the formation of authigenic albite. This concept and related results are being compared with modelling scenarios which are purely based on inorganic geochemical reactions. In order to unravel the pathway of authigenic albite formation, this paper presents results of a multidisciplinary study from imaging, geochemistry, mineralogy, and hydrogeochemical modelling. The Jurassic reservoir sandstones of the Magnus oilfield (UK, North Sea) were chosen as a test site. Albite occurs with 4-18 wt.% in the Magnus sandstones and its contents vary with depth. However, albite contents increase with increasing K-feldspar contents and decreasing grain size. It occurs in three forms: (1) as lamellae in perthite, (2) as overgrowth on/in corroded feldspar, and, (3) as cloudy replacing albite patches in K-feldspar. The albite overgrowth has the highest chemical purity (100% albite) whilst albite lamellae and replacing albite patches are slightly less pure (containing 1-4% anorthite). Albite appears non-altered, and has a euhedral morphology and dull cathodoluminescence. It commonly co-occurs with corroded K-feldspar grains. The precipitation of diagenetic albite in the Magnus sandstones is attributed to deep burial 80 Ma ago and may have continued until today at temperatures between 90-120 °C. The results of hydrogeochemical modelling offer two possible pathways for the authigenic albite formation: (1) Dissolution of unstable minerals (such as kaolinite and chalcedony) coupled to reduction of ferric iron minerals by products generated during oil generation, migration and degradation; (2) Dissolution of non-end member feldspar, such as K-feldspar with 10% albite, coupled to illite formation can account for trace amounts of albite due to an elevated Na+/K+ activity ratio in the pore water.

  6. The evolution of the paleomagnetic fold test as applied to complex geologic situations, illustrated by a case study from northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Arlo B.; Van der Voo, Rob

    Paleomagnetic results are most useful if the age of the magnetization can be established with respect to the rock age or the age of specific structural or alteration events. The fold test is a particularly powerful tool; not only can it be used to determine whether magnetizations are pre-, syn- or post-folding, but it can also reassure us that structural corrections need (or need not) be applied to a given magnetization. This study traces the evolution of various fold and tilt tests developed in the 50-some years since the classical test of Graham was published. Syn-deformational magnetizations are a very special case, usually characterized as such by an incremental tilt test. In regions where rotations about (near-) vertical axes are to be expected, a strike test is the best tool for determining them. A case study of syn-deformational magnetizations in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain is presented, which illustrates the application of the various tilt and strike tests. One ancient post-deformational and two syn-deformational magnetizations have been recorded in CAA Devonian carbonates, each characterized by different optimal (peak) percentages of unfolding in incremental fold tests. The structural corrections required to bring the individual site-mean magnetization directions into alignment can be used to restore the beds to their attitudes at the times when the magnetizations were acquired. Furthermore, these structural corrections provide robust constraints on the kinematics of the deformation phase that is being removed. In the CAA, removal of late-stage folding about steeply inclined fold axes, due to Permian oroclinal bending, restores the belt to its first folding and thrusting configuration, and produces north-south trending cylindrical folds that formed during the Late Carboniferous. The separate deformations, consisting of earlier folding and thrusting and later oroclinal bending, have implications for the final collisional movements

  7. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing.

  8. Extrathoracic heart in northern Cameroon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Frigiola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tantchou et al report a case of ectopia cordis with successful surgical correction on a 7 months old child from northern Cameroon. Sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy continue to be very rare congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. The prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. Ectopia cordis is frequently associated with other congenital defects involving multiple organ systems. We report a case of ectopia cordis with successful surgical correction on a 7 months old child from northern Cameroon.

  9. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  10. The Importance of Baseline Surveys of Near-Surface Gas Geochemistry for CCS Monitoring, as Shown from Onshore Case Studies in Northern and Southern Europe

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    Beaubien Stan E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the integrity of onshore geological carbon capture and storage projects will require an approach that integrates various methods with different spatial and temporal resolutions. One method proven to be quite effective for site assessment, leakage monitoring, and leakage verification is near-surface gas geochemistry, which includes soil gas concentration and gas flux measurements. Anomalous concentrations or fluxes, relative to the natural background values, can indicate the potential occurrence of a leak. However the natural background can be quite variable, especially for CO2, due to biological production and accumulation in the soil that changes as a function of soil type, land use, geology, temperature, water content, and various other parameters. To better understand how these parameters influence natural, near-surface background values, and to examine the potential of different sampling strategies as a function of the survey goals, this paper reports results from two highly different case studies, one from northern Europe (Voulund, Denmark and one from southern Europe (Sulcis, Sardinia, Italy. The small Voulund site, with its homogeneous soil, climate, and topography, was surveyed twice (in fall and in spring within the EU-funded SiteChar project to examine the effects of different land use practices and seasons on baseline values. Forested land was found to have lower CO2 concentrations during both campaigns compared to cultivated and heath land, and higher CH4 values during the spring sampling campaign. Continuous monitoring probes showed much more detail, highlighting seasonal changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations linked primarily to temperature variations. The much larger Sulcis site, studied within an ENEA-funded project on potential CO2-ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane deployment, was surveyed at the regional scale and on detailed grids and transects for site assessment purposes. Despite the completely different soil

  11. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D. Allan; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-10-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field.

  12. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    . Additionally, research rarely focuses on how transparency is translated within crisis situations. This article presents a sense-making and discourse analysis perspective of transparency. We use the case of the British bank Northern Rock to show how this bank and its stakeholders enacted transparency...

  13. Rainfall model investigation and scenario analyses of the effect of government reforestation policy on seasonal rainfalls: A case study from Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangdai, Eakkapong; Likasiri, Chulin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, 4 models for predicting rainfall amounts are investigated and compared using Northern Thailand's seasonal rainfall data for 1973-2008. Two models, global temperature, forest area and seasonal rainfall (TFR) and modified TFR based on a system of differential equations, give the relationships between global temperature, Northern Thailand's forest cover and seasonal rainfalls in the region. The other two models studied are time series and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models. All models are validated using the k-fold cross validation method with the resulting errors being 0.971233, 0.740891, 2.376415 and 2.430891 for time series, ARMA, TFR and modified TFR models, respectively. Under Business as Usual (BaU) scenario, seasonal rainfalls in Northern Thailand are projected through the year 2020 using all 4 models. TFR and modified TFR models are also used to further analyze how global temperature rise and government reforestation policy affect seasonal rainfalls in the region. Rainfall projections obtained via the two models are also compared with those from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) under IS92a scenario. Results obtained through a mathematical model for global temperature, forest area and seasonal rainfall show that the higher the forest cover, the less fluctuation there is between rainy-season and summer rainfalls. Moreover, growth in forest cover also correlates with an increase in summer rainfalls. An investigation into the relationship between main crop productions and rainfalls in dry and rainy seasons indicates that if the rainy-season rainfall is high, that year's main-crop rice production will decrease but the second-crop rice, maize, sugarcane and soybean productions will increase in the following year.

  14. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. Where compared with the elevation map, in fact, the electrical conductivity data (a proxy for salinity) seem to be strongly controlled by topography (even small variations). In the study area, the topographic reliefs consist of several rows of dunes, the topographic lows are artificial ditches and ponds or dune slacks. The farmland is about at the same level of the sea. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as dunes were eroded (down to 1.5 m above m.s.l.) and a series of saltwater ponds (about 1 m below m.s.l.) are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence of a 3 m high active dune and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow fresh groundwater lens in the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes (more than 4 m) and do not contain any pond. Here, the fresh groundwater lens is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upconing of deeper salty groundwater. Our study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low lying coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upconing.

  15. Improved regional groundwater flow modeling using drainage features: a case study of the central northern karst aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Yu, Xue; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2016-09-01

    In northern Puerto Rico (USA), subsurface conduit networks with unknown characteristics, and surface features such as springs, rivers, lagoons and wetlands, drain the coastal karst aquifers. In this study, drain lines connecting sinkholes and springs are used to improve the developed regional model by simulating the drainage effects of conduit networks. Implemented in an equivalent porous media (EPM) approach, the model with drains is able to roughly reproduce the spring discharge hydrographs in response to rainfall. Hydraulic conductivities are found to be scale dependent and significantly increase with higher test radius, indicating scale dependency of the EPM approach. Similar to other karst regions in the world, hydraulic gradients are steeper where the transmissivity is lower approaching the coastline. This study enhances current understanding of the complex flow patterns in karst aquifers and suggests that using a drainage feature improves modeling results where available data on conduit characteristics are minimal.

  16. Geochemistry, Geochronology and Genesis of Gold Mineralization in Nurt of Northern Altay, Xinjiang:A Case Study on the Aketishikan Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Feng; ZHOU Taofa; TAN Lugui; LUO Xianrong; YUE Shucang

    2004-01-01

    Gold deposits such as the Aketishikan, Togetobie, Tasbig-Kokeydlas, Kums and Hongshanzui gold deposits in the Nurt area in Altay of Xinjiang were found in Member 3 rhyolite tufflava, fragmental lava and ignimbrite of the Carboniferous Hongshanzui Group. Trace and rare earth elements, sulfur, lead, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and geochronological studies indicate that the ore-forming material was mostly supplied by the Carboniferous volcanic rocks through water-rock interaction under a low-to-moderate temperature, and the hydrothermal ore-forming fluid came from meteoric water with some magmatic water input evolved from the granitic magmas. Gold deposits in the Nurt area as well as in the northern Altay might form in multiple stages, and the Yanshanian mineralization period should be paid more attention besides the Variscan mineralization period.

  17. Modeling slope failure by the 3D discrete element method: A case study of the dip slope at the Huafan University campus in northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Chan, Y. C.; Jeng, C. J.; Hsieh, Y. C.

    2015-12-01

    Slope failure is a widely observed phenomenon in hill and mountainous areas in Taiwan, which is characterized by high erosion rates (up to 60 mm/yr) due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Slope failure events easily occur after intense rainfall, especially resulting from typhoons and accordingly cause a great loss of human lives and property. At the northern end of the Western Foothill belt in northern Taiwan, Huafan University campus (121.692448˚ E, 24.980724˚ N ) is founded on a dip slope, ~20˚ toward southwest, being composed of early Miocene alternations of sandstone and shale. Data from continuous monitoring over the years by means of inclinometers and groundwater gauges reveal that creep of 6-10 mm of the slope occurred when precipitation exceeded 300 mm during typhoons' striking. In addition, extension cracks on the ground are also found within and on the edge of the campus. Furthermore, potential slip surfaces are detected shown by rock cores to exist 10 and 30 m in depth as well. To understand the kinematic behaviors of the rock slope failure beneath the university campus, a 3D discrete element mothed is applied in this study. Results of the modeling indicate that creeping is the primary behavior pattern when the friction coefficient reduces owing to rise of groundwater during rainstorms. However, rapid slip may take place under influences of earthquake with large magnitude. Suggestions for preventing the slope creep are to construct catchpits to drainage runoff and lower the groundwater table and ground anchors through the slip surfaces to stabilize the slide blocks.

  18. Analysis of the impacts of major anion variations on surface water acidity particularly with regard to conifer harvesting: case studies from Wales and Northern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the water quality of streams draining a range of acidic and acid sensitive, mainly afforested, upland catchments in mid- and north-Wales and northern-England are described to investigate the acidification effects of conifer harvesting in relation to natural variability. Most sites show a large range in pH and major cation and major anion concentrations. The waters draining from the smaller catchments are more acidic and aluminium bearing reflecting a higher proportion of runoff from the acidic soils in each area. However, there is often a less acidic component of runoff under base-flow conditions due to ground-water contributions particularly within the larger streams. Higher concentrations of nitrate occur for sites which have been felled although declines in concentration occur several years after felling. Multiple regression analysis reveals the importance of cation exchange and within catchment acidification associated with sulphate and nitrate generation. Sulphate also has a component associated with weathering but the patterns vary from catchment to catchment. Analysis of the influence of changing anion concentrations associated with tree harvesting reveals that the acidification induced by increases in nitrate can be offset or reversed by the lowering of chloride and sulphate concentrations due to decreased atmospheric scavenging by the vegetation, reduced evapotranspiration and increased surface runoff diluting the acidity generated. It is concluded that contemporary UK forestry guidelines with an emphasis on phased harvesting of catchments over several years and careful harvesting methodologies can alleviate most problems of stream acidification associated with felling activities and in some cases can reverse the acidification pattern.

  19. Post-production losses in iodine concentration of salt hamper the control of iodine deficiency disorders: a case study in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawel, Dawit; Hagos, Seifu; Lachat, Carl K; Kimanya, Martin E; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Iodine is essential for good function of the thyroid, and its deficiency is of public-health importance in Ethiopia. Iodization of salt is an effective and sustainable strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency in large populations. The effectiveness of salt-iodization programmes depends on the conservation of iodine concentration in salt at various stages of the supply-chain. The overall objective of the study was to assess the loss of iodine in salt from production to consumption and to estimate the proportion of adults, especially pregnant women, at risk of dietary iodine insufficiency. A cross-sectional study was conducted during February-April 2007 in northern Ethiopia. Iodine concentrations of salt samples from producers (n=41), retailers (n=7), and consumers (n=32) were determined using iodiometric titration. A risk assessment was conducted for dietary iodine insufficiency among adults, including pregnant women, using a semi-probabilistic approach. The concentration of iodine in the sampled salts decreased by 57% from the production site to the consumers. The assessment of exposure showed that adults in 63% (n=20) of the households, including 90% (n=29) with pregnant women, were at risk of insufficient iodine intake. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to ensure adequate supply of iodine along the distribution chain. Special attention is needed for the retailers and consumers. At these levels, dissemination of information regarding proper storage and handling of iodized salt is necessary to address the reported loss of iodine from salt.

  20. Different responses of northern and southern high latitude ionospheric convection to IMF rotations: a case study based on SuperDARN observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ambrosino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We use SuperDARN data to study high-latitude ionospheric convection over a three hour period (starting at 22:00 UT on 2 January 2003, during which the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF flipped between two states, one with By>>|Bz| and one with Bz>0, both with negative Bx. We find, as expected from previous works, that day side ionospheric convection is controlled by the IMF in both hemispheres. For strongly northward IMF, we observed signatures of two reverse cells, both in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, due to lobe reconnection. On one occasion, we also observed in the NH two viscous cells at the sides of the reverse cell pair. For duskward IMF, we observed in the NH a large dusk clockwise cell, accompanied by a smaller dawn cell, and the signature of a corresponding pattern in the SH. On two occasions, a three cell pattern, composed of a large clockwise cell and two viscous cells, was observed in the NH. As regards the timings of the NH and SH convection reconfigurations, we find that the convection reconfiguration from a positive Bz dominated to a positive By dominated pattern occurred almost simultaneously (i.e. within a few minutes in the two hemispheres. On the contrary, the reconfiguration from a By dominated to a northward IMF pattern started in the NH 8–13 min earlier than in the SH. We suggest that part of such a delay can be due to the following mechanism: as IMF Bx<0, the northward-tailward magnetosheath magnetic field reconnects with the magnetospheric field first tailward of the northern cusp and later on tailward of the southern cusp, due to the IMF draping around the magnetopause.

  1. Establishment of water source discrimination model in coal mine by using hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis: a case study from Renlou Coal Mine in northern Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin-hua; GUI He-rong

    2012-01-01

    The demand for energy consumption promotes to find more coal in deep underground up to 1000 m and brings more serious situation of water disaster.As one of the major methods for water disaster control,hydrogeochemistry attracts a series of studies related to water source discrimination.In this paper,a simple method for constructing the water source discrimination model based on major ions and multivariate statistical analysis was reported using the following procedures:① collection of data and interpretation,② analysis of controlling factors based on the chemical composition of groundwater,③ "pure" sample chosen,and ④ discrimination model establishment.After the processes,two functions and a diagram were established for three aquifers (the Quaternary,Coal bearing,and Taiyuan Fm.) from the Renlou Coal Mine in northern Anhui Province,China.The method can be applied in almost all coal mines and can be used for evaluating the contribution ratios if the water is collected from a mixing source.

  2. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  3. The effect of social capital on the performance of the branches of credit institutions (Case Study: SAMEN branches in the northern provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital include concepts such as trust, cooperation and partnerships among members of a group or a organization and society that shapes the targeted system and achieve the worthy goal to be guided by them. This article describes the relationship between social capital with the performance of the branches of a SAMEN credit institution's staff. The research method was survey and statistical population of all employees in the branches of a Samencredit institution in the northern provinces of Iran (North Khorasan, Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and Ardabil included a random sampling of 265 employees (according to Morgan's formula, for example, were identified. The independent variable of social capital (trust, network connections and a sense of security and the dependent variable is the performance of the branches. The study, Cronbach's alpha was 0.875. All statistical analyzes were performed using spss software. The results showed that the social capital of employees, network links, a sense of security and trust of employees and branches yield significant relationship.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  5. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  6. Evaluating the effects of protection on fish predators and sea urchins in shallow artificial rocky habitats: a case study in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, P; Bussotti, S; Boero, F

    2005-05-01

    Man-made defence structures (e.g., breakwaters, jetties) are becoming common features of marine coastal landscapes all around the world. The ecology of assemblages of species associated with such artificial structures is, however, poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the density and size of fish predators of echinoids (i.e., Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Sparus aurata), and the density of sea urchins (i.e., Paracentrotus lividus) at defence structures (i.e., breakwaters) inside and outside the marine protected area of Miramare (northern Adriatic Sea) in order to: (1) assess possible differences in fish predator density and size between protected and fished breakwaters; (2) assess whether fish predation may have the potential to affect sea urchin density in artificial rocky habitats. Surveys were carried out at four random times over a period of two years. Total density, and density of medium- and large-sized individuals of the three predatory fishes were generally greater at the protected than at the fished breakwaters, whereas no differences were detected in the density of small-sized individuals. Density of the sea urchin P. lividus did not show any difference between protected and fished breakwaters. The results of this study suggest that: (1) protection may significantly affect predatory fishes in artificial rocky habitats; (2) differences in predatory fish density, and size may be unrelated with the density of the sea urchin P. lividus; (3) protected artificial structures such as breakwaters, originally planned for other purposes, could represent a potential tool for fish population recovery and enhancement of local fisheries.

  7. Dynamics of Soil Erosion as Influenced by Watershed Management Practices: A Case Study of the Agula Watershed in the Semi-Arid Highlands of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuyuki; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Negussie, Aklilu

    2016-11-01

    Since the past two decades, watershed management practices such as construction of stone bunds and establishment of exclosures have been widely implemented in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia to curb land degradation by soil erosion. This study assessed changes in soil erosion for the years 1990, 2000 and 2012 as a result of such watershed management practices in Agula watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation factors were computed in a geographic information system for 30 × 30 m raster layers using spatial data obtained from different sources. The results revealed significant reduction in soil loss rates by about 55 % from about 28 to 12 t ha-1 per year in 1990-2000 and an overall 64 % reduction from 28 to 10 t ha-1 per year in 1990-2012. This change in soil loss is attributed to improvement in surface cover and stone bund practices, which resulted in the decrease in mean C and P-factors, respectively, by about 19 % and 34 % in 1990-2000 and an overall decrease in C-factor by 29 % in 1990-2012. Considerable reductions in soil loss were observed from bare land (89 %), followed by cultivated land (56 %) and shrub land (49 %). Furthermore, the reduction in soil loss was more pronounced in steeper slopes where very steep slope and steep slope classes experienced over 70 % reduction. Validation of soil erosion estimations using field observed points showed an overall accuracy of 69 %, which is fairly satisfactory. This study demonstrated the potential of watershed management efforts to bring remarkable restoration of degraded semi-arid lands that could serve as a basis for sustainable planning of future developments of areas experiencing severe land degradation due to water erosion.

  8. Development and evaluation of local communities incentive programs for improving the traditional forest management:A case study of North-ern Zagros forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Henareh Khalyani; Manouchehr Namiranian; S. M. Heshmatol Vaezin; Jahangir Feghhi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local community incentive programs to improve traditional forest management in three forested villages in Baneh city, Kurdistan province in the northern Zagros forests of western Iran. Zagros forests cover 6.07 million ha and support rich plant and animal diversity. Changes in local community social and economic sys-tems and the inefficiency of traditional forest management led to a criti-cal situation in the stability of forest regeneration in recent decades. Due to a shortage of productive and arable lands and resulting unemployment and poverty, people overexploited the Zagros forests. Outside interven-tion in traditional forest management creates conflicts between local peoples and forest management organizations. To achieve sustainable forest management, including forest resources conservation and im-provement of natural resource based livelihoods of communities, it is desirable to implement Forestry Incentive Programs (FIP) based on the important functions of forests. Detailed information on the so-cio-economics of communities, the effect of forests on local livelihoods, and lists of products extracted from the forest were obtained from a sur-vey of local communities though questionnaire, interview and observa-tion. We studied 276 households in three villages and completed 76 ques-tionnaires by householders in the quantitative analysis. Sampling was performed by simple random sampling (SRS). The needs of rural com-munities, such as livestock husbandry, mainly arise from the characteris-tics and environmental features of villages. We identified the driving forces, pressures, status, impacts and responses (DPSIR) to design incen-tive programs, by DPSIR analysis and interaction analysis. Evaluation of local community benefits from forests showed that in order to improve forest management, 319 dollars per year would be needed by each family as an incentive in 2010 to prevent lopping and firewood collecting, the main causes of forest degradation.

  9. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…

  10. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects: a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijnum, I.M. van; Kapusta, L.; Bakker, M.K.; Heijer, M. den; Blom, H.J.; Walle, H.E. de

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the potentially protective of periconceptional folic acid use on the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) relative to other non-folate related malformations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data from a large regional register of birth defects (EUROCAT-Northern Netherlands),

  11. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects : a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beynum, Ingrid M.; Kapusta, Livia; Bakker, Marian K.; den Heijer, Martin; Blom, Henk J.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the potentially protective of periconceptional folic acid use on the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) relative to other non-folate related malformations. We analysed data from a large regional register of birth defects (EUROCAT-Northern Netherlands), over a 10 year period (1996

  12. Integrating species distributional, conservation planning, and individual based population models: A case study in critical habitat evaluation for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods As part of the ongoing northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative potential critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individua...

  13. Integrating distributional, spatial prioritization, and individual-based models to evaluate potential critical habitat networks: A case study using the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individual-based population model (HexSim). With this suite ...

  14. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…

  15. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and processing, and the drilling of one exploratory well. Existing data from prior investigations, which included water geochemistry, gravity, photogeologic reports and a hydrothermal alteration study, was also provided. The exploratory well was drilled to total depth of 8565' with no significant mud losses or other drilling problems. A maximum temperature of 260/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth. The relatively low temperature and the lack of permeability (as shown by absence of mud loss) indicated that a current, economic geothermal resource had not been located, and the well was subsequently plugged and abandoned. However, the type and extent of rock alteration found implied that an extensive hot water system had existed in this area at an earlier time. This report is a synopsis of the case study activities and the data obtained from these activities.

  16. An integrated approach to asses origin and mobilization of As, Fe and Mn in groundwater: the case study of Cremona (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotiroti, Marco; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    The present work concerns the analysis of the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry of the As, Fe, Mn rich groundwater of the alluvial multi-layer aquifer in the lower Po Plain of Cremona (northern Italy). In this analysis, an integrated approach is applied in order to understand the origins (natural or anthropic) and chemical mechanisms of high groundwater As, Fe and Mn concentrations found in the study area. The study area covers a 50 km2 wide area around the urban territory of Cremona. It is located near the confluence between Adda and Po rivers. The multi-aquifer system which interests the first 200-250 m of depth is investigated. The integrated approach involves the (a) collection of historical data related to water quality, water levels and well logs; (b) storage of collected data in specific databases and geographical information systems; (c) design and execution of two field surveys of water levels and water quality, realized in July 2010 and July 2012, concerning also groundwater sampling for isotope and microbiological analysis; (d) construction of a 3D model of aquifer hydrogeological properties (deposits texture, hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity), built by means of ordinary kriging interpolation of numerical values derived from the coding of well logs; (e) analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of the system on the basis of the field measurements; (f) analysis of water quality data (both field and historical data) considering the hydrogeological and hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer system; (g) analysis of isotope and microbiological measurements; (h) implementation of a 1D reactive transport model in order to better understand the hydrogeochemical mechanisms in the system; (i) elaboration of a general hydrogeochemical conceptual model concerning possible origins and chemical mechanisms for the high groundwater As, Fe, Mn and NH4 concentrations, considering also possible anthropogenic influences; (j) development of management tools

  17. Extreme events in total ozone over the northern mid-latitudes: A case study based on long-term data sets from 5 ground-based stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.

    2010-05-01

    In this study we analyze the frequency distribution of extreme events in low and high total ozone (termed ELOs and EHOs) for 5 long-term stations in the northern mid-latitudes in Europe (Belsk, Poland; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Hohenpeissenberg and Potsdam, Germany; and Uccle, Belgium). Further, the influence of these extreme events on annual and seasonal mean values and trends is analysed. The applied method follows the new "ozone extreme concept", which is based on tools from extreme value theory [Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007], recently developed by Rieder et al. [2010a, b]. Mathematically seen the decisive feature within the extreme concept is the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). In this analysis, the long-term trends needed to be removed first, differently to the treatment of Rieder et al. [2010a, b], in which the time series of Arosa was analysed, covering many decades of measurements in the anthropogenically undisturbed stratosphere. In contrast to previous studies only focusing on so called ozone mini-holes and mini-highs the "ozone extreme concept" provides a statistical description of the tails in total ozone distributions (i.e. extreme low and high values). It is shown that this concept is not only an appropriate method to describe the frequency and distribution of extreme events, it also provides new information on time series properties and internal variability. Furthermore it allows detection of fingerprints of physical (e.g. El Niño, NAO) and chemical (e.g. polar vortex ozone loss) features in the Earth's atmosphere as well as major volcanic eruptions (e.g. El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo). It is shown that mean values and trends in total ozone are strongly influenced by extreme events. Trend calculations (for the period 1970-1990) are performed for the entire as well as the extremes-removed time series. The results after excluding extremes show that annual trends are most reduced at Hradec Kralove (about a factor of 3), followed by Potsdam

  18. Glacier lake outburst floods caused by glacier shrinkage: case study of Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz Ala Too, northern Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakov, D.; Erochin, S. A.; Harbor, J.; Ivanov, M.; Rogozhina, I.; Stroeven, A. P.; Usubaliev, R.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in glacier extent and runoff in Central Asia increase socio-economic stress and may result in political conflict between donors of freshwater (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) and recipients of freshwater (Uzbekistan, China). Glaciers in the Pamir and Tian Shan regions have experienced an unprecedented downwasting due to regional climate changes over the past decades. This is because air temperature increases are in some areas accompanied by a decrease in precipitation. Such conditions have already resulted in a reduction of glacier runoff, especially in the northern and western Tian Shan, and an increase of the number and area of glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan. Even though glacial lakes in the mountains are in general relatively small and located far from densely populated areas, their outbursts often produce destructive debris flows. Such debris flows are especially common in Kyrgyzstan because of its steep river channels and abundance of Holocene and Quaternary glacier deposits that can be remobilized. The glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Shakhimardan river catchment in 1999, for example, resulted in 100 fatalities in Uzbekistan, and the GLOF from the Zyndan glacial lake led to substantial economic losses in 2009. According to the latest inventory, there are more than 350 glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan of which about 70 occur in the Kyrgyz Ala Too. The Ala-Archa valley is among the most important glacierized catchments in Kyrgyzstan. Despite the presence of a relatively small glacier-covered area of 36 km2, the Ala-Archa river is of critical importance to the Bishkek area, its agriculture, and its population which currently exceeds one million. GLOFs are therefore a threat to both numerous settlements of touristic value in the Ala-Archa headwaters and to Bishkek. The Teztor lake in the Adygene catchment of the Ala-Archa river system experienced an outburst during 1988 and 2005. On the early morning of July 31, 2012, this lake began draining through a dam

  19. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaine N. Yegbemey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as heads of farmer and village organisations and group discussions with farmers were organised. A household survey was also conducted on 336 maize producers to highlight the factors affecting decisions to adjust the agricultural calendar as a coping mechanism against climate variability. As a general trend, the duration of the cropping season in northern Benin is getting longer with slight differences among and within agro-ecological zones, implying a higher risk of operating under time-inefficient conditions. Farmers receive very limited support from agricultural extension services and therefore design their agricultural calendar on the basis of personal experience. Socio-economic characteristics, maize farming characteristics as well as farm location determine the decision to adjust the agricultural calendar. Consequently, providing farmers with climate related information could ensure a rational and time-efficient management of the agricultural calendar. Moreover, research and extension institutions should help in establishing and popularising clear agricultural calendars while taking into account the driving forces of behaviours towards the adjustment of farming practices as a climate variability response.

  20. Ambient noise tomography with non-uniform noise sources and low aperture networks: case study of deep geothermal reservoirs in northern Alsace, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehujeur, Maximilien; Vergne, Jérôme; Maggi, Alessia; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2017-01-01

    We developed and applied a method for ambient noise surface wave tomography that can deal with noise cross-correlation functions governed to first order by a non-uniform distribution of the ambient seismic noise sources. The method inverts the azimuthal distribution of noise sources that are assumed to be far from the network, together with the spatial variations of the phase and group velocities on an optimized irregular grid. Direct modelling of the two-sided noise correlation functions avoids dispersion curve picking on every station pair and minimizes analyst intervention. The method involves station pairs spaced by distances down to a fraction of a wavelength, thereby bringing additional information for tomography. After validating the method on synthetic data, we applied it to a set of long-term continuous waveforms acquired around the geothermal sites at Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Northern Alsace, France). For networks with limited aperture, we show that taking the azimuthal variations of the noise energy into account has significant impact on the surface wave dispersion maps. We obtained regional phase and group velocity models in the 1-7 s period range, which is sensitive to the structures encompassing the geothermal reservoirs. The ambient noise in our dataset originates from two main directions, the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, and is dominated by the first Rayleigh wave overtone in the 2-5 s period range.

  1. Ambient noise tomography with non-uniform noise sources and low aperture networks: case study of deep geothermal reservoirs in northern Alsace, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehujeur, Maximilien; Vergne, Jérôme; Maggi, Alessia; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2016-10-01

    We developed and applied a method for ambient noise surface wave tomography that can deal with noise cross-correlation functions governed to first order by a non-uniform distribution of the ambient seismic noise sources. The method inverts the azimuthal distribution of noise sources that are assumed to be far from the network, together with the spatial variations of the phase and group velocities on an optimized irregular grid. Direct modeling of the two-sided noise correlation functions avoids dispersion curve picking on every station pair and minimizes analyst intervention. The method involves station pairs spaced by distances down to a fraction of a wavelength, thereby bringing additional information for tomography. After validating the method on synthetic data, we applied it to a set of long-term continuous waveforms acquired around the geothermal sites at Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Northern Alsace, France). For networks with limited aperture, we show that taking the azimuthal variations of the noise energy into account has significant impact on the surface wave dispersion maps. We obtained regional phase and group velocity models in the 1-7 s period range, which is sensitive to the structures encompassing the geothermal reservoirs. The ambient noise in our dataset originates from two main directions, the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, and is dominated by the first Rayleigh wave overtone in the 2 - 5 s period range.

  2. Detection of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin genes (A-F) in dairy farms from Northern Germany using PCR: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohler, Svenja; Discher, Sabrina; Jordan, Eva; Seyboldt, Christian; Klein, Guenter; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hoedemaker, Martina; Scheu, Theresa; Campe, Amely; Charlotte Jensen, Katharina; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Classical botulism in cattle mainly occurs after ingestion of feed contaminated with preformed toxin. In 2001 a form of botulism ("visceral botulism") was postulated to occur after ingestion of Clostridium (C.) botulinum cells or spores, followed by colonization of the intestine, and local production of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causing chronic generalized disease. To verify the potential role of C. botulinum in the described syndrome, a case-control study was conducted, including 139 farms. Fecal samples, rumen content, water and silage samples were collected on each farm. Real time BoNT gene PCR assays were conducted after enrichment in RCM (Reinforced Clostridial Medium) at 37 °C and conventional PCRs after enrichment in MCM (Modified Cooked Meat Medium) at 30 °C. Furthermore, a direct detection of BoNT genes without prior enrichment was attempted. BoNT A, B, C, D, E and F genes were detected in animal samples from 25 (17.99%), 3 (2.16%), 0 (0.0%), 2 (1.44%), 1 (0.72%), and 3 (2.16%) farms, respectively. Eleven feed samples were positive for BoNT A gene. By enrichment a significant increase in sensitivity was achieved. Therefore, this should be an essential part of any protocol. No significant differences regarding BoNT gene occurrence could be observed between Case and Control farms or chronically diseased and clinically healthy animals within the particular category. Thus, the postulated form of chronic botulism in cows could not be confirmed. This study supports the general opinion that C. botulinum can occasionally be found in the rumen and intestine of cows without causing disease.

  3. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one generated by the great earthquake of November 28, 1945 off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan in the Northern Arabian Sea. The destructive tsunami killed more than 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan but also caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran, Oman and possibly elsewhere.The seismotectonics of the Makran subduction zone, historical earthquakes in the region, the recent earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan, and the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, are indicative of the active tectonic collision process that is taking place along the entire southern and southeastern boundary of the Eurasian plate as it collides with the Indian plate and adjacent microplates. Tectonic stress transference to other, stress loaded tectonic regions could trigger tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Northern Arabian Sea in the future.The northward movement and subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Iranian micro-plate at a very shallow angle and at the high rate is responsible for active orogenesis and uplift that has created a belt of highly folded and densely faulted coastal mountain ridges along the coastal region of Makran, in both the Balochistan and Sindh provinces. The same tectonic collision process has created offshore thrust faults. As in the past, large destructive tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur along major faults in the east Makran region, near Karachi, as

  5. Introduction of an innovation for the reduction of maternal mortality in Kano State, northern Nigeria: a case study of magnesium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, J; Ogedengbe, C; Nwanchukwu, E; Araoyinbo, I A; Yakasai, I A; Adaji, S E; Ajala, B

    2011-10-01

    In this project, sponsored by the McArthur Foundation and the Population Council, magnesium sulphate was introduced in February 2007 to 10 general hospitals in Kano State, northern Nigeria. Changes were monitored via data collected at the hospital. At an initial training of the trainers' workshop, 25 master trainers were trained. They then conducted step down trainings and trained 160 clinical providers. Within 12 months, 1045 patients were treated with magnesium sulphate. The attributable deaths from eclampsia fell by 42.4%. The community became aware of an improved outcome for eclampsia. The providers expressed satisfaction with the outcome of the treated patients. Four of the master trainers trained 30 clinical providers from the other 25 general hospitals. Initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality should be evidence-based.

  6. Programa de fortalecimiento de capacidades: reflections on a case study of community-based teacher education set in rural northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-12-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educación Básica). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer reflections on a teacher education initiative which sought to support action-orientated inquiries as a mechanism for school/community development. Set against a background of poverty, hunger, isolation and an "educational crisis", we outline our pedagogy and describe two projects. We then reflect on the influences of our engagements and on associated tensions and ambiguities in our methods. We hope that such discussions might offer insights for others involved in international school/community development projects of this type.

  7. Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have observed positive associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department (ED visits for asthma. However, few have examined the possible confounding influence of aeroallergens, or reported findings among very young children. Methods A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease. Results Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p Conclusion Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.

  8. Responses of streamflow to climate change in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang: A case study of the Toutun River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI WeiHong; CHEN YaNing; HAO XingMing; HUANG Xiang; CHEN YaPeng

    2007-01-01

    A case study on the responses of streamflow to climate change in the Toutun River basin was carried out based on data analysis of streamflow, precipitation, and temperatures during the past 50 years.Temporal series of the streamflow change in the Toutun River basin was analyzed and tested using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test. Results revealed that the annual runoff of the Toutun River had been in a monotonic decreasing trend for the past 50 years. Compared with the 1950s and 1960s, the annual runoff in the 1990s decreased by 4.0×105 m3 and 7.2×105 m3. The precipitation did not show monotonic trend during the past 50 years, but the annual temperature increased by 1.12℃ since the 1950s. Further data analysis indicated that the monthly runoff of the Toutun River decreased significantly from August to October, with precipitation displaying the similar pattern of seasonal change. Analysis suggests that the reduction of streamflow in the Toutun River basin is possibly caused by the seasonal change of precipitation, especially the precipitation reduction in summer, and temperature increases.

  9. Multilinear approach to the precipitation–lightning relationship: a case study of summer local electrical storms in the northern part of Spain during 2002–2009 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Herrero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Storms developed under local instability conditions are studied in the Spanish Basque region with the aim of establishing precipitation–lightning relationships. Those situations may produce, in some cases, flash flood. Data used correspond to daily rain depth (mm and the number of CG flashes in the area. Rain and lightning are found to be weakly correlated on a daily basis, a fact that seems related to the existence of opposite gradients in their geographical distribution. Rain anomalies, defined as the difference between observed and estimated rain depth based on CG flashes, are analysed by PCA method. Results show a first EOF explaining 50% of the variability that linearly relates the rain anomalies observed each day and that confirms their spatial structure. Based on those results, a multilinear expression has been developed to estimate the rain accumulated daily in the network based on the CG flashes registered in the area. Moreover, accumulates and maximum values of rain are found to be strongly correlated, therefore making the multilinear expression a useful tool to estimate maximum precipitation during those kind of storms.

  10. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    of several DHSs. Furthermore ?Udspil? was chosen for being a non-formal learning activity based on individual participation, even though linked to institutionalized learning practices, which were carried out in cooperation between several local institutions.Last but not least, the project represents...... that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day......Learning for democratic citizenship is embedded in the general popular education ideal(folkeoplysning), which is the primary source of inspiration for the Day High Schools (DHSs). DHSs are private institutions supported by local authorities, that host primarily low educated and unemployed young...

  11. Is these a link between eustatic variations, platform drowning, oceanic anoxic events, and ammonite faunal turnovers ? Case study of the Aptian sediments along the northern Tethyan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pictet, Antoine; Föllmi, Karl; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    The early Aptian witnessed an important episode of paleoenvironmental change, which has been linked to major marine volcanic activity related to the formation of the Ontong-Java large igneous province (e.g., Larson and Erba, 1999). This phase culminated in the formation of hemipelagic and pelagic organic-rich sediments, whereas profound changes are also observed in shallow-water settings, with the step-by-step disappearance of the northern Tethyan platform. Results show that the northern Tethyan platform has passed through three major crises in its evolution during the early Aptian. A first one started with an emersion phase, marked by a subaerial karstified discontinuity reported from the middle early Aptian (Deshayesites forbesi or early D. deshayesi zone). This is directly followed by the drowning of the Urgonian platform along the northern Tethyan margin, preceding the Selli Episode. The period following this drowning phase coincides with the negative and the following positive excursions in the δ13C records and went along with the deposition of the so-called Lower Grünten Member, which is the result of heterozoan carbonate production and characterized by increased detrital input. Ammonite fauna witnessed an important diversification of hemipelagic forms, especially inside the heteromorph Ancyloceratacea. This radiation is probably linked to the expansion of hemipelagic facies, one of the main habitats of ammonites. A second phase, reported from the late early Aptian (late D. deshayesi zone), started with a small drowning event, marked by a firmground and by a phosphatic enrichment. This stratigraphical layer also corresponds to the establishment of the anoxic Apparein level. Above, the Upper Grünten Member continues with heterozoan carbonate production or with glauconitic condensed sediments. The corresponding δ13C record is a the onset of a long-term decrease. The ammonite fauna is marked by a first turnover with the disappearance of Deshayesites, and the

  12. Towards a new High Resolution Orthophoto Mosaic Circa 1976 for the Northern Eurasia: Assessing the Potential of Declassified Hexagon KH-9 Images (Tien Shan Region, Central Asia Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surazakov, A.; Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.

    2008-12-01

    Repeated satellite-based inventories of land-cover and land-use, such as Global Landsat Orthorectified data collection (28.5-57 m resolution), are crucial for understanding dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. However, accurate estimation of dynamics of certain natural and man-made phenomena (mountain glaciers, lakes, urban and agricultural areas) often requires higher resolution remote sensed datasets (with resolution below 10-20 m). In the Northern Eurasia, such datasets are often too expensive or unavailable for a regional study (for example SPOT, TK-350, aerial photography) or span only the last decade (for example Landsat ETM, ASTER, IRS, ALOS/PRISM). This study estimates accuracy and potential of historical Hexagon KH-9 images for generation of a high resolution orthorectified product circa 1976 on a regional scale. The Hexagon KH-9 images were declassified by the U.S. Government in 2002. Although the KH-9 dataset coverage is global, it is particularly rich over the Northern Eurasia where multiple repeat images were acquired for the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency. Using a set of KH-9 images we generated a high quality orthorectified mosaic for the area of Tien Shan mountain system (about 550,000 km2) with resolution of 6-9 m and horizontal accuracy about 9 m. The panchromatic orthophoto mosaic is a unique dataset that for the first time portrays the remote region with such detail and, at the same time, extends the retrospective for more than three decades. The mosaic enabled creation of a glacier inventory for the Tien Shan mountains circa 1976. The Tien Shan case study demonstrated that Hexagon KH-9 images can be used for generation of a land-cover/land-use inventory circa 1976 on regional scales and with high spatial resolution.

  13. Characteristics of ground motion and threshold values for colluvium slope displacement induced by heavy rainfall: a case study in northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Ching-Jiang; Sue, Dar-Zen

    2016-06-01

    The Huafan University campus is located in the Ta-lun Shan area in northern Taiwan, which is characterized by a dip slope covered by colluvium soil of various depths. For slope disaster prevention, a monitoring system was constructed that consisted of inclinometers, tiltmeters, crack gages, groundwater level observation wells, settlement and displacement observation marks, rebar strain gages, concrete strain gages, and rain gages. The monitoring data derived from hundreds of settlement and displacement observation marks were analyzed and compared with the displacement recorded by inclinometers. The analysis results revealed that the maximum settlement and displacement were concentrated on the areas around the Hui-Tsui, Zhi-An, and Wu-Ming buildings and coincided with periods of heavy rainfall. The computer program STABL was applied for slope stability analysis and modeling of slope failure. For prevention of slope instability, a drainage system and tieback anchors with additional stability measures were proposed to discharge excess groundwater following rainfall. Finally, threshold value curves of rainfall based on slope displacement were proposed. The curves can be applied for predicting slope stability when typhoons are expected to bring heavy rainfall and should be significant in slope disaster prevention.

  14. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  15. Constraints for estimating the future burial depth of host rocks for geological waste disposal: a case study from the Boom Clay, Campine area, Northern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, K.; De Craen, M.; Brassinnes, S.

    2012-04-01

    An important requirement for geological formations hosting a repository for radioactive waste is sufficient depth to ensure isolation of the waste for a very long time period, up to 1 Ma and beyond. Over such long timescales, the repository depth and the thickness of the overburden may vary significantly due to various geodynamic processes. In Belgium, the Boom Clay in the Campine area (NE-Belgium) is considered as reference host formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. First results are presented that illustrate the possible impact of future climate change (based on several scenarios studied in the BIOCLIM project (BIOCLIM, 2001)) and tectonic movements in the Campine area on the thickness of the sediment mass overlying the Boom Clay. At present, the subcrop area of Boom Clay in the Campine area is relatively flat (between ~ 0 m a.s.l. near the river Scheldt estuary in the west and ~ 60 m a.s.l. on the Campine Plateau in the east) and is occupied by several sub-basins that belong to the rivers Meuse and Scheldt. Future development of the area will heavily depend on the behaviour of these rivers and tributaries throughout the considered timeframe, in response to climatic changes and tectonic movements. The area is characterised by a long burial history, with some minor isolated uplift and erosional events during the last 30 Ma. In a global warming scenario during a long interglacial (> 50 ka AP), and/or in the case of subsidence, (relative) sea-level may rise such that various parts of the Boom Clay area will be occupied by the marine realm. This is likely to be a minimal erosion scenario because the baseline for landscape evolution will rise in the upstream parts while estuarine and marine deposition may increase the thickness of the overburden in the downstream parts. In the case of a continuation of Pleistocene glacial cycles, i.e. the alternation between warm interglacials and cold glacials, the area will be exposed to erosion and denudation

  16. Challenges faced in the conservation of rare antelope: a case study on the northern basalt plains of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of rare antelope has long been one of the goals of the Kruger National Park. The roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, and to a lesser extent the tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus, represent low-density species or rare antelope in the park. Specific management approaches representing the older equilibrium approach, have been employed to conserve these antelope. Of these, the supply of artificial water over many decades was the most resource intensive. The sudden, severe drop in the roan antelope population towards the end of the 1980s was unexpected and, retrospectively, attributed to the development of a high density of perennial waterpoints. The postulated mechanism was that the perennial presence of water allowed Burchell’s zebra Equus burchelli to stay permanently in an area that was previously only seasonally accessible. The combined effect of a long, dry climatic cycle, high numbers of zebra and their associated predators was proposed to be the cause of this decline. As part of the new nature evolving or ecosystem resilience approach, twelve artificial waterpoints were closed in the prime roan antelope habitat in 1994 in an attempt to move the zebra out of this area. The zebra numbers declined as the rainfall increased. Closure of waterholes clearly led to redistribution of zebra numbers on the northern plains, zebra tending to avoid areas within several kilometres of closed waterpoints. However, at a larger scale, regional densities appeared similar in areas with and without closed waterpoints. There was an initial drop in the lion numbers in 1995, after which they stabilised. In spite of an improvement in the grass species composition and an increase in biomass the roan antelope population did not increase. The complexity of maintaining a population at the edge of their distribution and the problems associated with the conservation of such populations are discussed in terms of management options and monitoring approaches that

  17. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Seven Approaches to Map Vegetation Communities — A Case Study from Northern Australia’s Tropical Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Phinn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation communities are traditionally mapped from aerial photography interpretation. Other semi-automated methods include pixel- and object-based image analysis. While these methods have been used for decades, there is a lack of comparative research. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of seven approaches to map vegetation communities in a northern Australia’s tropical savanna environment. The seven approaches included: (1. aerial photography interpretation, (2. pixel-based image-only classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier, (3. pixel-based integrated classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier, (4. object-based image-only classification (nearest neighbor classifier, (5. object-based integrated classification (nearest neighbor classifier, (6. object-based image-only classification (step-wise ruleset, and (7. object-based integrated classification (step-wise ruleset. Approach 1 was applied to 1:50,000 aerial photography and approaches 2–7 were applied to SPOT5 and Landsat5 TM multispectral data. The integrated approaches (3, 5 and 7 included ancillary data (a digital elevation model, slope model, normalized difference vegetation index and hydrology information. The cost-effectiveness was assessed taking into consideration the accuracy and costs associated with each classification approach and image dataset. Accuracy was assessed in terms of overall accuracy and the costs were evaluated using four main components: field data acquisition and preparation, image data acquisition and preparation, image classification and accuracy assessment. Overall accuracy ranged from 28%, for the image-only pixel-based approach, to 67% for the aerial photography interpretation, while total costs ranged from AU$338,000 to AU$388,180 (Australian dollars, for the pixel-based image-only classification and aerial photography interpretation respectively. The most labor-intensive component was field data acquisition and preparation, followed by image data

  19. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  20. A modeling framework for integrated harvest and habitat management of North American waterfowl: Case-study of northern pintail metapopulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Runge, M.C.; Devries, J.H.; Boomer, G.S.; Eadie, J.M.; Haukos, D.A.; Fleskes, J.P.; Koons, D.N.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Clark, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the performance of a metapopulation model enabling managers to examine, for the first time, the consequences of alternative management strategies involving habitat conditions and hunting on both harvest opportunity and carrying capacity (i.e., equilibrium population size in the absence of harvest) for migratory waterfowl at a continental scale. Our focus is on the northern pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter, pintail), which serves as a useful model species to examine the potential for integrating waterfowl harvest and habitat management in North America. We developed submodel structure capturing important processes for pintail populations during breeding, fall migration, winter, and spring migration while encompassing spatial structure representing three core breeding areas and two core nonbreeding areas. A number of continental-scale predictions from our baseline parameterization (e.g., carrying capacity of 5.5 million, equilibrium population size of 2.9 million and harvest rate of 12% at maximum sustained yield [MSY]) were within 10% of those from the pintail harvest strategy under current use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To begin investigating the interaction of harvest and habitat management, we examined equilibrium population conditions for pintail at the continental scale across a range of harvest rates while perturbing model parameters to represent: (1) a 10% increase in breeding habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population (PR); and (2) a 10% increase in nonbreeding habitat quantity along in the Gulf Coast (GC). Based on our model and analysis, a greater increase in carrying capacity and sustainable harvest was seen when increasing a proxy for habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population. This finding and underlying assumptions must be critically evaluated, however, before specific management recommendations can be made. To make such recommendations, we require (1) extended, refined submodels with additional

  1. Sustainable Development in Northern Africa: The Argan Forest Case

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    Dom Guillaume

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.

  2. The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg

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    Ilunga Kamika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L. The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5 were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%, Acinetobacter (6.3%, Zoogloea (4.72% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 % in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97% in the aerobic zone confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0

  3. The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-03-10

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  4. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  5. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  6. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical characterization of high-altitude karst aquifers in complex geological settings. The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Northern Spain) case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambán, L.J., E-mail: javier.lamban@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) (Spain); Jódar, J., E-mail: jorge.jodar@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Custodio, E., E-mail: emilio.custodio@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsoler@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament Cristal lografia Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB) (Spain); Sapriza, G., E-mail: g.sapriza@usask.ca [Global Institute for Water Security, National Hydrology Research Centre (Canada); Soto, R., E-mail: r.soto@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, located in the Southern Pyrenees, constitutes the highest karst system in Western Europe. No previous studies regarding its geochemical and isotopic groundwater characterization are available in this area. This work presents the results of field and sampling campaigns carried out between July 2007 and September 2013. The groundwater presents high calcium bicarbonate contents due to the occurrence of upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene–Eocene carbonate materials in the studied area. Other relevant processes include dissolution of anhydrite and/or gypsum and incongruent dissolution of Mg-limestone and dolomite. The water stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) show that the oceanic fronts from the Atlantic Ocean are responsible for the high levels of precipitation. In autumn, winter, and spring, a deuterium excess is found in the recharge water, which could be related to local atmospheric transport of low-altitude snow sublimation vapour and its later condensation on the snow surface at higher altitude, where recharge is mostly produced. The recharge zones are mainly between 2500 m and 3200 m a.s.l. The tritium content of the water suggests short groundwater transit times. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate points to the existence of regional fluxes mixed with local discharge in some of the springs. This work highlights the major role played by the altitude difference between the recharge and discharge zones in controlling the chemistry and the vertical variability of the isotopic composition in high-altitude karst aquifers. - Highlights: • Environmental tracers are essential to study complex alpine karst aquifers. • The long presence of snow controls the deuterium excess in groundwater. • Seasonal δD content in springs depends on gap between recharge and discharge points. • The first hydrogeological characterization of the Ordesa National Park is presented. • Sulphate content in springs comes

  7. Costs associated with implementation of computer-assisted clinical decision support system for antenatal and delivery care: case study of Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed cost of implementing computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS in selected health care centres in Ghana. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district (KND. CDSS was deployed in selected health centres in KND as an intervention to manage patients attending antenatal clinics and the labour ward. The CDSS users were mainly nurses who were trained. Activities and associated costs involved in the implementation of CDSS (pre-intervention and intervention were collected for the period between 2009-2013 from the provider perspective. The ingredients approach was used for the cost analysis. Costs were grouped into personnel, trainings, overheads (recurrent costs and equipment costs (capital cost. We calculated cost without annualizing capital cost to represent financial cost and cost with annualizing capital costs to represent economic cost. RESULTS: Twenty-two trained CDSS users (at least 2 users per health centre participated in the study. Between April 2012 and March 2013, users managed 5,595 antenatal clients and 872 labour clients using the CDSS. We observed a decrease in the proportion of complications during delivery (pre-intervention 10.74% versus post-intervention 9.64% and a reduction in the number of maternal deaths (pre-intervention 4 deaths versus post-intervention 1 death. The overall financial cost of CDSS implementation was US$23,316, approximately US$1,060 per CDSS user trained. Of the total cost of implementation, 48% (US$11,272 was pre-intervention cost and intervention cost was 52% (US$12,044. Equipment costs accounted for the largest proportion of financial cost: 34% (US$7,917. When economic cost was considered, total cost of implementation was US$17,128-lower than the financial cost by 26.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides useful information in the implementation of CDSS at health facilities to enhance health workers' adherence to practice

  8. Rock magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in folded sills and basaltic flows: A case study of volcanics from the Taimyr Peninsula, Northern Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShuWei; J. Harald WALDERHAUG; YANG YueJun

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic measurements were performed on apparently deformed igneous rocks of 23 sites from the southeastern part of the Taimyr Peninsula. Rock magnetism and reflected light microscopy analyses reveal that fine-grained titanomagnetites up to pure magnetites mainly carry the majority of magnetic fabrics in the sills, and that the slightly coarser Ti-poor or-medium titanomagnetites carry most mag-netic fabrics in the basaltic flows. Magnetic anisotropies were determined by applying anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on 180 unheated samples and 128 samples that had been pre-viously heated to 600℃ during a paleomagnetic study to detect heating effects on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) properties of volcanic rocks. Laboratory heating significantly affects anisotropy variations of these igneous rocks corresponding to the mineralogical changes during the heat treatment.

  9. New (U-Th)/He titanite data from a complex orogen-passive margin system: A case study from northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Friederike U.; Jacobs, Joachim; Emmel, Benjamin U.; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2016-08-01

    New titanite (U-Th)/He (He) data on basement rocks from NE Mozambique are presented. The objective was to test the applicability of titanite He thermochronology in an orogen-passive margin setting and to better constrain the exhumation history across the Lurio Belt, a major structural discontinuity in Mozambique. Therefore, samples from existing geochronological and thermochronological studies were dated using titanite He thermochronology. Resulting titanite He data (from abraded crystals) provide average cooling ages from 178 ± 15 to 383 ± 23 Ma. The data fit well into the age pattern obtained from previous thermochronological studies in NE Mozambique, revealing differential exhumation across the Lurio Belt. The basement to the north experienced earlier cooling than that to the south, while overall youngest titanite He ages are from the Lurio Belt, indicating reactivation linked to the post-collisional extension and break-up of Gondwana. Thermal history modelling revealed two possibilities, able to account for the different cooling histories of NE Mozambique since initial Gondwana break-up in Permian times: One involves a transient sedimentary overburden that buried and (re)heated the southern basement, with subsequent basin inversion at ˜250 Ma in response to rift shoulder uplift. The second model implies delayed cooling of the southern basement, possibly due to delamination of the crustal root shortly after Gondwana formation. The formerly upwelling asthenosphere and the subsequently formed sag basin might have caused a prolonged thermal effect. Titanite He ages and thermal histories point to rift shoulder uplift of the southern part and increased thermal activity within the reactivated Lurio Belt, signifying first rifting activities as precursor of Gondwana break-up.

  10. The role of the contribution of the whole sea energy on pollution distribution and biocenosis quality: a case study in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Cognetti de Martiis, Selvaggia; Madonia, Alice; Martellucci, Riccardo; Stefanì, Chiara; Pierattini, Alberto; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediments and benthic biocenosis record, at different spatial and temporal scales, natural and anthropogenic processes that occur in the water column. The coastal area of Civitavecchia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, presents valuable marine and coastal ecosystems, which are subject to pollution due to the presence of potentially impactful uses of the coastline (the most important port for traffic passenger in the Mediterranean sea and one of the biggest energy production site in Europe) that overlap with the presence of natural geogenic anomalies related to the concentrations of some trace elements. The C-CEMS monitoring system, currently available in the study area, is able to perform the analysis of pollutants dispersion in coastal waters using in situ and remote observations coupled with numerical models simulations . In particular, water column parameters trends and the distribution of both benthic biocenosis and pollutants from natural sources and human activities in the water column can be assessed. This work focuses on the distribution patterns of pollutants and its relationship with the distribution of the benthic community in relation to biocenosis. Moreover, this work presents a first attempt to relate the whole sea energy contribution, which has effects on both the deposition of fine material and pollutants associated with it, and the distribution of communities, in terms of "exosomatic energy" (sensu Margalef).

  11. A methodology for analysing temporal changes of forest surface using aerial photos for the application of Kyoto protocol: a study case in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadori I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Italy, like other Parties included in Annex I, shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities (ARD. To evaluate these activities, Italy has to elaborate methods to estimate the conversion of non-forested to forested land, occurred after 31 December 1989. The aim of this study was to test a methodology to estimate the ARD activities. The approach was experimented in the Comunità Montana del Grappa (about 10500 ha considered as a pilot area in the Prealpine region (NE Italy. The land-use change relative to the forest area was assessed by multitemporal classification of 1131 sampling points on orthocorrected aerial photos relative to 1991, 1996 and 1999. The forest area based on different definitions (minimum land cover equal to 10%, 20% or 30% and minimum surface equal to 2000 m2 or 5000 m2 was also assessed. Between 1991 and 1999, the total increment of the forest area was equal to 224 ha. However, the estimated increment was strongly related to the minimum surface (2000 m2 vs 5000 m2 of the forest definition. The proposed procedure was relatively easy to implement and highlighted the role of ARD and revegetation to attain the goals appointed from the Kyoto Protocol.

  12. Effectiveness of soil and water conservation structures in reducing runoff and soil loss for different land use and slope gradients: Case study from northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanwesemael, Bas; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Teka, Daniel; Deckers, Jozef; Goosse, Tom; Maetens, Willem; Nyssen, Jan; Hallet, Vincent; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and recurrent drought are the major threats to rain-fed agriculture in the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands. To mitigate drought and to ensure food security in the Tigray region, water harvesting using reservoirs for irrigation development has become a priority since 1990. However, the success of water harvesting in reservoirs is limited due to the reduced inflow. As a result, less area is irrigated than originally planned. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of soil and water conservation (SWC) structures in reducing runoff and soil loss under different land use types and slope gradients. Six runoff measuring sites, corresponding to three slope gradients (5%, 12% and 16%) were established for cropland and rangeland in the Mayleba catchment (Tigray). In total, 21 large runoff plots (with lengths of 60 to 100 m and widths of 10 m) were monitored daily for runoff production and soil loss during the main rainy season (July-September) in 2010. For each site in cropland, three plots were installed and treated with stone bunds and stone bunds with trenches in addition to a control plot. At each site in rangeland four runoff plots were installed: a plot treated with stone bunds, a plot treated with trenches, a plot treated with stone bunds and trenches as well as a control plot. Overall uncertainties on the runoff and soil loss measurements were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results show that the seasonal runoff coefficient (RCs) was much higher for rangeland (0.38 < RCs < 0.50) compared to RCs-values for cropland (0.11 < RCS < 0.15). Seasonal soil loss (SLs) values were five to six times larger on rangeland (28.6 < SLs < 50.0 ton ha-1) compared to that for cropland (4.6 < SLs < 11.4 ton ha-1). All tested SWC structures are effective in reducing runoff and soil loss compared to control plots. However, reduction in RCs were relatively much smaller than reductions in SLs. Trenches and stone bunds with

  13. Turbulence associated with mountain waves over Northern Scandinavia – a case study using the ESRAD VHF radar and the WRF mesoscale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kirkwood

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We use measurements by the 52 MHz wind-profiling radar ESRAD, situated near Kiruna in Arctic Sweden, and simulations using the Advanced Research and Weather Forecasting model, WRF, to study vertical winds and turbulence in the troposphere in mountain-wave conditions on 23 , 24 and 25 January 2003. We find that WRF can accurately match the vertical wind signatures at the radar site when the spatial resolution for the simulations is 1 km. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths of the dominating mountain-waves are ∼10–20 km and the amplitudes in vertical wind 1–2 m/s. Turbulence below 5500 m height, is seen by ESRAD about 40% of the time. This is a much higher rate than WRF predictions for conditions of Richardson number (Ri >1 but similar to WRF predictions of Ri>2. WRF predicts that air crossing the 100 km wide model domain centred on ESRAD has a ∼10% chance of encountering convective instabilities (Ri>0. somewhere along the path. The cause of low Ri is a combination of wind-shear at synoptic upper-level fronts and perturbations in static stability due to the mountain-waves. Comparison with radiosondes suggests that WRF underestimates wind-shear and the occurrence of thin layers with very low static stability, so that vertical mixing by turbulence associated with mountain waves may be significantly more than suggested by the model.

  14. Modelling Peatland Hydrology: Three cases from Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Mioduszewski, W.; Povilaitis, A.; Slesicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the peatlands that used to extend over large parts of Northern Europe have been reclaimed for agriculture. Human influence continues to have a major impact on the hydrology of those that remain, affecting river flow and groundwater levels. In order to understand this hydrology it is necessar

  15. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

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    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  17. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  18. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  19. Development of deep-seated joint sets in the early stage of mountain building and its role on subsequent micro faulting during thrust stacking: a case study in the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; CHU, H.; Angelier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Systematic joint sets are one of the most common and persistent features within a brittle deformation regime, usually found in intact rocks, such as massive sandstone. However, joint occurrence can take place under different circumstances from very shallow to rather deep crust, which pose challenges for understanding the mechanisms of its development and thus provokes debates in past decades. In this study, we characterize the deformation structures, including micro fault and joint, by comparing their geometric relation with stratigraphic bedding plane. We intend not only to differentiate the relative chronology of different structures but also to determine the chronological orders and stages during thrust stacking processes in which rocks exhume from depths to surface. We take the northern fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan as our case study area. It is composed of Pleistocene to Oligocene, terrestrial to shallow marine sedimentary deposits, which was exhumed accompanied with a series of imbricate thrusts during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny of arc-continent collision between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. We study four cross sections from little deformed rock formations in the foreland to intense folded and even slightly metamorphosed terrains in the slate belt, in order to characterize and distinguish different brittle structures at different depths. Particular attention is paid to the development of the joint sets at different depths and their relationship with the bedding plane where joints happen to occur. We found that 1) the most predominant joint sets are deep-seated and tectonics related, in comparison with shallow released joints, although their relation with tectonic stress orientation remains inconclusive; 2) the onset depths of development of joint sets can be as shallow as 1-2 km and as deep as 10-15 km. As to whether the development occurs during burial or exhumation, it remains questionable; 3) micro faults with striated slip, mainly under NW

  20. Lightening Can Strike Twice: The Case for the Management and Control of Violent Offenders against Children in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, John F. T.; Jackson, Paul T.; Kelly, Margaret; Reid, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a case example to illustrate the need for robust arrangements manage violent offenders against children in Northern Ireland. It compares the legislative and policy framework used to deal with such offenders in England and Wales, demonstrating the more limited provisions in Northern Ireland. Within Northern Ireland, differing…

  1. Island cities: the case of Belfast, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle Stephen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers Belfast as an ‘island city’ with reference to issues of identity and economy and especially in connection with a series of statements from the ‘Futures of Islands’ briefing document prepared for the IGU’s Commission on Islands meeting in Kraków in August 2014. Belfast as a contested space, a hybrid British/Irish city on the island of Ireland, exemplifies well how ‘understandings of the past condition the future’, whilst the Belfast Agreement which brought the Northern Ireland peace process to its culmination after decades of violence known as the ‘Troubles’ speaks to ‘island ways of knowing, of comprehending problems - and their solutions’. Finally, Belfast certainly demonstrates that ‘island peoples shape their contested futures’

  2. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  3. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  4. 热带土壤发育过程的定量研究——以海南岛北部为例%QUANTITATIVE STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF TROPICAL SOILS: A CASE STUDY IN NORTHERN HAINAN ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成敏; 龚子同

    2001-01-01

    Based on the study of a chronosequence of soils, developed from basalts erupted in different geological times, in the northern Hainan island, the variation of soil properties with soil age increasing in its development has been discussed quantitatively. The results show that such soil properties as solum and B horizon thickness, redness rating (RR), w(REE), w(Ba)/w(Nb), w(Fed)/w(Fet),w(Fed), w(Feo)/w(Fed), silica-alumina molecular ratio and silica-sesquioxide ratio of soils, frequency dependent susceptibility, etc. are definitely correlative to the soil ages. The statistical equations between soil properties and ages have been determined according to pedological principles. When found in the same or similar soil-forming environment and regions, relative soil age and soil development degree could be inferred by soil properties which could also be evaluated by soil ages to research rate of soil formation depending on those equations.%海南岛北部不同时期喷发的玄武岩上发育的土壤构成一个成土年代系列,由此可以定量地探讨发育过程中土壤性质随风化成土年龄增加的变化规律.研究表明土体厚度、B层厚度、RR指数、w(REE)、w(Ba)/w(Nb)、w(Fed)/w(Fet)、w(Fed)、w(Feo)/w(Fed)、土壤硅铝率、土壤硅铁铝率、频率磁化率等土壤性质与风化成土年龄具有确定的相应关系.根据土壤发生学原则,得出土壤性质与风化成土年龄两者间的统计方程.对于成土环境相同或相近地区可从这些方程由土壤性质推断相对风化成土年龄和发育程度,也可由风化成土年龄估计土壤特性,研究成土速率.

  5. Studies on bovine demodecosis in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingenbergh, J; Mohammed, A N; Bida, S A

    1980-04-01

    Summary The study reported in the present paper discusses the clinical and histological picture of bovine demodecosis and the morphology of Demodex mites as seen in four cows suffering from generalized demodecosis. There were no clinical signs of other skin affections. Changes in both the number and the appearance of visible skin lesions were seen and related to the level of nutrition and the exposure to sunshine of the cattle. Histological sections of some skin nodules showed the presence of mite colonies in the hair follicles. Only adults were seen in the sebaceous glands. Microscopical study of the morphology of the mites revealed the presence of two types of demodicids in the skin lesions and three types from epilated eyelashes. Morphological criteria are presented to aid in identification of species and of life stages.

  6. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution.

  7. Endosulfan poisoning in Northern India: a report of 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, S N; Dhawan, R; Agrawal, N; Mahajan, S K

    1998-09-01

    Eighteen cases of endosulfan poisoning by accidental overexposure during spray, admitted between October 1995 to September 1997, were observed and analyzed. These accounted for approximately one third of the total number of poisoning cases admitted in our unit during this period. Nausea, vomiting abdominal discomfort, tonic and clonic convulsions, confusion, disorientation, and muscular twitchings were cardinal manifestations. None of the patients succumbed to their illness. Analysis of various incriminating factors revealed that accidental overexposure was due to failure to adhere to the instructions for spray either due to ignorance or due to illiteracy. All the patients avoided preventive measures and developed toxicity both due to inhalation and absorption through skin. Endosulfan (a chlordiene derivative) poisoning is gaining up momentum in this part of world and has become an important matter for public health in India.

  8. Brief communication "Ground failure and liquefaction phenomena triggered by the 20 May 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy earthquake: case study of Sant'Agostino–San Carlo–Mirabello zone"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caputo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this study was to observe and report the earthquake-induced ground deformation of the MW = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy event that occurred on the 20 May 2012. The event caused widespread structural damages in a large area of the Po Plain, while the most characteristic geological effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction. This post-earthquake reconnaissance report focuses on secondary effects within the area between the villages of Sant'Agostino, San Carlo and Mirabello located along a former reach of the Reno River. Our field observations started just few hours after the main shock until the 28 May 2012.

  9. Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia S A; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of Portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. To clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate (CB) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Initial brain ChE activity in L. michahellis was 40.92 ± 5.23 U/mg of protein (average ± SE). Following chemical and spontaneous reactivation, ChE activity increased in average 70.38 ± 48.59% and 131.95 ± 92.64%, respectively. ChE reactivation was found to decrease at increasing concentrations of the oxime pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride and dilution factor, underscoring the importance of first optimizing the assay conditions prior to its use on bird species. These results suggest that birds analysed could have been exposed to OP and CB pesticide compounds and that in most cases CB exposure appeared to be the main cause of birds poisoning. These results are an important contribution to environmental monitoring as it demonstrates the suitability of L. michaellis as sentinel species of OP and CB pesticides within an urban environment.

  10. Proposition of Corrosion Expertise method for water pumping stations Application to the case of northern station of Fez city - Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatimad AKHRIF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a constant progress of a regulatory and environmental context, the diagnostic and the expertise of the corrosion, the determination of its causes and factors, and the proposed solutions to this phenomenon represent a real challenge for all stakeholders of industry. We propose in this paper to a complete study of the corrosion risk in the case of water pumping stations, based on some industrial methods of risk analysis (FMEA and multiple laboratory tests and analysis. Finally we have proposed a masterplan (chart as perspectives, indicating the encounter corrosion problems in the case of the northern pumping station of Fez city (as case study. The masterplan includes also the corresponding solutions, that can stop or minimize degradation of the focused equipments by the various mechanisms of corrosion. Our proposals will serve as reference during futur installation of new water equipments, or during the study and choice of appropriate materials in the Water Studies Department.

  11. Modeling of the pressure propagation due to CO2 injection and the effect of fault permeability in a case study of the Vedsted structure, Northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Frykman, Peter; Nielsen, Carsten M.;

    2014-01-01

    of the structure shows the presence of northwest-southeast trending faults of which some originate in the upper layer of the Gassum reservoir and some reach the base Chalk Group layer. Two faults in the upper Gassum reservoir have been interpreted to be connected to the base Chalk Group. In order to evaluate...... potential risks associated with vertical pressure transmission via the faults through the caprock, a number of simulation cases have been run with various fault permeabilities spanning orders of magnitude to represent both the worst and best case scenarios. Fault rock permeability data were obtained from...... a literature study and range from 1000mD (maximum value reported from sedimentary rock environment) for the worst case scenario down to 0.001mD (sealing faults in sedimentary rock environment) for the best case scenario. The results show that after injecting 60 million tons (Mt) of CO2 at a rate of 1.5Mt...

  12. Element geochemistry of weathering profile of dolomitite and its implications for the average chemical composition of the upper-continental crust--Case studies from the Xinpu profile,northern Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical behavior of chemical elements is studied in a dolomitite weathering profile in upland of karst terrain in northern Guizhou.Two stages can be recognized during the process of in situ weathering of dolomitite:the stage of sedentary accumulation of leaching residue of dolomitite and the stage of chemical weathering evolution of sedentary soil.Ni,Cr,Mo,W and Ti are the least mobile elements with reference to Al.The geochemical behavior of REE is similar to that observed in weathering of other types of rocks.Fractionation of REE is noticed during weathering,and the two layers of REE enrichments are thought to result from downward movement of the weathering front in response to changes in the environment.It is considered that the chemistry of the upper part of the profile,which was more intensively weathered,is representative of the mobile components of the upper curst at the time the dolomitite was formed,while the less weathered lower profile is chemically representative of the immobile constitution.Like glacial till and loess,the "insoluble" materials in carbonate rocks originating from chemical sedimentation may also provide valuable information about the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust.

  13. Element geochemistry of weathering profile of dolomitite and its implications for the average chemical composition of the upper-continental crust——Case studies from the Xinpu profile, northern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季宏兵; 欧阳自远; 王世杰; 周德全

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical behavior of chemical elements is studied in a dolomitite weathering profile in upland of karst terrain in northern Guizhou. Two stages can be recognized during the process of in situ weathering of dolomitite: the stage of sedentary accumulation of leaching residue of dolomitite and the stage of chemical weathering evolution of sedentary soil. Ni, Cr, Mo, W and Ti are the least mobile elements with reference to Al. The geochemical behavior of REE is similar to that observed in weathering of other types of rocks. Fractionation of REE is noticed during weathering, and the two layers of REE enrichments are thought to result from downward movement of the weathering front in response to changes in the environment. It is considered that the chemistry of the upper part of the profile, which was more intensively weathered, is representative of the mobile components of the upper curst at the time the dolomitite was formed, while the less weathered lower profile is chemically representative of the immo

  14. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  15. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands : a population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Anna M; van Essen, Anthonie J; te Meerman, Gerard J; Bakker, Marian K; van der Biezen, Jan J; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M; Vermeij-Keers, Christl; de Walle, Hermien E K; te Meerman, Gerhardus

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Clef

  16. Distribution, origin and evolution of hypothesized mud volcanoes, thumbprint terrain, small mounds and giant polygons: Implications for sedimentary processes in the northern lowlands of Mars: Case study from the Acidalia Planitia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Csilla; Hauber, Ernst; van Gasselt, Stephan; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Skinner, James, Jr.

    2016-04-01

    This study is part of the activities of an ISSI International Team, which intends to produce new geomorphological maps of the northern lowlands of Mars along three long traverses across Acidalia, Utopia, and Arcadia Planitiae [1]. This specific study focuses on mounds of different sizes: Large Pitted Mounds (LPM), Thumbprint Terrain (TPT), Small Mounds (SM) as well as km-sized, giant polygons (GP) [2,3]. These landforms were formed on the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) Marginal and Interior Units, which are interpreted as outflow channel deposits or sediments of a hypothesized ocean. The aim of our study is to map the above mentioned features in the northern lowlands and establish a formational history and stratigraphy of landforms using morphological observations and geostatistics in Acidalia Planitia. Our study is based on CTX mosaics (6 m/pixel) and we also used data from HiRISE (0.25 m/px), HRSC (images >10 m/px, HRSC- derived Digital Elevation Models [DEM], grid size 50-200 m), MOLA DEM (~460 m/px), and THEMIS Nighttime IR (~100 m/px). The TPT appears north of about 30°N in the termination zones of the Chryse outflow channels and shows a transition zone with the LPMs at around 36°N in Acidalia Planitia. North of 39°N, only LPM can be observed. LPM are typically surrounded by topographic moats. Sometimes more than 75% of a mound can be covered or embayed by „plain filling material" of varying thickness. The LPM are observed in the same area as large-scale polygon troughs (buried and fresh) associated with circular-shaped small mounds (SM). The SM are located from 34°N to 48°N, completely overlapping the area of LPM and partly the TPT. These features are randomly distributed, but commonly arranged in clusters. Their domical shape with the central pit shows morphological resemblance with the LPM. These features characterize the area from 35 N° to 61 N° and completely disappear in the Acidalia Colles region. The mapping results show a morphological

  17. An isolated case of leprosy presenting in a migrant worker in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, S J; Wilson, R R

    2006-09-01

    Leprosy was first recorded in 600 bc in India. Europe saw its first cases in the fourteenth century. The worldwide incidence is falling, but the disease can still present in the most unexpected places: this is a report of the first case of leprosy presenting to an emergency department in Northern Ireland. It is important for physicians in both community and hospital medicine to have a high index of suspicion for leprosy in patients with chronic skin conditions who were born outside the UK or other developed countries.

  18. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  19. Archaeomagnetic studies in the Gorgan Plain in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Catherine M.; Greenwood, David; Omrani Rekavandi, Hamid; Sauer, Eberhard

    2010-05-01

    This paper will report on new directional magnetic data obtained from recent studies of fired archaeological materials and sediments from northern Iran. It will discuss the palaeosecular variation record available in this poorly covered region and will address the archaeological questions that can be answered by such studies. Samples for magnetic directional studies have been obtained from archaeological features in the Gorgan Plain of northern Iran, including ovens, hearths, brick kilns and water-lain sediments. These are shown to retain a stable record of the past magnetic field, with well-defined and precise magnetic directions, and to provide an indication of palaeosecular variation. All the features are associated with the Gorgan Wall which, at over 195km in length and with over 30 associated forts, is arguably the grandest ancient defensive barrier between central Europe and China. Radiocarbon dating has established that the Gorgan and nearby Tammishe Walls and associated forts (all explored in an Iranian/British fieldwork project since 2005) were all built sometime between the early fifth and the first third of the sixth century AD. Dating these installations to such a long time span leaves many unanswered archaeological questions which are addressed by this archaeomagnetic study. Were the forts built simultaneously or over a long period of time? Was the Gorgan Wall built from west to east (as suggested by different brick and kiln sizes)? How long did it take to complete this immense building programme? What is the time interval between the early kilns used to produce bricks to build the walls and the ovens used during later phases of occupation within the forts? In addition, new radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates for the features investigated allow comparison with the existing, sparse palaeosecular variation data for the region. This research not only adds data to global models of geomagnetic change, it provides a snapshot of the past

  20. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  1. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  2. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  3. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  4. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  6. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  7. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  8. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  9. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern Sierra Leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Boisen, Matt L; Andersen, Kristian G; Grove, Jessica N; Moses, Lina M; Muncy, Ivana J; Henderson, Lee A; Schieffellin, John S; Robinson, James E; Bangura, James J; Grant, Donald S; Raabe, Vanessa N; Fonnie, Mbalu; Zaitsev, Eleina M; Sabeti, Pardis C; Garry, Robert F

    2011-08-15

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution

  10. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research (NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea Ramsey R. Harcourt Applied Physics Laboratory University of...Sullivan of NCAR. Although its physical model is substantially similar to the LES used in prior research (e.g. Harcourt, 2008) the NCAR LES code...convective boundary layer statistics and structures generated by large-eddy simulation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 68, 2395-2415.

  11. Measuring the Impacts of Organizational Responses: Case of Northern Cyprus Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Haktan Ekiz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, businesses are operating in a global economy, markets are characterized by hypercompetition and businesses must adapt themselves to the empowered consumer. Companies need to focus on customer needs and wants, quality and customer retention through correcting mistakes. This study aims to measure the effects of apology, redress, explanation, attentiveness and promptness on complainant satisfaction, repurchase intentions and word of mouth communication through the use of a sample of Turkish customers, accommodated in three, four, and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus. Implications for managers, limitations, and implications for future research are presented in the following sections of the study.

  12. Creeping eruption on the move: A case series from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjit Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is the most common tropically acquired dermatosis caused by infection with hookworm larvae. It is commonly seen in tropical areas, and in people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches. An increased incidence has been seen in non-endemic areas due to change in environmental and behavioral factors. The presence of this entity is questionable in Northern region as the environmental conditions and the type of soil is not favorable, both of which are required for the survival of nematode. We describe a case series of six patients presented during winter season in the outpatient department of Dermatology within a short period of 2 months. We also review the clinical features of various other creeping eruptions and factors that are responsible for boosting infection in North India.

  13. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  14. Studies of Cystoseira assemblages in Northern Atlantic Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Fernández, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula contains 24 specific and infraespecific taxa of the genus Cystoseira, but only 6 inhabit in Northern Iberia: C. baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis var. myriophylloides, C. nodicaulis, C. tamariscifolia, and C. usneoides. The Cystoseira assemblages exhibit a complex structure and stratification that allows the presence of a large associate biota and a rich epiphytic flora. Although in the Mediterranean Sea several species have been analyzed in depth, the Atlantic ones are less studied. A revision of the literature (1931-2014 and grey information was made to know the diversity of the North Atlantic Iberian Cystoseira assemblages. The community of C. baccata harbors the biggest number of species (215, followed by C. tamariscifolia (162 and C. usneoides (126, whereas the community with fewest species was the C. foeniculacea one (34. More than 70 species were present in the majority of the Cystoseira assemblages. In this article, are revised also environmental issues in the Cystoseira assemblages, as pollution and anthropogenic pressures or disturbances that cause regression in their communities, and effects of biological invasions by non-native species. As a conclusion, it will necessary to study the Cystoseira assemblage in depth, starting by research of C. baccata along Northern Iberia, as it is an exclusive and widely distributed Atlantic species with very scarce information concerning its role in structuring the communities.La Península Ibérica contiene 24 táxones del género Cystoseira, pero sólo 6 habitan en las costas del norte: C. baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis var. myriophylloides, C. nodicaulis, C. tamariscifolia y C. usneoides. Las comunidades de Cystoseira muestran una estructura compleja debido a su estratificación, lo que permite el desarrollo de una amplia biota asociada y una gran riqueza de flora epífita. Aunque diversas especies mediterráneas han sido analizadas en profundidad, las atl

  15. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, J P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Palacios, A; Hall, A J

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a series of studies on the northern Pacific coast of Peru to determine environmental risk factors for malaria. We report in this paper the results of both a descriptive study of incidence and a prevalence survey of malaria. Both studies showed that the area was at low risk for malaria. The malaria incidence rate was 40/1000 p.a. during the study period, and the prevalence of infection was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.7) before and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8-2.2) after the high incidence period. However, the risk of malaria varied according to season, village and even house within a single village. Incidence rates increased from February (2.6/1000 p.a.) to May (12.9/1000 p.a.) and decreased during the second part of the year. Most of the cases were clustered in four villages that constituted only 21% of the total population of the area. Houses where multiple cases were recorded were often located near a source of water. Our observations suggested that environmental factors, and particularly the presence of water for irrigation around villages and houses, played a major role in determining the risk of malaria. These observations were extended through an entomological study and a case-control study, to be published elsewhere.

  16. Acidification of till in Northern Finland: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aario, R.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The acid neutralizing capacity of till and some effects promoted by increasing acidity, were studied in a number of tills in northern Finland. pH profiles were measured in the field and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC mmol/100 g sample in the laboratory as a function of the varying acidity in solution. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Mn, Zn, Cu and Sr in solutions were also analyzed. The results are presented in the form of graphs of ANC versus final pH of the solution and element concentration versus final pH. The total concentrations of the major elements were analyzed by XRF and those of trace elements by AAS. The pH measured in the test pits was lowest just below the ground surface, and rose rapidly to a value of 6 at a depth of about 1 m and then it remained more or less constant with depth. The laboratory analyses clearly suggest that the acid neutralizing capacity of till correlates well with sample depth. The ANC values, which represent the fast-working part of the capacity, are higher in the surficial parts owing to the easily soluble aluminium and iron hydroxides which have their origin in the weathering processes. The experiments resemble acid rain conditions, where the higher pH-level buffers are unable to neutralize the increase in acidity immediately, so that lower pH-level buffering processes such as Al and Fe hydroxide buffers come into play. The situation can be hazardous for both forests and surface water.

  17. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  18. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  19. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Meyers, Michelle; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark; Ford, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  20. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Meyers, Michelle B.; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark R.; Ford, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  1. Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (α75Asp→His is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity. The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC at codon 75 in the α-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional α-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region.

  2. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  3. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  4. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  5. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  6. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  7. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  8. Review and analysis of existing Alberta data on drinking water quality and treatment facilities for the Northern River basins study. Northern River Basins Study project report No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, D.S.; Smith, D.W.; Stanley, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of a project conducted to gather existing information about drinking water quality, drinking water facilities, and water treatment effectiveness in the area covered by the Northern River Basins Study (Peace, Slave, and Athabasca River basins in northern Alberta). The report includes a comparison of water treatment performance to the Canada Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. The appendices contain summaries of parameters in the treated water survey, of the comparisons between raw and treated water, and of samples not meeting the Guidelines, as well as an inventory of treatment facilities giving facility name and location, water source, community population, treatment method used, raw storage capacity, and treated volumes.

  9. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  10. A Study of LFE Magnitudes in Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We have compiled a comprehensive suite of ~250 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing spatially distinct tremor sources on or near the plate boundary in northern Cascadia from northern Vancouver Island to southern Washington. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing a total of over 200,000 independent detections spanning a selection of episodic-tremor-and-slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. On the basis of empirical evidence and analytical arguments, these templates can be considered as band-limited, empirical Green's functions excited from shallow-thrust point sources to station locations corresponding to a collection of temporary and permanent network sites. The high fidelity of template match-filtered detections enables precise alignment of individual LFE time series and analysis of LFE amplitudes. Upon correction for geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve for station-channel amplification factors and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a given ETS episode. We will present a spatio-temporal analysis of LFE magnitudes including their variability across different ETS events, their dependence in along-dip location, and their expression in different rupture modes, i.e. main front versus rapid tremor reversals of Houston [2011] versus small scale reversals of Rubin and Armbruster [2013].

  11. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  12. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  13. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  14. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  15. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  16. Frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease in France and Northern Ireland: the PRIME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Ferrières, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Yarnell, John W; Gey, Fred; Ducimetière, Pierre; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Haas, Bernadette; Evans, Alun; Bingham, Annie; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2004-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with low CHD risk in the USA and Northern Europe. There is, in contrast, little information about these associations in other regions of Europe. The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between frequency of fruit and vegetable intake and CHD risk in two European populations with contrasting cardiovascular incidence rates; France and Northern Ireland. The present prospective study was in men aged 50-59 years, free of CHD, who were recruited in France (n 5982) and Northern Ireland (n 2105). Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of acute coronary events and angina were recorded over a 5-year follow-up. During follow-up there was a total of 249 ischaemic events. After adjustment on education level, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, employment status, BMI, blood pressure, serum total and HDL-cholesterol, the relative risks (RR) of acute coronary events were 0.67 (95% CI 0.44, 1.03) and 0.64 (95% CI 0.41, 0.99) in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of citrus fruit consumption, respectively (P for trend fruit' consumption were 0.70 (95% CI 0.31, 1.56) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.24, 1.14) respectively in Northern Ireland (trend Pfruit, but not other fruits, intake is associated with lower rates of acute coronary events in both France and Northern Ireland, suggesting that geographical or related factors might affect the relationship between fruit consumption and CHD risk.

  17. Radiocarbon application in dating 'complex' hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral water systems: A review of case studies ascribed to the northern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, Paula M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Quimica, Estrada Nacional No 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: carreira@itn.pt; Marques, Jose M.; Graca, Rui C.; Aires-Barros, Luis [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Laboratorio de Mineralogia e Petrologia, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    The use of radioactive isotopes plays a very important role in dating groundwater, providing an apparent age of the systems in the framework of the aquifers conceptual modelling making available important features about the water fluxes, such as recharge, horizontal flow rates and discharge. In this paper, special emphasis has been put on isotopic constraints in the use of {delta}{sup 13}C and {sup 14}C content as a dating tool in some hot (76 deg. C) and cold (17 deg. C) CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging in the Vilarelho da Raia-Pedras Salgadas region (N-Portugal). The radiocarbon content determined in these CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters ({sup 14}C activity from 4.3 up to 9.9 pmc) is incompatible with the systematic presence of {sup 3}H (from 1.7 to 7.9 TU). The {delta}{sup 13}C values of the studied CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters indicate that the total C in the recharge waters is being masked by larger quantities of CO{sub 2} ({sup 14}C-free) introduced from deep-seated (upper mantle) sources. This paper demonstrates that a good knowledge of mineral water systems is essential to allow hydrologists to make sound conclusions on the use of C isotopic data in each particular situation.

  18. Geochemistry and Genesis of the Pampean and Post-Pampean Formations (Late Pleistocene-Holocene), Central and Northern Argentina Pampas and Its Adjacent Region-An Approaching Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Torra

    2004-01-01

    Littoral siliciclastic shallow marine horizontal conformable beds (a heterolithic succession), Middle to Late Miocene, outcropping in northeastern Argentina (Ituzaingó Formation) and overlying transitional conformable horizontal regolithic mantle-rock bed derived from them (the Pampean and Post-Pampean Formations), were geochemically analyzed. The focus of this study is placed on the application of geochemical parameter and signature analyses related with the aforementioned geological units, which are of subcontinental extension into South America. The encountered results show an outstandingly similar geochemical behaviour between them. The main conclusion is that regolithic mantle-rock beds were derived from the littoral shallow marine mudstone (silty-argillaceous) beds. This is in oposition to previous aeolian processes proposed early in the 50's and later. These mudstone beds constitute important sections of the littoral shallow marine sequence beds (outcropping HST parasequence). Such regolitization proposed for the Pampean and Post-Pampean Formations predominantly developed in-situ during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The main erosional and mobilized agents were the surface free water (pluvial, fluvial and laminar water sheets) and vadose water. So, the wind flows and/or the immense air flow hurricanes are of insignificant sedimentological influence. Otherwise, there is not a proved appropiate sandy-silty reservoir for a reasonable support of the "aeolian hypothesis", as well as clear aeolian structures settled in the regolithic mantle-rock bed. In spite of these lines of equality textural-structural evidence, the geochemical values for both major elements and trace elements, demonstrate that the Miocene heterolithic marine succession was the mother rock of the overlying regolithic mantle-rock bed, which was formed as an in-situ mantle-rock bed.

  19. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  20. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  1. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  2. The Northern Territories: Case Study in Japanese-Soviet Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    be used in cellulose production. Pumice and perlite are ex- tracted for use in construction materials and road-building. Titanium-magnetic sands are...types (watermelons and tomatoes ) due to the relatively warm climatic conditions. Pigs, sheep, and horses populate most all settlements, and dairy

  3. Unraveling Local Dust Storm Structure on Mars: The Case of Northern Amazonis During Mars Year 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    On an average Martian afternoon, two or three local dust storms are taking place somewhere on the planet. By definition, these storms range in area from a few square kilometers to hundreds of thousands, rarely surviving from sol to the next. After more than 40 years of observation, a great deal is known about where and when they occur, but very little is known about the structure and dynamics of individual storms. This contrast in our knowledge about local dust storms results from how they are observed. Daily global mapping of Mars in the visible has enabled an accurate census of storms as well as observation of their morphological diversity. However, even under ideal conditions, an individual storm is only observed by sounder-type instrumentation once or twice (if it is a large enough), providing an incomplete picture of structure of an individual storm. Early studies of cyclogenesis on Earth had a similar problem. Cyclones were many, but observations of individual cyclones, especially over the ocean, were sparse. The structure and dynamics of cyclones was unraveled by noting similarities in properties between certain classes of cyclones and using observational data to generate composite cyclones that could be analyzed and modeled. Variability within the composite also could be studied. Here I establish the existence of a well-defined class of Martian local dust storms defined by: (1) occurrence along the axis of the dark albedo feature in northern Amazonis Planitia (36 N, 155 W); (2) not being associated with lifting or cloudiness due to a baroclinic wave/frontal boundary at higher latitude; (3) being textured, that is, having dust clouds with sharp, well-defined features that are thought to indicate their clouds are supplied by the active lifting of dust; (4) having dust clouds organized in well-defined streets indicative of convective rolls. In Mars Year 24, such storms developed on thirteen occasions in northern fall and autumn. Using data from the Mars

  4. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  5. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  6. Conflicts between agricultural policy and sustainable land use: The case of northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murua Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline of agriculture, observable mainly in industrialized countries, shows itself not only in a gradual decrease in the economic weight of the primary sector, but also in the abandonment of land devoted to agricultural and livestock activities. The phenomenon of agricultural land abandonment is complex and, in order to explain the causes, it is necessary to consider not only the physical and productive features of the land but also the social and economic characteristics of the area. It also appears to be conditioned by production specialization, since traditional livestock-raising areas show a higher risk of abandonment. The process, which is gradual, starts with a reduction in production intensity followed by increasing marginalization and, finally, the total abandonment of land use. Focusing on a representative area on the Cantabrian Coast of northern Spain, this study tests the hypothesis that a large portion of agricultural land in livestock-oriented regions is underused. It also evaluates the viability of forestry as an alternative use for abandoned lands and the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform.

  7. Agricultural microcredit and technical efficiency: The case of smallholder rice farmers in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tetteh Anang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we compared technical efficiency of smallholder rice farmers with and without credit in northern Ghana using data from a farm household survey. We fitted a stochastic frontier production function to input and output data to measure technical efficiency. We addressed self-selection into credit participation using propensity score matching and found that the mean efficiency did not differ between credit users and non-users. Credit-participating households had an efficiency of 63.0 percent compared to 61.7 percent for non-participants. The results indicate significant inefficiencies in production and thus a high scope for improving farmers’ technical efficiency through better use of available resources at the current level of technology. Apart from labour and capital, all the conventional farm inputs had a significant effect on rice production. The determinants of efficiency included the respondent’s age, sex, educational status, distance to the nearest market, herd ownership, access to irrigation and specialisation in rice production. From a policy perspective, we recommend that the credit should be channelled to farmers who demonstrate the need for it and show the commitment to improve their production through external financing. Such a screening mechanism will ensure that the credit goes to the right farmers who need it to improve their technical efficiency.

  8. 基于互联网平台的农产品农宅对接模式探讨——以北菜园产销专业合作社为例%Farm-to-House Mode of Agricultural Product Marketing Based on Network——A Case Study on the Northern Vegetable Garden Co-Operative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利荣

    2012-01-01

    To implement farm-to-house agricultural product marketing in the form of co-operatives based on Network can solve the recently-arising problem of "selling cheap and buying dear" in the market,and help improve the income of farmers as well.The key to implement the mode is to manage the quality of products and the logistic distribution of the fresh and the chilled.A case study on the Northern Vegetable Garden in terms of its product quality management system and the distribution with intelligent fresh cold tanks provides references for the implementation of farm-to-house mode and is of practical value to the development of E-commerce of agriculture in China.%以合作社方式借助互联网平台实现农宅对接,是解决近年来出现的农产品"卖贱买贵"现象以及增加农民收入的有效途径。这一模式实现的关键是要控制好农产品的质量和冷鲜物流配送问题。北菜园合作社的农产品质量管理体系以及智能冷鲜柜的配送方式为农宅对接提供了经验,对于农业电子商务的发展具有重要的现实意义。

  9. Healthcare-seeking strategies among displaced children in war-ridden northern Uganda: the case of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akello-Ayebare, G.; Richters, J.M.; Polderman, A.M.; Visser, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    A field study was performed to examine suffering and treatment seeking from the perspective of children aged 8-16 years living in war-affected northern Uganda. Various techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data were used, including a semi-structured questionnaire about illness exper

  10. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  13. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  14. Cross-border Place Branding: Zooming in the potential case of Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS 3 Minho-Lima, Cávado, Ave, Grande Porto, Tâmega, En

  15. A phytosociological study of the paramo along two altitudinal transects in El Carchi province, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We here present a plant composition study of paramo grasslands in the East Andean Cordillera of northern Ecuador that discerns altitudinal distribution patterns. This study took place at two locations: the relatively undisturbed Guandera Biological Reserve site and the highly disturbed El Angel Ecol

  16. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  17. 区域生态安全动态变化及空间差异定量分析:以陕北黄土高原为例%Quantitative analysis of the dynamic change and spatial differences of the ecological security:a case study of Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 任志远; 周自翔

    2006-01-01

    Using the theory and method of the ecological footprint, and combining the changes of regional land use, resource environment, population, society and economy, this paper calculated the ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity and ecological surplus/loss in 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province. What is more, this paper has put forward the concept of ecological pressure index, set up ecological pressure index models, and ecological security grading systems, and the prediction models of different ecological footprints, ecological carrying capacity, ecological surplus and ecological safety change, and also has assessed the ecological footprint demands of 10,000 yuan GDP.The results of this study are as follows: (1) the ecological carrying capacity in northern Shaanxi shows a decreasing trend, the difference of reducing range is the fastest; (2) the ecological footprint appears an increasing trend; (3) ecological pressure index rose to 0.91 from 0.44 during 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi with an increase of 47%; and (4) the ecological security in the study area is in a critical state, and the ecological pressure index has been increasing rapidly.

  18. A Monitoring System for Mitigation Planning: The Case of "Bagnaschino" Landslide in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Bagnaschino landslide occurred in November 1994 that caused extensive floods and many landslides all over northern Italy. In southern Piedmont, the Casotto River (Cuneo Province damaged many kilometers of provincial road and the river was dammed by this landslide. The landslide involves an area of about 100 thousands m3, but a good knowledge of the landslide is however still missing because of the complexity of the phenomenon. Approach: The aim of this study has been to collect and reorganize available data with the georeferencing in a GIS project of the information taken from investigations of the last years. An electric tomography and seismic reflection were carried out above the landslide body to enrich the available data. The final goal has been to well-know the sliding surfaces and the different processes involved in the slope deformation. Results: The research has redefined the geological base model, that was been the local stratigraphy is represented by an heterogeneous deposit of loose materials (20-30 m, with abundant silty-clayey matrix. The bedrock is composed by fractured micashists, metabolites and green stones. The landslide has shown many surfaces of movement at different depths and continuous reactivations, but the triggering mechanism is still not clarified due to the complex geological setting. Conclusion: Rock masses observed in correspondence of the road and the river bed has suggested that the main sliding surface did not involve the lower part of the slope and that the road is built on stable bedrock. The intention will be to continue the monitoring of the landslide in order to give to the Local Authorities the correct instruments for planning mitigation projects.

  19. Community natural resource management: the case of woodlots in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremedhin, B.; Pender, J.; Tesfay Belay, Girmay

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Despite limited current benefits received by community members, the wo

  20. Investigation into High Barmah Forest Virus Disease Case Numbers Reported in the Northern Territory, Australia in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Nina; Markey, Peter; Draper, Anthony; Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Warchot, Allan; Boyd, Rowena; Stokeld, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    Between October 2012 and October 2013, unprecedented high numbers of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease cases were reported in the Northern Territory (NT). An investigation was launched by the NT Department of Health in cooperation with the Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries and the Department of Land Resource Management to investigate possible causes for this phenomenon. The investigation included virus isolations from mosquitoes collected in Darwin urban areas, BFV antibody testing in peri-urban small mammals and a human BFV disease case series investigation of recent cases. No BFV was isolated from the 4641 mosquitoes tested, none of the mammals tested positive for BFV antibodies, and the high BFV disease case numbers did not correlate with the relatively low mosquito vector numbers trapped in 2012-2013. It was estimated that up to 89% of the 79 human cases investigated did not have an acute arboviral illness and therefore had tested falsely positive. An Alere PanBio BFV immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit is generally used to test for BFV, with the BFV disease case definition based on immunoglobulin M positives only. Other jurisdictions in Australia also reported high numbers of BFV disease cases, with the majority of the cases suspected to be false positives. Therefore, current testing methods need to be revised to reflect the true numbers of BFV disease cases occurring in Australia and to provide correct diagnoses for patients.

  1. Traditional Mechanisms of Resolving Conflicts over Land Resource: A Case of Gorowa Community in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emanuel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mechanisms for conflicts resolutions in Tanzania have been playing a major role to bring harmony and peace among members of the society. These mechanisms are created within a social-political structure of every community. They have been shaped by the realities that are happening in every community, making them unique to each community. Among Gorowa of Babati in Northern Tanzania conflict and conflict resolution mechanisms have never been static. They have been changing gradually over time as influenced by the nature and dynamics of the socio-political and economic activities. However, despite the fact that, traditional mechanisms contributes much to peace and security in promoting development, no through study have been done to underscore the nature of conflicts and their mechanisms for resolution among Gorowa community. Therefore, this paper tried to fill this gap by analyzing the nature of land conflict and the mechanisms for their resolutions. The study applied qualitative approach in exploring the causes, nature of land conflict and the mechanisms of resolving them. Qualitative approach was mostly used to gather views and opinions of respondents about the nature of land conflict and their mechanism of resolving. Also, quantitative approach was used to supplement the information whereby numerical and statistical data were gathered. The instruments used to collect data were interview, focus group discussions and observation. The study population included experts for conflicts resolution and other members of the community with sample size of 140 respondents. The analysis of the data was done through Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSSx computer programmes. The main findings of the study showed that, over 75% of the respondent agreed that, land shortage for pasture and cultivation, water scarcity, livestock and family relationships were the main causes of conflicts in Gorowa community. About 60% of respondents had the

  2. Cluster Concept in Policy Planning Documents: the Cases of Latvia and Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanete Garanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economy of the 21st century. A regional cluster can be defined as a combination of 5 dimensions – single sector enterprises that cooperate and compete; supportive enterprises from a wide range of sectors; public and government institutions interested in economic development of the sector and region; other institutions, like research, education, finance and others and the fifth is regional dimension, which combines all four previously mentioned dimensions into one region. From the literature review standpoint, the findings of the authors show that cluster ­based entrepreneurship has an important role in stimulating the firm’s performance, competitiveness and innovation. Authors’ findings show that cluster concept is implemented in the EU policy planning documents at all levels, while in the country level cluster policy is not a single policy issue, but is implemented in industry, regional and other policy aspects. Example from Latvia shows that in recent years cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important, if not central, role in policy planning documents, while evidence from Northern Cyprus shows that the importance attached to the concept of cluster­based economic development has not yet surfaced in the policy documents. Learning from experience of the EU and Latvia, the authors in cooperation with experts from University of Mediterranean Karpasia suggest policy makers in Northern Cyprus to implement cluster­based entrepreneur­ ship ideas in the policy documents using the bottom­up approach. In this way cluster based entrepreneurship is implemented in policy planning documents in Northern Cyprus at region, industry and national level. This paper is the first attempt towards cluster concept recognition in Northern Cyprus and therefore the topic is opened for further discussions and recommendations. The target audience of this paper is policy makers in Northern Cyprus

  3. The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Timmreck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry climate model MAECHAM4/ CHEM with interactive and prognostic volcanic aerosol and ozone was used to study the initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a possible Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super eruption. Tropospheric climate anomalies are not analysed since sea surface temperatures are kept fixed. Our experiments show that the global dispersal of a super eruption located at Yellowstone, Wy. is strongly dependent on the season of the eruption. In Northern Hemisphere summer the volcanic cloud is transported westward and preferentially southward, while in Northern Hemisphere winter the cloud is transported eastward and more northward compared to the summer case. Aerosol induced heating leads to a more global spreading with a pronounced cross equatorial transport. For a summer eruption aerosol is transported much further to the Southern Hemisphere than for a winter eruption. In contrast to Pinatubo case studies, strong cooling tendencies appear with maximum peak values of less than −1.6 K/day three months after the eruption in the upper tropical stratosphere. This strong cooling effect weakens with decreasing aerosol density over time and initially prevents the aerosol laden air from further active rising. All-sky net radiative flux changes of less than −32 W/m2 at the surface are about a factor of 6 larger than for the Pinatubo eruption. Large positive flux anomalies of more than 16 W/m2 are found in the first months in the tropics and sub tropics. These strong forcings call for a fully coupled ocean/atmosphere/chemistry model to study climate sensitivity to such a super-eruption.

  4. A model study of Abrahamsenbreen, a surging glacier in northern Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; van Pelt, W. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The climate sensitivity of Abrahamsenbreen, a 20 km long surge-type glacier in northern Spitsbergen, is studied with a simple glacier model. A scheme to describe the surges is included, which makes it possible to account for the effect of surges on the total mass budget of the glacier. A climate rec

  5. Effects of check dams on runoff characteristics along gully reaches, the case of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia soil and water conservation (SWC) practices, including construction of check dams in gullies, have been widely implemented for the last three decades. Despite this extensive installation of check dams, their effects on runoff response are not well understood as compared to those of other SWC practices. Hence, this study examines the effects of check dams on runoff response in gully channels. 90 degree V-notch weirs were installed to measure a wide range of runoff discharges at the upper and lower sections of five gully reaches: two channel cut in sandstone (a gully with check dams and vegetation (SCV) and an untreated gully (S)) and three cut in limestone (an untreated gully (L), a gully with check dams but no vegetation (LC) and a gully with check dams and vegetation (LCV)). Automatic sensors were installed to monitor runoff depth during two rainy seasons (29/08/14 - 17/09/14 and 24/7/15 - 14/09/15). All runoff characteristics at the lower section of each gully reaches were calculated for a gully reaches length of 50 m. In the sandstone area, the results show longer lag times of runoff to reach the lower section of the channel reach in the treated gully (SCV) compared to the untreated gully: difference in time lag equal lag to production of runoff equals 51% for runoff initiation, 61% for peak runoff and 44% for runoff end. An increase of hydraulic roughness by check dams and water transmission losses in deposited sediments are responsible for the delay of runoff to reach the lower part of the gully channels. In the limestone area, different time lags were recorded in different gully reaches regardless of the treatment effects (lag to runoff initiation, lag to peak flow and lag to runoff end were larger at LC, L and LCV, respectively). The reduction of peak runoff discharge between the upper and lower gully sections was larger in the gullies with check dam and vegetation (8-17%) than in gullies without treatment (5

  6. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  7. Governing chronic poverty under inclusive liberalism: the case of the Northern Uganda Social Action Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golooba-Mutebi, Frederick; Hickey, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The paradigm of 'inclusive neoliberalism' that currently characterises international development places a particular emphasis on community-based responses to the often structural problems of poverty and exclusion. Such approaches have become increasingly controversial: celebrated by optimists as the most empowering way forward for marginal citizens on the one hand, and derided as an abrogation of responsibility by development trustees by sceptics on the other. Uganda provides a particularly interesting context to explore these debates, not least because it has become a standard bearer for inclusive neoliberalism at the same time that regional inequalities within it have become increasingly apparent. Our investigation of the flagship response to deep impoverishment in its northern region, the World Bank-funded Northern Uganda Social Action Fund, offers greater support to the sceptics, not least because of the ways in which the more pernicious tendencies within inclusive neoliberalism have converged with the contemporary politics of development in Uganda.

  8. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  9. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  10. Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis from diverse strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in tropical northern Australia: case series and comparison with the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson Phillip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid-1980's there has been a worldwide resurgence of severe disease from group A streptococcus (GAS, with clonal clusters implicated in Europe and the United States. However GAS associated sepsis and rheumatic fever have always remained at high levels in many less developed countries. In this context we aimed to study GAS necrotising fasciitis (NF in a region where there are high background rates of GAS carriage and disease. Methods We describe the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features of 14 consecutive cases of GAS NF treated over a seven year period from tropical northern Australia. Results Incidence rates of GAS NF in the Aboriginal population were up to five times those previously published from other countries. Clinical features were similar to those described elsewhere, with 7/14 (50% bacteremic and 9/14 (64% having associated streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. 11/14 (79% had underlying chronic illnesses, including all four fatalities (29% mortality overall. Important laboratory differences from other series were that leukocytosis was absent in 9/14 (64% but all had substantial lymphopenia. Sequence typing of the 14 NF-associated GAS isolates showed no clonality, with only one emm type 1 and two emm type 3 strains. Conclusions While NF clusters can occur from a single emergent GAS clone, this was not evident in our tropical region, where high rates of NF parallel high overall rates of GAS infection from a wide diversity of strains. The specific virulence factors of GAS strains which do cause NF and the basis of the inadequate host response in those patients who develop NF on infection with these GAS require further elucidation.

  11. The Case Study of Frank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  12. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  13. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  14. Overview of the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    A series of case studies are used to illustrate many of the underlying modelling principles within the book. To facilitate this, the ICAS-MoT modelling tool has been used. A wide range of application areas have been chosen to ensure that the principal concepts of effective and efficient modelling...

  15. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Detailed EOF analysis of wind data reportEd. by Wunsch over Gan (00 degrees 41'S; 73 degrees 10'E) is made for the period 1963-70. The year 1964, which exhibited least variability from mean wind structure, has been chosen for the case study. EOF...

  16. Design of a family study among high-risk Caribbean Hispanics: the Northern Manhattan Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Sabala, Edison A; Rundek, Tanja; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Huang, Jinaping Sam; DiTullio, Marco; Homma, Shunichi; Almonte, Katihurka; Lithgow, Carlos García; Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Stroke continues to kill disproportionately more Blacks and Hispanics than Whites in the United States. Racial/ethnic variations in the incidence of stroke and prevalence of stroke risk factors are probably explained by both genetic and environmental influences. Family studies can help identify genetic predisposition to stroke and potential stroke precursors. Few studies have evaluated the heritability of these stroke risk factors among non-White populations, and none have focused on Caribbean Hispanic populations. The aim of the Northern Manhattan Family Study (NOMAFS) is to investigate the gene-environment interaction of stroke risk factors among Caribbean Hispanics. The unique recruitment and methodologic approaches used in this study are relevant to the design and conduct of genetic aggregation studies to investigate complex genetic disorders in non-White populations. The aim of this paper is to describe the NOMAFS and report enrollment and characteristics of the participants. The NOMAFS will provide a data resource for the exploration of the genetic determinants of highly heritable stroke precursor phenotypes that are less complex than the stroke phenotype. Understanding the gene environment interaction is the critical next step toward the development of new and unique approaches to disease prevention and interventions.

  17. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  18. Receiver function study in northern Sumatra and the Malaysian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieling, Katrin; Roessler, Dirk; Krueger, Frank

    2011-04-01

    In this receiver function study, we investigate the structure of the crust beneath six seismic broadband stations close to the Sunda Arc formed by subduction of the Indo-Australian under the Sunda plate. We apply three different methods to analyse receiver functions at single stations. A recently developed algorithm determines absolute shear-wave velocities from observed frequency-dependent apparent incidence angles of P waves. Using waveform inversion of receiver functions and a modified Zhu and Kanamori algorithm, properties of discontinuities such as depth, velocity contrast, and sharpness are determined. The combination of the methods leads to robust results. The approach is validated by synthetic tests. Stations located on Malaysia show high-shear-wave velocities ( V S) near the surface in the range of 3.4-3.6 km s - 1 attributed to crystalline rocks and 3.6-4.0 km s - 1 in the lower crust. Upper and lower crust are clearly separated, the Moho is found at normal depths of 30-34 km where it forms a sharp discontinuity at station KUM or a gradient at stations IPM and KOM. For stations close to the subduction zone (BSI, GSI and PSI) complexity within the crust is high. Near the surface low V S of 2.6-2.9 km s - 1 indicate sediment layers. High V S of 4.2 km s - 1 are found at depth greater than 6 and 2 km at BSI and PSI, respectively. There, the Moho is located at 37 and 40 km depth. At station GSI, situated closest to the trench, the subducting slab is imaged as a north-east dipping structure separated from the sediment layer by a 10 km wide gradient in V S between 10 and 20 km depth. Within the subducting slab V S ≈ 4.7 km s - 1. At station BSI, the subducting slab is found at depth between 90 and 110 km dipping 20° ± 8° in approximately N 60° E. A velocity increase in similar depth is indicated at station PSI, however no evidence for a dipping layer is found.

  19. [Sporotrichosis among rural communities in the Northern Sierra in Puebla. Report of 55 cases September 1995 - December 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macotela-Ruiz, Ernesto; Nochebuena-Ramos, Eloina

    2006-01-01

    Fifty five cases of cutaneous sporotrichosis collected from 35 communities located in the southeast region of the Northern Sierra of Puebla are described. The disease was more prevalent in males (60:40), but this difference was restricted to younger subjects (aged 0-15 years) where 14 cases were male and only 3 were female. No statistical difference regarding gender was observed in elder patients. The prevalence of the disease was significantly lower among patients aged 31 to 45. The most common clinical forms of the disease were lymphocutaneous and fixed. The drug of choice for the treatment of patients in rural communities was potassium iodide. When available, Itraconazol proved to be an excellent option.

  20. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrier G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  1. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research documents and demonstrates viable approaches using existing materials, tools and technologies in owner-conducted deep energy retrofits (DERs). These retrofits are meant to reduce energy use by 70% or more, and include extensive upgrades to the building enclosure, heating, cooling and hot water equipment, and often incorporate appliance and lighting upgrades as well as the addition of renewable energy. In this report, 11 Northern California (IECC climate zone 3) DER case studies are described and analyzed in detail, including building diagnostic tests and end-use energy monitoring results. All projects recognized the need to improve the home and its systems approximately to current building code-levels, and then pursued deeper energy reductions through either enhanced technology/ building enclosure measures, or through occupant conservation efforts, both of which achieved impressive energy performance and reductions. The beyond-code incremental DER costs averaged $25,910 for the six homes where cost data were available. DERs were affordable when these incremental costs were financed as part of a remodel, averaging a $30 per month increase in the net-cost of home ownership.

  2. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case–control study, February 2013 to July 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case–control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5–14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9–32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. PMID:27525375

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gidey Yirga

    2010-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64%) of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation....

  4. Recent progress of deep seismic experiments and studies of crustal structure in northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the western Pacific. Its northern part has the features of a passive continental margin. The studies of deep crustal structure in this area are very important for understanding the tectonic nature, evolution history, basin formation of the northern margin, and the origin of the SCS. In the past decades, the deep seismic experiments of crustal studies in the northern SCS have gone through three stages, namely the sonobuoy, two-ship Expanding Spread Profile (ESP), and Ocean Bottom Hydrophone/Seismometer (OBH/OBS). Along the continental slope, the sonobuoy experiments provided useful information about the velocity structure of the upper crust, while the ESP data recorded for the first time the seismic signals from deep crustal structure and Moho interface. And the OBH/OBS profiles revealed the crustal structure in much greater detail. This paper first gives a brief historical review of these deep seismic experiments and studies, then a summary of the latest progress and important research results. The remaining problems and suggestions for further research work are presented as conclusive remarks.

  5. Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychliński, Tomasz; Jaglarz, Piotr; Uchman, Alfred; Vainorius, Julius

    2014-07-01

    Upper Frasnian carbonate-siliciclastics of the Stipinai Formation (northern Lithuania) comprise a bed of calcareous silty arenite with casts of halite crystals, including hopper crystals. Unusually well-preserved casts occur on the lower surface of the bed, while poorly-preserved casts are present on the upper bedding surface. The casts originated as the result of the dissolution of halite crystals which grew in the sediment. The dissolution took place during early stages of diagenesis, when host sediment was soft. Unstable cavities after crystal dissolution were filled by overlying sediment forming their casts. The collapsing sediment form sink-hole deformation structures which disturb wave-ripple cross lamination from the upper part of the bed. Dewatering pipe structures are also present. The casts and accompanying sink-hole and dewatering pipes are classified as the postdepositional deformation structures caused by haloturbation.

  6. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  7. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  8. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms.

  9. A comparative qualitative study of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use in southern and northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baba Adongo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs with married community members were carried out. Community Health Officers, Community Health Volunteers, and Health Care Managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

  10. Teaching Natural Resource Management-Teaching Techniques and Difficulties in Greek Vocational Lyceum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukos, Marios; Mouratidis, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the teaching techniques applied, as well as the difficulties, with which educators in teaching Natural Resource Management are confronted. For research purposes, a case study was conducted on teaching Natural Resource Management in the Third Grade of Vocational Lyceum (EPAL) in Northern Greece. It was…

  11. The Sociolinguistics of Literacy: An Historical and Comparative Study of Five Cases. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard; And Others

    The development of literacy in selected bilingual societies was investigated. Historical and comparative studies were conducted of medieval Jewish communities, the Navajo community, a northern New Mexico village, and the countries of Paraguay and Tonga. The goal of the case studies was to develop a model for the development of literacy in the…

  12. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  13. Negotiated Peace, Denied Justice? The Case of West Nile (Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Bogner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available “Reconciliation” and “justice” are key concepts used by practitioners as well as authors of conflict-management and peacebuilding textbooks. While it is often recognized that there may be contradictions between the implementation of justice and truth-telling, on the one hand, and an end to organized violence, on the other, the ideal of a seamless fusion of these diverse goals is widely upheld by, among other things, reference to the rather utopian concept of “positive peace” (Galtung. One difficulty arises from the fact that discourses usually focus on (post-conflict settings that resemble a victory of one conflict party, whereas peace settlements are often negotiated in a context more similar to a military or political stalemate – a more ambiguous and complicated scenario. This essay discusses these problems against the background of an empirical case study of the peace accord between the government and the rebels in the West Nile region in north-western Uganda.

  14. A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dalin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The wave parameters derived from the radar measurements support the suggestion that gravity waves are responsible for the observed complex wave dynamics in the NLC.

  15. 基于标准水资源指数(SWRI)的流域水文干旱评估--以海河北系为例%Hydrological drought assessment in the river basin based on Standard Water Resources Index (SWRI):a case study on the Northern Haihe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟家齐; 蒋桂芹; 裴源生; 赵勇; 肖伟华

    2015-01-01

    构建了一个新的水文干旱评估指标——标准水资源指数(SWRI),结合分布式水循环模型、Copula函数及统计检验等方法,形成了一套完整的水文干旱识别、评估及特征分析的基本框架。以海河北系为例,定量识别了1956—2009年间的水文干旱事件,并对其干旱特征及变化规律进行了剖析。结果表明:海河北系近54年发生的34次水文干旱主要集中在短历时、低强度、小面积区间内,空间上主要分布在张家口、大同及北京等地区;干旱指标的联动关系上,干旱历时、强度与面积指标间呈显著的线性或指数相关关系,90%的水文干旱历时低于40个月、干旱面积占比不超过43%,干旱强度低于9.0;在给定的干旱特征指标值(如干旱面积)条件下,另一干旱指标值越大(如强度越大)干旱发生概率越小,且存在明显的特征区间;单变量水文干旱重现期介于联合重现期和同现重现期之间。%In this study,a new hydrological drought assessment index named Standard Water Resources In⁃dex (SWRI) was established. Based on the SWRI,and a basic framework of hydrological drought identifica⁃tion, assessment and characteristic analysis was developed by combining the distributed hydrological model, Copula functions and statistical test methods. Taking the Northern Haihe River as a case, the hydrological drought events between 1956 and 2009 were identified quantitatively,and the hydrological drought character⁃istics as well as the changing rules were analyzed. The results show that 34 hydrological drought events dur⁃ing the past 54 years all happened within small areas and lasted for a short time period with low intensity. Spatially,they concentrated mainly in Zhangjiakou City,Datong City and Beijing Municipality in the North⁃ern Haihe River Basin. In terms of the drought index relationship, there is a strong linear or exponential relationship

  16. Forest fires and PM10 pollution: the March 2012 case in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Carracedo Martín, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the largest sources of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and other pollutants at regional scale. They significantly impact on local air quality and human health, even far from their original sources. March 2012 was one of the largest fire activity late winter and early spring seasons across northern Spain and Portugal. Official statistics from the Spanish and Portuguese authorities show that, during that month, approximately 35.000 ha were burned, representing the top March season in Cantabria (N. Spain) and the northern distritos of Portugal since 1981, most of them occurring in the mountainous areas, as depicted from the FIRMS database (https://firms.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/). At the same time, an analysis of the pollution data (Airbase dataset; http://www.eea.europa.eu/) show an increase in PM10 average values and exceedences of the limit values across the same area simultaneously or immediately after the main fire activity episodes. A comprehensive analysis of this fire and pollution event was undertaken to analyze the possible contribution of forest fires and other sources of PM10 to the high levels of this pollutant at ground level. Besides statistics of fire activity, satellite "hot spots" and ground level pollution data, we have included in our analysis meteorological records (synoptic stations, upper air soundings), backtrajectories (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) and dust forecast models (https://www.bsc.es/earth-sciences/mineral-dust/catalogo-datos-dust). The results show a good agreement between the spatial and temporal variability of the levels of PM10 and the direction of the pollution plumes downwind the forest fires. The activity was mostly concentrated during 3 events, the first one between February 25th to March 3rd; the second spanning from 10th to 17th, and the last one, the most severe of the three, at the end of March. The climatological background was favourable, because most of the

  17. California GAMA Program: Ground-Water Quality Data in the Northern San Joaquin Basin Study Unit, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    . Results are presented in a descending order based on detection frequencies (most frequently detected compound listed first), or alphabetically when a detection frequency could not be calculated. Only certain wells were measured for all constituents and water-quality parameters. The results of all of the analyses were compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Health Services (CADHS) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs), Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs), USEPA lifetime health advisories (HA-Ls), the risk-specific dose at a cancer risk level equal to 1 in 100,000 or 10E-5 (RSD5), and CADHS notification levels (NLs). When USEPA and CADHS MCLs are the same, detection levels were compared with the USEPA standard; however, in some cases, the CADHS MCL may be lower. In those cases, the data were compared with the CADHS MCL. Constituents listed by CADHS as 'unregulated chemicals for which monitoring is required' were compared with the CADHS 'detection level for the purposes of reporting' (DLR). DLRs unlike MCLs are not health based standards. Instead, they are levels at which current laboratory detection capabilities allow eighty percent of qualified laboratories to achieve measurements within thirty percent of the true concentration. Twenty-three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and seven gasoline oxygenates were detected in ground-water samples collected in the Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit. Additionally, 13 tentatively identified compounds were detected. VOCs were most frequently detected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin study area and least frequently detected in samples collected in the Cosumnes Basin study area. Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), a CADHS 'unregulated chemical for which monitoring is required,' was detected in two wells at concentrations greater than the DLR. Trihalomethanes were the most frequently detected class of VOC constituents. Chloroform (trichloromethane) was the m

  18. 北宋刺绣探析%A Study on Northern Song Embroidery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段卫红

    2013-01-01

      Northern Song Embroidery which means embroidery in the Northern Song Dynasty (960AD-1127AD) is originated from Bian Embroidery (also known as Kaifeng Embroidery and follows the tradition of the flourishing age of Sui and Tang dynasties. It has diversified varieties, covers a broad range of subject and has established a system of its own. The study on the rich cultural connotation and social expressions of Northern Song Embroidery has positive social significance to the source-tracing, inheritance and development of modern embroidery.%  北宋刺绣起源于汴绣,承袭于隋、唐盛世,品类丰富,题材广泛,风格自成体系。研究北宋刺绣的丰富文化内涵和社会表达,对于现代刺绣工艺的追本溯源、传承与发展具有积极的社会意义。

  19. A NUMERICAL STUDY ON MECHANISM OF S-STARTS OF NORTHERN PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-rong; TONG Bing-gang; LIU Hao

    2007-01-01

    Northern pike is regarded as a specialist in swimming acceleration. The force production mechanism of northern pike, Esox lucius, during its predation S-starts was numerically studied in this article. The problem was reasonably simplified to a loose-coupling problem of fish swimming dynamics and hydrodynamics just in the swimming direction. The approach involved the simulation of the flow by solving the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and decribing the fish motion dynamics based on Newton's Second Law. Visualizations of flow fields and vortex structures were performed. The results show that the large acceleration is obtained mainly in the first undulatory cycle in which the amplitude increases. In the second cycle, a couple of vortices are generated and induce a jet. In the third cycle, the jet is strengthened by the mergence of the vortices in the same direction. Through discussing the effects of various controllable factors on the swimming performance, it is found that the actual locomotion mode of the northern pike in nature is just the best choice.

  20. The determinants of traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Stanifer

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes.Most structured survey participants (68% reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56% reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%, chronic diseases (15%, reproductive problems (11%, and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%. We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding.In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as

  1. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pasquale, G. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Impagliazzo, S., E-mail: stefania.impagliazzo@unina.i [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Lubritto, C. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Marziano, M. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Passariello, I. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Ermolli, E. Russo [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  2. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  3. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  4. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  5. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  6. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  7. Northern excess in adolescent male firearm suicides: a register-based regional study from Finland, 1972-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Keränen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    There are more firearms in Northern Finland as compared to Southern Finland, and a positive association between suicide rates and the number of firearms in a given region has been demonstrated in previous literature. Accordingly, the authors compared firearm suicide rates of Finnish adolescent (under 18 years) males in the two geographic regions. Young adult (18-24 years) and adult (25-44 years) males were used as reference groups. National data on cases of suicide in Northern and Southern Finland between 1972 and 2009 were obtained from Statistics Finland. Firearm suicides (n=5,423) were extracted according to ICD-classification (ICD-8/9: E955, ICD-10: X72-X75). The distribution of types of firearms (hunting gun, handgun, other) employed in suicides was also investigated. The adolescent male firearm suicide rate in Northern Finland was almost three times higher than that observed in Southern Finland, while there was no difference in rates of suicide by other methods. A northern excess in firearm suicide rates was also found among young adult and adult males. Hunting guns were the most common type of firearms employed in young male suicides, and their use was especially common in Northern Finland. Our results indicate that the use of firearms plays a major role in explaining the northern excess in young Finnish male suicide rates, and emphasize a need to advance suicide prevention according to specific regional characteristics.

  8. STUDY ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITES IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE (NORTHERN OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Khousheh-Mehri

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are widely distributed and cause many diseases in humans and domestic animals. In this study in order to find prevalent species of intestinal parasites in Mazandaran province (northern Iran, four cities including Pol-sephid, Aliabad-Katoul, Amol and Babolsar were studied during 1991-1996. Stool samples were preserved in 10% formalin prior to examination by formol-ether concentration method. For diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis scotch tape method was used. Among helminthtic infections, E.vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana and among protozoa Giardaia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most prevalent species.

  9. Osteosarcoma of the proximal fibula. An analysis of 13 cases in the northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shu; Ogose, Akira; Tajino, Takahiro; Osanai, Toshihisa; Okada, Kyoji

    2007-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common form of malignant bone tumor that occurs during childhood and adolescence. The proximal fibula is a relatively rare site for osteosarcoma. We reviewed 305 cases of osteosarcoma registered at the Tohoku Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (TMTS) between 1975 and 1999. Thirteen patients (4.3%) had their osteosarcomas localized in the proximal fibula. Conventional fibroblastic osteosarcoma accounted for 46% of the cases in this series. Limb-sparing surgery was performed in all 13 patients during initial surgery, and the peroneal nerve was preserved in 4 cases. These 4 cases developed local recurrences, but additional wide excision or radiation had a beneficial effect on the recurrences. In our series, the patients showed a 5-year survival rate 76 per cent. The postoperative function of the knee remained good despite various reattachment procedures of lateral co-lateral ligament. As well as resection of the proximal fibula, our results indicate that osteosarcoma of the proximal fibula has a good prognosis for cases who undergo adequate initial surgery.

  10. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  11. Burnout, working conditions and gender - results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl Bernt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick-leave because of mental and behavioural disorders has increased considerably in Sweden since the late nineties, and especially in women. The aim of this study was to assess the level of burnout in the general working population in northern Sweden and analyse it's relation to working conditions and gender. Methods In this cross-sectional study the survey from the MONICA-study (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease in northern Sweden 2004 was used. A burnout instrument, the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ, was incorporated in the original survey which was sent to a random sample of 2500 individuals with a response rate of 76%. After including only actively working people, aged 25-64 years, our study population consisted of 1000 participants (497 women and 503 men. ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used. Results The prevalence of a high level of burnout (SMBQ >4.0 was 13%. Women had a higher level of burnout than men with the most pronounced difference in the age group 35-44 years. In both sexes the level of burnout decreased with age. Demand and control at work, and job insecurity were related to burnout. In women the level of education, socioeconomic position, work object, and working varying hours were of importance. Interaction effects were found between sex and work object, and sex and working hours. In a multiple regression analysis almost half of the gender difference could be explained by work related and life situational factors. Conclusions Working life conditions contributed to the level of burnout in this actively working sample from the general population in northern Sweden. Especially in women, socioeconomic position was associated with burnout. The high level of burnout in women compared to men was partly explained by more unfavourable working conditions and life situational factors. Efforts to level out gender differences in burnout should probably focus on

  12. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  13. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  14. Using teaching case studies for management research

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Veronique; Bowman, Cliff; Collier, Nardine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching case studies are widely deployed in business schools. They are contextually rich in detail, and students learn by applying and adapting theoretical concepts to specific business situations described in the case. This article proposes a new way to use teaching case studies, as research materials for academics. The article addresses three questions: (1) Can teaching cases be used as an alternative to field research? (2) When can teaching case studies be used as second...

  15. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  16. A Study on Port Alliance between Incheon Port and Major Ports in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Won Chung

    2009-01-01

    <正>Recently,amount of cargoes from main ports in Northeast Asia have rapidly increased,and as well surplus port development in same region corresponded with the boom in external trade that resulted from successful export-oriented economics strategy by China,Japan and South Korea.To cope with this business circumstances, a certain form of port alliance is desperately needed to provide a suitable service to customer and establish their countervailing power against the shipping alliance.Nevertheless,Incheon seaport has not made a definite port alliance system with main ports in Northern China yet.Thus,the purpose of this study is to identify the key success factors to form a port alliance through examining previous studies.We have benchmarked previous studies which are related to main ports in global region and the questionnaire on customers of ports.By studying this,we are able to suggest a few strategies for forming successful port alliance to enhance Incheon port’s capabilities in the long term plan.As a policy proposal,this study suggests Incheon port and main ports in Northern China should construct a logistics infrastructure through mutual investment and provide an incentive system when the ocean carrier makes port call to both ports.

  17. A model study of Abrahamsenbreen, a surging glacier in northern Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, J.; van Pelt, W. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The climate sensitivity of Abrahamsenbreen, a 20 km long surge-type glacier in northern Spitsbergen, is studied with a simple glacier model. A scheme to describe the surges is included, which makes it possible to account for the effect of surges on the total mass budget of the glacier. A climate reconstruction back to AD 1300, based on ice-core data from Lomonosovfonna and climate records from Longyearbyen, is used to drive the model. The model is calibrated by requesting that it produce the correct Little Ice Age maximum glacier length and simulate the observed magnitude of the 1978 surge. Abrahamsenbreen is strongly out of balance with the current climate. If climatic conditions remain as they were for the period 1989-2010, the glacier will ultimately shrink to a length of about 4 km (but this will take hundreds of years). For a climate change scenario involving a 2 m year-1 rise of the equilibrium line from now onwards, we predict that in the year 2100 Abrahamsenbreen will be about 12 km long. The main effect of a surge is to lower the mean surface elevation and thereby to increase the ablation area, causing a negative perturbation of the mass budget. We found that the occurrence of surges leads to a faster retreat of the glacier in a warming climate. Because of the very small bed slope, Abrahamsenbreen is sensitive to small perturbations in the equilibrium-line altitude. If the equilibrium line were lowered by only 160 m, the glacier would steadily grow into Woodfjorddalen until, after 2000 years, it would reach Woodfjord and calving would slow down the advance. The bed topography of Abrahamsenbreen is not known and was therefore inferred from the slope and length of the glacier. The value of the plasticity parameter needed to do this was varied by +20 and -20%. After recalibration the same climate change experiments were performed, showing that a thinner glacier (higher bedrock in this case) in a warming climate retreats somewhat faster.

  18. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Pore water and sediment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, D.E.; Berelson, W.M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Giordani, P.; Langone, L.; Frignani, M.; Ravaioli, M. (Inst. di Geologia Marina, CNR, Bologna (Italy))

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic (Po River being the largest) has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algal growth. Cores were collected for studies of pore water and solid phase chemistry at 6 stations in this region. [sup 210]Pb was used to constrain sediment accumulation rates and a range of 0-0.5 cm/yr was determined at different stations. Excess [sup 234]Th was only found in the upper 1-2 cm, suggesting that bioturbation is largely restricted to shallow depths. Pore water profiles show evidence of irrigation, and mean diffusive fluxes for oxygen, silica phosphate and ammonia are generally 20-90% of the fluxes obtained from benthic chamber measurements. This is consistent with previous work in this area in which studies of radon fluxes indicated that irrigation plays an important role in sediment-water exchange. Pore water profiles in the northern portion of the study area (near the Po River Delta) were markedly different than profiles in the south; sediments in the north are substantially more acidic and have high concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate. From the alkalinity vs. TCO[sub 2] relationship in sediment pore waters it appears that differences in reactions involving the reduction of iron oxides and the exchange of magnesium for iron in clays are responsible for this regional difference in pore water properties. Sediments close to the Po apparently undergo more iron-magnesium exchange, while more distal sediments are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations and trends regarding the shape of the silica profiles (which show shallow maxima) will be discussed.

  19. The use of remote presence for health care delivery in a northern Inuit community: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Mendez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of remote presence for improving the health of residents in a remote northern Inuit community. Study design. A pilot study assessed patient’s, nurse’s and physician’s satisfaction with and the use of the remote presence technology aiding delivery of health care to a remote community. A preliminary cost analysis of this technology was also performed. Methods. This study deployed a remote presence RP-7 robot to the isolated Inuit community of Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador for 15 months. The RP-7 is wirelessly controlled by a laptop computer equipped with audiovisual capability and a joystick to maneuver the robot in real time to aid in the assessing and care of patients from a distant location. Qualitative data on physician’s, patient’s, caregiver’s and staff’s satisfaction were collected as well as information on its use and characteristics and the number of air transports required to the referral center and associated costs. Results. A total of 252 remote presence sessions occurred during the study period, with 89% of the sessions involving direct patient assessment or monitoring. Air transport was required in only 40% of the cases that would have been otherwise transported normally. Patients and their caregivers, nurses and physicians all expressed a high level of satisfaction with the remote presence technology and deemed it beneficial for improved patient care, workloads and job satisfaction. Conclusions. These results show the feasibility of deploying a remote presence robot in a distant northern community and a high degree of satisfaction with the technology. Remote presence in the Canadian North has potential for delivering a cost-effective health care solution to underserviced communities reducing the need for the transport of patients and caregivers to distant referral centers.

  20. The Impact of Management Decision-Making on Student Success in Community Colleges: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Albert G.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined a multi-college community college district in northern California in a primarily rural area, to understand how their practices compared to management best practices designed to improve student success, barriers that may exist in implementing best practices, and how the institution may improve its own practices. The problem…

  1. Skills Planning for Industry Growth: A Case Study of the Katherine Arts Industry. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a cultural industries skills audit undertaken in 2008 in Katherine, Northern Territory, are explored. The case study focusses in particular on the practical challenges and implications of auditing skills in a diverse industry sector and considers the usefulness of such an audit in preparing an industry for predicted change. This…

  2. Camera-trap study of ocelot and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable information on abundance of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is scarce. We conducted the first camera-trap study in the northern part of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil, one of the wildlife hotspots of South America. Using capture-recapture analysis, we estimated a density of 0.112 independent individuals per km2 (SE 0.069). We list other mammals recorded with camera traps and show that camera-trap placement on roads or on trails has striking effects on camera-trapping rates.

  3. Control of the northern fowl mite on inanimate objects by fumigation: laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerwinkle, K R; Devaney, J A

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the efficacies of phosphine, methyl bromide, and sulfur dioxide as fumigants for the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on inanimate objects. We were able to demonstrate that either methyl bromide or sulfur dioxide could kill all physiological forms of mites within 24 hr, which would be desirable for field use. Prosphine gas, released from Phostoxin pellets, had an LD95 of 18 hr for motile forms of the mites; however, it took 30 hr to kill the mite eggs. Therefore, it would be an unsuitable fumigant for practical field usage.

  4. “Something is at Stake”: Northern European Cultural Studies Where, How, and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Scott Sørensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I address the current state of cultural studies in Northern Europe and more specifically in the Nordic countries, especially in Denmark. I take my point of departure in offering an answer to the question, what is cultural studies anyhow? and raise some questions about its future directions. From that, I then discuss how we can reason about regional cultural studies since in so doing we are caught in a dilemma: on the one hand, it provides a way to nuance hegemonic his-tories and ways of mapping the international field but, on the other hand, it also inevitably leads to new generalizations and new inclusions and exclusions. I go on to examine first the (impossibility of scaling (regional, national, etc. and, next, the challenge it raises at different levels of setting, i.e., Northern Europe, the Nor-dic countries, and Denmark. Finally, I focus on national, i.e., Danish cultural stud-ies and return to the question of the future of the discipline.

  5. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson Sandra C; Li Jianghong; Nattabi Barbara; Orach Christopher G; Earnest Jaya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interview...

  6. Brucellar epididymo-orchitis: review of 53 cases in Babol, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Mohammad Reza Hasanjani; Baiani, Masomeh; Javanian, Mostafa; Kasaeian, Ali Akbar

    2009-01-01

    From September 1998 to December 2008, 53 cases of brucellar epididymo-orchitis were treated and followed. The mean age of the patients was 35.5+/-15.9 y. 26 (49.1%) subjects had orchitis. Scrotal pain and swelling, fever, sweating, and arthralgia or arthritis occurred in 53 (100%), 43 (84.3%), 40 (78.4%) and 25 (47.1%) cases, respectively. 16, 20, 9 and 8 cases were treated with gentamicin for 7 d plus doxycycline for 45 d (GD), cotrimoxazole plus doxycycline (CD) for 45 d, streptomycin for 2 weeks and doxycycline (SD) for 45 d, and cotrimaxazole plus rifampin (CR) for 45 d, respectively. We continued the oral agents in all regimens for 2 months in those not clinically cured. At 45 d, cure rates were 48.3%, 65%, 77.8% and 50%, respectively, and at 2 months they were 87.5%, 90%, 100% and 75%, for GD, CD, SD and CR, respectively. In conclusion, scrotal pain and swelling, fever, sweating and arthralgia or arthritis were the main clinical findings in brucellar epididymo-orchitis patients. An aminoglycoside containing combination therapy was usually efficacious. Cotrimoxazole plus doxycycline may be an alternative regimen for those who cannot take an aminoglycoside.

  7. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  8. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection among cattle in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Drapała, Dorota; Dominiak-Górski, Bartosz; Kur, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a significant disease in livestock and humans. Because of medical and veterinary importance it is essential to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among human and animals in various parts of the word. In this study, 4033 cattle from eight provinces of Northern Poland (belonging to 190 herds) were tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii by an in-house ELISA technique based on native Toxoplasma lysate antigen. The diagnostic sensitivity of test used in this study was 96.3%, and specificity was 98% for the group of 77 cattle sera (27 seropositive and 50 seronegative) previously characterized with the use of agglutination and immunofluorescence methods. A 127 (3.15%) out of all tested animals belonging to 72 (37.9%) out of 190 herds were founded as positive. Furthermore, our results showed that the way of feeding and farming, the size of the herd and the age of animals have the influence on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among cattle. The percentage of infected cattle was the highest for old animals which belongs to the small herds with the traditional way of farming. These results indicate that T. gondii infection in cattle from Northern Poland is relatively low and consumption of beef and milk can be regarded as a poor source of infection for humans.

  9. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  10. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.

  11. The Method for Regional Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and the Verification of the Assessment Results:A Case Study of the Northern Shandong Plain%区域地下水系统防污性能评价方法探讨与验证--以鲁北平原为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华; 张光辉; 王威; 孟素花; 杨丽芝; 纪汶龙; 刘治政

    2014-01-01

    In regional groundwater vulnerability assessment, the impact factors are multiple and complex, and hence it is difficult to determine the evaluation system and the weights of factors objectively. This problem has affected the credibility of the assessment results. Selecting the Northern Shandong Plain as the study area, the authors used innovative overlay and index method. The conventional DRASTIC model was improved and converted into DRITCS model to evaluate groundwater vulnerability. The evaluation factors of DRITCS model included the groundwater depth, integrated lithology of the aeration zone, thickness of clay layer with the thickness of a single layer over 0.5 m within 2 m of land surface, aquifer thickness, permeability coefficient, and net recharge. A key factor in groundwater vulnerability assessment was determined reasonably, which represented the changes of the clay layer in the aeration zone. The DRITCS model was used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability in northern Shandong plain as an example and was verified by nitrogen pollution status of the study area. The verification of groundwater vulnerability assessment results of northern Shandong plain indicates that the proposed method can reflect objectively the spatial differences and regional distribution characteristics of groundwater vulnerability caused by phase transition of the basin. It is proved that the DRITCS Model has good practicability.%区域地下水系统防污性能评价,面临影响因子多又复杂、评价指标难以客观性选定和权重不易确定等难题,以至严重影响评价结果的可信性。本文以鲁北平原为例,在以往地下水脆弱性评价常用的DRASTIC 模型基础上,采用创新的迭置指数方法,改进为“DRITCS 法”,选择地下水位埋深、包气带综合岩性、地表2 m内单层厚度大于0.5 m的粘土层厚、含水砂层厚度及其渗透系数、和地下水净补给量等因子,组成区域地下水系统防

  12. Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Carver, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the Wrangell Block driven by relative Pacific/North American plate motion along the eastern Aleutian subduction zone and Fairweather fault system. To the west, the system has been defined as the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt (NFFTB), a 50-km-wide zone of east-west trending thrust faults that displace Quaternary deposits and have accommodated ~3 mm/yr of shortening since latest Pliocene time (Bemis, 2004). Over the last several years, the eastward extension of the NFFTB between Delta Junction and the Canadian border has been studied by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys to better characterize faults that may affect engineering design of the proposed Alaska-Canada natural gas pipeline and other infrastructure. We summarize herein reconnaissance field observations along the western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault. The western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault extends 21 km from Sheep Creek to Moon Lake and is characterized by three roughly parallel sinuous traces that offset glacial deposits of the Illinoian to early Wisconsinan Delta glaciations and the late Wisconsinan Donnelly glaciation, as well as, Holocene alluvial deposits. The northern trace of the fault is characterized by an oversteepened, beveled, ~2.5-m-high scarp that obliquely cuts a Holocene alluvial fan and projects into the rangefront. Previous paleoseismic studies along the eastern part of the Cathedral Rapids fault and Dot “T” Johnson fault indicate multiple latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes associated with anticlinal folding and thrust faulting (Carver et al., 2010

  13. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  14. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  15. NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FORMATION OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA WARM CURRENT I. BAROTROPIC CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was used to study the formation of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the barotropic case. Monthly averaged wind stress and the inflow/outflow transports in January were used in the numerical simulation which reproduced the SCSWC. The effects of wind stress and inflow/outflow were studied separately. Numerical experiments showed that the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait and the slope shelf in the northern SCS are necessary conditions for the formation of the SCSWC. In a flat bottom topography experiment, the wind stress driven northeast current in the northern SCS is a compensatory current.

  16. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Timm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8% than subjects growing up in inner cities (11% (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91, and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02. An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  17. Using multi-scale structural and petrological analysis coupled with zircon and monazite SIMS and in-situ EPMA geochronology to document the evolution of a mid-crustal transpression system: a case study from the Northern Appalachians, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, M. A.; Moecher, D. P.; McCulla, J. K.; Draper, K. P. J.; Young, J.; Rohrer, L.; Walker, T. B.; O'Brien, T.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional transpressional strain is commonly associated with zones of oblique convergence, rather than ideal 2D simple shear or pure shear. Consequently, a considerable body of modeling has been aimed at understanding the progressive evolution of transpression, which has been used to explain an assortment of structures observed in natural settings. The basic tenants of most models involve simultaneous strike-slip and shortening, which provide the underlying mechanism for a constantly evolving finite strain geometry and magnitude. Despite the obvious temporal-dependence, very few studies have evaluated timescales of transpression. In the Northern Appalachians, the Bronson Hill arc and Central Maine basin of southern New England largely reflect highly oblique dextral transpression. Fabrics were initially characterized by strong foliations, subhorizontal lineations, and dextral kinematics, all of which are present in 360-354 Ma tonalite, diorite, and granite intrusions, the youngest placing a maximum age on transpression. As strains accumulated, fabrics began to reflect the increasing manipulation of the shortening component, marked by tightening of foliations, closed to isoclinal folding, and reverse high strain zones; stretching lineations changed in orientation to steeply plunging parallel to dip, while older pre-existing subhorizontal lineations were rotated. Syntectonic monazite and metamorphic zircon nucleated episodically throughout this time. Y-enriched monazite nucleated at 330 Ma along with fabric-forming biotite and sillimanite, and place a minimum age on the development of dip-parallel lineations. Mineral assemblages and associated ages document retrograde cooling attending deformation from partial melting at 355-350 Ma, to sillimanite grade at 330 Ma, below the Ar closure temperature for amphibole of 500°C at 326-314 Ma, and into biotite grade deformation as young as 295 Ma. Collectively, structures, fabrics, mineral assemblages, and

  18. Epidemiology of West Nile virus: a silent epiornitic in Northern Delaware in 2007 without associated human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; O'Connor, Linda-Lou; Meredith, William H; Pesek, John D; Shriver, W Gregory

    2010-09-01

    ABSTRACT. We performed a 2-year longitudinal study (2006-2007) of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in wild birds, mosquitoes, and sentinel chickens at 6 WNV-endemic sites in northern Delaware. We determined virus infection rates of Culex pipiens and other mosquito vectors as well as seroprevalence and antibody titers of amplifying hosts. Endemicity status varied widely among the 6 sites based on 3 criteria-mosquito infections, sentinel chicken seropositivity, and wild bird seropositivity. A highly endemic site would display at least 2 of the 3 criteria during each year of the study, while a site with just 1 positive criterion was considered to have low endemicity. Culex pipiens was the principal vector detected at 2 highly endemic sites in 2006 vs. 1 site in 2007. However, in 2006, we also found 2 other WNV-positive vector species as well as an unidentifiable Culex species at 1 highly endemic site, suggesting increased activity at the end of the 1st year of the study. Wild birds were early indicators of WNV at highly endemic sites in mid-July to early August of both 2006-2007. Mosquitoes were positive in mid- to late August, appearing concurrently with seroconverted sentinel chickens, with wild resident birds appearing approximately 4 wk prior to those indicators. Of birds tested with n > or = 9, Northern cardinals had the highest seropositivity rates (47%) followed by Carolina wrens (19%), house sparrows (13%), American robins (13%), tufted titmice (11%), and gray catbirds (9%). The overall seropositive rates in trapped birds increased from 5.0% in 2006 to 20.0% in 2007, while the geometric mean titers of all positive birds increased from 1:34 to 1:47 during the comparable periods. Based on these results, we suggest that an epiornitic in birds occurred in 2007, but that greatly reduced abundance of mosquito vectors caused by an extreme drought largely precluded human infection.

  19. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  20. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  1. Health services for survivors of gender-based violence in northern Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henttonen, Mirkka; Watts, Charlotte; Roberts, Bayard; Kaducu, Felix; Borchert, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    The 20-year war in northern Uganda has resulted in up to 1.7 million people being internally displaced, and impoverishment and vulnerability to violence amongst the civilian population. This qualitative study examined the status of health services available for the survivors of gender-based violence in the Gulu district, northern Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2006 with 26 experts on gender-based violence and general health providers, and availability of medical supplies was reviewed. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) guidelines on gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian settings were used to prepare the interview guides and analyse the findings. Some legislation and programmes do exist on gender-based violence. However, health facilities lacked sufficiently qualified staff and medical supplies to adequately detect and manage survivors, and confidential treatment and counselling could not be ensured. There was inter-sectoral collaboration, but greater resources are required to increase coverage and effectiveness of services. Intimate partner violence, sexual abuse of girls aged under 18, sexual harassment and early and forced marriage may be more common than rape by strangers. As the IASC guidelines focus on sexual violence by strangers and do not address other forms of gender-based violence, we suggest the need to explore this issue further to determine whether a broader concept of gender-based violence should be incorporated into the guidelines.

  2. Modelling the formation of dense water in the northern Adriatic: Sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Janeković, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to document the effects of imposing different river runoff forcing and tidal forcing to the dense water formation (DWF) rates and dynamics in a semi-enclosed sea. An extreme DWF episode that occurred in the winter of 2012 in the shallow northern Adriatic Sea during a prolonged cold bora wind outbreak event has been reproduced using a one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling system comprised of the atmospheric Aladin/HR mesoscale model and ocean ROMS model. Three different river runoff forcing and tides/no tides scenarios were imposed on the model. The introduction of tides and river climatology instead of real rivers did not substantially change the modelled DWF transports and volumes, whereas the simulation using the old Raicich climatology resulted in a substantial freshening of the entire Adriatic that reduced or prevented the DWF at sites in the northern and northeastern Adriatic. The necessity of using an up-to-date river runoff climatology to properly reproduce the DWF in semi-enclosed seas is emphasised.

  3. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  4. Surrogate Pricing For Water: The Case For Micro Hydro-electricity Cooperatives in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanon Jesdapipat; Siriporn Kiratikarnkul

    1999-01-01

    Thailand, like many other countries, is finding the development of renewable sources of energy a complex challenge. However, this study has shown that good economic management combined with targeted incentives could allow micro-hydro schemes to make a viable contribution to the nation's sustainable development. The study looked at pricing and policy in two small dam projects in the Doi Saket District of Chiangmai. As in many of Thailand's 70-plus micro-hydro schemes, electricity delivery prob...

  5. Intervention,treatmentand care in autistic disorder. Challenging case reports from northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kielinen, Marko; Hjelmquist, Erland; Moilanen, Irma; Syrjälä, Leena

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Autism produces characteristic patterns of behaviour, and individuals with autistic disorder (AD) have a lot in common in terms of behaviour and mannerisms. Individuals with autism, however, also have their own overall personalities, which both underlie and interact with their autism. This article focuses on challenges of identifying AD and delivering appropriate services in face of long distances and limited resources. Study Design. This study is a retrospective descriptive chart...

  6. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  7. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  8. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  9. A descriptive qualitative study of adolescent girls’ well-being in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Wiens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.

  10. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  11. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  12. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. Customers’ Behaviour Analysis in Furniture Field: IKEA Case in the Northern part of Bari province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Schirone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the 70es and the 80es, the firm strategy - meant as the whole of choices to make in order to achieve long-term targets, or, as defined by SWOT Analysis, which one referred to during the economic boom years - gives way to the strategic planning and the strategic management. In such a reference picture, the present situation of IKEA store in Bari (Puglia, Italy is included. This study target is, therefore, to determine what can be the reasons linked to a different purchase choice by a particular group of individuals on a Primary Market Area.

  15. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  16. Scale reliability and construct validity: a pilot study among primary school children in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seha, A M; Klepp, K I; Ndeki, S S

    1994-12-01

    Based on the World Health Organization's standardized survey inventories assessing AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) for adolescents, a written questionnaire was developed and pilot tested among primary school children in Northern Tanzania. Subjects included 472 fifth and sixth graders at four schools in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions. Results indicated that the large majority of the students understood the questions and were able and willing to complete the survey. Non-response patterns did not seem to be related to the sensitivity of included questions. AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward engaging in sexual behavior had acceptable reliability and construct validity when compared with similar surveys in Western countries, while perceived social norms and self-efficacy need further development. KABP questionnaires may serve as a useful method in AIDS-related surveys and evaluation studies among school children in Tanzania if survey instruments are adapted to reflect the local social and cultural context.

  17. An exploratory study of spatial annual maximum of monthly precipitation in the northern region of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata Gomes, D.; Neves, M. M.; Moreira, E.

    2016-08-01

    Adequately analyzing and modeling the extreme rainfall events is of great importance because of the effects that their magnitude and frequency can have on human life, agricultural productivity and economic aspects, among others. A single extreme event may affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account. Classical geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based on Gaussian processes and distributions, that are not appropriate for extremes. In this paper, an exploratory study of the annual maximum of monthly precipitation recorded in the northern area of Portugal from 1941 to 2006 at 32 locations is performed. The aim of this paper is to apply max-stable processes, a natural extension of multivariate extremes to the spatial set-up, to briefly describe the models considered and to estimate the required parameters to simulate prediction maps.

  18. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Moessbauer Study of Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, I. [Southern Illinois University (United States); Haeusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2003-09-15

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sican pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  19. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  20. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  1. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D.; Moreaud, O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  2. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  3. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  4. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  5. Investigation of discharge-area groundwaters for recharge source characterization on different scales: the case of Jinan in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiale; Jin, Menggui; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Dele; Kang, Fengxin; Jia, Baojie

    2016-05-01

    Discharge-area groundwater in Jinan, a typical karst region in northern China, was investigated by studying both the hydrological and chemical processes evolving from the recharge in mountainous terrains to the karst-spring outflows in the metropolitan area. Large-scale exploitation of karst groundwater has led to a disturbing trend in the ever-decreasing spring outflow rates and groundwater level. There is insufficient information about the Jinan karst aquifers, which provide the main water sources to meet human demand and to sustain spring outflow. The coupling of hydrological and chemical processes quantifies the flow system through aqueous chemistry characterization of the water sources. This approach is used to study the groundwater flow discharges in different locations and geological settings. The potentiometric data indicated limited vertical connectivity between distinct hydrogeological units and alteration of the recharge regime by the faults and by artificial exploitation. Shallow groundwater primarily belongs to the local flow system, with high nitrate concentration and enriched stable isotopic contents. Thermal groundwater has high concentrations of chloride and total dissolved solids, derived from a regional flow system with the highest recharge altitudes and long residence time. Non-thermal karst water may be attributed to the intermediate flow system, with uniform HCO3-Ca(Mg) facies and low nitrate concentration. This work highlighted discharge as a fingerprint of groundwater flow conditions and provides a better insight into the hydrogeological system.

  6. Tree tenure and its implications for sustainable land management: The case of Parkia biglobosa in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther E. Amoako

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species found in Savannah agroforestry parklands of West Africa. The species is important as it prevents against land degradation while providing food and other products. This study focuses on how land and tree tenure arrangements affect tree populations in three traditional areas in the Northern Region of Ghana (Dagomba, Gonja and Mamprusi and the implications that these arrangements have for sustainable land management. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were held in the three communities to provide information on the tenural arrangements of Parkia biglobosa. A tree census was conducted to estimate the densities of Parkia biglobosa in crop and fallow fields. The study shows that differences in tenure systems in the three traditional areas have implications for Parkia biglobosa populations and also for sustainable land management. It is concluded that traditional tenure systems along with regulation protect the trees from destruction as observed in the Dagomba and Gonja areas compared to the open access system identified in Kperiga in the Mamprusi area.

  7. Cadenas operativas en la manufactura de arte rupestre: un estudio de caso en El Mauro, valle cordillerano del Norte Semiárido de Chile Rock Art Chaînes Opératoires: A Case Study From El Mauro, A Mountainous Valley In Semiarid Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Méndez Melgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los contextos de producción son temas marginales en las discusiones relativas al arte rupestre. Independiente de los factores que hayan producido este sesgo en la comprensión del tema, se plantea que un examen a los procesos de manufactura es central para dar cuenta cabal del fenómeno rupestre. Se sugiere que el acto mismo de elaborar motivos es un acto comunicativo, tan cargado de contenidos sociales como podría pensarse que es la imagen misma, la cual ha recibido mayor atención en los estudios especializados. Se presenta un trabajo que expone una serie de procedimientos metodológicos destinados a entender la manufactura de petroglifos a través de sus instrumentos de trabajo y sus contextos de hallazgo. El área seleccionada fue El Mauro, valle cordillerano del Norte Semiárido, en donde se observa una profusión de estas manifestaciones para fechas del Holoceno tardío. Se discute una estrategia metodológica implementada a la luz de la noción que todo acto tecnológico es un acto social, se definen los instrumentos usados y se exponen una visión sintética del proceso a modo de una cadena operativa.Rock art production is a marginal issue in specialized discussions. Independently of the reasons for this bias in the current understanding of the subject, it is argued that an examination of production processes is crucial in order to fully account for the phenomenon. It is suggested that the elaboration of motifs is itself a communicative act, as loaded with social content as the images themselves, which have received more attention in specialized studies. This paper proposes a series of methodological procedures aimed at understanding rock art production through its production tools and recovery contexts. The study area comprises El Mauro mountain basin in semiarid northern Chile, where there is a high density of these manifestations from the late Holocene. A methodological strategy is discussed in light of the idea that every

  8. A review of the studies on pteropods from the northern Indian Ocean A review of the studies on pteropods of the northern Indian Ocean region with a report on the pteropods of Irrawaddy continental shelf off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Riedel, F.; Janssen, A; Hla, U Ko Yi

    and ostracods have been reviewed earlier and this is the first time a review of the pteropod studies in the northern Indian Ocean is being attempted, in view of the vast data generated in this region. The pteropod assemblages from two cores collected...

  9. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  10. On Traditional Architectural Styles and Tectonic Characteristics of Northern Anhui --A Case Study of Historic Block of Beiguan Area in Bozhou%皖北传统建筑风格与构造特征初探——以毫州北关历史街区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation on the historic block of Beiguan area in Bozhou, the traditional architectural styles and tectonic characteristics of Northern Anhui are analyzed. In this area, most traditional architecture preserved is the remains from Ming and Qing Dynasties. Because of being the south-north transitional region, the traditional architecture in Northern Anhui not only has the flayours of northern architecture in China such as highly enclosed by massive bricks, simple and pleasing style, but also some other characteristics of southern architecture.%通过对亳州北关历史街区的调查研究,探索皖北地区传统建筑风格与构造特征。该地区保留下来的传统建筑多为明清时期遗存,因皖北地处于南、北方的过渡区域,其建筑风格在北方建筑的厚重感、围合度高及风格朴实基础上兼有各种南方建筑的元素。

  11. Healthcare-seeking strategies among displaced children in war-ridden northern Uganda: the case of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello-Ayebare, G; Richters, J M; Polderman, A M; Visser, L G

    2010-07-01

    A field study was performed to examine suffering and treatment seeking from the perspective of children aged 8-16 years living in war-affected northern Uganda. Various techniques for collecting qualitative and quantitative data were used, including a semi-structured questionnaire about illness experiences and medicine use over a 1-month recall period. The 165 children who were interviewed were attending primary schools for displaced children and/or commuters' night shelters. The children frequently attributed their common febrile ailments to malaria and used a variety of pharmaceuticals and herbal remedies, as self-medication, for their self-diagnosed malarial episodes. Misdiagnosis of febrile illnesses by the children (as well as by the local healthcare providers) and frequent misuse of medicines in the treatment of these illnesses appeared to be very common. Improvement of the health conditions of these children requires a change of focus. Firstly, children above the age of 5 years who are not under adult care and who are often no longer welcome in the local hospital's paediatric ward need to be accepted at the outpatient clinics currently intended for adults. Secondly, the local diagnostic system needs to be improved, not only so that malaria can be reliably diagnosed but also so that alternative diagnoses can be confirmed or rejected, otherwise the current over-consumption of antimalarial drugs may simply be replaced with an over-consumption of antibiotics.

  12. Case Studies in L2 Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the use of student-generated case studies in an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education course, including the context, participants classroom procedures and case studies written, as well as students' responses to their use. (Author/VWL)

  13. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  14. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  15. Case Studies in Middle Management Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…

  16. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  17. Validation of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Northern Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Rao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 60 genetic susceptibility loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have been established in populations of Asian and European ancestry. Given ethnic differences and environmental factors, validation of the effects of genetic risk variants with reported associations identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs is essential. The study aims at evaluating the associations of T2DM with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 19 candidate genes derived from GWASs in a northern Han Chinese population. Method: In this case-control study, 461 T2DM-diagnosed patients and 434 controls were recruited at the Jidong oil field hospital (Hebei, China from January 2009 to October 2013. A cumulative genetic risk score (cGRS was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles, and a weight GRS (wGRS was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes for T2DM, using the independent variants selected. Result: The allelic frequency of the “A” allele at rs17106184 (Fas-associated factor 1, FAF1 was significantly higher in the T2DM patients than that of the healthy controls (11.7% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001. Individuals in the highestquartile of wGRS had an over three-fold increased risk for developing T2DM compared with those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.92–4.88, p < 0.001 adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The results were similar when analyzed with the cGRS. Conclusions: We confirmed the association between rs17106184 (FAF1 and T2DM in a northern Han Chinese population. The GRS calculated based on T2DM susceptibility variants may be a useful tool for predicting the T2DM susceptibility.

  18. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  19. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  20. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  1. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  2. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  3. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade;

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented......, highlighting the most relevant results. A brief chapter concludes the document, giving an outlook on the follow-up activities of the RES4LESS project. This summary is intended not only as an introduction to the RES4LESS cases studies, but also as a guideline to read and interpret the in-depth analysis carried...... out in the final documents that describe the case studies in detail. These documents will be published in September 2012 on the RES4LESS website, www.res4less.eu....

  4. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  5. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The evidence debate in psychotherapy pays little attention to developing an evidence base for training practices. Understanding effective training requires an examination of what makes training work. This article examines the role of case studies in psychotherapy training. This has not been...... articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...... in action; access to whole courses of therapy; access to different approaches; access to significant moments; access to the therapeutic relationship; access to a wide range of client types; access to working in different contexts; and the opportunity of identifying with therapists and clients. Writing...

  6. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  7. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  8. Significant Influences on Nature Experiences: A Comparative Study of Southern German and Northern Spanish Pupils Aged 14-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation of nature experiences among adolescents is of critical importance for the protection of nature. The participants of this study are 14-15 year-old pupils from Bavaria (Southern Germany) and Asturias (Northern Spain). In particular, the author was interested in a) the level of outdoor experiences of each…

  9. Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, Joanne; Naz, Tarannum; ,; Harrington, David; Jamie, Joanne F.; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a collaboration between Macquarie University researchers and the Yaegl Aboriginal Community of northern NSW, Australia to investigate the antimicrobial potential of plants used in the topical treatment of wounds, sores and skin infections. Based on previously documented medicinal applications, aqueous and aqueous ethanolic extracts of Alocasia brisbanensis, Canavalia rosea, Corymbia intermedia, Hibbertia scandens, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Lophostemon suaveolens and Synca...

  10. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  11. Conservation tillage affects species composition but not species diversity: a comparative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscutti, Francesco; Sigura, Maurizia; Gambon, Nadia; Lagazio, Corrado; Krüsi, Bertil O; Bonfanti, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) is widely considered to be a practice aimed at preserving several ecosystem functions. In the literature, however, there seems to be no clear pattern with regard to its benefits on species diversity and species composition. In Northern Italy, we compared species composition and diversity of both vascular plants and Carabids under two contrasting tillage systems, i.e., CT and conventional tillage, respectively. We hypothesized a significant positive impact of CT on both species diversity and composition. We also considered the potential influence of crop type. The tillage systems were studied under open field conditions with three types of annual crops (i.e., maize, soybean, and winter cereals), using a split-plot design on pairs of adjacent fields. Linear mixed models were applied to test tillage system, crop, and interaction effects on diversity indices. Plant and Carabids communities were analyzed by multivariate methods (CCA). On the whole, 136 plant and 51 carabid taxa were recorded. The two tillage systems studied did not differ in floristic or carabid diversity. Species composition, by contrast, proved to be characteristic for each combination of tillage system and crop type. In particular, CT fields were characterized by nutrient demanding weeds and the associated Carabids. The differences were especially pronounced in fields with winter cereals. The same was true for the flora and Carabids along the field boundaries. For studying the effects of CT practices on the sustainability of agro-ecosystems, therefore, the focus should be on species composition rather than on diversity measures.

  12. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention.

  13. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  14. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  15. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  16. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  17. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  18. Targeted Echocardiographic Screening for Latent Rheumatic Heart Disease in Northern Uganda: Evaluating Familial Risk Following Identification of an Index Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twalib Aliku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiographic screening for detection of latent RHD has shown potential as a strategy to decrease the burden of disease. However, further research is needed to determine optimal implementation strategies. RHD results from a complex interplay between environment and host susceptibility. Family members share both and relatives of children with latent RHD may represent a high-risk group. The objective of this study was to use echocardiographic family screening to determine the relative risk of RHD among first-degree relatives of children with latent RHD compared to the risk in first-degree relatives of healthy peers.Previous school-based screening data were used to identify RHD positive children and RHD negative peers. All first-degree relatives ≥ 5 years were invited for echocardiography screening (2012 World Heart Federation Criteria. Sixty RHD positive cases (30 borderline/30 definite RHD and 67 RHD negative cases were recruited. A total of 455/667 (68% family members were screened. Definite RHD was more common in childhood siblings of RHD positive compared to RHD negative (p = 0.05. Children with any RHD were 4.5 times as likely to have a sibling with definite RHD, a risk that increased to 5.6 times when considering only cases with definite RHD. Mothers of RHD positive and RHD negative cases had an unexpectedly high rate of latent RHD (9.3%.Siblings of RHD positive cases with RHD are more likely to have definite RHD and the relative risk is highest if the index case has definite RHD. Future screening programs should consider implementation of sibling screening following detection of an RHD positive child. Larger screening studies of adults are needed, as data on prevalence of latent RHD outside of childhood are sparse. Future studies should prioritize implementation research to answer questions of how RHD screening can best be integrated into existing healthcare structures, ensuring practical and sustainable screening programs.

  19. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  20. Incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Turkish-Cypriot population of Northern Cyprus: a population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M F Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first report of the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD of the Turkish-Cypriot population in Northern Cyprus. METHODS: Data were collected over eight consecutive years (2004-2011 from all those starting renal replacement therapy (RRT in this population. Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was calculated and comparisons made with other national registries. We collected DNA from the entire prevalent population. As an initial experiment we looked for two genetic causes of ESRD that have been reported in Greek Cypriots. RESULTS: Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was 234 and 327 per million population (pmp per year, respectively. The mean age was 63, and 62% were male. The age-adjusted prevalence of RRT in Turkish-Cypriots was 1543 pmp on 01/01/2011. The incidence of RRT is higher than other countries reporting to the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association, with the exception of Turkey. Diabetes is a major cause of ESRD in those under 65, accounting for 36% of incident cases followed by 30% with uncertain aetiology. 18% of the incident population had a family history of ESRD. We identified two families with thin basement membrane nephropathy caused by a mutation in COL4A3, but no new cases of CFHR5 nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first estimate of RRT incidence in the Turkish-Cypriot population, describes the contribution of different underlying diagnoses to ESRD, and provides a basis for healthcare policy planning.

  1. Constructions of ‘the Polish’ in Northern England: Findings From a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gibson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union in 2004 gave rise to moral panics concerning the likelihood of mass migration from the new eastern European member states to established member states in the west. A great deal of social and political science research has examined the ongoing impact of the enlargement, but there remains a gap in the literature regarding the ways in which members of ‘receiving’ populations reacted to these changes. The present paper reports findings from a qualitative interview study of 14-16 year-olds conducted in northern England. It focuses on how migrants from one particular country – Poland – were constructed by participants. Drawing on previous analyses of immigration and racist discourse, the study points to some ways in which Polish migrants and migration were constructed, and how complaints against ‘the Polish’ were formulated. The analysis focusses on four key issues: employment and the economy; language and culture; threat and intimidation; and physical stereotyping. It is suggested that constructions of ‘the Polish’ draw on the tropes of both ‘old’ and ‘new’ racism, and that attention to the use of deixical ingroup referents (‘us’, ‘we’, ‘our’ in contrast to the explicit labelling of the outgroup (‘the Polish’ can be understood in terms of the requirement to present complaints concerning migrant groups via appeals to assumed universal standards of behaviour and civility.

  2. Study on the storm surges induced by cold waves in the Northern East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dongxue; Hou, Yijun; Li, Jian; Liu, Yahao

    2016-08-01

    Cold wave, a kind of severe weather system, can bring strong wind and induce significant sea level rise to the Northern East China Sea. Based on CFSR data, the study shows the monthly distributions of invaded days and the spatiotemporal distributions of cold-wave wind direction and wind speed. A three-dimensional numerical model (ROMS) was developed to study storm surges induced by cold waves. The role of wind direction, wind speed, wind duration, extratropical cyclone and tide-surge interaction is investigated by conducting different sensitivity experiments. The results indicate that storm surges mainly happen at the coasts perpendicular to the wind directions. Surge range and time lag are related to the geometry of the basin and the continental shelf. The response of the sea-level fluctuations to cold wave indicates that there is a positive correlation between crests and wind speed, a negative correlation between troughs and wind speed, but no obvious correlations to wind duration. Coupled weather cold waves, which yield a larger range and a multi-peak structure of surges, can be classified according to cold wave tracks and extratropical cyclones. The tide-surge interaction has an obvious and different effect on the magnitudes and phases of storm surges for different tidal stages.

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidey Yirga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64% of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation. Most of the traditional medicinal plants were used in fresh form (64% while 36% in dried from. The inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for various purposes such as forage, medicine, firewood, spice, construction and food. The most commonly used plant parts for herbal preparations were leaves (52% and seeds (24%. The administration routes were oral (20%, dermal (48%, nasal (16%, oral or dermal (8%, chewing (4% and through the ear (4%. Some (44% of the remedies are mixed with water, butter, honey, Citrus limonum and Allium sativum while the remaining do not have any ingredients added. The findings revealed that indigenous practices contributed to the sustained use, management and conservation of medicinal and multiple-use indigenous trees. Our result suggested to carry out similar studies in areas not previously covered in order to get a full picture of the country’s medicinal plants potential in the future.

  4. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  5. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile Cáncer de pulmón y exposición a arsénico en el agua potable: un estudio de casos y controles en el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.En algunas ciudades de Chile, entre 1950 y 1970, los niveles de arsénico (As en el agua potable alcanzaron los 800 µg/l, estando hoy en 40 µg/l; para evaluar el rol de esta exposición, se llevó a cabo este estudio de casos de cáncer de pulmón y controles en las Regiones I, II y III. Entre 1994 y 1996, se ingresaron casos de cáncer de pulmón y dos controles hospitalarios: un control, un paciente con cáncer y el otro, un paciente sin cáncer, ambos diagnósticos no relacionados con arsénico. Los controles fueron pareados grupalmente por edad y sexo con los casos. A cada sujeto, se le aplicó una encuesta estandarizada sobre residencia, empleo y salud. La informaci

  6. Firearm-related deaths in Brescia (Northern Italy) between 1994 and 2006: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzeletti, Andrea; Astorri, Paolo; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    This retrospective study analyzes post-mortem examination data of 164 firearm-related casualties recorded by the Brescia, Italy Institute of Forensic Medicine between the years 1994 and 2006. The following variables were considered: year, month and day of death, gender and age of the victim, manner of death (homicide, suicide, accidental), type of weapon used, anatomical site and number of wounds, scene of death, and, whenever requested by the local District Attorney's Office, results of the toxicological examinations conducted on the corpses of the deceased. In the County of Brescia, Italy, the 2006 firearm-related mortality rate amounted to 0.84 per 100,000 residents, with an average of 12.6 cases per year. The most common manner of death was suicide (60.4%), followed by homicide (35.9%) and accidental death (3.7%). Most victims were male, with an average age of 47.2 in cases of suicide, 37.9 in cases of homicide, and 47.5 in cases of accidental death. Considering all of the death manners contemplated in this study, the weapon types most frequently resorted to were single-action, short-barrelled guns, followed by multiple-action, long-barrelled ones. In cases of suicide, entry wounds were primarily situated on the head (right temple) and chest (precordium), while in cases of homicide no conclusions could be drawn as to the entry wounds' predominant location.

  7. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA’s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...... on the dissertation “Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment” (Larsen 2004) and the paper “Life-cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97 – how important are emissions of chemicals? “ (Larsen et al. 2009). Goal and scope The goal of the study is to identify the distribution...

  8. The Study of Buddhism in Northern Dynasty%北朝佛教研究之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守夫

    2013-01-01

    There are several important issues on the study of Northern Dynasty Buddhism: the origin of Northern Dynasty Buddhism; the Han chauvinism in the study of ancient Chinese history; Northern Dynasty Buddhism is the product of clash of civilizations; Hu troops were a principal part on the spreading of Buddhism; Buddhization and sinicization are double factors in Northern Dynasty national amalgamation.%在北朝,佛教研究领域涉及到几个重要的论题:其一,北朝佛教发源于多个历史起点;其二,放弃中国古代史研究中的汉族中心主义,建构“大北朝”的历史新概念;其三,北朝佛教是农牧文明冲突的产物;其四,“胡人”在北朝佛教传播中处于主体地位;其五,佛化和汉化是北朝民族大融合的双动因。

  9. Analysis of Prevalence and Clinical Features of Ameloblastoma and its Histopathological Subtypes in Southeast Myanmar and Lower Northern Thailand Populations: A 13-Year Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of ameloblastomas has been established worldwide but collective data of ameloblastoma in Southeast Asian countries has not been well analyzed. Aim Aim of this study was to report analysis and comparison of the prevalence and demographic data of clinical features of ameloblastoma and its histopathological variants in Southeast Myanmar and lower Northern Thailand populations. Materials and Methods A retrospective study on ameloblastoma was performed based on the availability of oral biopsy specimens in Faculty of Dentistry, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, between January 2002 and August 2015. The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses with the SPSS version 17.0 statistical software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Pearson’s chi square (χ2) test and t-test were employed. The critical level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results Total of 616 cases were reviewed, 30 cases (5%) were diagnosed as ameloblastoma with male:female ratio of 1.14:1. The mean age of the patients was 31.3±15.6 years. The predominance anatomical distribution was observed in the mandible (86.7%). Posterior body-ramus-angle region was the most common site. Almost all cases were asyptomatic and most common clinical manifestation was swelling of affected region. Multilocular radiolucency was observed in 70% of cases, whereas 30% were unilocular. Three subtypes of ameloblastomas were diagnosed: unicystic ameloblastoma (20%), conventional solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (70%), and desmoplastic ameloblastoma (10%). The most common histologic pattern was the plexiform type (57.2%) followed by follicular type (23.8%). Conclusion Prevalence of ameloblastoma in Southeast Myanmar and lower Northern Thailand populations correspond with data from other geographic areas of Thailand and other Asian countries. However, some demographic and histopathological profiles are different, with plexiform ameloblastoma being the most common subtype in

  10. Case Study of above Average Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2005-01-01

    This case study explores the duty of midmanagement administrators to enforce district policies with which they do not necessarily agree. The case addresses the issues of moral leadership, distribution of power, emotional responses that impact decision making, class differences, and equity. It also examines the role conflict that many married…

  11. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  12. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...

  13. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  14. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  15. Implementing Product Platforms: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a case study dealing with the process of creating and implementing a product platform. The paper espessially deals with the fact that to obtain the benefits of platforms a permanent change in behaviour in product development must be ensured. This change in behaviour requires...... acceptance and approval from the organisation in general and the commitment from management to enforce agreed-upon decisions. The case study itself was performed in the Danish company LEGO Group. The case study had two objectives: To create a technical architecture and align this architecture...

  16. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  18. Energy Audit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This India is the Fifth largest producer of Electricalenergy in the world. Despite such achievements the gapbetween demand and supply of electrical energy is increasingevery year and power sector is highly capital – intensive. Thusthe deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10000MWper year.So the gap between demand and supply is continuouslyincreasing day by day. An energy audit is a study of a plant orfacility to determine how and where energy is used and toidentify methods for energy savings. The opportunities lie inthe use of existing renewable energy technologies, greaterefforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of thesetechnologies and options. This thesis provides an overview of ageneral energy conservation measures (ECMs that can becommonly recommended for NIT Hamirpur. It should be notedthat the Energy auidut presented in this paper does not pretendto be exhaustive nor comprehensive. It provides merely toindicate some of the options that energy auditor can considerwhen performing an analysis of this institute. Energyconservation and exploration of new energy avenues are thewell accepted solution to fulfil the demand in future. The totalcost of energy plays a vital role in determining the product costof a commodity. Therefore the identification of potential energysavings and implementation for a given institutional facility isunimportant to ensure its competitive advantage over otherinstitute. This paper work presents such energy saving methodsin a methodological approach, experienced during a detailedenergy audit of NIT Hamirpur.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RADARSAT-2 HR STEREO DATA OVER CANADIAN NORTHERN AND ARCTIC STUDY SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toutin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital surface models (DSMs extracted from high-resolution Radarsat-2 (R2 stereo images using a new hybrid radargrammetric modeling developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing are evaluated over two Canadian northern and arctic study sites. Because the new hybrid model uses the full metadata of R2, it does not require any ground control point. The first study site in the north of Quebec is used for the scientific validation where accurate checked data (dGPS, lidas is available. The second study site in the Arctic (steep relief and glaciated surfaces is challenging for the operational evaluation of topographic mapping capabilities of R2. For the first study site, the bias and elevation linear errors with 68 percent confidence level (LE68 of R2 stero-extracted DSM compared to lidar data were computed over bare surfaces: LE90 of 3.9 m and no bias were achieved. For the second study site the comparison was performed between the R2 DEM and ICESat data. A negative 18-m bias was computed and certainly results suggests a bias in the stereo-model of R2 and thus in the metadata used in the model computation because there is few temporal variation in the data acquisition (R2 and ICESat/ LE68 of 28 m was obtained. However, the differential melting and thinning depending of the glaciers elevations and planimetric surging of glacier tongues with less accumulation of debris and moraines, a lower LE68 of around 20 m could be expected. In addition to evaluate the potential of R2 over ice bodies, which generally have low slope relief and because the errors are strongly correlated with slopes, other statistical results of elevation differences were also computed: LE68 of 15 m was obtained over ice fields with 0–5° slopes while a little more than 20-m over less than 30° slopes was achieved.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater quality in rural-areas of northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe Extension Planning Area in Mzimba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Matamula, Swithern; Nakoma, Oliver; Chawinga, Charles B. J.

    2016-06-01

    Many people in in the Sub-Saharan region rely on groundwater for drinking and other household uses. Despite this significance, information on the chemical composition of the water in the boreholes and emperical data on groundwater quality is limited in some rural areas of Malawi. This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of water from boreholes (n = 20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. The water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate (NO3-), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate (SO42-). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and standard procedures. The results were compared with national (Malawi Bureau of Standards - MBS) and international standards (World Health Organization - WHO) for drinking water. The following ranges were obtained: pH (6.00-7.80), EC (437-3128 μS/cm), turbidity (0.10-5.80 NTU), water temperature (27.0-30.60 °C), NO3- (0.30-30.00 mg/L), F- (0.10-8.10 mg/L), Mg (31.00-91.00 mg/L), Ca (20.00-197.10 mg/L), SO42- (10.20-190 mg/L), Fe (0.10-3.60 mg/L) and Zn (0.00-5.10 mg/L). Generally, some parameters tested at several sites (>80%, n = 20) complied with both MBS and WHO limits. No significant differences (p > 0.05) was observed for most parameters (>65%, n = 11). Groundwater contamination was not significant in the area despite some parameters like F-, Ca and SO42- showing higher levels at other sites. Some sites registered very hard water (244.60-757.80 mg/L CaCO3) probably due to mineralization influenced by underground rock material. Further studies are needed to ascertain the groundwater quality of other parameters (like F-, and SO42-) which registered higher levels at some sites. Routine monitoring of the

  1. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  2. Reference values for ethylenethiourea in urine in Northern Italy: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, Claudio; Visentin, Sara; Birindelli, Sarah; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Mariani, Franco; Tiramani, Manuela; Tommasini, Michele; Brambilla, Gabri; Maroni, Marco

    2006-04-10

    This study was carried out to define reference values for urinary ethylenethiourea (ETU) in the Northern Italy population and to identify the sources of exposure. Ninety-five healthy subjects were selected. A spot urine sample was collected in the morning, and analyzed using GC/MS in the EI/SIM mode. Thirty-nine subjects showed urinary ETU concentrations lower than the limit of detection (LOD, 0.4 microg/g creatinine), and the remainders ETU concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 11.6 microg/g creatinine. No correlation was shown between smoke or alcohol intake and urinary ETU concentrations. Based on data on ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) concentrations in food, we estimated a total EBDCs intake of 31.7-50.1 microg/day. These values are largely below the ADIs, but explain the presence of small amounts of ETU in the urine samples we have analyzed. Finally, it was estimated that the mean ETU in urine in the Italian general population is 0.6-0.8 microg/g creatinine, with a 95th percentile of 4.5-5.0 microg/g creatinine. These values can be used as reference, to compare the results of biological monitoring activities carried out on EBDCs occupationally and environmentally exposed populations.

  3. [Study of the microwave emissivity characteristics of vegetation over the Northern Hemisphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Juan; Qiu, Yu-Bao; Shi, Jian-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    The microwave emissivity is a function of structure, water content, and surface roughness, and all these factors have obvious seasonal variations. In the present study, the half-month averaged emissivities in summer and winter of 2003 over the vegetation of Northern Hemisphere were estimated using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) combined with IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Project labels) land classification data. Then the emissivities of vegetation land covers at different frequencies, the polarization and their seasonal variations were analyzed respectively. The results show that the emissivities of vegetation increase with the increase in frequencies, and decline with the frequency increasing over snow region. In summer, the vegetation emissivity at V-polarization of 89 GHz is larger than 0.944, and all emissivities are relatively stable and the RMSE of time series emissivity variation is less than 0.007 2. In winter, emissivities decrease over snow covered area, especially for higher frequencies. Furthermore, with the increase in vegetation density, the emissivities increase and emissivity polarization difference decreases.

  4. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks.

  5. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Mössbauer Study of Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sicán pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  6. A study on environmental aridity over northern and southern to Qinling Mountains under climate warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data up to 1999 from hydroclimatological departments, this paper analyzes the climatic divide implications of the Qinling Mountains in regional response to the process of climate warming, due to which the grades of dryness/wetness (GDW) in 100 years show that the northern region has entered a drought period, while the southern is a humid period. In a course of ten years, the D-value of annual average air temperature over southern Shaanxi (the Hanjiang Valley) and the Central Shaanxi Plain (the Guanzhong Plain) has narrowed, i.e., the former with a slight change and the latter with rapid increase in temperature. Both regions were arid with the decrease in precipitation D-value, namely the plain became warmer while the south was drier. The Qinling Mountains play a pronounced role in the climatic divide. The runoff coefficient (RC) of the Weihe River decreases synchronously with that of the Hanjiang due to climate warming. The RC of Weihe dropped from 0.2 in the 1950s to less than 0.1 in the 1990s. The Weihe Valley (the Guanzhong Plain) is practically an arid area due to shortage of water. The successive 0.5, 1.0℃ temperature anomaly over China marks, perhaps, the important transition period in which the environment becomes more vulnerable than before.The study shows the obvious trend of environmental aridity, which is of help to the understanding of regional response to global climate change.

  7. Ethnical Variations in the Incidence of Congenital Heart Defects in Gorgan, Northern Iran: A Single-Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nikyar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. This study was performed to determine the live birth incidence of CHD by ethnicity and sex in Gorgan, Northern Iran.Methods: In this longitudinal, hospital-based study, 18162 live births in Dezyani Hospital in Gorgan, North of Iran, were screened for CHD, from 2007 through 2009. Clinical examination, echocardiography, color Doppler, and cardio catheterization were used as diagnostic tools. Sex, ethnicity, and type of CHD for each case were recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire.Results: The incidence rates of CHD in the native Fars, Sistani, and Turkmen subjects were 5.73 (95%CI: 4.53-7.15,12.27 (95%CI: 8.74-16.73, and 15.93 (95%CI: 10.00-24.02 per 1000 live births, respectively. The Turkmen to native Fars and Sistani to native Fars relative risk for congenital CHD malformations was 2.77 (95%CI: 1.73-4.44; p value < 0.001 and 1.29 (95%CI: 0.77-2.18; p value < 0.323, respectively. While atrial septal defect was the most common lesion in the native Fars subjects (2.14 per 1000 [95%CI: 1.42-3.06] and in the Sistani subjects (2.84 per 1000 [95%CI: 1.29-5.36], in the Turkmen subjects, ventricular septal defect (4.36 per 1000 [95%CI: 1.59-9.43], followed by atrial septal defect, was the most frequent lesion.Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence and pattern of CHD among live births in Gorgan, North of Iran, varied according to ethnicity. The risk of CHD was higher in the Turkmen and Sistani groups than in the Fars population

  8. 返乡农民工思想政治教育工作研究——以苏北返乡农民工为例%Study On Ideological and Political Education of Returned Migrant Workers——A Case Study of Returned Migrant Workers from Northern Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷小芬; 孙佩锋

    2011-01-01

    Because of the unique experience,the returned migrant workers' thoughts are comparatively complicated,their attitudes toward morality are vague,their family relationships are weak and their awareness of law and their rights is frail.To establish a socialist harmonious society,it is important that the common values of harmonious society should be fostered,and the value of a socialist harmonious society should be formed.The government,village committees and educational institutions should pay more attention to the work of ideological and political education on returned migrant workers;strengthen the study on ideological and political conditions of returned migrant workers;improve people's livelihood;perfect the grass-roots democracy;make full use of various channels;innovate teaching methods;update the content of education;strengthen the ideological and political education of returned migrant workers.%由于生活经历的特殊性,返乡农民工的思想比较复杂,道德观念迷茫,亲情关系淡化,法制与权利意识薄弱。要建立社会主义和谐社会,必须树立和谐社会的共识,形成社会主义和谐社会价值观,政府、村(居)委会及教育机构要提高对返乡农民工思想政治教育工作重要性的认识,加强对返乡农民工思想政治状况的研究,从改善民生做起,完善基层民主建设,充分利用各种途径,创新教育方法,更新教育内容,加强对返乡农民工的思想政治教育工作。

  9. 苏北县域城镇化与耕地集约利用耦合协调发展研究--以徐州市沛县为例%Study on Coupling Coordinated Development betwe en Urbanizationa nd Farmland Intensive Use in Northern Counties of Jiangsu Province:A Case Study of Pexi ian County, Xuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏敏; 张耀蓓

    2016-01-01

    城镇化水平与耕地集约利用水平存在着较强的耦合关系,本文通过构建耦合协调发展度评价模型,对江苏省沛县15个镇2008~2014年的乡镇城镇化与耕地集约利用耦合协调发展度进行了测算。结果表明:(1)沛县城镇化与耕地集约利用协调发展度存在明显的时空差异,但总体呈现趋同趋势。(2)大部分乡镇的城镇化水平与耕地集约利用程度不相匹配,且处于较低水平或低水平的城镇化协调发展阶段。因此,在沛县工业化、城镇化建设中必须要有保护耕地的强烈意识,提高耕地集约利用度。%There was a strong coupling between the level of urbanization and intensive use of arable land.The study con-structs evaluation model coupling the coordinated development of 15 towns in Peixian county of Jiangsu province from 2008 to 2014, and then calculated the coupling coordinated development degree between the township urbanization and intensive use of ar-able land.The results showed that the coupling coordinated development degree between urbanization and the intensive use of farmland existed obvious differences in both time and space, but the whole showed an overall trend of convergence.Meanwhile, the level of urbanization and intensive use of arable land degree most towns did not match, at a low level or a lower level of urbani-zation coordinated development stage.Therefore , we must improve the intensive use of arable land with a strong sense of protection of arable land to do the work in urbanization construction of Peixian county.

  10. Case Study Orientation for New Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes Oldfields School's systematic orientation program for beginning teachers. They meet as a group and discuss case studies, which give substance to the regulations and policies listed in the school handbooks. (SJL)

  11. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  12. Feasibility study and application of development seismic inversion -a case study from northern Changyuan oilfield of Daqing area%开发地震反演可行性研究及应用——以大庆长垣北部油田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占东; 赵伟; 李阳; 彭政; 张海翔

    2011-01-01

    -tied seismic sedimentary facies study was also carried out to refine prediction of sandbody volume on sides of channel, channel sand connectivity,channel sand scale change,channel combination and timing of channels. Large distributary channel sandbodies are high in oil potential and remaining oil is commonly caused by imperfect injection-production well pattern. Small distributary channel sandbodies locally have high oil potential, and remaining oil is commonly caused by limited control area of well patterns.

  13. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study from the population based Northern Manhattan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden-Albala Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired vascular function occurs early in atherogenesis. Brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD is a non-invasive measure of vascular function and may be an important marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Data on the association between FMD and carotid plaque in multi-ethnic populations are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with carotid plaque in a community of northern Manhattan. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial and carotid arteries were obtained in 643 stroke-free subjects (mean age 66 years; 55% women; 65% Caribbean-Hispanic, 17% African-American, 16% Caucasian. Brachial FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia. Maximum carotid plaque thickness (MCPT was measured at the peak plaque prominence. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.78 ± 3.83 %. Carotid plaque was present in 339 (53% subjects. The mean MCPT was 1.68 ± 0.82 mm, and the 75th percentile was 2.0 mm. Reduced FMD was significantly associated with increased MCPT. After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and education, each percent of FMD decrease was associated with a significant 0.02 mm increase in MCPT (p = 0.028. In a dichotomous adjusted model, blunted FMD was associated with an increased risk of MCPT ≥ 2.0 mm (OR, 1.11 for every 1% decrease in FMD; 95% CI, 1.03–1.19. Conclusion Decreased brachial FMD is independently associated with carotid plaque. Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction may be a useful marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and help to individualize cardiovascular risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

  14. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  15. An Africanised Study of Astronomical History in the Northern Cape South Africa, for Purposes of Secondary and Higher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, K. J.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    Dr M.J. Hoffman, Head of the Department Physics, University of the Free State (UFS), presented a paper at the Duineveld Secondary School in Upington, to enhance the idea of a natural observatory centre in the Northern Cape. Quite aptly, the National Institute for Higher Education: Northern Cape (NIHE) also invited a renowned African astronomer, Dr T Medupe, to address their graduation ceremony in 2005. However, Dr Albert Strydom, Programme Head of Tourism Management at the Central University for Technology, Free State (CUT), is very much aware of the delicate nature of this type of high scientific profile in Tourism Management. It is foreseen by Dr Kallie de Beer, Director of Distance Education, that teaching and learning in this field will predominantly be conducted via Open and Distance e-Learning (ODeL). Consequently, it is also important to understand the philosophy of ODeL within global and Africanized perspectives. Astronomy, in this case, offers excellent examples of Africanised science in practice to add scientific value to tourist packages in the Northern Cape. (www.saao.ac.za/assa/aahs).

  16. Latent tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in a resource poor setting in Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusabani Ahmed M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Untreated latent TB infection (LTBI is a significant risk factor for active pulmonary tuberculosis, hence predisposing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and mother to child transmission. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and its association, if any, with various socio-demographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics was evaluated. Methods Northern Tanzania was chosen as the study site. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 286 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestational age to term were assessed. Screening was undertaken using an algorithm involving tuberculin skin testing, symptom screening in the form of a questionnaire, sputum testing for acid fast bacilli followed by shielded chest X-rays if indicated. HIV serology was also performed on consenting participants. Results Prevalence of latent infection ranged between 26.2% and 37.4% while HIV sero prevalence was 4.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis it was found that age, parity, body mass index, gestational age, and HIV sero status did not have any significant association with tuberculin skin test results. However certain ethnic groups were found to be less vulnerable to LTBI as compared to others (Chi square = 10.55, p = 0.03. All sputum smears for acid fast bacilli were negative. Conclusion The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in pregnant women was found to be relatively high compared to that of the general population. In endemic areas, socio-demographic parameters alone are rarely adequate in identifying women susceptible to TB infection; therefore targeted screening should be conducted for all pregnant women at high risk for activation (especially HIV positive women. As opposed to the current policy of passive case detection, there appears to be an imminent need to move towards active screening. Ethnicity may provide important clues into genetic and cultural differences which predispose to latent tuberculosis, and is worth exploring further.

  17. Anencephaly: A pathological study of 41 cases

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    C Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anencephaly is a lethal neural tube defect which is due to the defective closure of rostral pore of neural tube. In more than 50% of cases it is associated with other systemic anomalies. Hence this study was undertaken to assess pathological parameters associated with anencephaly in particular attention to associated systemic anomalies. Materials and Methods: It is a study on 41 anencephaly fetuses conducted in the Department of Pathology. The period of study is from January 2001 to December 2011. Results: Out of 41 cases, 30 (73% cases showed presence of systemic anomalies, 48.5% of the cases were observed in primigravida. Most common associated anomaly was spina bifida followed by gastrointestinal anomalies. Conclusion: Pathological examination of the abortus is essential to document the associated anomalies.

  18. Biomarker tools to design clinical vaccines determined from a study of annual listeriosis incidence in northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Calderón González; Hector Teran-Navarro; Jose Maria Marimon; Claudia Gonzalez-Rico; Jorge Calvo-Montes; Elisabet Frande Cabanes; Miriam Alkorta-Gurrutxaga; Carmen Fariñas; Luis Martinez-Martinez; Emilio Perez-Trallero; Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez

    2016-01-01

    Two regions of northern Spain, Gipuzkoa, and Cantabria present high annual incidence of listeriosis (1.86 and 1.71 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). We report that the high annual incidences are a consequence of infection with highly virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates linked to fatal outcomes in elderly patients with cancer. In addition, listeriosis patients with cancer present low IL-17A/IL-6 ratios and significantly reduced levels of anti-GAPDH1–22 antibodies, identified a...

  19. Determinants of peak discharge in steep mountain catchments - Case of the Rift Valley escarpment of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem G.; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Zenebe, Amanuel; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Peak discharge is an important hydrological parameter of mountain torrents. However, due to the flashy and destructive nature of their stream flows, it is usually difficult to understand the hydrological behavior of steep mountain catchments through direct measurements of discharges. In this study, 332 daily peak discharge events from 11 steep (0.27-0.65 m m-1) catchments (0.4-25 km2) were measured in three rainy seasons (2012-2014) with the objective of analyzing runoff response of steep mountain catchments in the western Rift Valley escarpment of Northern Ethiopia. Seven rain gauges were installed at different altitudes (1623-2851 m a.s.l.) in and nearby the catchments. Event peak discharges were calculated using the Manning's equation from daily measurements of maximum discharge height at 11 crest stage gauges. Percentages of land cover classes were detected from high resolution (0.6 m) Google Earth Imagery (February 1, 2014). Morphometric characteristics of the catchments were computed both from ASTER digital elevation model (DEM) and topographic maps. Correlation analysis between average daily precipitation (Pd) and peak discharge (Qp) showed strong positive relation (R2 = 0.32-0.94, P concentration (R2 = 0.43, P < 0.05). It was correlated positively with catchment slope gradient (R2 = 0.37, P < 0.05) and index of vegetation distribution (R2 = 0.45, P < 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 99% (P < 0.01) of the variability of catchment-specific peak discharge coefficient in the catchments can be predicted by vegetation cover and infiltration number. Overall, this study demonstrates that in reforesting steep mountain catchments, where direct measurement of discharges using the conventional methods is difficult due to the flashy and destructive nature of the stream flows, hydrological variability can easily be understood using simple measurements of daily precipitation and peak discharges. Further, runoff response is determined by

  20. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings...

  1. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  2. The interface between clinicians and laboratory staff: A field study in northern Tanzania

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    Coosje J. Tuijn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strengthening the communication and professional relationships between clinicians and laboratory workers is essential in order to positively change clinicians’ attitudes about the reliability of diagnostic tests, enhancing the use of laboratory diagnostics and, ultimately, improving patient care. We developed an analytical framework to gain insight into the factors that influence communication amongst health professionals.Objective: To explore whether the interaction between clinicians and laboratory workers influences the use of laboratory test results in clinical decision making.Methods: Four health facilities in northern Tanzania were selected using convenience sampling, whereas study participants were selected using purposive sampling. The quantitative and qualitative data collection methods included self-administered questionnaires; semistructured, individual interviews; in-depth, individual interviews; and/or focus group discussions with clinicians and laboratory workers. Thematic content analyses were performedon qualitative data based on the framework. Descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data were conducted using Microsoft Excel.Results: Contact between clinicians and laboratory professionals is seldom institutionalised and collaboration is rare. The clinicians believe collaboration with laboratory staff is a challenge because of the gap in education levels. Laboratory workers’ education levels areoften lower than their positions require, leading to clinicians’ lack of respect for and confidencein laboratory professionals, which compromises the laboratory staff’s motivation.Conclusions: Hospital managers, clinicians and laboratory workers need to recognise the critical and complementary roles each professional plays and the importance of addressing the gap between them. Field application of the framework proved successful, justifying the expansion of this study to a larger geographical area to include

  3. Two mechanisms of stratospheric ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere, studied using data assimilation of Odin/SMR atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Kazutoshi; Pérot, Kristell; Murtagh, Donal; Orsolini, Yvan

    2017-02-01

    Observations from the Odin/Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) instrument have been assimilated into the DIAMOND model (Dynamic Isentropic Assimilation Model for OdiN Data), in order to estimate the chemical ozone (O3) loss in the stratosphere. This data assimilation technique is described in Sagi and Murtagh (2016), in which it was used to study the inter-annual variability in ozone depletion during the entire Odin operational time and in both hemispheres. Our study focuses on the Arctic region, where two O3 destruction mechanisms play an important role, involving halogen and nitrogen chemical families (i.e. NOx = NO and NO2), respectively. The temporal evolution and geographical distribution of O3 loss in the low and middle stratosphere have been investigated between 2002 and 2013. For the first time, this has been done based on the study of a series of winter-spring seasons over more than a decade, spanning very different dynamical conditions. The chemical mechanisms involved in O3 depletion are very sensitive to thermal conditions and dynamical activity, which are extremely variable in the Arctic stratosphere. We have focused our analysis on particularly cold and warm winters, in order to study the influence this has on ozone loss. The winter 2010/11 is considered as an example for cold conditions. This case, which has been the subject of many studies, was characterised by a very stable vortex associated with particularly low temperatures, which led to an important halogen-induced O3 loss occurring inside the vortex in the lower stratosphere. We found a loss of 2.1 ppmv at an altitude of 450 K in the end of March 2011, which corresponds to the largest ozone depletion in the Northern Hemisphere observed during the last decade. This result is consistent with other studies. A similar situation was observed during the winters 2004/05 and 2007/08, although the amplitude of the O3 destruction was lower. To study the opposite situation, corresponding to a warm and

  4. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz BAIRLEIN; Volker DIERSCHKE; Julia DELINGAT; Cas EIKENAAR; Ivan MAGGINI; Marc BULTE; Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-01-01

    Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights.Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors.From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration.Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors,such as food availability,weather,competitors,parasites or diseases,on the stopover behavior of migrants.However,an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration.The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies.It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska.All breeding populations over-winter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans.It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance.Thus,young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing,route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration.By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed.At the same time,environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field.On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances,radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability.The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal scales,and linking various sub-disciplines.

  5. Problem-based case study to enhance critical thinking in student nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Mogale

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional teaching methods, for example the lecture method, does not stimulate critical thinking in student nurses. This problem can be solved by the utilisation of problem-based case study in the classroom/clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study in a clinical setting among first year, comprehensive course students at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus. The research design of this study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual and was conducted in the following phases: Phase 1: The development and implementation of a program for problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase II: The experiences of student nurses who were exposed to problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase III: The perceptions of tutors regarding the implementation of problem-based case study in the clinical setting (focus group, and; ase IV: Guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The data from Phases I, II and III were used to formulate guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The sample group consisted of all 69 first year student nurses at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus and ten tutors teaching clinical courses at the same campus. The Tesch (1990 approach is used for data analysis. Nine guidelines for the implementation of a problem-based case study approach were formulated and recommendations for development of an instrument to measure critical thinking in nursing were recommended.

  6. Reducing industrial use of fossil raw materials:techno-economic assessment of relevant cases in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Arvola, J. (Jouko)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Climate change and global warming are currently widely discussed topics, both of which potentially impact all the nations and industries. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other green house gases (GHG) are seen as a major challenge. This doctoral dissertation aims to conduct techno-economic calculations on the possibilities of reducing the industrial use of fossil raw materials in Northern Finland. This doctoral dissertation analyses industrial CO2 emissions from five complementary pe...

  7. Application of 4-Methyl Steranes in Oil-Source Correlation:A case study from northern steep slope zone of Bonan Sag%4-甲基甾烷在油源对比中的应用——以渤南洼陷北部陡坡带为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝灵; 张枝焕; 王顺华; 邢辉; 李文浩; 刘祎楠; 席伟军

    2012-01-01

    同一洼陷不同次洼的烃源岩及生成的原油,由于古气候、古沉积环境较为相似,其常规生物标志化合物和同位素特征差别非常小,给油源分析带来困难。通过GC—MS分析提取原油和烃源岩中分子化石信息,主要依据4-甲基甾烷的相对含量和不同构型的4-甲基甾烷的分布特征来进行油源对比,为类似地区的油源分析提供了一种新思路。渤南洼陷发育Es4s和Es3x两套主力烃源岩,中部次洼、西部次洼和渤南深洼Es3x烃源岩的4-甲基甾烷/C29甾烷值分别为4.51、2.79、1.27,是由于烃源岩中沟鞭藻有机质占总有机质的比例不同所造成。不同地区原油C20、C21、C23三环萜烷和ααα20RC27、C28、C29规则甾烷等特征非常相似,成熟度相当,中、西、东三个地区原油的4-甲基甾烷/C29甾烷值分别为2.89,2.39和2.06,区别明显,各个地区4-甲基甾烷的构型也不同。对比结果表明,渤南洼陷北部陡坡带Es4s和Es3x油气均为近源成藏,主要来源于其临近次洼的Es3x烃源岩。%Because of the samilar paleoclimate and palosedimentary environment,regular biomarkers and isotope distinction of the source rocks and generated petroleum in the sub-sag belong to the same sag is tiny,which bring difficulties to oil-source correlation.By extracting molecular fossils information using GC-MS technology,according to the relative content of 4-methyl steranes and distribution characteristics of 4-methyl steranes isomers,oil-source correlation work are performed,which provides a new method for oil-source correlation in similar area.Es4s and Es3x two sets of source rocks are developed in the study area,they are characterized by high organic matter abundance,mature to over mature thermal evolution degrees.Organic matter of Es4s are formed in brackish-saline water with reductive environment,organic matter of Es3x are formed in fresh-saline water with reductive environment,organic matter input of both

  8. 日常環境風險因應的經驗學習歷程:以北部都會區東南亞籍新移民女性為例 The Experiential Learning Process of Coping with Daily Environmental Risk: A Case Study of Southeast Asian Female Immigrants in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    高佩瑤 Pai-Yeow Kaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究從成人學習取徑出發,以Jarvis的經驗學習觀點為理論架構,探索及了解東南亞籍新移民女性因應環境風險的經驗學習歷程及其構成要素。 在研究方法上,本研究採取質性詮釋典範,深度訪談六位居住於北部兩個都會區的東南亞籍新移民女性。研究結果發現,東南亞籍新移民女性的學習型態隨著環境議題性質及關懷對象的不同而呈現三條路徑:非學習、非反思性行動學習、反思性混合學習型態。反思性經驗學習歷程隨著居臺時間長短及感受的變化而漸次進入三個階段:「被動順應」、「主動融入」及「創新再造」,而個人感受如何又深受社會情境因素所引導,如語言溝通環境、家庭及社會的支持程度、臺灣傳統家庭觀念、傳統母職角色及國家與社會規範等等,是構成她們感受經驗傾向負面、自主或充滿自信的主要因素,也直接影響她們採取何種學習方式:1. 當負面感受強烈時,學習型態傾向被動模仿以符合家人期待;2. 當自主感取得時,學習型態由被動轉為主動,以過去的個人生命傳記為基礎,藉由複製舊經驗、身體感受、認知強化及人際互助等方式將舊經驗融入及再製新經驗;3. 一旦自信心建立,則逐漸形塑出一種整合新舊經驗的創新生活原則與家庭社會關係網絡,改變自我與家庭、社會甚至環境的關係。 This study applied Jarvis’s experiential learning perspective as a theoretical framework to explore and understand female Southeast Asian immigrants’ experiential learning processes when coping with daily environmental risks, and to analyze their major components. Using qualitative methods, we conducted in-depth interviews with six female Southeast Asian immigrants who live in two cities in northern Taiwan. We found that their learning patterns developed along three learning

  9. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  10. Magnetic Study of Lacustrine Sediments of Dream Lake at Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.-Q.; Yang, T.-N.; Song, S.-R.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic proxies are applied to analyze a length of about 2.35 m lacustrine sediment core taken from the Dream Lake at northern Taiwan for the purpose of studying paleo-climate changes. Based on the AMS 14C dating data, this core supported the results for the last 6200 years. However, data of the last 2000 years were found to be absent due to that the top sediments (~50 cm) has been dug out. Magnetic results show that the abundance of magnetic minerals is generally very low except two peaks appeared at the depths 60-90 cm and below 210 cm which has the age intervals of 3500~4000 yrB.P. and 5800~6200 yrB.P. respectively. The older event has the magnetic susceptibility more than three times of that of the younger one. However, the other parameters, such as SIRM, bIRM, HIRM, ARM and NRM, show slight lower values at the older event than those at the younger one. This phenomenon suggests that the deeper level contains much more magnetic minerals than the shallow one, including many extra fine grain (superparamagnetic?) magnetic minerals which contributed the magnetic susceptibility but not remanent magnetizations. These two events might be originated from the eruptions of the Tatun Volcano Group or the neighboring volcanic province, especially from the north or northeast. In addition, the proxy, S-ratio, indicated four low values appeared at the time interval between 5000~5800 yrB.P., which associated with higher ARM/SIRM peaks. This phenomenon proposed that extra-ordinary strong winter monsoon happened during these periods which brought aeolian dusts contained relative large amount highly oxidized magnetic minerals from the north.

  11. A model study of Abrahamsenbreen, a surging glacier in northern Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oerlemans

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The climate sensitivity of Abrahamsenbreen, a 20 km long surge-type glacier in northern Spitsbergen, is studied with a simple glacier model. A scheme to describe the surges is included, which makes it possible to account for the effect of surges on the total mass budget of the glacier. A climate reconstruction back to AD 1300, based on ice-core data from Lomonosovfonna and climate records from Longyearbyen, is used to drive the model. The model is calibrated by requesting that it produces the correct Little Ice Age maximum glacier length and simulates the observed magnitude of the 1978-surge. Abrahamsenbreen is strongly out of balance with the current climate. If climatic conditions will remain as they were for the period 1989–2010, the glacier will ultimately shrink to a length of about 4 km (but this will take hundreds of years. For a climate change scenario involving a 2 m yr−1 rise of the equilibrium line from now onwards, we predict that in the year 2100 Abrahamsenbreen will be about 12 km long. The main effect of a surge is to lower the mean surface elevation and to increase the ablation area, thereby causing a negative perturbation of the mass budget. We found that the occurrence of surges leads to a somewhat stronger retreat of the glacier in a warming climate. Because of the very small bed slope, Abrahamsenbreen is sensitive to small perturbations in the equilibrium-line altitude E. For a decrease of E of only 160 m, the glacier would steadily grow into the Woodfjorddalen until after 2000 years it would reach the Woodfjord and calving could slow down the advance.

  12. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  13. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  14. A Comparison of Nested PCR Assay with Conventional Techniques for Diagnosis of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis in AIDS Cases from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Uppal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a very important opportunistic infection and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Although current laboratory methods are generally considered adequate to detect high concentrations of oocysts, they fail to detect cases of cryptosporidiosis in many immunocompromised patients. The present study was done to determine the diagnostic efficacy of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN, antigen detection ELISA, and a nested PCR assay for detection of Cryptosporidium in 58 adult AIDS cases with diarrhea from the ART clinic of Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Cryptosporidium was detected in 17 (29.4%, 39 (67.3%, and 45 (77.5% cases by modified ZN staining, antigen ELISA, and nested PCR assay, respectively. Taking nested PCR as the gold standard, specificity of both modified ZN staining and Cryptosporidium antigen detection ELISA was 100% while the sensitivity of the tests was 37.8% and 86.6%, respectively. PCR was more sensitive than the other two diagnostic modalities but required a more hands-on time per sample and was more expensive than microscopy. PCR, however, was very adaptable to batch analysis, reducing the costs considerably. This assay can therefore have considerable advantages in the treatment of immunosuppressed individuals like AIDS patients, allowing their early diagnosis and decreasing the morbidity and the mortality.

  15. [Asteroid hyalopathy. Ultrastructural study of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenis, J P; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, R

    1984-01-01

    The vitreous of three patients with asteroïd hyalosis (average age: 57 years) was obtained by a two-hand closed pars plana vitrectomy. Asteroïd hyalosis was associated with alcoholic neuropathy in the first case, long standing retinal detachment in the second case, and diabetes mellitus in the third case. The visual acuity before and after the surgical procedure improved from 1.2/6 to 6/6 in the first case, from light perception to 0.3/6 in the second case, from 0.6/6 to 4.8/6 in the third case. The vitreous was studied by different ultrastructural technics : transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) and electron diffraction X ray analysis (E.D.A.X.). By S.E.M. the asteroïd bodies appeared as rounded structures with an irregular surface connected to each other by fibrous strands among sodium chloride crystals. No cellular remnants were observed. By T.E.M. the asteroïd bodies were composed of interwinned ribbons of multilaminar membranes with a periodicity (10 to 60 A) characteristic of complex lipids, especially phospholipids. At the edge of the ribbons there were dots and sometimes clumps of opaque material that tended to crack out of the specimen with the heat of the electron beam. T.E.M. study disclosed the irregular disposition of the calcific bodies. By E.D.A.X. the calcific composition of the rounded structures could be determined : calcium and phosphorus were the main elements detectable in asteroïd bodies of all sizes for all three patients. The average calcium counts for the three successive cases were : 18, 30, 43 and for phosphorus : 9, 14, 26. Potassium was found in the first case, and sulfur in the third case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Leishmaniose cutânea no Norte da Argentina: fatores de risco identificados num estudo caso-coorte em três municípios de Salta Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Argentina: identification of risk factors in a case-cohort study of three municipalities in Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar fatores considerados de risco para adquirir leishmaniose cutânea em Salta, área de maior transmissão da Argentina. Aplicou-se um estudo de caso-coorte com observações entre junho de 1989 e dezembro de 1992. Aos casos e aos controles selecionados se realizou: a um questionário sócio-demográfico; b descrição das características da vivenda e peridomicílio; c um exame físico de pele e mucosa nasal e bucal; d intradermorreação de Montenegro. A análise multivariada mostrou um risco significativo para fatores extradomiciliares (realizar atividades de vaqueira, dormir no lugar de trabalho, ir caçar e domiciliares (dormir fora do quarto, presença de três ou mais suínos no quintal da casa e existência de janelas sem fechaduras. Esta associação permitiu pela primeira vez em Salta (Argentina, identificar fatores de risco vinculados com a transmissão de leishmaniose na unidade domiciliária.The objective of this work was evaluate risk factors for acquiring cutaneous leishmaniasis in Salta, the region with the greatest indices of transmission in Argentina. A Case-cohort study was realized from June 1989 to December 1992. The procedures performed on cases and controls included: a socio-demographic questionnaire; b domestic and peridomestic environment description; c physical exam of skin and nasal and oral mucosal; d Montenegro Skin Test. Multivariate analysis showed a significant risk for factors outside the home (cattle management, hunting, sleeping at the work place and while at home (sleeping outside of the bedroom, presence of three or more pigs in the yard and windows that cannot be locked in the closed position. This association allowed the identification of risk factors linked to the transmission of leishmaniasis in the home for the first time in Salta (Argentina.

  17. A relação dos técnicos de educação de adultos com o discurso pedagógico oficial: um caso a norte de Portugal The relation between adult education agents and the official pedagogical discourse: a case study in northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Paulo Ferreira Loureiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende questionar, com base num estudo etnográfico realizado junto de uma equipa técnica de educação de adultos de uma associação de desenvolvimento local do norte de Portugal, a relação que este tipo de técnicos estabelece com o discurso pedagógico oficial proveniente de estruturas de informação que estão na dependência do Estado. Para realizar tal análise recorreu-se, do ponto de vista teórico, ao modelo da estrutura do discurso pedagógico de Basil Bernstein. Os resultados dizem-nos que, neste caso concreto, os técnicos, apesar de terem a sua acção fortemente normativizada, são capazes de estabelecer com o discurso oficial uma relação activa, pois no desenrolar da sua actividade fazem, muitas vezes, usos recontextualizados desse discurso.Based on an ethnographic study of a team of adult education agents in an association of local development in the North of Portugal, this paper is aimed at studying the relation that these agents establish with the official pedagogical discourse emerging from State-dependent information structures. In order to develop this analysis, Basil Bernstein's model of pedagogical discourse structure was used for a theoretical basis. The results have showed that, in this particular case, the agents, in spite of having a strongly normative action, are able to establish an active relation with the official discourse. It can be observed that they often readapt this official discourse in their daily activity.

  18. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), this draft case study on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is based on the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, which consists of both a framework and a process. Unlike previous case studies this case study incorporates information about a traditional (i.e., “non-nano-enabled”) product, against which the MWCNT flame-retardant coating applied to upholstery textiles (i.e., the “nano-enabled” product) can be compared. The comparative element serves dual-purposes: 1) to provide a more robust database that facilitates identification of data gaps related to the nano-enabled product and 2) to provide a context for identifying key factors and data gaps for future efforts to evaluate risk-related trade-offs between a nano-enabled and non-nano-enabled product. This draft case study does not represent a completed or even a preliminary assessment of MWCNTs; rather, it uses the CEA framework to structure information from available literature and other resources (e.g., government reports) on the product life cycle, fate and transport processes in various environmental media, exposure-dose characterization, and impacts in human, ecological, and environmental receptors.

  19. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  20. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  1. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  2. Prader-Willi Disease: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, William R., III

    A case study focuses on the characteristics and physical management of a 15-year-old with Prader-Willi Syndrome, a birth defect associated with hypotonia, insatiable appetite, hypogonadism, central nervous system dysfunction, and abnormal growth and development . A literature review addresses studies dealing with behavior modification of obesity…

  3. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  4. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlaif Rasha B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank, six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI, were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26

  5. Integrating Ethics into Case Study Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking.  Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks.  Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components.  I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should." and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  6. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  7. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  8. Sediment flux dynamics as fingerprints of catchment rehabilitation: The case of western Rift Valley escarpment of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem G.; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Zenebe, Amanuel; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Variability in supply and entrainment of stream bedload particles during storm events is an important hydrogeomorphologic response of steep mountain streams to land management in their catchments. Because of difficulties in its measurement and absence of accurate measuring equipment, bedload transport in mountain streams is, however, poorly understood. This study focuses on analyzing bedload supply and entrainment in 11 streams of sloping (27-65%) catchments (0.4-25 km2) in northern Ethiopia, which have experienced severe deforestation and degradation processes until the first half of the 1980s and considerable rehabilitation thereafter. Field measurements of the median diameter of the 10 coarsest bedload particles (Max10) moved in each event (n = 332) and stream bed particle sampling were carried out in three rainy seasons (2012-2014). Event peak discharges were calculated from daily measurements by 11 crest stage gauges using Manning's equation. Percentages of land cover classes in the catchments were detected from high resolution (0.6 m) Google Earth imagery (1 February, 2014). Morphometric characteristics of the catchments were computed from an ASTER digital elevation model and topographic maps. Hydraulic competence analysis for entrainment of the average Max10 was carried out using peak discharge, stream power, and critical shear stress approaches. The supply of Max10 was positively related to scar density on the surrounding slopes (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.05) and catchment area (R2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) while negatively related with total forest cover (R2 = 0.63, p < 0.05) or vegetation cover (R2 = 0.58, p < 0.05). A multiple regression analysis showed that 98% of the variability in Max10 is explained by scar density and catchment area. Entrainment of Max10 was positively related to peak discharge (Qp) (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.01), stream power (Ω) (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.01), Strickler's roughness (Sn) (R2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), and critical shear stress (τc) with reference to D50 (r

  9. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  10. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw;

    2010-01-01

    decisions based on indicators. In essence, visualizing indicators and their dependencies can communicate the information to the stakeholders efficiently if done correctly, or mislead them if not done properly. In this paper we present results of a case study conducted in a unit of Ericsson. During the case...... study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  11. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.

  12. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...... arbejdstilbud. Konklusionen foreslår at give unge mere tid til at træffe de alvorlige valg vedr. deres fremtid ved at indføre et refugium, som i tankegang minder om Eriksons ungdomsmoratorium....

  13. STUDY OF NORTHERN WINTER ATMOSPHERIC ACTIVE CENTERS (AAC) CLIMATE BASE-STATE WITH ITS CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The study of low-frequency oscillations is an important part of climate variability research. In view of insufficient efforts spent on multidecadal and ENSO-scale changes of the climate, the present paper undertakes study of > 30 year slowly-varying means, called climate base state (CBS), of northern winter AAC's in the past 100 years and more, with the CBS variability and its temporal evolution investigated, indicating that Aleutian low and Icelandic low (North Pacific high and North American high) experience maximum (minimum) variation in the CBS. The CBS exhibits two modes for its variation. The positive (negative) phase of mode I presents a weak (strong) NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), a weaker (stronger) NPO (North Pacific Oscillation), a robust (feeble) Siberian high and a quite weak (vigorous) Aleutian low whilst the positive (negative) phase of mode II reveals a feeble (strong) Aleutian low and a weak (robust) Siberian high. Also, the research shows that the recent CBS of northern circulations is in a remarkably negative phase of mode I and a noticeably positive phase of mode II, viz., in the background of slowly-varying circulations of an exceptionally weak Siberian high, an extremely vigorous Aleutian low and an intense NAO. The background field is likely to persist for a matter of 30 years such that northern winter temperature is expected to be in such a warm situation for a long period to follow.

  14. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of

  15. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sakhria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV and Punique virus (PUNV was previously demonstrated. In contrast to TOSV, a prominent human pathogen, there is no data supporting that PUNV is capable to infect and cause disease to humans. We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study. METHODS: The presence of TOSV and PUNV neutralising antibodies (NT-Ab was tested in human sera collected from 5 districts of the governorate of Bizerte, and the titres of NT-Ab were estimated by microneutralisation (MN assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,273 sera were processed. TOSV and PUNV NT-Ab were detected in 522 (41% and 111 sera (8.72% respectively. TOSV seroprevalence varied from 17.2% to 59.4% depending on the district. Analysis of TOSV geometric mean titre values demonstrated a constant increase according to the age. The vast majority of sera containing NT-Ab were found to be more reactive toward TOSV than PUNV. Indeed, past infections with PUNV and TOSV were undisputable for 5 and 414 sera, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PUNV may be capable to infect humans but at a low rate. TOSV is responsible for the vast majority of human infections by sand fly-borne phleboviruses in northern Tunisia. TOSV must be considered by physician and tested in diagnostic laboratories for patients with meningitis and unexplained fever in northern Tunisia.

  16. The C9ORF72 expansion sizes in patients with psychosis: a population-based study on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solje, Eino; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Helisalmi, Seppo; Laitinen, Marjo; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Isohanni, Matti; Hiltunen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Remes, Anne M

    2016-04-01

    Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have many psychotic symptoms, especially at the onset of the disease. The C9ORF72 expansion is the most common genetic etiology observed with bvFTD and the prevalence of the expansion is notably high among Finnish bvFTD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion among the clearly characterized patients with psychosis, mainly schizophrenia, in early midlife. The C9ORF72 repeat sizes were analyzed in 130 (48% women) patients with psychosis from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=11,017), the mean onset age being 27.9 (SD 7.0) years. Despite the high frequency of psychiatric symptoms in bvFTD patients and the extremely high prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion in Finland, pathogenic expansion (>40 repeats) was not detected among the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 individuals with psychosis, indicating that these disorders, especially schizophrenia before the age of 43 years, may not be associated with the C9ORF72 expansion. However, we identified four cases with intermediate size repeats (17-26), but the role of the intermediate repeats in the etiology of psychosis is unknown.

  17. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    and science through co-operation with Science Shops as a mediator between universities and civil society. The Danish national case study report analyses three projects carried out through the Science Shops at DTU and RUC. One case is a co-operation between two DTU students and an NGO, whom is working towards...... that all three NGO’s have used the results and findings to try influencing the societal discourses, and that the results and findings have helped two of the NGOs to gain influence. The analysis further shows that this influence seems to depend on the ability of the NGOs to build alliances with other actors......This report is the Danish case study report in the EU-financed project INTERACTS, which analyses experience and expectations to the interaction between NGOs, Science Shops and universities. The report analyses potentials and barriers to NGO’s and similar civil society groups’ use of research...

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Study of 48 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Bharpoda, Pragnesh; Reddy, Raghuveer

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis represents a group of highly lethal infections characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical profile, microbial flora, and predisposing risk factors in patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Lastly, we aimed to formulate a protocol for management of necrotizing fasciitis. Forty-eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis patients who reported to our hospital between April 2007 and September 2009 were included in the study. The commonest predisposing factors were age greater than 50 years (58 % cases) and diabetes mellitus (52 % cases). The commonest site involved was extremity (70.8 %). Majority of infections were polymicrobial (87.5 %). Repeated aggressive debridement was the commonest surgical procedure performed. Early and aggressive surgical debridement, often in multiple sittings, supplemented by appropriate antibiotics and supportive therapy, forms the key to a successful outcome in necrotizing fasciitis.

  19. Health and Nutrition in the Tarahumara of Northern Mexico : Studies among Women and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Belonging to an indigenous group in Mexico is usually associated with poor health, mainly as the result of social isolation from the mainstream society. The Tarahumara are no exception. They constitute the largest indigenous group in northern Mexico and one of the most marginalized ethnic minorities in North America. Health conditions are precarious, yet very little data are available to facilitate the design and implementation of programs to prevent and manage the main public health problems...

  20. Microbial study of meningitis and encephalitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heba S; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Rakha, Magda E; Yingst, Samuel L; Baskharoun, Magda F

    2007-01-01

    Meningitis and/or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem especially during outbreaks. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for effective earlier treatment. This study aimed to identify the possible microbial causes of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases. CSF and serum samples were collected from 322 patients who had signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis and/or encephalitis. Out of 250 cases with confirmed clinical diagnosis, 83 (33.2%) were definitely diagnosed as bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis cases (by using CSF culture, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and CSF stain), 17 (6.8%) were definitely diagnosed as having viral causes ( by viral isolation on tissue culture, PCR and ELISA), and one (0.4%) was diagnosed as fungal meningitis case (by India ink stain, culture, and biochemical tests). Also, there was one encephalitis case with positive serum ELISA IgM antibodies against Sandfly scilian virus. N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia and M. tuberculosis were the most frequently detected bacterial agents, while Enteroviruses, herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster viruses were the most common viral agents encountered. Further studies are needed to assess the role of different microbial agents in CNS infections and their effective methods of diagnosis.

  1. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  2. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology. A case study describes an aspect of a real problem in sufficient detail for the engineer and scientist to understand the tribological situation and the failure. The nature of the problem is analyzed and the tribological properties are examined.

  3. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology and space tribology. Two case studies describe aspects of real problems in sufficient detail for the engineer and the scientist to understand the tribological situations and the failures. The nature of the problems is analyzed and the range of potential solutions is evaluated. Courses of action are recommended.

  4. Case Study of Home-School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerrebere, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    This case study evaluated one site of a California teacher home visit program. Home visits have been an important means of connecting families and schooling. In 1999, California inaugurated a statewide home visit program to promote effective partnership between home and school for low-achieving schools. At this site, families in 3 kindergarten…

  5. Learning Team Strategies: Soccer Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Salustowicz, R.P.; Schmidhuber, J.

    1998-01-01

    We use simulated soccer to study multiagent learning. Each team's players (agents) share action set and policy, but may behave differently due to position-dependent inputs. All agents making up a team are rewarded or punished collectively in case of goals. We conduct simulations with varying t

  6. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  7. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  8. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  9. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  10. Gifted Teenagers with Problems: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Theresa; Goodner, Jane

    Case studies are presented of three gifted students, indicating the social and academic problems which are standing in the way of their potential development. The students include a Vietnamese-American ninth-grade girl who has difficulty with English and does not feel accepted by other students, an underachieving seventh grade boy who speaks out…

  11. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  12. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...

  13. WP6 - The Ag2020 Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens G; Borch, Kristian; Trombi, Giacomo;

    2010-01-01

    of the Future are presented. Finally, in section 1.4, is described the structure of the present report,which is firmly followed by the four case studies involved in the Project, namely the Rhodope Mountainous region in Bulgaria (CS1), The Kastelli region (Herakleion nomos) in Greece (CS2), the Central Denmark...

  14. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  15. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  16. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  17. Biliteracy, Spelling, and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgette, Ekaterina; Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this case study is to examine biliteracy and its effects on a young child's orthographic and writing growth. The analysis of the kindergartener's spelling development and compositional growth in reference to both language systems indicates that biliteracy had a positive effect on the student's acquisition of English…

  18. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...

  19. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  20. Helping Adolescents in Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Obaid, Beatrice

    1989-01-01

    Addresses problem of adolescent suicide by developing five stages (suicidal signs, establishing rapport, making referral, constructive actions, and self-management) that may be used to help adolescents in distress. Uses five stages in case study to demonstrate the roles played by teacher, friend, and parents in helping adolescent through a crisis.…