WorldWideScience

Sample records for case study electrification

  1. Solar DC Microgrid for Rural Electrification-A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently around 1.5 billion people worldwide live without access to electricity, and without a concerted effort, this number is not likely to drop. Grid extension is often very costly and not feasible in isolated areas. In such situations, electricity mini-grids can power household use and local businesses. The expansion of rural electrification is occurring mainly under the RGGVY (Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojona scheme in India. As among all the renewable sources solar is the most explored one, DC micro grid has become one of the most popular and proposed option for rural electrification. Various policies and delivery models are being implemented on DC micro grid. But Is Dc Micro grid really a viable option for rural electrification? This paper focuses on the various socio-economic and even the technical aspect of DC micro Grid to check its viability and the study is aided by survey reports on the same on various rural villages of India. The paper also tried to integrate the schemes that is introduced for rural electrification with DC micro grid and try to analyze whether DC micro Grid is a sustainable option of rural electrification.

  2. Children's education and home electrification: A case study in northwestern Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaona Daka, Karen, E-mail: karen_rajaona@yahoo.f [University of Versailles St Quentin en Yvelines, 47 Bd Vauban, 78047 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Ballet, Jerome, E-mail: jballetfr@yahoo.f [Centre of Ethics and Economics for Environment and Development in Madagascar, University of Antananarivo, BP905, 101 Antananarivo (Madagascar); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMI Resiliences, 32 Avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Assessments of the impact of electrification on the quality of life of households in developing countries have increased over the last decade. One aspect that has still received little attention is education and the ability of children to keep up at school. The underlying hypothesis is that electrification enables children to do their homework in the evening and so keep up with their school work. To this first hypothesis we add a second one, concerning the relation between access to electricity and attendance to school according to gender. Although most household tasks are carried out by the mothers, their daughters are also involved, and electrification could have a beneficial effect by making easier for girls to do their homework in the evening and easier for the mothers to help them. We will check the validity of these hypotheses using a case study of 162 children attending school in a small town in northwestern Madagascar. - Research Highlights: {yields} We use a sample of 162 children in Madagascar to test the effect of access to the electricity supply in home to the education of children. {yields} We also test the effect to the electricity supply in home to gender-specificities. {yields} Our results confirm that electrification can contribute to reduce social reproduction with regard to education. {yields} Our results also show that electrification helps to reduce gender inequalities.

  3. Pv rural electrification in Kiribati: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, Suresh [Energy and Atmosphere Programme, SEED/BPPS UNDP, New York (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) participated in the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) rural electrification project in Kiribati. Under this project, assistance was provided to the Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) in order to enable it to provide electricity service as a micro utility in a effective manner. The assistance provided included installation of 55 PV-based solar home systems and one community system. In addition, the assistance focussed on technical training of SEC personnel on PV systems and management training on accounting, billing, spare parts inventory, etcetera. [Espanol] En colaboracion con la Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) participo en la puesta en practica de un proyecto de electrificacion rural fotovoltaico en Kiribati. Dentro de este proyecto, se proporciono ayuda a la Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) para ponerla en condicion de suministrar el servicio electrico, en una forma efectiva, como una micro empresa electrica. La ayuda proporcionada incluyo la instalacion de 55 sistemas domesticos solares fotovoltaicos y un sistema comunitario. Adicionalmente, la ayuda se enfoco al entrenamiento tecnico del personal de SEC en sistemas fotovoltaicos y en el entrenamiento administrativo en contabilidad, facturacion, inventariado de partes de repuesto, etc.

  4. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa. Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study methodology and assessment of renewable energy technology and sustainable development is applied to a DME rural village project. Wind, solar and lead acid battery energy storage technologies were used for off-grid electrification...

  5. Delivery Models for Decentralised Rural Electrification Case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel

    2012-06-15

    Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development; without it, the Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. Electrification, along with access to modern cooking fuels and mechanical power, is a catalyst for improvements in the fields of poverty reduction, food security, health, education and gender equality. Nevertheless, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity, over 95 per cent living in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia and 84 per cent of them living in rural areas. There are many different ways to electrify rural areas, not only with regard to the different technologies used, but also to the types of delivery models applied. Common rural electrification technologies include grid extension, community mini-grids, stand-alone household systems, multifunctional platforms, and central charging stations with battery banks. This report will focus on the delivery models used for community mini-grids, as there is evidence to show that mini-grids can be one of the cheaper forms of electrification (on a per unit basis, calculated over the system's lifetime) and also potentially offer a 24 hour AC service that can power a wide range of appliances.

  6. Laboratory study of volcanic ash electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alois, Stefano; Merrison, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Electrostatic forces play an important role in the dynamics of volcanic plumes, for example in ash dispersion and aggregation phenomena. Field measurements of ash electrification are often technically challenging due to poor access and there lacks an accepted physical theory to describe the electrical charge exchange which occurs during particle contact. The goal of the study is to investigate single particle electrification under controlled conditions using advanced laboratory facilities. A novel technique is presented, based on the use of a laser based velocimeter. Here an electric field is applied and the field-induced drift velocity of (micron-sized) ash grains is measured as well as the particles fall velocity. This allows the simultaneous determination of a suspended grains size and electrical charge. The experiments are performed in a unique environmental wind tunnel facility under controlled low-pressure conditions. Preliminary results of particle electrification will be presented.

  7. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  8. People's participation in rural electrification - a successful case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalapur, G.D. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (India); Udaykumar, R.Y. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Department of Electrical Engineering, Surathkal (India)

    2012-06-15

    Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. A developing nation, like India has 72.2 percent people living in rural areas. Still, electricity has not played an effective role in the socio-economic growth of villages. The Government of India has an ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission, State Electricity Boards led reforms, Reforms in Power Sector, Electricity Act 2003, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana etc. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of rural electrification in India and the major factors contributing to rural electrical distribution. Steps initiated by the Government of India through Rural Electric Corporation (REC) and a successful case study of the people's participation model is presented. (orig.)

  9. Geographic Information Technologies for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies. Case Study: Carchi, Ecuador; Tecnologias de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables. Caso de Estudio: Carchi, Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Sarmiento, R. A.; Dominguez Bravo, J.; Amador Guerra, J.

    2013-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, INEC, INAMHI , CONELEC and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Car chi's electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Carchi, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author)

  10. Modelization of flow electrification in a polymer melt

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, F; Allal, A; Guerret-Piécourt, C

    2007-01-01

    Flow electrification of polymer melts is an important side effect of polymer processing. The studies dealing with this phenomenon are seldom and most of the scientific work has been focused on flow electrification of aqueous and insulating Newtonian liquids. From that prior art it is well established that the flow electrification in Newtonian liquids is a consequence of the formation of an ionic double layer. Convection of this layer induces the electrification of the liquid at the outlet of the pipe. In those models, the key parameters governing the flow electrification are thus the intrinsic electrical properties of the polymer and the flow characteristics. In this work, we reconsider the assumptions made previously and we propose a new approach to modelise the flow electrification in the particular case of non-Newtonian polymer materials in laminar flow conditions. We establish that, a key parameter for the electrification quantification in the polymer melt is the shape of the velocity profile. Additionall...

  11. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  13. And then they lived sustainably ever after? - Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth [Royal Institute of Technology, S-136 40 Haninge (Sweden); Kjellstroem, Bjoern [Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue. This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way. (author)

  14. Geographical Information Systems and the Integration of Renewable Energies in the Electrification of Rural Communities. Case Study: Electrification of the Cuban Municipality of Guama; Aplicacion de los Sistemas de Informacion Geografica a la Integracion de las Energias Renovables en la Produccion de Electricidad en las Comunidades Rurales. Caso de Estudio: Electrificacion del Municipio Cubano de Guama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2007-09-27

    The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using level electric cost (LEG) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (Author) 43 refs.

  15. How to build a sustainable business for rural electrification: A study of business models for rural electrification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Medbø, Eirik Gjelsvik; Eithun, Julie Foyn

    2013-01-01

    More than 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity (The International Energy Agency (IEA) 2010, p.248; World Bank 2008; Legros et.al 2009). With the current electrification policy, the total number of people lacking energy will stay at 1.2 billion people in 2030, due to the high population growth (IEA 2010, p.248). This is especially prominent in Sub-Saharan Africa and India, where population growth exceeds electrification rates (Barnes & Foley 2004).There is a strong correlation bet...

  16. A numerical study of aerosol effects on electrification of thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y. B.; Shi, Z.; Chen, Z. L.; Peng, L.; Yang, Y.; Guo, X. F.; Chen, H. R.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of aerosol on microphysical and electrification in thunderstorm clouds. A two-dimensional (2-D) cumulus model with electrification scheme including non-inductive and inductive charge separation is used. The concentration of aerosol particles with distribution fitted by superimposing three log-normal distributions rises from 50 to 10,000 cm-3. The results show that the response of charge separation rate to the increase of aerosol concentration is nonmonotonic. When aerosol concentration is changed from 50 to 1000 cm-3, a stronger formation of cloud droplet, graupel and ice crystal results in increasing charge separation via non-inductive and inductive mechanism. However, in the range of 1000-3000 cm-3, vapor competition arises in the decrease of ice crystal mixing ratio and the reduction of ice crystals size leads to a slightly decrease in non-inductive charge rate, while inductive charging rate has no significant change in magnitude. Above aerosol concentration of 3000 cm-3, the magnitude of charging rate which keeps steady is insensitive to the increase in aerosol concentration. The results also suggest that non-inductive charge separation between ice crystal and graupel contributes to the main upper positive charge region and the middle negative charge region. Inductive graupel-cloud droplet charge separation, on the other hand, is found to play an important role in the development of lower charge region.

  17. A study of the effect of BTA on flow electrification using rotating cylindrical electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washabaugh, A.P.; Zahn, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A rotating cylindrical electrode apparatus was used to simulate flow electrification in an electric power transformer and study the effects of the additive 1,2,3 benzotriazole (BTA). The experiments had Shell Diala A transformer oil filling the annulus between coaxial cylindrical (stainless steel) electrodes and EHV-Weidmann HiVal pressboard covering a thin copper sheet epoxied to the inner cylinder. Time transient and steady state measurements of the charge density in the core region of the fluid flow and the terminal current or voltage were performed over temperatures ranging from 15-70{degrees}C, inner cylinder rotation rates of 100-1400 rpm (Reynolds numbers of 5x10{sup 3}-5x10{sup 5}), and oil BTA concentrations of 0-60 ppm. The BTA appeared to cause competing effects: it reduced the volume charge density on the liquid side of the interface (by a factor of 10) which reduces the electrification but also decreased the oil conductivity (by a factor of 10), which increases the electrification. The BTA also had both long term and short term effects on the electrification. The steady state charge density, short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage had a minimum magnitude for a BTA concentration between 5 and 8 ppm. This paper also develops a physical model for the electrification which uses established representations for the interfacial charge transfer boundary condition. Based on the model, the steady state experimental data shows the largest magnitudes when the diffusion sublayer thickness is small compared to the Debye length. Interfacial volume charge densities ({rho}{sup w}`s) were estimated from the open-circuit data. From the short-circuit data, rate constants for the interfacial charge transfer appear to be large, but cannot always be taken as infinite.

  18. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  19. The value of cooperatives in rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel; Cruickshank, Heather [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The electricity sectors of many developing countries underwent substantial reforms during the 1980s and 1990s, driven by global agendas of privatization and liberalization. However, rural electrification offered little by way of market incentives for profit-seeking private companies and was often neglected. As a consequence, delivery models for rural electrification need to change. This paper will review the experiences of various rural electrification delivery models that have been established in developing countries, including concessionary models, dealership approaches and the strengthening of small and medium-sized energy businesses. It will use examples from the USA, Bangladesh and Nepal, together with a detailed case study of a Nepali rural electric cooperative, to explore the role that local cooperatives can play in extending electricity access. It is shown that although there is no magic bullet solution to deliver rural electrification, if offered appropriate financial and institutional support, socially orientated cooperative businesses can be a willing, efficient and effective means of extending and managing rural electricity services. It is expected that this paper will be of particular value to policy-makers, donors, project planners and implementers currently working in the field of rural electrification. (author)

  20. An aircraft study of rapid precipitation development and electrification in a growing convective cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P. T.; Hallett, J.; Black, R. A.; Hendricks, W.

    The rapid initial precipitation growth and initial electrification of a convective cloud, growing as a new cell on the upshear side of a cloud system in Florida, is traced from radar data and aircraft penetrations at the -7°C to -10°C level. This study combines radar, microphysical and electrical measurements so that an examination of the interactions between the cloud dynamics, microphysics and electrification is possible. The first pass (-7°C) was characterized by a strong 23 m/s updraft, all liquid cloud water, no precipitation, and no significant electrification. In the 300 s between the two penetrations, precipitation developed very rapidly from electric field increased from below the measurement threshold to - 25 kv/m. The second penetration, which started at - 7°C and ended at - 10°C, was still exclusively updraft, but with lesser peak velocities and a more complex structure; i.e., no downdraft, but with relative minima in the updraft. The microphysics of the second pass displayed a segment of exclusively cloud liquid water (no precipitation size hydrometeors), a small segment of all liquid precipitation size hydrometeors, a small region of mixed hydrometeors and an extensive region of graupel hydrometeors, ranging in size from 100 μm to several mm. High cloud liquid water coexisted with the liquid and graupel hydrometeors in the strong updrafts. The electrification was observed to occur exclusively in the segments of the cloud pass where graupel were observed. Within this graupel region, where the graupel often coexisted with supercooled cloud liquid water, significant electric field occurred only at relative minima in the updraft. These relative velocity minima were also minima in the cloud liquid water content. The observed updraft velocities in these relative minima were close to balance velocities for the observed larger graupel hydrometeors. The strongest updrafts, where the formation and the riming growth of graupel was the greatest (maxima in

  1. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. And then they lived sustainably ever after?-Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth [Royal Institute of Technology, S-136 40 Haninge (Sweden)], E-mail: elisabeth.ilskog@syd.kth.se; Kjellstroem, Bjoern [Lulea University of Technology, SE-97187 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: bjorn.kjellstrom@exergetics.se

    2008-07-15

    Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue. This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

  3. Left lane road electrification

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J

    2010-01-01

    We propose the partial electrification of multilane motorways in suburban areas as a practical alternative in order to reduce the weight and price of electrically-powered automobiles. These could then be supplied energy en-route, thus significantly reducing the weight and cost of vehicle-mounted batteries. Our theoretical study is based on the circumstances of Madrid (Spain), a six million inhabitant region, but should be easily adaptable to other metropolitan areas.

  4. A study of offshore wind and electrification of petroleum installations in the northern North Sea; Offshore vindkraft og elektrifisering i nordlige Nordsjoe - En mulighetsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus; Pleym, Anngjerd; Styve, Joar; Svendsen, Harald; Troetscher, Thomas

    2010-08-15

    This report presents results from a study of offshore wind and electrification of petroleum installations in the northern North Sea. Different alternatives for connection of offshore (and onshore) wind parks to oil/gas platforms have been evaluated. Furthermore, power system simulations have been conducted to estimate the impact of wind power and electrification on CO{sub 2}-emission in the Nordic power system. Small offshore wind farms can be connected directly to the power system of petroleum installations where gas turbines supply the base load. The Jordbaer field in the northern part of the North Sea is an interesting case, which is used as basis for simulations of combined operation of wind and local gas power plants. When comparing potential operation cost reductions due to wind with the expected development of power pool prices, it is evident that isolated offshore wind/gas power systems is a promising early market for a stepwise development of offshore wind power. A shared HVAC or HVDC connection to shore is an alternative for grid connection of medium-sized offshore wind farms. This is favorable particularly due to reduced cable costs but also due to the potential for matching the capacity of medium-sized wind farms to the electricity demand at petroleum installations. Large-scale offshore wind and electrification of the northern North Sea have been evaluated in connection with options for HVDC-cables to Europe. Different connection alternatives are discussed and simplified calculations have been conducted to illustrate the economic impact of cable distances and electricity price differences. Estimations of possible wind power production patterns based on time-series for wind speeds in the North Sea show that there will be low co-variation between a future wind park at Stadt (in the northern North Sea) and at Doggerbank (in the southern North Sea). Results from power marked simulations using the EMPS-model shows that 4.5 TWh wind power and 2.l TWh

  5. El Salvador - Rural Electrification

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation seeks to determine the impact of electrification on the cost of energy, energy consumption, time allocation, and household income. Because the...

  6. Navajo Electrification Demonstraiton Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Ahasteen, Project Manager

    2006-07-17

    This is a final technical report required by DOE for the Navajo Electrification Demonstration Program, This report covers the electric line extension project for Navajo families that currently without electric power.

  7. Comparative Analysis of On- and Off-Grid Electrification: The Case of Two South Korean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s main industry is the manufacturing industry, and it requires stable energy. Korea heavily relies on importing oils to produce energy, thus efficient energy management is critical. This is why many renewable and smart energy policies and infrastructure planning are being set up currently. Supplying reliable and sustainable renewable energy to remote areas has especially been questioned; therefore, adopting sustainable and clean energy based on renewable resources cannot be delayed any more. This research examines the most economically, technologically and environmentally suitable energy grid of two South Korean Islands. Several hybrid energy system configurations that analyze and identify the optimal grid-connected and grid-independent hybrid power generation systems are simulated in this study. According to the results of the study, the optimal regionally detached power generation system was the wind-PV-battery-converter hybrid system. At the end of this paper, implications and limitations are discussed.

  8. Utility led rural electrification in Morocco: combining grid extension, mini-grids, and solar home systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dafrallah, Touria

    2016-01-01

    of the evolution of rural electrification in Morocco, the policies and programs that have been implemented, and their institutional, technical, and financial dimensions. The review reveals that information available about the success of the programme has almost entirely been provided by the utility ONE, which has......Morocco has become known for being an example of a well-performing utility-led rural electrification program, but so far little independent research has scrutinized this extraordinary case. Based on a critical review of the available literature, this study attempts to draw a picture...

  9. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  10. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  11. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  12. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  13. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  14. Clustering Algorithm As A Planning Support Tool For Rural Electrification Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pornillosa Parreno Jr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study clustering algorithm was developed to optimize electrification plans by screening and grouping potential customers to be supplied with electricity. The algorithm provided adifferent approach in clustering problem which combines conceptual and distance-based clustering algorithmsto analyze potential clusters using spanning tree with the shortest possible edge weight and creating final cluster trees based on the test of inconsistency for the edges. The clustering criteria consists of commonly used distance measure with the addition of household information as basis for the ability to pay ATP value. The combination of these two parameters resulted to a more significant and realistic clusters since distance measure alone could not take the effect of the household characteristics in screening the most sensible groupings of households. In addition the implications of varying geographical features were incorporated in the algorithm by using routing index across the locations of the households. This new approach of connecting the households in an area was applied in an actual case study of one village or barangay that was not yet energized. The results of clustering algorithm generated cluster trees which could becomethetheoretical basis for power utilities to plan the initial network arrangement of electrification. Scenario analysis conducted on the two strategies of clustering the households provideddifferent alternatives for the optimization of the cost of electrification. Futhermorethe benefits associated with the two strategies formulated from the two scenarios was evaluated using benefit cost ratio BC to determine which is more economically advantageous. The results of the study showed that clustering algorithm proved to be effective in solving electrification optimization problem and serves its purpose as a planning support tool which can facilitate electrification in rural areas and achieve cost-effectiveness.

  15. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  16. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  17. Establishment of a Kind of Three-dimensional Thunderstorm Cloud Electrification-Discharge Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the establishment of a kind of three-dimensional thunderstorm cloud electrification-discharge mode.[Method] Based on a kind of three-dimensional strong convective cloud mode,several parameterization schemes of electrification-discharge mechanism which were mature and had experimental basis were coupled into the strong convective cloud mode.The three-dimensional strong convective mode could simulate electrification-discharge process,and the three-dimensional thundersto...

  18. On the Electrification of Pyrocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Lindsey, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    The electrification (or lack thereof) of pyrocumulus clouds is examined for several different wildfires that occurred during 2012-2013. For example, pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all occurred during summer 2012) electrified and produced small intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew to high altitudes (over 10 km above mean sea level, or MSL). This occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave infrared channel on a geostationary satellite, as well as by incident reports. In the Hewlett Gulch case, the fire growth led to increased updrafts within the plume, as inferred by multiple-Doppler radar syntheses, which led to the vertical development and subsequent electrification - a life cycle as short as 30 minutes. The lightning, detected by a three-dimensional lightning mapping network, was favored in high-altitude regions (10 km MSL) containing modest reflectivities (25 dBZ and lower), 0 dB differential reflectivity, and reduced correlation coefficient (0.6-0.7). This indicated the likely presence of ice particles (crystals and aggregates, possibly rimed) mixed with ash. Though neither multiple-Doppler nor polarimetric observations were available during the electrification of the High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes, their NEXRAD observations showed reflectivity structures consistent with Hewlett Gulch. In addition, polarimetric and multiple-Doppler scanning of unelectrified High Park plumes indicated only irregularly shaped ash, and not ice, was present (i.e., reflectivities 5 dB, correlation < 0.4), and there was no broaching of the 10 km altitude. Based on these results, the electrification likely was caused by ice-based processes that did not involve significant amounts of graupel. Results for pyrocumulus clouds above notable 2013 wildfires that also experienced rapid growth (e.g., Black Forest, Yarnell Hill, West Fork, Tres Lagunas, etc.) will be compared

  19. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diego; Nakata, Toshihiko [Department of Management Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility. (author)

  20. Architectures des Réseaux de Distribution pour l'Electrification rurale des Pays en Développement

    OpenAIRE

    Thirault, Damien

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally...

  1. Connective power: Solar electrification and social change in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Arne Edward

    Household solar photovoltaic systems have emerged as a key alternative to grid-based rural electrification in many developing countries. This may seem a victory for appropriate technology advocates, but my research indicates that the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya, which is among the largest developing country solar markets per capita, is far removed from the classic "small is beautiful" neo-populist vision of building small-scale alternatives to global capitalism. Instead, solar electrification is more closely connected to neo-liberal goals of market-based service provision and economic integration. In this study I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including surveys, intra-household energy allocation studies, and historical analysis, to analyze the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya. I find that "connective" applications, including television, radio, and cellphones, are centrally important. Television is especially notable; the expansion of TV broadcasting to rural areas was a key condition for solar market development. Solar electricity is also used for lighting. In Kenya, income and work related uses of solar lighting are modest, while education uses are more significant. However, in many households, especially those with small systems, intra-household dynamics constrain key social uses (e.g. children's studying), as the energy is allocated to other uses. Social use patterns combine with access dynamics in Kenya's unsubsidized market to shape the social significance of solar electrification. Solar ownership is dominated by the rural upper and middle classes. Thus, productivity and education uses make small contributions to differentiation and middle class formation. Additionally, solar electrification's role in supporting rural television and radio use improves business advertisers' ability to expand consumer goods markets. These findings link solar electrification to important processes of rural development

  2. Electrification pathways for Kenya–linking spatial electrification analysis and medium to long term energy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Nandi; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark

    2017-09-01

    In September 2015 UN announced 17 Sustainable Development goals (SDG) from which goal number 7 envisions universal access to modern energy services for all by 2030. In Kenya only about 46% of the population currently has access to electricity. This paper analyses hypothetical scenarios, and selected implications, investigating pathways that would allow the country to reach its electrification targets by 2030. Two modelling tools were used for the purposes of this study, namely OnSSET and OSeMOSYS. The tools were soft-linked in order to capture both the spatial and temporal dynamics of their nature. Two electricity demand scenarios were developed representing low and high end user consumption goals respectively. Indicatively, results show that geothermal, coal, hydro and natural gas would consist the optimal energy mix for the centralized national grid. However, in the case of the low demand scenario a high penetration of stand-alone systems is evident in the country, reaching out to approximately 47% of the electrified population. Increasing end user consumption leads to a shift in the optimal technology mix, with higher penetration of mini-grid technologies and grid extension.

  3. Toward universal electrification in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    In 1989, the government of Ghana set in motion an electrification plan that aims to provide universal access to electricity within a 30-year period, from 1990 to 2020. About 25 years down the line, Ghana seems to be inching closer toward universal electrification. However, a number of challenges...... sector in Ghana, negatively impacting all sectors of the economy and leading to economic losses. The low generation capacity is partly due to poor fuel supply to existing thermal power plants, meaning that installed capacity is often not available for use. This is coupled with low investment...... in transmission and distribution systems’ infrastructure. Going forward, the government of Ghana would have to explore alternative ways of obtaining fuel, such as regasification, to solve the chronic issue of poor fuel supply for electricity generation. Distributed generation systems, using community mini...

  4. Modeling and experimental study of the mechanism of electrification from aero-engine jet%航空发动机喷流起电机理建模与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利; 刘尚合; 郑会志; 魏明; 胡小锋; 索罗金·安德烈

    2013-01-01

    以研究航空发动机喷流起电的机理以及喷流起电对飞行器整体带电特性的影响为目的,对起电机理进行了建模和实验验证。首先以流体运动方程为基础,建立了航空发动机带电粒子浓度的动态仿真模型,仿真得到发动机燃烧过程中的各类粒子浓度变化情况。其次,设计了用于发动机喷流起电探测的静电感应传感器,对装配涡扇发动机的某型飞行器进行了地面试验测试,得到了发动机启动、稳定运行、加速、减速、停止等状态的动态电位。仿真及实验结果详细地描述了发动机喷流起电的机理,以及喷流起电会使飞行器带负电的结论,为进一步分析飞行器飞行过程中整体带电特性提供了指导。%To investigate the mechanism of electrification from aero-engine jet and the electrification effect on the overall charging charac-teristics of vehicle, a simulation model of concentration of charged particles in aero-engine is build based on the equations of fluid motion. And concentration changes of various particles are simulated. To verify the simulation result, a special electrostatic induction sensor for detecting the electrification of engine jet is designed, according to the principle of the Faraday cup, to measure the dynamic potential when the turbofan engine starts, operates steadily, accelerates, decelerates and stops. The simulation and experimental re-sults show that the aircraft is negatively charged by the electrification from aero-engine jet and the mechanism of electrification from aero-engine jet is described specifically. The research may provide a guidance to the further study on analyzing the overall charging characteristics of vehicle during the flight.

  5. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  6. Does Electrification Spur the Fertility Transition? Evidence From Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); L. Tasciotti (Luca)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze various pathways through which access to electricity affects fertility in Indonesia, using a district difference-in-difference approach. The electrification rate increased by 65 % over the study period, and our results suggest that the subsequent effects on fertility account

  7. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon. Achievements and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Brinellvaegen 68, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-10-15

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. (author)

  8. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Maria F., E-mail: maria.gomez@energy.kth.se; Silveira, Semida

    2010-10-15

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  9. Delivery Mechanisms for Rural Electrification. A report from a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Arvidson, Anders; Katyega, Maneno (eds.)

    2004-04-01

    The workshop was attended by 28 participants from Kenya, Mozambique South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe, representing energy service providers (private, public and cooperative), consumer groups, public energy authorities, researchers, consultants, NGOs and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. The topic of the workshop was how different types of electricity delivery mechanisms - i.e. the combination of an energy supply technology and the organisation managing it - can support rural development. Which energy services have high priority for rural development? What are the appropriate delivery mechanisms? How can the expansion of different delivery mechanisms be supported and made to work efficiently? These are some of the key questions that were discussed in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop were to share experiences and develop a better understanding of existing and potential energy delivery mechanisms that contribute to development in rural areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. The workshop was targeted at, amongst others, the authorities which are in the process of being formed, or have recently been formed, to take charge of rural electrification such as the Rural Electrification Agencies and Rural Electrification Funds. Four case studies were presented and discussed to provide an introduction to the topic, and concrete examples of different delivery mechanisms were given to inspire the workshop discussions. Focus group discussions were used to explore the participants perceptions and experience of: (i) what rural development is, (ii) what role energy plays in rural development, (iii) which energy services are important for rural development, (iv) which delivery mechanisms are used and appropriate for different situations of energy service delivery in rural areas, and (v) what the institutional framework requirements are for delivering different types of energy services and supporting different types of

  10. Rural electrification strategies for distributed generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale Distributed Generation (DG), which run off diesel generators, could provide electricity to rural communities without an electricity grid. Rural Electrification compares around 20 DG enterprises and projects in Brazil, Cambodia and China, and each is a possible model for distributed rural electrification.

  11. Photovoltaic energy for rural decentralized electrification; L`energie photovoltaique pour l`electrification rurale decentralisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diet, A.; Schmitt, A.; Soler, R. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Dept. Postes et Lignes; Marboeuf, G. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France). Service International Distribution; Klein, B.; Pages, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction International

    1999-04-01

    What is at stake for the new coming century is to supply electricity and modernity to two billion of people in the rural areas of developing countries. To reach this goal it is necessary to organize the electrification of these countries. It means building electrification master plans and creating decentralized Services Companies. It is also necessary to ensure the quality of electrification systems using renewable energies. It is what the DRE Specifications written by EDF, ADEME and the French photovoltaic industry, are designed for. If these conditions are fulfilled, renewable energies seem to have a promising future in rural decentralized electrification. (authors)

  12. Mini-grids for rural electrification of developing countries analysis and case studies from South Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C

    2014-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that billions of people in the developing world do not have access to clean energies, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative to achieve universal energy access by 2030. Although electricity grid extension remains the most prevalent way of providing access, it is now recognized that the central grid is unlikely to reach many remote areas in the near future. At the same time, individual solutions like solar home systems tend to provide very limited services to consumers. Mini-grids offer an alternative by combining the benefits of a grid-

  13. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  14. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  15. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  16. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  17. Electrification ratio and renewable energy in Papua Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innah, Herbert; Kariongan, Jackobus; Liga, Marthen

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in the beginning of year 2016, introduced a program named "Indonesia Terang" or Bright Indonesia. The aimed of this program is to speed up Electrification Rate (ER) with priority to the six provinces at Eastern area of Indonesia including Papua Province. The target of Indonesian's ER by 2019 is 97%. While the Indonesian's national ER already high (88.30%) in 2015, Papua still the lowest ER (45.93%) among the provinces. The scenario to boost up ER in the Eastern area by connected the consumers at villages which not electrified yet to the new Renewable Energy sources. This paper presents an overview of current situation of Electricity Infrastructure and Operation particularly on the mountain area which has high populated compare to coastal area but the average RE below 10%. Case studies of electricity infrastructure profile from mountain area were conducted to identify and reveal the challenge to achieve the Bright Indonesia objectives. Also, the assessment of the visibility according to the high target from this program will be presented.

  18. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  19. The implications of the marketing promotional compound in a cooperative of the rural electrification: the case of CERTAJA-RS; As implicacoes do composto promocional de marketing numa cooperativa de eletrificacao rural: o caso da CERTAJA-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Padilha, Ana Claudia Machado; Silva, Tania Nunes da; Mattos, Paloma [UniversidadeFederal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios

    2006-07-01

    The present study it consisted of analyzing the made up of marketing of the cooperative of agricultural electrification - CERTAJA, aiming at to identify which is the current actions developed and implemented for the cooperative. For this, it was used as analysis object the tools of the made up of marketing, the 4 P's (product, price, point of distribution and promotion), that it was identified by means of questionnaires saw e-mail to the manager of the department of energy, to the vice president, to the responsible one for the financial department and to the assessorship of the press that has fort linking with the department of marketing. As main results it is cited consolidation of communication channels that offer possibility to the social picture to participate of the decisions of the cooperative, as well as having information for way written and said decisions to them of management and administration. The supply of electric energy has as focus the satisfaction of the cooperated ones that they are partner-proprietors of the cooperative, being excellent to offer to these and excessively consuming a product or service that takes care of to its expectations. (author)

  20. Flow Induced Electrification of Liquid Insulated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Andrew Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The transport or motion of semi-insulating liquids has led to flow induced static electrification and catastrophic failures in several industries. While techniques for reducing the hazard have been developed, the roles of seemingly important parameters are poorly understood. The objective of this thesis was to measure and understand the fundamental parameters of the flow electrification process that, together with the laws of electroquasistatics and physicochemical hydrodynamics, can be used to predict the performance of complex flow systems, with particular attention to transformer applications. A rotating cylindrical electrode apparatus, which provided cylindrical Couette flow, was used to simulate flow electrification in an electric power transformer. The apparatus had Shell Diala A transformer oil filling the annulus between coaxial cylindrical stainless steel electrodes that were either bare metal, or covered by a thin copper sheet and/or EHV-Weidmann HiVal pressboard insulation. Extensive experiments characterized the time transient and steady state behavior of the electrification through measurements of the volume charge density, the terminal voltage, and the terminal current as the system was driven out of equilibrium by changes in the flow rate (inner cylinder rotation rates of 100-1400 rpm, Reynolds numbers of 5 times 10^3-5 times 10^5), temperature (15-70 ^circ), insulation moisture content (0.5-20 ppm in the oil), applied voltage (0-2 kV DC), and concentration of the non-ionizable anti-static additive 1,2,3 benzotriazole (BTA, 0-60 ppm). Generally, the electrification increased with flow rate and temperature but the BTA appeared to cause competing effects: it decreased the volume charge density on the liquid side of the interface (by a factor of 4), which reduces the electrification, but also decreased the oil conductivity (by a factor of 10), which enhances the electrification. A critical oil BTA concentration of 5 -8 ppm minimized the electrification

  1. Incubating Innovation for Rural Electrification. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In June, the team held a workshop on ''Low Carbon Sustainable Rural Electrification'' in Salima, Malawi. Co-organized with the Government of Malawi's Department of Energy, this event gathered participants from the energy, telecom, non-profit, banking sectors as well as from governmental and international agencies to discuss the potential development of private led off-grid electrification in Malawi where only 9% of the population has currently access to electricity. A very active participation provided us with insightful feedback and valuable recommendations.

  2. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -GRID SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY WIND POWER AFRICA 2010 S Szewczuk CSIR May 2010 PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Rationale for Projects • Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in E Cape • Integrated Energy/Economic Framework • Hybrid mini-grid energy systems... • Impact of research work RATIONALE FOR OFF-GRID PROJECTS • Poverty Reduction: • Sustainable economic and social benefits • Meeting of Millennium Development Goals • Appropriate technology choice: • 500 million African people without access to modern...

  3. The Strategic Changes in a Cooperative of Agricultural Electrification: a look from the strategies formation schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oneide Sausen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is resulted of a research that objective the understanding of the process of change and strategic adaptation of an organization of the cooperative branch, specifically of agricultural electrification, observing the context and the content of the process of change throughout the description of life of this organization. Been born under égide of the entrepreneurship it had in this perspective its main strategy of growth. In terms of used methodology, one is about a case study, with characteristics the historical, longitudinal and contextualist boarding. The study, interpreted to the light of the estimated ones of the schools of formation of strategies, it shows the influences of an enterprising management in the 17 growth of the cooperative, the impacts of the conjunctural and politic factors in the changing process of the organization, as well as the presence of the governmental instances in the decisions and action of the cooperative.

  4. Does Electrification Spur the Fertility Transition? Evidence From Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Sparrow, Robert; Tasciotti, Luca

    2015-10-01

    We analyze various pathways through which access to electricity affects fertility in Indonesia, using a district difference-in-difference approach. The electrification rate increased by 65 % over the study period, and our results suggest that the subsequent effects on fertility account for about 18 % to 24 % of the overall decline in fertility. A key channel is increased exposure to television. Using in addition several waves of Demographic and Health Surveys, we find suggestive evidence that increased exposure to TV affects, in particular, fertility preferences and increases the effective use of contraception. Reduced child mortality seems to be another important pathway.

  5. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  6. An Optical Fiber Sensor for Electrification Measurement in Power Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Static electrification and partial discharges caused by oil flow in power transformers lead to many accidents. In this paper, an optical fiber sensor which can be directly mounted inside high-voltage electric devices for electrification measurement in power transformers is introduced. Unlike the existing normal electrification measurement methods which only be used in static oil, the new one takes optical fiber as its probe and measures the electrification in flowing oil by detecting luminous flux, and is available for on-line monitoring.

  7. Diesel power leads Yemen electrification plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarino, C.

    1980-10-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic ended a period of political isolation and is now pushing for social and economic development. A seven-year program announced in 1978 aims to establish and extend rural and urban electrification. A key element in this plan is the construction pf a series of diesel power stations to provide base load until larger steam plants are available in the mid-1980s.

  8. Contact electrification in aerosolized monodispersed silica microspheres quantified using laser based velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alois, Stefano; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Iversen, Jens Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The contact electrification of aerosolized micro particles has been studied using a novel technique involving laser velocimetry. This has allowed the simultaneous determination of size and electrical charge of individual silica microspheres (in the range 1 – 8 µm). Interestingly the particles...

  9. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel, E-mail: aly21@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Gormally, Alexandra [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Cruickshank, Heather [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: > Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. > The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. > A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. > External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  10. Lighting up the World The first global application of the open source, spatial electrification toolkit (ONSSET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Siyal, Shahid; Broad, Oliver; Zepeda, Eduardo; Bazilian, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    In September 2015, the international community has adopted a new set of targets, following and expanding on the millennium development goals (MDGs), the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all is one of the 17 set goals that each country should work towards realizing. According to the latest Global Tracking Framework, 15% of the global population live without access to electricity. The majority of those (87%) reside in rural areas. Countries can reach universal access through various electrification options, depending on different levels of energy intensity and local characteristics of the studied areas, such as renewable resources availability, spatially differentiated costs of diesel-fuelled electricity generation, distance from power network and major cities, population density and others, data which are usually inadequate in national databases. This general paucity of reliable energy-related information in developing countries calls for the utilization of geospatial data. This paper presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based electrification analysis for all countries that have not yet reached full access to electricity (Sub-Saharan Africa, Developing Asia, Latin America and Middle East). The cost optimal mix of electrification options ranges from grid extensions to mini-grid and stand-alone applications and is identified for all relevant countries. It is illustrated how this mix is influenced by scrolling through various electrification levels and different oil prices. Such an analysis helps direct donors and investors and inform multinational actions with regards to investments related to energy access.

  11. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the associ

  12. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  13. Rural Electrification in China: History and Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuyuan Peng; Jiahua Pan

    2006-01-01

    China has been highly successful in electrifying rural areas in the past half century.Institutional structure and its reform are important for investment and, therefore,development of rural electrification. Over time, there have been three major institutional changes initiated by the central government; When the People's Republic was founded in 1949, it was short of capital, technology and management professionals to promote rural electrification, so rural electricity had a separate administrative system from the urban areas. From 1949 to 1977, China established a comprehensive vertical system of rural electricity administration under strict central planning. At the end of the 1970s, with the adoption of economic reform policy, the central government handed over the management of the local electricity system to local government. County levelhas proved the most effective implementation unit for both planning and project implementation of the rural electricity system. From 1998 to 2002, the central government has been separating local electricity supply from local governments to facilitate the commercial operation of the utility market.After 2002, the rural electricity system was merged with the urban system, forming an integrated national electricity administrative system in China.

  14. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day...

  15. Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; Allen, David T.

    2011-04-01

    The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

  16. The power of light: socio-economic and environmental implications of a rural electrification program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges da Silveira Bezerra, Paula; Ludovique Callegari, Camila; Ribas, Aline; Lucena, André F. P.; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Koberle, Alexandre; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Universal access to electricity is deemed critical for improving living standards and indispensable for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development. In 2003, the ‘Luz para Todos’ (LpT—Light for All) program was launched aiming to universalize access to electricity in Brazil. The program focused on rural and isolated areas, also targeting to bring development to those regions along with electrification. This paper evaluates the results of the LpT program in improving socio-economic development in the poorest regions of Brazil. After an initial qualitative analysis, an empirical quantitative assessment of the influence of increased electrification rates on the components of the Human Development Index (HDI) is performed. The empirical results of this study showed that electrification had a positive influence on all dimensions of the HDI, with the education component having the strongest effect. Although complementary policies were needed to achieve this, results show that electricity access is a major requirement to improve quality of life.

  17. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  18. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  19. NRECA`s electrification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper looks at the role of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) with regard to applying renewable energy in a village setting. This group has historically been active with state utilities to promote extension of the grid system, and until recently has no historical involvement with renewable resources. They have realized that most future clients will not be served by extending the grid, because of the costs involved, and that renewables play a part of the solution to this problem. NRECA has sought to provide project management and management consultant services, emphasizing training, management efficiency, cost of services studies, and assistance in dealing with regulations. They specialize in forming, training, and supporting user-owned electric service companies, and rely on other partners for technological services and support.

  20. Study on Safety Management and Control of Engineering Construction in the Transformation of Railway Electrification%铁路电气化改造中工程施工安全管控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2016-01-01

    Railway electrification transformation by the environment,personnel and other factors,the construction of a higher safety risk.Starting from the characteristics of railway electrification reconstruction,this paper analyzes the nature of construction risk and the possible risk factors,and sets up the specific measures to improve the safety management and control.This research helps to reduce the probability of occurrence of accidents during construction,contribute to the electrification of the railway work smoothly.%铁路电气化改造受环境、人员等众多因素影响,施工的安全风险较高。文章从铁路电气化改造施工特点出发,分析了施工风险的性质以及可能出现的危险因子,并制定了提升安全管控的针对性措施。文章的研究有助于降低施工过程的意外事故发生概率,有助于铁路电气化改造工作的顺利推进。

  1. Barefoot in Afghanistan: solar electrification of villages in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Bunker [Barefoot Coll., Rajasthan (India); Synnevag, Gry [Norwegian Church Aid (Norway)

    2006-05-15

    In the mountains of Afghanistan, villagers must walk long distances and pay high prices to buy fuel to survive. The authors report on an innovative solar electrification scheme that has enabled villagers to be self-reliant installers. (Author)

  2. Regulation about universal electrification; A regulamentacao da universalizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya; Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], e-mail: sergio.fugimoto@edpbr.com.br, e-mail: marcpel@pea.usp.br, e-mail: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper argues the regulation about universal electrification. It presents preliminary estimates of domiciles do not have access to electricity service, resources destined to promote the extension of electric power services, Law 10,438/200 - legal landmark of universal electrification - and regulation established by ANEEL. It argues about financial participation of the consumer, since the Decree 41,019/57 until recent alterations in 2002 and 2003. (author)

  3. Completion of electrification between Aachen West and Montzen; Durchgehende Elektrifizierung Aachen West-Montzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzen, A. [DB Netz AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Internationale Infrastrukturangelegenheiten

    2007-05-15

    The railway line between Aachen West and Montzen (and from there on to Antwerp) is one of the most important long-distance freight lines in Europe and today carries all the rail freight moved directly between Germany and Belgium. Despite that, a part of it has still not been electrified. The line was built during the First World War, when the territory was under German occupation. The two railway infrastructure managers concerned, Infrabel (Belgium) and DB Netz (Germany), are working on plans to plug this gap in the electrification of the European freight network ready for the timetable change in December 2008. This article, penned by a specialist, describes the vicissitudes of the line's history as well as the studies and project planning for its electrification. (orig.)

  4. Annihilating time and space: The electrification of the United States Army, 1875--1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon Allen

    2000-10-01

    The United States Army embraced electrical technology in the 1870s as part of a wider initiative to meet the challenge of the coastal defense mission. As commercial power storage, generation, and transmission technology improved and the army came to recognize the value of the energy source as a means and method of improving command and control, localized electrical networks were integrated into the active service of the military. New vulnerabilities emerged as the army became ever more reliant upon electric power, however, and electrification---the institutional adoption and adaptation of electrical technologies---emerged as a very expensive and contentious process guided by technical, political, and economic pressures, and influenced by conflicting personalities within the service. This study considers the institutional evolution of the U.S. Army before and during World War I with respect to the adoption and application of electrical technology. The changing relationships between the military and electrical manufacturing and utilities industries during the period 1875--1920 are also explored. Using a combination of military archival sources and published primary materials, this study traces the effects of electrification on the army. In the end, this study proves that electrification was, at first, a symptom of, and later, a partial solution to the army's struggle to modernize and centralize during the period under consideration. Electrification produced a set of conditions that encouraged a new maturity within the ranks of the army, in technical, doctrinal, and administrative terms. This growth eventually led to the development of new capabilities, new forms of military organization, new missions, and new approaches to warfare.

  5. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  6. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M. [Damascus Univ. (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  7. Micro hydro power for rural electrification in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafiye, G.D. [Papua New Guinea Univ. of Technology (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    About 85 percent of the population of Papua New Guinea live in remote rural areas. The country has, however, the potential for renewable energy resources such as solar, biomass and hydro power. Due to the ruggedness of the country, the majority of the communities have no access to grid electricity to meet their energy requirements. There is a need to have a reliable electricity supply to these areas. This can be met by the use of micro hydro power and solar systems. Micro hydro has been investigated for many of the stations. Solar will be investigated in the case where micro hydro is not possible. Government policy on rural electrification, and the introduction of micro hydro power is discussed. A number of recommendations are made as to the assistance which could be provided to communities so that they can take advantage of the technology. Those organizations which have expertise in micro hydro power should be encouraged to set up offices in Papua New Guinea and undertake activities such as training, construction and local manufacture. (author). 5 refs.

  8. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  9. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  10. Rural electrification: elements for debates; Eletrificacao rural: elementos para o debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Educacao. Grupo de Estudos em Educacao, Cultura e Meio Ambiente). E-mail: marcos_v_m_silva@yahoo.com; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses the benefits of the rural electrification and recommends the inclusion of the social and environmental aspects in the decision making, as directives for the implantation of rural electrification and the energetic planning. It aims a more equitable distribution of the rural electrification benefits among the country regions and the definition of the energetic systems in an economical and environmental rational manner.

  11. Initial electrification to the first lightning flash in New Mexico thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas C.; Krehbiel, Paul R.

    2015-11-01

    The initial electrification of three New Mexico thunderstorms is examined using in situ and remote measurements. The earliest deflection of electric field (E) measured at the surface was 5-8.6 min before the first flash and coincident with the development of substantial radar reflectivity (40 dBZ) above -5°C. Rapid growth of surface E (>5 V/m/s) started 2.4-3.1 min before the first flash, when 40 dBZ reflectivities reached above the -15°C level. In two cases with clear surface E records, radar reflectivity indicators (40 dBZ echo through -10°C and echo top through -15°C) would yield longer warning times before the first flash than the E record. The first flash in each storm initiated at altitudes between 7.4 and 8.8 km; hence, the temperatures where the largest (negative) E for normal intracloud lightning initiation had developed during the initial electrification were -10°C to -20°C. Negative and positive charge regions associated with the first flash in each cell were centered at -8°C to -16°C (6.9-8.0 km) and -20°C to -24°C (9.0-9.2 km), respectively. In two cases, balloon data indicate the only substantial charge regions present before the first flash were those involved in the flash. Another case shows an initial period of opposite polarity E deflection at the surface coincident with substantial low-level positive charge within the cloud, although this charge was not involved in the first 8 min (first 17 flashes) of lightning activity. The findings support the notion that the initial electrification resulted from charging via the noninductive ice-ice collisional mechanism.

  12. The Electrification of Tramways in Ostrava in 1900–1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Závodná

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the electrification of tramways in Ostrava in 1900-1901. As the administrative, economic and cultural centre of an evolving industrial agglomeration, Ostrava had specific transportation requirements. Tram electrification was in response to these requirements. Two private companies, Brünner Lokaleisenbahngesellschaft and Ganz & Comp., (Mährisch-Ostrauer Elektrizitäts-Aktien-Gesellschaft negotiated an agreement. The first part of this paper deals with technical aspects of electrification the change-over from steam power to electric power, while the second section analysesthe dealings between these private companies, subsequent municipalization and the involvement of the municipal self-government of Moravská Ostrava.

  13. Integration and Optimization of Renewables and Storages for Rural Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brenna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electricity access in Sub-Saharan African countries is below 10%; thus, introducing a microgrid for rural electrification can overcome the endemic lack of modern electricity access that hampers the provision of basic services such as education, healthcare, safety, economic and social growth for rural communities. This work studies different possible comparison methods considering variations such as land area required, location for the storage, efficiency, availability and reliability of energy resources, and technology cost variability (investment cost and levelized cost of electricity, which are among the major key parameters used to assess the best possible utilization of renewables and storage system, either using them in the form of integrated, hybrid or independent systems. The study is carried out largely with the help of the Micropower optimization modeling simulator called HOMER for Ethiopia. As a result, the study proposes the use of Photovoltaic (PV–Wind–Hydro–Battery hybrid system model that concludes the optimal configuration of power systems at affordable price for underserved rural communities.

  14. Trends in standardisation for railway electrification; Trends in der Normung fuer Bahnelektrifizierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Egid; Schwarz, Michael [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Rail Electrification

    2012-06-15

    Since the foundation of the common European market the standardisation for railway electrification has been transferred from national bodies of DKE to CEN and CENELEC in Europe and more and more to international standardisation at IEC. The European standards are also mandatory for Germany. They comprise requirements for safety, electromagnetic compatibility, environmental conditions for contact lines and switchgear, and the interfaces to the public power supply grids. In case of new working items at IEC level the collaboration of German experts is required because these standards will finally be valid as national standards. This paper summarises a report presented to the VDV-Conference 2012 in Dresden. (orig.)

  15. The electrification of Yemen. Die Elektrifizierung der Republik Jemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rofalski, K.H. (Lahmeyer International, Ingenieurunternehmen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abt. Netzsystemtechnik); Schlabbach, J. (Fachhochschule Bielefeld (Germany). Elektrische Energieerzeugung und -verteilung)

    1993-04-05

    In the years of 1984-1986, electrification of the Republic of Yemen was noticeably pushed forward due to the realisation of the national 132-kV-network in the northern parts of the country, the former Arabic Republic of Yemen with its capital Sana'a. The continuing of the electrification of Yemen will play a decisive role in the country's economical development. Facing the present economical problems, the country is even less able than it was formerly to finance this development on its own. The authors describe the economical side conditions in Yemen and the special requirements due to the differing climatic and geographical conditions. (orig.)

  16. Rural electrification and energy poverty: Empirical evidences from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos; da Silva, Neilton Fidelis [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); International Virtual Institute of Global Change- IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables, to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries. (author)

  17. A new systems paradigm for the rural electrification program, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas, Fernando; Santiago, Andrea

    2010-09-15

    The Philippines has pushed rural electrification for two decades. Recently, the government achieved 100% electrification at the village level. Despite the significant recent economic growth, poverty has increased in some areas. These are usually agricultural and have many un-electrified areas. The multilaterals have launched programs that couple electricity with livelihood projects. The authors argue this is insufficient to guarantee sustainability. A systems view of rural poverty suggests that several components must be designed to work together. In addition to the electricity and livelihood, skills, attitudes, management and markets must be incorporated to make a lasting impact on poverty.

  18. Anglo-American economic diplomacy during the second world war and the electrification of the Central Brazilian Railway

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War British and American companies competed to gain the contract for the electrification of the central Brazilian railway. The British Foreign Office used this case to establish a broader principle with the US government that the conditions brought about by war would not be used by one country to gain commercial advantage at the expense of the other. While the US government supported this principle in theory, this article argues that they failed to adhere to it in ...

  19. Hydrail : an adaptable, low-cost alternative to electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.I. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Hydrogen railways are less expensive to operate than electric railways, and may play an important role in reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper argued that dividing the output of nuclear power plants between electricity and hydrogen will provide Canada with a major source of emission-free transport energy. The advantages of hydrogen rail as a major mode of transport were also discussed and compared with other modes of transport. A number of prototype hydrogen railways are now being developed internationally. In rail applications, fuel cells are between 35 to 60 per cent more efficient than diesel. Although several fuels have been considered as feedstock for hydrogen production, nuclear power offers the only large-scale new source of emission-free energy. The cost of building a high speed hydrogen rail corridor between Windsor and Quebec City was discussed and compared with other rail options such as electrification. A cost benefit study comparing a diesel-run and a hydrogen railway demonstrated that while diesel showed a narrow cost advantage, the costs of the required electrolysis plants and nuclear reactors are dominated by high capital costs only. It was concluded that the cost of producing hydrogen from nuclear-generated electricity will be consistently low. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Automated Identification of Initial Storm Electrification and End-of-Storm Electrification Using Electric Field Mill Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Launa M.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations are located in a region which experiences one of the highest lightning densities across the United States. As a result, on average, KSC loses almost 30 minutes of operational availability each day for lightning sensitive activities. KSC is investigating using existing instrumentation and automated algorithms to improve the timeliness and accuracy of lightning warnings. Additionally, the automation routines will be warning on a grid to minimize under-warnings associated with not being located in the center of the warning area and over-warnings associated with encompassing too large an area. This study discusses utilization of electric field mill data to provide improved warning times. Specifically, this paper will demonstrate improved performance of an enveloping algorithm of the electric field mill data as compared with the electric field zero crossing to identify initial storm electrification. End-of-Storm-Oscillation (EOSO) identification algorithms will also be analyzed to identify performance improvement, if any, when compared with 30 minutes after the last lightning flash.

  3. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  4. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  5. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  6. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  7. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  8. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  9. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m(-3) during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  10. Deconstructing the concept of renewable energy-based mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2016-01-01

    consist of the hybridization of existing utility-owned electricity systems for medium-size towns located far from the grid, which does not necessarily contribute to rural electrification. However, limited but increasing activity is identified regarding the use of mini-grids to bring electricity to rural...... between the option of large-scale grid extension and pico-scale stand-alone solutions like solar home systems or solar lanterns. International expectations of mini-grids are high, with the International Energy Agency suggesting that they will play a significant role in reaching the goal of universal...... access. Based on a detailed review of past, ongoing, and planned mini-grids in East Africa, this study seeks to deconstructs the popular notion of mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa. The study reveals that so far activities carried out under the heading of mini-grids to a large extent...

  11. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  12. Electrification and Charge Distribution in Vertically Shaken Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ruben; Nordsiek, Freja; Lathrop, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Granular charging of particle laden flows at large scales is a widespread phenomenon and has long been observed in nature: Volcanic ash clouds, desert sandstorms, dust devils, thunderstorms and snowstorms all undergo electrification at large scale. As a first approach to understand this phenomenon, we confined granular particles to a vertically oscillating cylindrical chamber with top and bottom conducting plates. Long term voltage transients between the plates and a high dependence on the total particle surface area suggested the preponderance of collective effects in the electrification processes. In order to further explore this hypothesis, we reduced the electrode area for the measurement with two 2-cm circular flat probes on the top plate. With this setup we detected differences in the charge distribution among the particles due to a more localized measurement of the voltage. This research was supported by the Julian Schwinger Foundation.

  13. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  14. Electrification of particulates in industrial and natural multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Zhaolin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces comprehensive fundamentals, numerical simulations and experimental methods of electrification of particulates entrained multiphase flows. The electrifications of two particulate forms, liquid droplets and solid particles, are firstly described together. Liquid droplets can be charged under preset or associated electric fields, while solid particles can be charged through contact. Different charging ways in gas (liquid)-liquid or gas-solid multiphase flows are summarized, including ones that are beneficial to industrial processes, such as electrostatic precipitation, electrostatic spraying, and electrostatic separation, etc., ones harmful for shipping and powder industry, and ones occurring in natural phenomenon, such as wind-blown sand and thunderstorm. This book offers theoretical references to the control and utilization of the charging or charged particulates in multiphase flows as well.

  15. Efficient System Design and Sustainable Finance for China's Village Electrification Program: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S.; Yin, H.; Kline, D. M.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes a joint effort of the Institute for Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEE), and the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support China's rural electrification program. This project developed a design tool that provides guidelines both for off-grid renewable energy system designs and for cost-based tariff and finance schemes to support them. This tool was developed to capitalize on lessons learned from the Township Electrification Program that preceded the Village Electrification Program. We describe the methods used to develop the analysis, some indicative results, and the planned use of the tool in the Village Electrification Program.

  16. Electrification of Chinese Railways; Elektrifizierung der Chinesischen Eisenbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmert, G.; Wang, Kuizhong [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Beijing (China). Unit 0512; Jiang, Xianguo [TSDI (The 3rd Railway Survey and Design Inst.), Tianjin (China); Martens, G. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Chinese Railways plan to extend their railway network to 100,000 km by 2020. Electrification is a factor of major importance in this project. Some 2,000 km of railway lines are to be newly electrified with the AC 27.5 kV 50 Hz system while 1,000 km will be reconstructed. New equipment and technology will be used with Germany being involved in this project. (orig.)

  17. Power electronics improving 3-Wire DC railways electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Rull Duran, Joan; Bergas Jané, Joan Gabriel; Galceran Arellano, Samuel; Sumper, Andreas; Coves Moreno, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Urban DC railway substations are growing in size due increasing capacity demand. Several challenges associated with the increase of power demand can be met using power electronics. The proposed system is based on DC-autotransformers and active rectifiers working similarly to those in 3-wire AC railway electrification system. Conventional simulation software (Idom-REPS-DC) has been adapted to the system. A real subway line and the same line with the proposed 3-Wire DC working in the same condi...

  18. Final Report - Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project - FY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth L. Craig, Interim General Manager

    2007-03-31

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year projects which addresses the needs of unserved Navajo Nation residents without basic electricity services. The Navajo Nation is the United States' largest tribe, in terms of population and land. An estimated 18,000 Navajo Nation homes do not have basic grid-tied electricity--and this third year of funding, known as NEDP-3, provided 351 power line extensions to Navajo families.

  19. Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth E-mail: elisabeth.ilskog@af.se; Kjellstroem, B. E-mail: bjorn@kjellstrom.se; Gullberg, Monica E-mail: monica.gullberg@af.se; Katyega, Maneno E-mail: mkatyega@tanesco.co.tz; Chambala, William E-mail: uecco@bushlink.co.tz

    2005-07-01

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

  20. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  1. SELCO: A model for solar rural electrification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, H. Harish

    1999-11-01

    The following thesis presents the concept of a Rural Energy Service Company in India, known as SELCO. The model is being set up as a sustainable proposition for the implementation of solar photovoltaics as a viable alternative to provide reliable home lighting in the rural areas of India. The SELCO approach has already achieved noteworthy social and commercial results. Institutional, policy and operational problems have long plagued the rural electrification programs in India, resulting in thousands of villages without access to electricity. SELCO is a solar energy service company operating in Southern India since 1995, focusing on the enormous untapped market for home lighting where thousands of households have no access to electricity and severe power shortages face those already connected to the electric grid. The Company has installed nearly 2,000 solar home lighting systems. From a modest two employees company in 1995, it has grown to 35 in 1997 and from one office to eight. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that in rural India, in a market not subsidized by the government, a solar service company with available loans from local banks and cooperatives and with sales, installation, and maintenance personnel in the villages can be successful in introducing photovoltaic systems to provide basic amenities such as lighting and water pumping for the improvement of the quality of life, public health, and the environment. The initial success of SELCO lends considerable evidence to the acceptance of the hypothesis. To accomplish its mission, SELCO works with commercial, retail, and rural development banks with large rural branch networks to stimulate loans to SELCO's customers based on a standard set of attractive financing terms. SELCO through its successful model has convinced the policy makers that a way to increase rural families' access to consumer financing for solar home lighting systems is through the existing financial network available in the

  2. Electrification and Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bielen, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Electrification of end-use services in the transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors coupled with decarbonization of electricity generation has been identified as one of the key pathways to achieving a low-carbon future in the United States. By lowering the carbon intensity of the electricity generation and substituting electricity for higher-emissions fossil fuels in end-use sectors, significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved. This report describes a preliminary analysis that examines the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the U.S. energy sector. We develop a set of exploratory scenarios under which electrification is aggressively pursued across all end-use sectors and examine the impacts of achieving these electrification levels on electricity load patterns, total fossil energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the evolution of the U.S. power system.

  3. User-owned utility models for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the history of rural electric cooperatives (REC) in the United States, and the broader question of whether such organizations can serve as a model for rural electrification in other countries. The author points out the features of such cooperatives which have given them stability and strength, and emphasizes that for success of such programs, many of these same features must be present. He definitely feels the cooperative models are not outdated, but they need strong local support, and a governmental structure which is supportive, and in particular not negative.

  4. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  6. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from this, the national case study begins to conceptualise a new approach to ... teacher education environments and a piloting of a 'Train the Trainers' or .... Study) and TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) ..... Objective 7: Publish the materials in an open learning system format and integrate the.

  7. Microgrid Utilities for Rural Electrification in East Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J.

    Expanding access to electricity is central to development in East Africa but massive increases in investment are required to achieve universal access. Private sector participation in electrification is essential to meeting electricity access targets. Policy makers have acknowledged that grid extension in many remote rural areas is not as cost effective as decentralized alternatives such as microgrids. Microgrid companies have been unable to scale beyond pilot projects due in part to challenges in raising capital for a business model that is perceived to be risky. This thesis aims to identify and quantify the primary sources of investment risk in microgrid utilities and study ways to mitigate these risks to make these businesses more viable. Two modeling tools have been developed to this end. The Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM) models the technical and financial performance of microgrid utilities using uncertain and dynamic inputs to permit explicit modeling of financial risk. This model is applied in an investment risk assessment and case study in Rwanda. Key findings suggest that the most important drivers of risk are fuel prices, foreign exchange rates, demand for electricity, and price elasticity of demand for electricity. The relative importance of these factors is technology dependent with demand uncertainty figuring stronger for solar and high solar penetration hybrid systems and fuel prices driving risk in diesel power and low solar penetration hybrid systems. Considering uncertainty in system sizing presents a tradeoff whereby a decrease in expected equity return decreases downside risk. High solar penetration systems are also found to be more attractive to lenders. The second modeling tool leverages electricity consumption and demographic data from four microgrids in Tanzania to forecast demand for electricity in newly electrified communities. Using statistical learning techniques, improvements in prediction performance was achieved over

  8. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society. (author)

  9. Scenario of Rural Electrification in India- Challenges and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the present scenario of rural electrification in India is taken into account. Basically, the electrification in this country is facing a lot of problem and is a growing matter of concern for all. The development in production is not reaching the one who need them. Also taking into picture the present sources of energy it is difficult to make the electricity available to the people belonging to rural areas who don’t have much source of income. To overcome this drawback we can utilise renewable sources of energy which is easily available and accessible. Also harvesting this will not cost much except the initial cost of setting up the device to utilise this type of energy. Many projects have been initiated by the government of India to provide subsidy and equipments like solar lantern and solar cooker etc. to the rural population but this didn’t turn out to be effective as the follow could not be done by the people to maintain the devices. This can be overcome by implementing off-grid projects which can be initiated at small levels so that people don’t have burden to maintain them and it even don’t have any adverse effect to environment or society.

  10. Influence of Oil-paper Conditions on the Static Electrification Phenomena of Transformer Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Bouslimi; K.Taheri; I.Fofana; H.Hemmatjou; C.Volat

    2013-01-01

    This contribution is not only intended to provide a fresh review for researches on static electrification,but also contains a substantial amount of new material with a view of closing some gaps in the present state of knowledge of oil streaming electrification.In this paper,the Electrostatic Charging Tendency (ECT) of fresh (unaged) and aged transformer oils were investigated in a spinning disk system.Static electrification measurement at different aging degrees was carried out under laboratory controlled conditions.Changes in static electrification were compared to some classical aging indexes (conductivity,dissipation factor,water content,resistivity,etc.).Fast,inexpensive and reliable laboratory testing procedures developed by American Society for Testing Materials (D 6802 and D 6181) were also used to monitor decay products as trace impurities.The obtained results show that static electrification currents increase with temperature,fluid motion velocity,surface properties and the aging byproducts of the oil.The polarity,the amplitude and the time constant of the electrification currents are also affected.The results show that static electrification has relationship with thermal aging and is sensitive to turbidimetric and spectrophotometric measurements.

  11. 适于电气化铁路的三相两臂混合有源补偿研究%Study on hybrid active compensation based on three-phase two-leg inverter for electrification railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周末; 王果; 常文寰; 陈苹

    2015-01-01

    为治理电气化铁路中机车负载引起的电能质量问题,讨论了一种能应用于电气化铁路三相有源补偿的新型拓扑电路。该三相两臂混合有源补偿结构的主电路采用三相两臂并联型混合有源补偿器的拓扑结构,其开关元件数量与三相桥式相比减少2个,成本较低。由于逆变器仅有两个开关臂,为此提出一种适用于三相两臂的无功、负序和谐波检测方法及坐标变换矩阵,运算量及存储空间大大减少。通过分析其工作原理、控制原理及策略,建立该三相两臂混合有源补偿器的Simulink仿真模型。仿真分析表明,该三相两臂并联型混合有源补偿器可以有效地抑制电力机车负载对电力系统产生的负序问题,抑制了无功和谐波对电网影响,提高了电网电能质量,并验证了所提出结构和控制方法的正确性。%A novel topology circuit of three-phase active compensation is discussed to be used to manage negative sequence caused by locomotive load in high-speed electrification railway. The main circuit uses a three-phase two-leg compensator as active elements of shunt hybrid active compensator topology. The switch devices’ number of this topology is reduced by two comparing with three-phase full-bridge active inverter, and the cost is lower. A new coordinates alternate method and matrix applied to detecting for reactive power, negative sequence and harmonic is presented due to the two-leg in inverter, calculation and storage are reduced, the computational speed is improved. The simulation model is developed by analyzing working principle, control principle and strategy with Simulink. The simulating results indicate that the shunt hybrid active compensator could restrain the problem of negative sequence generated by locomotive load, reduce the effect of reactive power and negative sequence, and improve electric energy quality. And the correctness of the proposed structure

  12. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia)]|[GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  13. Rural Electrification through Decentralized Concentrating Solar Power: Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Quoilin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of small-scale solar Organic Rankine Cycles for rural electrification in remote areas of Lesotho. It is subdivided in two parts. The first part deals with the success conditions of decentralized rural electrification projects. Through a literature survey, relevant guiding principles and recommendations are formulated. The second part of the paper describes the proposed system, which is designed in agreement with the formulated recommendations. A framework for benchmarking the performance and cost of various micro-utility platforms and rural electrification distribution models is proposed.

  14. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  15. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  16. Cloud electrification and lightning activity in a tropical cyclone-like vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, C.; Hoarau, T.; Bovalo, C.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a high resolution simulation of an electrified tropical cyclone-like vortex was performed with the French mesoscale model Meso-NH coupled to an explicit electrical scheme. The objective was to analyze how graupel characteristics could influence the occurrence of lightning flashes in tropical cyclones. Two simulations were run: a control simulation using a 1-moment mixed phase bulk microphysical scheme, and a second simulation in which the parameters used to describe the graupel mass-diameter and fall speed-diameter relationships were modified to obtain smaller graupel fall speeds. Decreasing the graupel fall speed (vg) resulted in a weaker storm with a larger radius of maximum winds. For both simulated tropical cyclones, a deep mixed phase layer conducive to cloud electrification was observed. However, in the simulation where vg was decreased, the flash rate was almost zero throughout the simulation, whereas it reached a few flashes per minute in the control simulation. Several reasons that can explain this difference in the total flash rate are highlighted. Decreasing vg resulted in graupel being spread horizontally over a broader area by the secondary circulation. The more pronounced tilting observed with slower vg meant that poles of charges were not vertically aligned and thus the vertical electric field was reduced. In this study, the difference in the total flash rate mainly arose from changes in the mass and charge transfer rates due to changes in the parameters used to define the mass-diameter and particle-diameter relationships. Cloud electrification and lightning flashes being threshold-processes, a small change in the model physics can have a dramatic impact on the total flash rate.

  17. Energy poverty: Electrification and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul Sharma, Karnamadakala; Chan, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    Energy access entails a range of metrics that need to be monitored to guide planning and implementation of electricity provision in developing nations. A study based on an extensive household survey carried out in rural India demonstrates that electricity supply duration is the best predictor for satisfaction with electricity service.

  18. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  19. Multiscale assessment of progress of electrification in Indonesia based on brightness level derived from nighttime satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Fatwa; Setiani, Putri

    2017-06-01

    Availability of electricity can be used as an indicator to proximate parameters related to human well-being. Overall, the electrification process in Indonesia has been accelerating in the past two decades. Unfortunately, monitoring the country's progress on its effort to provide wider access to electricity poses challenges due to inconsistency of data provided by each national bureau, and limited availability of information. This study attempts to provide a reliable measure by employing nighttime satellite imagery to observe and to map the progress of electrification within a duration of 20 years, from 1993 to 2013. Brightness of 67,021 settlement-size points in 1993, 2003, and 2013 was assessed using data from DMSP/OLS instruments to study the electrification progress in the three service regions (Sumatera, Java-Bali, and East Indonesia) of the country's public electricity company, PLN. Observation of all service areas shows that the increase in brightness, which correspond with higher electricity development and consumption, has positive correlation with both population density (R(2) = 0.70) and urban change (R(2) = 0.79). Moreover, urban change has a stronger correlation with brightness, which is probably due to the high energy consumption in urban area per capita. This study also found that the brightness in Java-Bali region is very dominant, while the brightness in other areas has been lagging during the period of analysis. The slow development of electricity infrastructure, particularly in major parts of East Indonesia region, affects the low economic growth in some areas and formed vicious cycle.

  20. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa: Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available in the fields of economics, sociology, ecosystem sustainability, governance and the physics, and chemistry of energy conversion processes. South African socio-economic commitments for the provision of free basic services have been applied so as to achieve...

  1. Electric Field and Humidity Trigger Contact Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we study the old problem of why identical insulators can charge one another on contact. We perform several experiments showing that, if driven by a preexisting electric field, charge is transferred between contacting insulators. This transfer happens because the insulator surfaces adsorb small amounts of water from a humid atmosphere. We believe the electric field then separates positively from negatively charged ions prevailing within the water, which we believe to be hydronium and hydroxide ions, such that at the point of contact, positive ions of one insulator neutralize negative ions of the other one, charging both of them. This mechanism can explain for the first time the observation made four decades ago that wind-blown sand discharges in sparks if and only if a thunderstorm is nearby.

  2. Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    grid rural electrification schemes based on hybrid solar PVdiesel generators. This may bring PV systems in line with fossil fuel based systems in terms of consumer cost and options for productive use and it changes the market for PV from mainly donor supported schemes into mainstream rural...... electrification schemes governed and financed by electric utilities and rural electrification agencies. Based on a literature review and the experience with a full scale hybrid wind/PV diesel system at RISØ DTU, this paper provides cost estimates for hybrid PV-diesel systems and policy recommendations to change......Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically...

  3. The theory and practice of 100 pilot SHP-based rural electrification counties in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the theory and practice of 100 pilot small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) based rural electrification counties in China. The document reports the research contents, methodology and results, and the pilot benefit analysis and evaluation.

  4. Small hydropower for rural electrification in South Africa - using experiences from other African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, WE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Local hydropower sources can play an important role in the electrification of rural areas in South Africa remote from the national electricity grid. To ensure the sustainability of hydropower developments it is essential that lessons learned...

  5. Flow electrification characteristics of transformer oil by rotating electrode systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadish, R.; Poovamma, P.K. [Central Power Research Inst., Bangalore (India)

    1995-07-01

    Flow electrification has been found to be the principal cause of a number of failures of forced oil cooled power transformers. Flow charging characteristics of oil/cellulose system with factors like electrode configuration, electrode material, presence of Benzotriazole (BTA), metallic contaminants and Copper coils were investigated for paraffinic oil by employing rotating electrode system. A few hydrodynamic parameters viz. Reynolds number, boundary layer thickness and friction factor were correlated with flow charging characteristics of oil for varying temperatures and concentrations of BTA. With lower concentrations of BTA in oil viz. 10 ppm and 25 ppm a marginal reduction in flow charging of oil was noticed, but about 40% reduction was observed with 150 ppm of BTA. A significant reduction in the flow charging characteristics of untreated and BTA treated oils was also observed in the presence of Copper coils and metallic particle contaminants.

  6. Indonesia solar home systems project for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghvi, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents, from a financing aspect the broad issues involved in a plan to provide solar home systems (SHS) to provide rural electrification in several areas of rural Indonesia. The paper discusses the approaches being used to provide funding, develop awareness of the technology, and assure the success of the project. The plan involves the use of grant money to help with some of the initial costs of such systems, and thereby to encourage local financing on a terms rather than cash basis. There are needs for market development, and development of a business structure in the country to support this type of technology. Provided this plan can succeed, it may serve as a model for further efforts.

  7. ESFER computer tool for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems used in rural electrification; ESFER herramienta de computadora para evaluar sistemas fotovoltaicos utilizados en electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, Francisco; Perez, Miguel; Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    ESFER (Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural) Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation for Rural Electrification is a computerized calculation tool for the analysis of information and evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. This article describes such a tool, as well as the parameters that are taken into account for analyzing the systems, the methodology to qualify and the computer program operation. The graphic results of a typical case are presented. ESFER pretends to be a program of general use for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. [Espanol] ESFER, Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural, es una herramienta de calculo computarizada para el analisis de informacion y evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos para electrificacion rural. En el presente articulo se describe dicha herramienta, asi como los parametros que se toman en cuenta para analizar los sistemas, la metodologia de calificacion y la operacion del programa de computadora. Se presentan los resultados graficos de un caso tipico. ESFER pretende ser un programa de uso generalizado para la evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos de electrificacion rural.

  8. Rural electrification in Chihuahua, Mexico at one third of the cost vs a conventional substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Omar; Gomez, Rolando; Solano, Arturo; Acosta, Eduardo

    2010-09-15

    This paper and presentation describes technical details about a successful experience in a unique project in Mexico for making possible the rural electrification at one third of the total cost vs a traditional substation. This alternate solution for electrification of rural communities where construction of distribution lines or traditional substations are not economically possible due to local government's budget limits or because the electrical companies are looking for the ROI Return Over Investment in poverty communities.

  9. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  10. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  11. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  12. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  14. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  15. Effects of the Inductive Charging on the Electrification and Lightning Discharges in Thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional cloud model with electrification and lightning processes is used to investigate the role of inductive charge separation in thunderstorm clouds. For the same dynamic and microphysical evolution, four cases that the same non-inductive charging parameterization is combined with different inductive charging process are compared. Non-inductive charge separation alone is found to be sufficient to produce a dipolar charge structure. Intracloud (IC and positive cloud-to-ground (+CG flashes are initiated between a main negative charge region and an upper positive charge region. The inductive charging process between graupel and cloud droplets exhibits a normal tripole charge structure, consisting of a lower positive charge region under the main negative charge region. In the simulated tripole structure, negative cloud-to-ground (-CG flashes are initiated between the main negative and lower positive charge regions. In addition, inductive charge separation between the graupel and ice crystal is found to be capable of producing strong charge separation in a dipole charge structure. Tests with inductive graupel-ice crystals process produce more flashes than that in the other cases.

  16. Mechanisms of Contact Electrification at Aluminum-Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polypropylene-Water

    KAUST Repository

    Nauruzbayeva, Jamilya

    2017-04-01

    Contact electrification refers to the transfer of electrical charges between two surfaces, similar and dissimilar, as they are brought into contact and separated; this phenomenon is also known as static electrification or triboelectrification. For example, everyone has experienced weak electrical shocks from metal doorknobs, wool and synthetic clothing on dry days. While contact electrification might appear insignificant, it plays a key role in numerous natural and industrial processes, including atmospheric lightning, accumulation of dust on solar panels, charging of liquids during pipetting and flow in the tubes, and fire hazards in granular media. Contact electrification at metal-metal interfaces is well understood in terms of transfer of electrons, but a comprehensive understanding of contact electrification at interfaces of electrical insulators, such as air, water, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene remains incomplete. In fact, a variety of mechanisms responsible for transfer of electrical charges during mechanical rubbing, slipping, sliding, or flow at interfaces have been proposed via: electrons, ions, protons, hydroxide ions from water, specific orientation of dipoles, mechanoradicals, cryptoelectrons, and transfer of material. We have noticed that the extent of contact electrification of solids in water is influenced by surface free energies, mobile ions, surface roughness, duration of contact, sliding speeds, and relative humidity. Herein, we present results of our experimental investigation of contact electrification at the following interfaces: (i) PTFE-aluminum in air and (ii) polypropylene-water interfaces. To identify the underlying mechanism, we started with various hypotheses and exploited a variety of experimental techniques to falsify most of them until we got an answer; our techniques included high-voltage power supply (0-10,000 V), Faraday cages, Kelvin probe force microscopy, electrodeposition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  17. Linear-grating triboelectric generator based on sliding electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Ying; Bai, Peng; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Jing, Qingshen; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-05-08

    The triboelectric effect is known for many centuries and it is the cause of many charging phenomena. However, it has not been utilized for energy harvesting until very recently. (1-5) Here we developed a new principle of triboelectric generator (TEG) based on a fully contacted, sliding electrification process, which lays a fundamentally new mechanism for designing universal, high-performance TEGs to harvest diverse forms of mechanical energy in our daily life. Relative displacement between two sliding surfaces of opposite triboelectric polarities generates uncompensated surface triboelectric charges; the corresponding polarization created a voltage drop that results in a flow of induced electrons between electrodes. Grating of linear rows on the sliding surfaces enables substantial enhancements of total charges, output current, and current frequency. The TEG was demonstrated to be an efficient power source for simultaneously driving a number of small electronics. The principle established in this work can be applied to TEGs of different configurations that accommodate the needs of harvesting energy and/or sensing from diverse mechanical motions, such as contacted sliding, lateral translation, and rotation/rolling.

  18. Pico hydro. Reducing technical risks for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.A. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Simpson, R. [Renewable Energy division, EnergyAustralia, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    Very small hydropower (pico hydro) schemes, with an output of less than 5 kW, can be a cost-effective option for the electrification of remote rural communities. Despite the fact that each hydropower site is unique, there is potential for using standardised equipment and low-cost approaches to scheme design. Relatively low equipment costs are possible, particularly if locally manufactured in a developing country, which enable costs per unit of energy output to be lower than small petrol or diesel generators, wind turbines or PV systems. Nevertheless, it is important not to compromise on technical quality of pico hydro schemes, as this may lead to poor efficiency or long periods when the scheme cannot operate, which will affect the financial success of the scheme. In the longer term, inappropriate cost reductions may lead to reduced uptake of the technology. The challenge is therefore to provide engineering designs and implementation methods that can effectively be customised for a wide range of schemes. This paper describes research and development of successful approaches that have been used to enable pico hydropower to be implemented in diverse situations around the globe. It includes an analysis of penstock pipe sizing to achieve optimum economic design. (author)

  19. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it's possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  20. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P S

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country`s new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties.

  1. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P. [National Council of Research, Institute of Applied Science & Intelligent Systems (ISASI) ‘E. Caianiello’, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it’s possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  2. The challenge of energy poverty. Brazilian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini Pereira, Marcio [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordenation of Post-Graduate Programs in Engineering of The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, CEP: 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vasconcelos Freitas, Marcos Aurelio; Silva, Neilton Fidelis da [International Virtual Institute of Global Change - IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. (author)

  3. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  4. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  5. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  6. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  7. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  8. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; NIKAIDO, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  9. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; NIKAIDO, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  10. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  11. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  12. Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    grid rural electrification schemes based on hybrid solar PVdiesel generators. This may bring PV systems in line with fossil fuel based systems in terms of consumer cost and options for productive use and it changes the market for PV from mainly donor supported schemes into mainstream rural...... electrification schemes governed and financed by electric utilities and rural electrification agencies. Based on a literature review and the experience with a full scale hybrid wind/PV diesel system at RISØ DTU, this paper provides cost estimates for hybrid PV-diesel systems and policy recommendations to change...... parts of the populations and with little or no value for productive uses. However, feasibility for solar PV has improved in the last few years. Retail prices for solar photovoltaic modules are reduced by 20-30% since 2001, and although far from the peak in 2008, oil prices in the next two years to come...

  13. The Importance of Government Effectiveness for Transitions toward Greater Electrification in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Best

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is a vital factor underlying modern living standards, but there are many developing countries with low levels of electricity access and use. We seek to systematically identify the crucial elements underlying transitions toward greater electrification in developing countries. We use a cross-sectional regression approach with national-level data up to 2012 for 135 low- and middle-income countries. The paper finds that the effectiveness of governments is the most important governance attribute for encouraging the transition to increased electrification in developing countries, on average. The results add to the growing evidence on the importance of governance for development outcomes. Donors seeking to make more successful contributions to electrification may wish to target countries with more effective governments.

  14. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  15. Options for rural electrification in Mexico; Opcion para la electrificacion de pequenas comunidades rurales en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in the study carried out in communities of the Hidalgo State, localized in remote and of difficult access sites. In the study 19 different options, which are technically and economically feasible, from the stand point of commercialization and electrification of the same. The performance of these systems was evaluated with respect to their capability to satisfy 12 technical goals and 5 social-economical, as well as their environmental impact. An hybrid system based on photovoltaic cells, diesel or gasoline generator and a wind-power generator, we think is the recommended option for this type of communities. [Espanol] Este trabajo sintetiza los resultados de un estudio llevado a cabo en comunidades del estado de Hidalgo, localizadas en lugares remotos y de dificil acceso. En el estudio se analizaron 19 diferentes opciones que son factibles tecnica y comercialmente hablando para la electrificacion de las mismas. El comportamiento de estos sistemas fue evaluado con respecto a su capacidad para satisfacer 12 objetivos tecnicos y 5 socioeconomicos, asi como su impacto ambiental. Un sistema hibrido a base de celdas fotovoltaicas, generador a diesel o gasolina y generador eolico, creemos que es la opcion recomendada para este tipo de comunidades.

  16. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  17. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopt a child and, in due course, assumed parenthood of. Jobs shortly after his .... The Psychobiographical Case Subject and Sampling ..... The school recommended that he skip .... look at pathways that could lead to personal fulfilment ...... Personology: Method and content in personality assessment and psychobiography.

  18. Assessment of pico hydro as an option for off-grid electrification in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, P.; Smith, N.P.A.; Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Micro Hydro Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses off-grid electrification options for low-income households in rural Kenya, where less than 2% are grid connected. The paper outlines the electrical load priorities of rural households and describes how these are supplied at present through centrally charged automotive batteries and solar home systems. The recent introduction of pico hydro schemes (<5 kW) to Kenya is discussed, including details of the implementation of the two community schemes and the costs involved. A comparison is made between pico hydro and solar home systems and conclusions are presented on the way forward for off-grid electrification in Kenya. (Author)

  19. Automated test bench for simulation of radiation electrification of spacecraft structural dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. M.; Bezhayev, A. Yu; Zykov, V. M.; Isaychenko, V. I.; Lukashchuk, A. A.; Lukonin, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the test bench “Prognoz-2” designed in Testing Center, Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, which can be used: for ground testing of individual samples of spacecraft structural materials (e.g. thermal control coatings or cover glasses for solar batteries) or ceramics of the plasma thruster discharge channel), and whole spacecraft units or instruments (e.g. instruments of solar and stellar orientation or correcting plasma thrusters) exposed to radiation electrification factors; to verify the calculation mathematical models of radiation electrification of structural dielectrics under the impact of space factors in different orbits.

  20. Photovoltaics for rural electrification in developing countries a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Urmee, Tania; Holtorf, Hans-Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This guide will greatly improve the success rate of solar energy projects in remote communities in developing countries, drawing on the authors' own case studies to generate comprehensive, step-by-step procedures that replicate proven real-life strategies.

  1. Deep carbon reductions in California require electrification and integration across economic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Max; Nelson, James H.; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Ting, Michael; Yang, Christopher; Jones, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    Meeting a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels in the year 2050 requires detailed long-term planning due to complexity, inertia, and path dependency in the energy system. A detailed investigation of supply and demand alternatives is conducted to assess requirements for future California energy systems that can meet the 2050 GHG target. Two components are developed here that build novel analytic capacity and extend previous studies: (1) detailed bottom-up projections of energy demand across the building, industry and transportation sectors; and (2) a high-resolution variable renewable resource capacity planning model (SWITCH) that minimizes the cost of electricity while meeting GHG policy goals in the 2050 timeframe. Multiple pathways exist to a low-GHG future, all involving increased efficiency, electrification, and a dramatic shift from fossil fuels to low-GHG energy. The electricity system is found to have a diverse, cost-effective set of options that meet aggressive GHG reduction targets. This conclusion holds even with increased demand from transportation and heating, but the optimal levels of wind and solar deployment depend on the temporal characteristics of the resulting load profile. Long-term policy support is found to be a key missing element for the successful attainment of the 2050 GHG target in California.

  2. Contact Electrification of Individual Dielectric Microparticles Measured by Optical Tweezers in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haesung; LeBrun, Thomas W

    2016-12-21

    We measure charging of single dielectric microparticles after interaction with a glass substrate using optical tweezers to control the particle, measure its charge with a sensitivity of a few electrons, and precisely contact the particle with the substrate. Polystyrene (PS) microparticles adhered to the substrate can be selected based on size, shape, or optical properties and repeatedly loaded into the optical trap using a piezoelectric (PZT) transducer. Separation from the substrate leads to charge transfer through contact electrification. The charge on the trapped microparticles is measured from the response of the particle motion to a step excitation of a uniform electric field. The particle is then placed onto a target location of the substrate in a controlled manner. Thus, the triboelectric charging profile of the selected PS microparticle can be measured and controlled through repeated cycles of trap loading followed by charge measurement. Reversible optical trap loading and manipulation of the selected particle leads to new capabilities to study and control successive and small changes in surface interactions.

  3. Atmospheric Electrification in Dusty, Reactive Gases in the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Christiane; Harrison, R. Giles; Honary, Farideh; Diver, Declan A.; Aplin, Karen; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Ebert, Ute; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Gordillo-Vazquez, Francisco J.; Littlefair, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Detailed observations of the solar system planets reveal a wide variety of local atmospheric conditions. Astronomical observations have revealed a variety of extrasolar planets none of which resembles any of the solar system planets in full. Instead, the most massive amongst the extrasolar planets, the gas giants, appear very similar to the class of (young) brown dwarfs which are amongst the oldest objects in the Universe. Despite this diversity, solar system planets, extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs have broadly similar global temperatures between 300 and 2500 K. In consequence, clouds of different chemical species form in their atmospheres. While the details of these clouds differ, the fundamental physical processes are the same. Further to this, all these objects were observed to produce radio and X-ray emissions. While both kinds of radiation are well studied on Earth and to a lesser extent on the solar system planets, the occurrence of emissions that potentially originate from accelerated electrons on brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks is not well understood yet. This paper offers an interdisciplinary view on electrification processes and their feedback on their hosting environment in meteorology, volcanology, planetology and research on extrasolar planets and planet formation.

  4. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  5. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  6. Economic, social and technical constraints of rural electrification in Morocco; Contraintes economiques, sociales et techniques de l`electrification rurale au Maroc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrakh, M. [Centre de developpement des energies renouvelables du Maroc (Morocco)

    1997-06-01

    Electricity plays a key role in the economic and social development in rural areas around the world. By virtue of its simple and multiple uses, electricity has the potential to contribute significantly to the standard of living in rural areas. Today, rural areas can experience the same quality education, health services, lighting, and telecommunication as available in urban areas. The rate of electric power development in rural Morocco was discussed and was found to be insufficient. The many economic and social barriers standing in the way of rural electrification were identified, such as highly dispersed population, low demand, high cost of development, scarcity of investment. The question of whether electricity should be owned privately or publicly was also discussed. It was suggested that while it could be done jointly, public authorities should have a major role in developing economic policies that encourage rural electrification.

  7. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  8. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  9. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  10. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  11. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  12. Small Hydro Power-An Important Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MamudaAbdullahi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is trying to highlight the importance of constructing small hydropower station as the alternative source of energy for rural electrification in Nigeria and stressedthe need for the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide a clear open policy that will make environment favourable and safe for local and foreign private investors on small Hydropower.

  13. Electrification of railway lines with autotransformer systems; Elektrifizierung von Eisenbahnstrecken mit Autotransformatorsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zynovchenko, Andriy; George, Gerhard [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Abt. Systemtechnik; Olsen, Henning [ELBAS GmbH Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The electrification of new and also existing railway lines requires a feeding concept. The usage of autotransformers can improve its economic efficiency due to reduced number of substations. Furthermore is the connection to an existing a.c. system, for example to a single-phase AC 15kV 16,7 Hz possible. (orig.)

  14. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  15. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  16. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  17. EUROPE AND ITS GREEN FUTURE. ELECTRIFICATION AND DECARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baciu Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a great challenge which humanity faces, and which is climate change. Together with food and water shortages which will hit more and more humanity in the years ahead, climate change (which will only amplify these negative facts will bring negative consequences on economy and society, and in international relations area, too. In this context, the importance of the subject speaks for itself. The research is focused on EU objectives in climate area and in sustainable development, indicating that renewable energy could be a solution for energy independence, and for reducing CO2 concentration level, too. The subject is very important one nowadays being subject of intense debates and negotiations, having a high degree of visibility in international forums and in international press. The paper wants to show what EU aims in the future related to its development through fossil fuels consumption reduction and as a base for starting research are researched realized under the aegis of Group Futuribles from Paris, of the National Centre for Sustainable Development from Bucharest, from American Academy of Arts and Science, and International Energy Agency from Paris. We take from IEA data and present them in the tables in order to have a synthetic view upon energy in EU countries, and of course, there are presented trends in energy consumption in renewable at European level. The development of the subject with the involvements in transport area only brings a fresh air in the debates regarding reducing energy vulnerability together with fighting climate changes. There are presented some peculiarities of CO2 pollution and their implications, and consequences; and of course, solutions for fighting climate change is part of this presentation. Reducing oil consumption and expanding renewable resources (wind, solar, and hydro and nuclear energy coupled with the electrification of the economy and transportation sectors, and rising energy

  18. Case study: Tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  19. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  20. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  1. Key factors for the implementation of successful, stand-alone village electrification schemes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Campos, Teodoro

    The hypothesis of this work is that there are social, financial, technical, managerial institutional and political key factors that may either support or prevent the success of small stand alone energy systems in rural areas. This research work aims at contributing to the identification of such factors and study their relevance to the performance and sustainability of stand alone energy systems in rural areas; to meet its purpose, a wide range of literature was reviewed including rural electrification programmes and projects, research and development projects on access to electricity in rural areas, impact studies and others, and a field research survey was done the Andes and Upper Jungle regions in Peru. Nineteen possible critical factors were identified, thirteen with relevance at the local context (the community or village), and six with relevance at the national (or wider) context. From literature review it was found that the possible local critical factors were relevant only to four categories of factors instead of the six considered initially (i.e. social, financial, technological and managerial): the other two categories, political and institutional were found to be more relevant to the national context, therefore those were included in the group of possible critical factors of wider context. A series of questionnaires were designed to collect field data information, which was later used to analyse and establish the relation of each identified factor with the success of the systems studied. The survey research was implemented in 14 villages, 7 with small diesel sets and 7 with small hydropower schemes, all spread in the Andes and Upper Jungle of Peru, which were carefully selected to be representative of regions with isolated stand alone systems and with different socioeconomic background. Out of the 13 possible critical factors of local context, it was found that only 3 are really critical, the others are important but not critical; one of them (technical

  2. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  3. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  4. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  5. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  6. Alternate electrification and non-potable water: A health concern for Jamaicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V. Crawford

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that the absence of electricity and potable water usually result in negative effects on one’s health and is more likely to affect women than men. Aim: To determine the extent to which alternate electrification and limited potable water, impacts on health. Materials and Method: This study is informed by primary and secondary data, representing a sample size of 150 respondents (75 male and 75 female, who were interviewed via a 24-item structured interview schedule during the period 2006-2007, throughout the 14 parishes of Jamaica. In an effort to determine the number of persons to be interviewed, each parish population was divided by the island’s population (2,599,334 and then multiplied by 150. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social scientists 15. Results: The respondents of this study who use kerosene lamp as an alternate means to electricity use firewood for cooking (12% male and 15% female. This sometimes result in obstructive pulmonary disease (female 43%; male 21%. The absence of electricity also results in the consumption of improperly stored meat, thus medical implications: paroxysmal abdominal pain (colic, and diarrhea (male 91%; female, 95%. The transporting of firewood, pans of water and laundry via head-loading, sometimes result in back/spinal injury (male, 75%; female, 48%. Conclusion: Alternate access to electricity and potable water result in the use of kerosene lamp, firewood and the consumption of non-potable water (often transported on one’s head – causing medical implications such as back/spinal injury, obstructive pulmonary disease, paroxysmal abdominal pain and gastroenteritis.

  7. Alternate electrification and non-potable water: A health concern for Jamaicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Research has shown that the absence of electricity and potable water usually result in negative effects on one′s health and is more likely to affect women than men. Aim : To determine the extent to which alternate electrification and limited potable water, impacts on health. Materials and Method : This study is informed by primary and secondary data, representing a sample size of 150 respondents (75 male and 75 female, who were interviewed via a 24-item structured interview schedule during the period 2006-2007, throughout the 14 parishes of Jamaica. In an effort to determine the number of persons to be interviewed, each parish population was divided by the island′s population (2,599,334 and then multiplied by 150. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social scientists 15. Results : The respondents of this study who use kerosene lamp as an alternate means to electricity use firewood for cooking (12% male and 15% female. This sometimes result in obstructive pulmonary disease (female 43%; male 21%. The absence of electricity also results in the consumption of improperly stored meat, thus medical implications: paroxysmal abdominal pain (colic, and diarrhea (male 91%; female, 95%. The transporting of firewood, pans of water and laundry via head-loading, sometimes result in back/spinal injury (male, 75%; female, 48%. Conclusion : Alternate access to electricity and potable water result in the use of kerosene lamp, firewood and the consumption of non-potable water (often transported on one′s head - causing medical implications such as back/spinal injury, obstructive pulmonary disease, paroxysmal abdominal pain and gastroenteritis.

  8. Transportation Electrification Education Partnership for Green Jobs and Sustainable Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Huei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mi, Chris [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gover, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This collaborative educational project between the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor, University of Michigan—Dearborn and the Kettering University successfully executed almost all the elements we proposed to do. In the original proposal, we proposed to develop four graduate courses, six undergraduate courses, four professional short courses, a K-12 electric vehicle education kit, a Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material to support the advancement of transportation electrification. The first four deliverables were all successfully developed and offered. When we held the kick-off meeting in NETL in Morgantown back in early 2010 with all the ten ARRA education teams, however, it quickly became clear that among the ten ARRA education grantee teams, our proposed “consume education” activities are not better or with the potential to create bigger impact than some of activities proposed in other teams. For example, the Odyssey 2010 event held by the West Virginia University team had planned and successfully reached to more than 230,000 attendees, which is way more than what our proposed 100k event could ever reach. It was under the suggestion of Joseph Quaranta, the ARRA education Program Director at that time, that we should coordinate and eliminate redundancy. The resources should then be focused on activities that have less overlap. Therefore, the originally proposed activities: Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material were dropped from our scope. We expanded the scope of our “education kit” activity to include some educational materials, mainly in the form of videos. The target audience also changed from general public to K-12 students. The majority of the project cost (~70%) goes toward the establishment of three undergraduate laboratories, which provides critically needed hands-on learning experience for next-generation green mobility engineers. We are very proud that the ARRA money

  9. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jaewook Jung; Leihan Chen; Gunho Sohn; Chao Luo; Jong-Un Won

    2016-01-01

    Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning ...

  10. Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanase-Patil, A.B.; Saini, R.P.; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The off grid electrification by utilizing Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) is proposed to satisfy the electrical and cooking needs of the seven-uneletrified villages in the Almora district of Uttarakhand state, India. Four different scenarios are considered during modeling and optimization of IRES to ensure reliability parameters such as energy index ratio (EIR) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). The optimum system reliability, total system cost and cost of energy (COE) have also been worked out by introducing the customer interruption cost (CIC). The four different renewable energy scenarios have been compared for the considered study area using the LINGO software version 10. The fourth renewable energy scenario accounting 44.99% micro hydropower (MHP), 30.07% biomass, 5.19% biogas and 4.16% solar energy along with the additional resources of wind (1.27%) and energy plantation (12.33%) has been found to be the best among the different options considered. Furthermore, the optimal reliability for the fourth IRES system has been found to be 0.95 EIR at the optimized cost of Rs 19.44 lacs with estimated COE of Rs 3.36 per kWh. The COE obtained using LINGO software and HOMER software has also been compared and briefly discussed for all the four scenarios. In order to verify feasibility and cost of system for different biomass fuel prices, a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out and it has been found that the fourth scenario is more sustainable than the other considered options. (author)

  11. Translation Procedures (a Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Roswita; Lestari, Disa Evawani

    2012-01-01

    Roswita Silalahi This research is entitled Translation Procedures (A Case Study) which analysis translation procedures used in translating economic terms from English language book Principles of Economics by N. Gregory Mankiw into Bahasa Indonesia book Pengantar Ekonomi by Haris Munandar. The improvement of economic science which creates new economic terms challenges translator especially in translating a word or phrase, which in some cases, does not exist in the target l...

  12. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  13. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  14. Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1999-09-01

    The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

  15. Field analysis of solar PV-based collective systems for rural electrification.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, P.; Peña, R.; Muñoz Cano, Javier; Arias, C. A.; Sandoval, D

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the long-term performance of collective off-grid photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural areas. The use of collective PV systems for the electrification of small medium-size villages in developing countries has increased in the recent years. They are basically set up as stand-alone installations (diesel hybrid or pure PV) with no connection with other electrical grids. Their particular conditions (isolated) and usual installation places (far from commercial/industrial centers...

  16. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  17. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit, Staffan Laestadius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  18. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  19. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  20. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  1. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  2. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  3. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Detailed EOF analysis of wind data reportEd. by Wunsch over Gan (00 degrees 41'S; 73 degrees 10'E) is made for the period 1963-70. The year 1964, which exhibited least variability from mean wind structure, has been chosen for the case study. EOF...

  4. Overview of the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    A series of case studies are used to illustrate many of the underlying modelling principles within the book. To facilitate this, the ICAS-MoT modelling tool has been used. A wide range of application areas have been chosen to ensure that the principal concepts of effective and efficient modelling...

  5. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  6. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  7. The Case Study of Frank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  8. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  9. Case Study: Guidelines for Producing Videos to Accompany Flipped Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Généreux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Wild, John H.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Three years ago, the "National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science" (NCCSTS) was inspired to merge the case study and flipped classroom approaches. The resulting project aimed to create the materials required to teach a flipped course in introductory biology by assigning videos as homework and case studies in the classroom. Three…

  10. Electrification of particulate entrained fluid flows-Mechanisms, applications, and numerical methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Gu, Zhaolin

    2015-10-01

    Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas-solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The charge

  11. Cost comparison of individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems for rural electrification; Comparacao de custos entre sistemas fotovoltaicos individuais e minicentrais fotovoltaicas para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Vieira, Leonardo dos Santos Reis; Galdino, Marco Antonio Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fleury@cepel.br, lsrv@cepel.br, marcoag@cepel.br; Olivieri, Marta Maria de Almeida; Borges, Eduardo Luis de Paula; Carvalho, Claudio Monteiro de; Lima, Alex Artigiani Neves [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: martaolivieri@eletrobras.com, eduardo_borges@eletrobras.com, claudio.carvalho@eletrobras.com, alex.lima@eletrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    A cost comparison for individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems is made regarding the use of these systems for rural electrification in Northern Brazil. The estimates for maintenance costs were based on existing experience for individual systems already operating in the region. A comparison was also made between modified automotive lead acid batteries commonly used in photovoltaic systems in Brazil and the much more expensive OPzS tubular types. The results of these evaluations show that the maintenance costs are expected to be lower in the case of the mini grids than in individual systems. This is because for a given number of houses to be supplied with electrical energy, they use a smaller number of components subject to failures, like inverters and charge controllers. OPzS batteries are expected to compensate for their higher prices if their predicted operating lifetime can be confirmed under the practical conditions envisaged. (author)

  12. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  13. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  14. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  15. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  16. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  17. Estimated market prices of electric energy: agroenergy cooperative case study: NERAM (Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM) Project; Estimativa do preco de comercializacao da energia eletrica - estudo de caso: cooperativa de agroenergia - Projeto NERAM (Modelo de Negocio de Energia Eletrica em Comunidades Isoladas na Amazonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Xavier, Diogo Jackson Cajueiro; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Email: cdeam@ufam.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the cost of commercialization of the electricity generated from the acai seeds, under different commercial societies, namely agricultural cooperative, cooperative for rural electrification and independent producer of electricity. In the case of cooperative agriculture, the main products would be the acai pulp, among others, while the electricity would be a sub product resulting from the utilization of the residues from the process. For the other two arrangements, the electricity would be the main product, with differences in fees, taxes and financial structure between them. The taxes and fees associated with each one of the societies are considered for the estimates of energy costs. The results are presented as a variation of the electricity costs (Reais/MWh) over the load factor variation and are compared to the prices practiced for the bulk energy market for the independent producer in the Amazon region. All the results are presented with and without the subsidy for electricity. This study is part of the mark of the project {sup M}odel for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM{sup ,} financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq, that contemplates the universal access to electric-power services and the idea of Integrated Planning of Resources (PIR) for isolated systems. The results appear for the need of subsidies and they present smaller costs for the sceneries that use the cooperatives, especially the cooperative of rural electrification. (author)

  18. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  19. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  20. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H. [Ag. Nucleo Universitario, Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  1. Les cooperatives et l'electrification rurale du Quebec, 1945--1964

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorion, Marie-Josee

    Cette these est consacree a l'histoire de l'electrification rurale du Quebec, et, plus particulierement, a l'histoire des cooperatives d'electricite. Fondees par vagues successives a partir de 1945, les cooperatives rurales d'electricite ont ete actives dans plusieurs regions du Quebec et elles ont electrifie une partie significative des zones rurales. Afin de comprendre le contexte de la creation des cooperatives d'electricite, notre these debute (premiere partie) par une analyse du climat sociopolitique des annees precedant la naissance du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Nous y voyons de quelle facon l'electrification rurale devient progressivement, a partir de la fin des annees 1920, une question d'actualite a laquelle les divers gouvernements qui se succedent tentent de trouver une solution, sans engager---ou si peu---les fonds de l'Etat. En ce sens, la premiere etatisation et la mise sur pied d'Hydro-Quebec, en 1944, marquent une rupture quant au mode d'action privilegie jusque-la. La nouvelle societe d'Etat se voit cependant retirer son mandat d'electrifier le monde rural un an apres sa fondation, car le gouvernement Duplessis, de retour au pouvoir, prefere mettre en place son propre modele d'electrification rurale. Ce systeme repose sur des cooperatives d'electricite, soutenues par un organisme public, l'Office de l'electrification rurale (OER). L'OER suscite de grandes attentes de la part des ruraux et c'est par centaines qu'ils se manifestent. Cet engouement pour les cooperatives complique la tache de l'OER, qui doit superviser de nouvelles societes tout en assurant sa propre organisation. Malgre des hesitations et quelques delais introduits par un manque de connaissances techniques et de personnel qualifie, les commissaires de l'OER se revelent perspicaces et parviennent a mettre sur pied un systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale qui produit des resultats rapides. Il leur faudra cependant compter sur l'aide des autres acteurs engages

  2. Wind tunnel simulation experiment and investigation on the electrification of sandstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; Jianjun; YAN; Muhong; DONG; Guangrong; ZHANG; Hongfa

    2004-01-01

    Electric discharge phenomenon is often observed during the passage of sandstorms over desert regions and sometimes does great damage to human beings. Based on previous researches on the electrification of sandstorms by the scholars both at home and aboard,the authors conducted the simulation experiments on the electric fields of sandstorm-triggered creeping-saltating sand, suspending sand and watered suspending sand in the large-scale wind tunnel. According to the experimental results the electric field structure and its formation mechanism were analysed and discussed, the quantity of electric charges and electric field strength were measured and calculated, and finally several conclusions were drawn.

  3. Utility led rural electrification in Morocco: combining grid extension, mini-grids, and solar home systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dafrallah, Touria

    2016-01-01

    ) an institutional framework that brings into action the strength of the utility and of both national and international actors; and (3) a finance model that includes all stakeholders and international financial institutions. However, three factors may have been equally important in achieving these results: (1...... of the evolution of rural electrification in Morocco, the policies and programs that have been implemented, and their institutional, technical, and financial dimensions. The review reveals that information available about the success of the programme has almost entirely been provided by the utility ONE, which has...

  4. Contact Electrification of Regolith Particles and Chloride Electrolysis: Synthesis of Perchlorates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakone, K.

    2016-10-01

    Contact electrification of chloride-impregnated martian regolith particles due to eolian agitation and moisture condensation on coalesced oppositely charged grains may lead to spontaneous electrolysis that generates hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, and perchlorate with a concomitant reduction of water to hydrogen. This process is not curtailed even if moisture condenses as ice because chloride ionizes on the surface of ice. Limitations dictated by potentials needed for electrolysis and breakdown electric fields enable estimation of the required regolith grain size. The estimated dimension turns out to be of the same order of magnitude as the expected median size of martian regolith, and a simple calculation yields the optimum rate of perchlorate production.

  5. Obsessional slowness: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy; Wong, Karen W; Fulks, Mary-Ann; Holsti, Liisa

    2008-10-01

    Obsessional slowness is a rare psychiatric disorder with few treatment options and limited research to date. Some suggest that targeted behavioural interventions may reduce the time taken for functional daily activities. To examine whether a behavioural intervention would reduce the amount of time taken for an adolescent with obsessional slowness to walk to class. A single-subject A-B-A withdrawal design was incorporated into this case study. The treatment involved one-to-one pacing and prompting during the subject's walk to gym class. Walking times to gym class were measured during a baseline phase, during a one-month treatment phase, and during a post-treatment follow-up phase. The subject's walking times decreased during the treatment phase. Post-treatment walking times suggested a carry-over effect. This study adds to the sparse evidence on treatments for obsessional slowness and suggests occupation-based treatment options.

  6. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  7. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study

  8. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study

  9. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  10. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  11. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  12. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  13. Analysis of the monitoring data of geomagnetic storm interference in the electrification system of a high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianguang; Ge, Xiaoning; Zong, Wei; Zhou, You; Liu, Mingguang

    2016-10-01

    To study the impact of geomagnetic storm on the equipment of traction electrification system in the high-speed railway, geomagnetically induced current (GIC) monitoring devices were installed in the Hebi East traction power supply substation of the Beijing-Hong Kong Dedicated Passenger Line in January 2015, and GICs were captured during the two geomagnetic storms on 17 March and 23 June 2015. In order to investigate the GIC flow path, both in the track circuit and in the traction network adopting the autotransformer feeding system, a GIC monitor plan was proposed for the electrical system in the Hebi East traction power supply substation. This paper analyzes the correlation between the GIC captured on 17 March and the geomagnetic data obtained from the Malingshan Geomagnetic Observatory and presents a regression analysis between the measured GIC and the calculated geoelectric fields on 23 June in the high-speed railway. The maximum GICs measured in the track circuit are 1.08 A and 1.74 A during the two geomagnetic storms. We find that it is necessary to pay attention on the throttle transformers and track circuits, as the most sensitive elements responding to the extreme geomagnetic storms in the high-speed railway.

  14. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  15. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  16. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  17. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  18. Using teaching case studies for management research

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Veronique; Bowman, Cliff; Collier, Nardine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching case studies are widely deployed in business schools. They are contextually rich in detail, and students learn by applying and adapting theoretical concepts to specific business situations described in the case. This article proposes a new way to use teaching case studies, as research materials for academics. The article addresses three questions: (1) Can teaching cases be used as an alternative to field research? (2) When can teaching case studies be used as second...

  19. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  20. Electrification of General Motors' vehicles. A portfolio of solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, Uwe D.; Nitz, Larry T. [General Motors Company, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The electrification of the automobile is progressing fast and is changing the architecture of future vehicles tremendously. This trend is a result of the need for higher vehicle efficiency and the desire to diversify the energy sources used for transportation. General Motors offers a wide portfolio of solutions for vehicle electrification to meet the expectations of customers. Micro-hybrid systems for engine stop-start will become a standard solution for many market segments. Mild and strong hybrid systems together with optimized combustion engines enable the next level of propulsion system efficiency. Plugin hybrids offer the possibility to supplement the energy in the fuel with energy from the grid. The Chevrolet Volt and the Opel Ampera are electric vehicles with extended range. They operate as an electric vehicle as long as there is useful energy in the battery. However, unlike a battery electric vehicle they do not suffer from lost vehicle utility when the battery is depleted. Volt and Ampera can continue operation by using an internal combustion engine. General Motors will widen its portfolio by offering battery-electric vehicles and fuel cellelectric vehicles in the near future. GM sees a coexistence of all the different electrified propulsion systems over the coming decades. (orig.)

  1. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  2. ESSO — Electrification of the Central Labe Districts between 1916 and 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Holovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elektrárenský svaz stredolabských okresu, LLC (in English “The Power Plant Union of the Central Labe (Elbe” districts, which will be referred to here as “ESSO”, came into existence in 1916 in response to growing interest in electrification of the surroundings of Kolín. The Union was an extension of Križík’s earlier activities. Most of the power was produced by Križík’s power plant, which was extensively refurbished between 1919 and 1923. In 1919, the hydroelectric power plant in Podebrady was connected to the mains. Between 1924 and 1935, the Union gradually took over the hydroelectric power stations in Nymburk (1924, Kolín (1931, and Prelouc (1935. The Union´s most extensive project for a new steam power plant located in Kolín was initiated in 1929. The first stage of construction of the power plant was completed in 1932. It should be noted that the structure was designed by the well-known architect Jaroslav Fragner. The Union significantly influenced the electrification process for the central Labe district and its surroundings. The Union also successfully extended the number of electricity users. In addition, its activities raised the standard of living of the local citizens. The Union, which had already been nationalized, ceased to exist in 1950.

  3. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    Few historians document Lyndon Johnson's efforts to construct a state-wide political machine at the local level early in his congressional career. The literature glorifies Johnson for hydroelectric river development and rural electrification. This thesis acknowledges the transformative nature of rural electrification in Central Texas through the efforts of Johnson but, more importantly, reveals how extensively Johnson sought to capitalize on the tail-end of the New Deal to utilize government-funded relief projects to establish a state-wide political machine. An analysis of the correspondence between Johnson, his local political operators, members of his state-wide network, and rural constituents reveals another layer to the complexity of Johnson and further exposes his ambitious, calculating nature. Johnson used rural electrification to first create a community of supporters in his congressional district then used rural electrification and multipurpose river development programs to cultivate political contacts across the state of Texas. This thesis explores the first time that Lyndon Johnson used patronage to develop a political community as a publicly elected official. Johnson pushed for constant expansion of operations to ensure a steady supply of new jobs while displaying a cavalier attitude about specific regulations regarding the allocation of funds. His machine manipulated and massaged congressional appropriations restrictions and utilized multiple congressional revenue streams to stretch finances further and lower overhead costs to increase the scope of operations thus further improving the lives of his constituents. Johnson also used this movement to efficiently and effectively construct a foundation for his political machine. This thesis also clarifies an early moment in Johnson's beliefs about civil rights. Instead of standing on principle, Johnson relied on extortion and threats to fight racism at this early juncture in his political career because of

  4. Reforms for the expansion of electricity access and rural electrification in small island developing states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small island developing states face unique constraints to the provision of electricity services in rural areas, given their geographical features, and the small scale of government bureaucracies and markets. In small island developing states situated in the Pacific Ocean, these factors have resulted in some of the lowest electrification rates in the world. Seventy percent of Pacific islanders are without access to power; a figure that is equivalent to access rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite higher income levels in the Pacific. Past efforts by government and aid organizations to expand electricity access in rural areas have achieved negligible success, given regulatory frameworks that do not encourage grid extension, and the absence of effective institutional frameworks for operation and maintenance of decentralized systems. This paper argues that the binding constraint to rural electrification in Pacific small island developing states is the failure of regulatory frameworks to establish a viable business model for investment. Regulatory reform is needed that creates commercial incentives for private and public sector power utilities to provide power in rural areas, both through extension of electricity networks and decentralized power provision. Regulatory reform could also address past problems with the operation and maintenance of decentralized systems.

  5. Direct numerical simulation of powder electrification in a turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, Holger; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    2016-11-01

    Particle electrification is often encountered in process industries. Sometimes it has useful applications, such as the control of particle trajectories through an electric field. In other situations is has negative effects. For example, during pneumatic transport it can cause particle deposition or, even worse, spark discharges and subsequent fires and explosions. Despite its frequent occurrence, due to the complexity of the underlying physical mechanisms, there are still many open questions regarding particle electrification and inconsistent theoretical predictions have been reported. The objective of our work is to gain a better understanding and physical insight of this phenomenon. To this end, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations to analyze the turbulent flow of a carrier fluid with immersed particles in a channel. Moreover, the motion of the particles was computed in a Lagrangian framework and dynamic models accounting for the particle-wall and particle-particle charge exchange were implemented. In our talk, we discuss in detail the effect of the fluid turbulence to the build-up of the electrostatic charge of the particles. Furthermore, we elaborate on the influence of the particle Stokes number and gravitational forces to the process of powder charging. Supported by the National Research Fund of Belgium (FNRS) under the GRANMIX Projet de Recherche Grant.

  6. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  7. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  8. Rural Electrification of Coban Municipality, Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala) using Intigis Model; Electrificacion Rural en el Municipio de Coban, Departamento de Alta Verapaz (Guatemala) segun el Modelo Intigis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Bravo, J.; Pinedo Pascua, I.; Auger Campos, C.; Cedillo Heine, A.; Gil Garcia, M.

    2009-05-15

    The present project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energies and Environment Masters given by the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). It has been developed in collaboration with the research centre CIEMAT, the NGO Energy without Borders (ESF) and the University UPM, with the purpose of analyzing in a real context the application of Geographic Information Systems in renewable energies regional integration. The final aim of our study is to provide the isolated communities, specifically 13 communities in Alta Verapaz (Department of Coban, Guatemala), with the necessary conditions of electrification. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the area. Through the analysis of the geographic, technical and economic information gathered, using the IntiGIS methodology we will identify which is the most suitable autonomous generating system to cover the basic needs of the rural population in these Guatemalan communities. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  10. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  11. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  12. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  13. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  14. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  15. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  16. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  17. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...

  18. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  19. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  20. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  1. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  2. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  3. 电铁牵引负荷对电网运行造成的影响及其解决措施%The Effect of Load of Electrification Traction on Power Grid Operation and the Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾方明

    2011-01-01

    The theory of electric railway traction power supply is discussed. The characteristics of load of electrification traction are analyzed. The effect of electric locomotive loads on power grid operation and damage to equipment are studied. The solution is proposed from aspects of technics and management.%阐述电铁牵引供电系统的原理,分析电铁牵引负荷的特点,研究电铁负荷对电力系统运行的影响及对设备的危害,并从技术上和管理上提出解决措施。

  4. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  5. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, S. [ECOTRADE, Inc., Glendale, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  6. Use of recycled materials in cost reducing of rural electrification; Aplicacion de la rehabilitacion de materiales para el sostenimiento de los costos de electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz P, L. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows an experience developed by the Mexican Federal Energy Centre at the use of recycled, long-term stored and out-of-used materials, aiming the reduction of the costs in rural electrification constructions.

  7. Electric power public services license granting for rural electrification cooperatives; Outorga de permissao de servicos publicos de energia eletrica as cooperativas de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia Santos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Area Interdisciplinar de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cynthia@fem.unicamp.br; Carbonari Neto, Emigdio [Companhia de Geracao de Energia Eletrica Paranapanema, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ocpg3@cgeep.com.br; Guerra, Helvio Neves [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: helvio_guerra@uol.com.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses the framing and regularization of some rural electrification cooperatives licensed for electric energy public services, and briefly reports the role played by those cooperatives in the development of the Brazilian electric sector.

  8. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  9. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  10. Robust thin-film generator based on segmented contact-electrification for harvesting wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian Song; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-11

    Collecting and converting energy from ambient air flow promise to be a viable approach in developing self-powered autonomous electronics. Here, we report an effective and robust triboelectric generator that consists of an undulating thin-film membrane and an array of segmented fine-sized electrode pairs on a single substrate. Sequential processes of contact electrification and electrostatic induction generate alternating flows of free electrons when the membrane interacts with ambient air flow. Based on an optimum rational design, the segmented electrodes play an essential role in boosting the output current, leading to an enhancement of over 500% compared to the structure without the segmentation. The thin-film based generator can simultaneously and continuously light up tens of commercial light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it possesses exceptional durability, providing constant electric output after millions of operation cycles. This work offers a truly practical solution that opens the avenue to take advantage of wind energy by using the triboelectric effect.

  11. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  13. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  14. Transportation Electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendeman, Lawrence; Crouch, Alan

    2013-12-17

    This project has accomplished the following objectives: to address the critical need for technician training in new and emerging propulsion technologies by developing new courses, including information and training on electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles; to integrate the new certificate with the existing Associate of Applied Science Degree and Certificate automotive degrees; to disseminate these leading edge courses throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia and neighboring Mid-Atlantic States; and to provide training opportunities for displaced workers and underrepresented populations seeking careers in the automotive industry.

  15. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  16. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; Carbonnel, S.; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  17. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  18. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D.; Moreaud, O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  19. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  20. 'Click Rural' - the rural program for rural electrification: his effects and implications the western Parana, Brazil after 20 years later; O programa de eletrificacao rural 'Clic rural': seus efeitos e implicacoes na regiao oeste do Parana 20 anos depois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    This study verified through a sampling the technical standard of attendance adopted by the greater program for rural electrification denominated 'Clic Rural' ever implanted in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period of 1984-1992 at the concession area of COPEL - Parana Energy Company. The work was based on a field research with visits and a questionnaire applied of rural proprietaries.

  1. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  2. Assessment of locally manufactured small wind turbines as an appropriate technology for the electrification of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an assessment of the challenges facing the use of small locally manufactured wind turbines as a rural electrification solution for the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua. Strongly based on the authors work experience at the non-profit, non-governmental organization blueEnergy, this assessment makes an objective analysis of the technical, social, economic and organizational challenges faced by blueEnergy when using small wind turbines for rural electrification. The article provides detail on the challenges faced and puts forward methodologies and technologies to overcome or to detect and avoid these. Based on the challenges faced, a set of key factors that are essential for the success of small wind turbines in other contexts is proposed, together with two methodologies for a preliminary feasibility assessment.

  3. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  4. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  5. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  6. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  7. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  8. Case Studies in Middle Management Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…

  9. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  10. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  11. Case Studies in L2 Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the use of student-generated case studies in an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education course, including the context, participants classroom procedures and case studies written, as well as students' responses to their use. (Author/VWL)

  12. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  13. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  14. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  15. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  16. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  17. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  18. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  19. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  20. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  1. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  2. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  3. INTERIORITY - a prefab case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    , tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...... an interrelation of the functional and emotional dimensions of furniture and envelope as form, with the necessary economy and logic of construction, can be developed as a critical architctural theory for transforming the technical and economical elements of construction into experiences of interiority within...... of furnishing ‘gestures’ requiring of the envelope itself to guide, reveal, cover, caress and embrace us. These ‘gestures’ unite function and emotion by describing at once a physical movement and a feeling which is intrinsic of the spatial envelope itself. - The explanatory level has resulted in the development...

  4. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  5. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  6. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The

  7. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  8. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  9. Case Study of above Average Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2005-01-01

    This case study explores the duty of midmanagement administrators to enforce district policies with which they do not necessarily agree. The case addresses the issues of moral leadership, distribution of power, emotional responses that impact decision making, class differences, and equity. It also examines the role conflict that many married…

  10. Case Study: Mini-Case Studies: Small Infusions of Active Learning for Large-Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloye, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the usage of case studies to be an excellent method for engaging students through stories. The author notes she developed a series of mini-case studies that can be implemented, with a little advance preparation, within a 10- to 15-minute window during lecture. What makes them "mini" case studies?…

  11. A Unique Case of Intraabdominal Polyorchidism: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Otero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polyorchidism, alternatively supernumerary testes (SNT, is a condition where an individual is born with more than two testicles. This congenital anomaly is quite rare and the literature has described various presentations. Questions/Purposes. To our knowledge, this presentation of polyorchidism has yet to be described in the literature. The goal of this case study is to add to the pediatric, general, and urologic surgery’s body of knowledge of the subject matter. Case Study. A nine-month-old boy was admitted for an impalpable right testis and phimosis. At the time of surgical exploration, there appeared to be polyorchid testis on the right-hand side, with three masses that potentially appeared to be undescended testes. Discussion. Proponents of a conservative approach argue that infertility is common in patients with polyorchidism and, by preserving a potentially functional SNT, there may be improved spermatogenesis. When performing definitive surgical treatment, meticulous intra-abdominal and intrainguinal exploration must be undertaken. Orchiopexy should be performed to reduce the chances of torsion, malignancy, and infertility. Conclusion. Our case is important to the literature as it is the first known case of polyorchidism with 3 SNT on the right side, located intra-abdominally, and in a patient less than 1 year of age.

  12. Energy Audit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This India is the Fifth largest producer of Electricalenergy in the world. Despite such achievements the gapbetween demand and supply of electrical energy is increasingevery year and power sector is highly capital – intensive. Thusthe deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10000MWper year.So the gap between demand and supply is continuouslyincreasing day by day. An energy audit is a study of a plant orfacility to determine how and where energy is used and toidentify methods for energy savings. The opportunities lie inthe use of existing renewable energy technologies, greaterefforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of thesetechnologies and options. This thesis provides an overview of ageneral energy conservation measures (ECMs that can becommonly recommended for NIT Hamirpur. It should be notedthat the Energy auidut presented in this paper does not pretendto be exhaustive nor comprehensive. It provides merely toindicate some of the options that energy auditor can considerwhen performing an analysis of this institute. Energyconservation and exploration of new energy avenues are thewell accepted solution to fulfil the demand in future. The totalcost of energy plays a vital role in determining the product costof a commodity. Therefore the identification of potential energysavings and implementation for a given institutional facility isunimportant to ensure its competitive advantage over otherinstitute. This paper work presents such energy saving methodsin a methodological approach, experienced during a detailedenergy audit of NIT Hamirpur.

  13. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  14. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  15. Implementing Product Platforms: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a case study dealing with the process of creating and implementing a product platform. The paper espessially deals with the fact that to obtain the benefits of platforms a permanent change in behaviour in product development must be ensured. This change in behaviour requires...... acceptance and approval from the organisation in general and the commitment from management to enforce agreed-upon decisions. The case study itself was performed in the Danish company LEGO Group. The case study had two objectives: To create a technical architecture and align this architecture...

  16. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  17. Energy access. Assessment of energy reforms: Case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozulj, R.; di Sbroiavacca, N.; Bouille, D.

    2004-04-01

    Access to comfortable, clean and efficient energy sources on the part of the poor has been defined as one of the highest political priorities in various world forums and analyses of this issue (RISOe-UNEP, 2002; WEC, 2000; FB, 2001). In this context, the GNESD Network Access project has focused its research, as a first priority in this phase, on the analysis of the impact of electricity sector reforms on energy access for the poor. The differences in average energy consumption levels per individual between developed and developing countries have to do With the growth of the horizontal component of the demand (access of new users to energy sources) as well as with the growth of the vertical component, that is, growth depending on higher levels of household equipment ownership that characterises modem life styles. In LA and C, the average electricity consumption level per individual lies below the world average. This reflects both problems: the lack of access by a large segment of the population, especially in rural areas, and the low consumption level of poor households who, in many cases, cannot afford the cost of electricity service in urban as well as rural areas. In spite of important reforms carried out in several countries of the region, such a trend has been impossible to revert so far. The analysis of reform impacts has been approached using a set of basic indicators suggested for the purpose in the Final Common Approach Paper preceding the project. These refer to the access and affordability as expressed by: national electrification levels, national electrification rates, electricity consumption per capita, electricity tariffs, and household electricity expenditure as a percentage of total household income. The Argentine, Peruvian and Salvadoran cases are analysed alter discussing the limitations of those indicators from the viewpoints of data availability and their interpretation in terms of causal relations. In approaching the analysis, the indirect

  18. Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  19. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roozbeh Tanhaeivash; Tobias Franiel; Marc-Oliver Grimm; Marcus Horstmann

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg...

  20. Case Study Orientation for New Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes Oldfields School's systematic orientation program for beginning teachers. They meet as a group and discuss case studies, which give substance to the regulations and policies listed in the school handbooks. (SJL)

  1. Functional Disorders in Neurology : Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, Jon; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Gelauff, Jeannette; Lehn, Alex; Gardiner, Paula; van Gils, Anne; Carson, Alan

    Functional, often called psychogenic, disorders are common in neurological practice. We illustrate clinical issues and highlight some recent research findings using six case studies of functional neurological disorders. We discuss dizziness as a functional disorder, describing the relatively new

  2. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Method Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation ... KEYWORDS: qualitative, interpretive, case study, systems theory, methodology. INTRODUCTION ..... Maidenhead: Open University Press. Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, ...

  3. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  4. 电分相对区间信号机布置的影响%Effects of Electrification Phase Break on Section Signal Arrangement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 钱伟; 于伟伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the cases of a variety of train formation passing through a neutral section at different speeds.Through calculating the required travel time and distance,we proposed a formula of calculating the starting distance.When through signals are required to set nearby a electrification phase break,the phase break will impose a substantial impacts on train operation safety and carrying capacity of the railway.Combining different line conditions,we described these effects in detail and proposed the reasonable arrangement of signals to solve those problems.%分析了各种列车编组以不同速度通过电分相的情况,通过计算所需要的走行时间和距离,提出了起动距离的计算公式。当通过信号机需要布置在电分相附近时,电分相对行车安全和通过能力会产生重要的影响。结合不同的线路条件,详细描述了这些影响,并且通过合理的区间信号机布置来解决这一问题。

  5. A laboratory test of the elec-trification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The measured data in the wind-tunnel tests show that the wind-blown sand particles acquired a negative charge when their diameters are smaller than 250 mm and positive charge when their diameters are larger than 500 mm, which confirms Latham's assumption that the large particles in wind-blown sand flux acquired positive charge while nega-tive charge developed on small ones. In the meanwhile, the measured data also show that the average charge-to-mass ratio for wind-blown sand particles decreases with the in-crease of the particle diameter and the wind velocity, and increases with the rise of height. The electric field in wind-blown sand flux is mainly formed by the moving charged sand particles. Its direction is vertical to the Earth's surface and upward, which is opposite to that of the fair-weather field. The electric field increases with wind velocity and height increasing. These experimental results will lay the foundation for developing the theoretical analysis of the electrification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux.

  6. Assessment of the Electrification of the Road Transport Sector on Net System Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James

    As worldwide environmental consciousness grows, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more common and despite the incredible potential for emissions reduction, the net emissions of the power system supply side plus the transportation system are dependent on the generation matrix. Current EV charging patterns tend to correspond directly with the peak consumption hours and have the potential to increase demand sharply allowing for only a small penetration of Electric Vehicles. Using the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data a model is created for vehicle travel patterns using trip chaining. Charging schemes are modeled to include uncontrolled residential, uncontrolled residential/industrial charging, optimized charging and optimized charging with vehicle to grid discharging. A charging profile is then determined based upon the assumption that electric vehicles would directly replace a percentage of standard petroleum-fueled vehicles in a known system. Using the generation profile for the specified region, a unit commitment model is created to establish not only the generation dispatch, but also the net CO2 profile for variable EV penetrations and charging profiles. This model is then used to assess the impact of the electrification of the road transport sector on the system net emissions.

  7. Potential for widespread electrification of personal vehicle travel in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needell, Zachary A.; McNerney, James; Chang, Michael T.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2016-09-01

    Electric vehicles can contribute to climate change mitigation if coupled with decarbonized electricity, but only if vehicle range matches travellers’ needs. Evaluating electric vehicle range against a population’s needs is challenging because detailed driving behaviour must be taken into account. Here we develop a model to combine information from coarse-grained but expansive travel surveys with high-resolution GPS data to estimate the energy requirements of personal vehicle trips across the US. We find that the energy requirements of 87% of vehicle-days could be met by an existing, affordable electric vehicle. This percentage is markedly similar across diverse cities, even when per capita gasoline consumption differs significantly. We also find that for the highest-energy days, other vehicle technologies are likely to be needed even as batteries improve and charging infrastructure expands. Car sharing or other means to serve this small number of high-energy days could play an important role in the electrification and decarbonization of transportation.

  8. Anencephaly: A pathological study of 41 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anencephaly is a lethal neural tube defect which is due to the defective closure of rostral pore of neural tube. In more than 50% of cases it is associated with other systemic anomalies. Hence this study was undertaken to assess pathological parameters associated with anencephaly in particular attention to associated systemic anomalies. Materials and Methods: It is a study on 41 anencephaly fetuses conducted in the Department of Pathology. The period of study is from January 2001 to December 2011. Results: Out of 41 cases, 30 (73% cases showed presence of systemic anomalies, 48.5% of the cases were observed in primigravida. Most common associated anomaly was spina bifida followed by gastrointestinal anomalies. Conclusion: Pathological examination of the abortus is essential to document the associated anomalies.

  9. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report is the Danish case study report in the EU-financed project INTERACTS, which analyses experience and expectations to the interaction between NGOs, Science Shops and universities. The report analyses potentials and barriers to NGO’s and similar civil society groups’ use of research...... and science through co-operation with Science Shops as a mediator between universities and civil society. The Danish national case study report analyses three projects carried out through the Science Shops at DTU and RUC. One case is a co-operation between two DTU students and an NGO, whom is working towards...... the projects so it fits into the university schedule, without leaving out the time perspective of the clients, and secure the research is applicable for the clients and based on their need for knowledge. The case studies have shown different roles of a Science Shop. All Science Shops have a role as mediator...

  10. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  11. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings...

  12. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  13. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  14. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  15. [Asteroid hyalopathy. Ultrastructural study of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenis, J P; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, R

    1984-01-01

    The vitreous of three patients with asteroïd hyalosis (average age: 57 years) was obtained by a two-hand closed pars plana vitrectomy. Asteroïd hyalosis was associated with alcoholic neuropathy in the first case, long standing retinal detachment in the second case, and diabetes mellitus in the third case. The visual acuity before and after the surgical procedure improved from 1.2/6 to 6/6 in the first case, from light perception to 0.3/6 in the second case, from 0.6/6 to 4.8/6 in the third case. The vitreous was studied by different ultrastructural technics : transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) and electron diffraction X ray analysis (E.D.A.X.). By S.E.M. the asteroïd bodies appeared as rounded structures with an irregular surface connected to each other by fibrous strands among sodium chloride crystals. No cellular remnants were observed. By T.E.M. the asteroïd bodies were composed of interwinned ribbons of multilaminar membranes with a periodicity (10 to 60 A) characteristic of complex lipids, especially phospholipids. At the edge of the ribbons there were dots and sometimes clumps of opaque material that tended to crack out of the specimen with the heat of the electron beam. T.E.M. study disclosed the irregular disposition of the calcific bodies. By E.D.A.X. the calcific composition of the rounded structures could be determined : calcium and phosphorus were the main elements detectable in asteroïd bodies of all sizes for all three patients. The average calcium counts for the three successive cases were : 18, 30, 43 and for phosphorus : 9, 14, 26. Potassium was found in the first case, and sulfur in the third case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  17. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), this draft case study on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is based on the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, which consists of both a framework and a process. Unlike previous case studies this case study incorporates information about a traditional (i.e., “non-nano-enabled”) product, against which the MWCNT flame-retardant coating applied to upholstery textiles (i.e., the “nano-enabled” product) can be compared. The comparative element serves dual-purposes: 1) to provide a more robust database that facilitates identification of data gaps related to the nano-enabled product and 2) to provide a context for identifying key factors and data gaps for future efforts to evaluate risk-related trade-offs between a nano-enabled and non-nano-enabled product. This draft case study does not represent a completed or even a preliminary assessment of MWCNTs; rather, it uses the CEA framework to structure information from available literature and other resources (e.g., government reports) on the product life cycle, fate and transport processes in various environmental media, exposure-dose characterization, and impacts in human, ecological, and environmental receptors.

  18. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  19. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  20. Case Studies of Three Interorganizational Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    As part of their study of interorganizational collaboration, researchers present three detailed case studies of how regional education agencies (REAs) supply knowledge utilization services to the school districts they serve. The three REAs are the Wayne County (Michigan) Intermediate School District (with 36 districts), the Educational Improvement…

  1. Prader-Willi Disease: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, William R., III

    A case study focuses on the characteristics and physical management of a 15-year-old with Prader-Willi Syndrome, a birth defect associated with hypotonia, insatiable appetite, hypogonadism, central nervous system dysfunction, and abnormal growth and development . A literature review addresses studies dealing with behavior modification of obesity…

  2. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  3. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  4. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  5. Integrating Ethics into Case Study Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking.  Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks.  Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components.  I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should." and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  6. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  7. Integrating ethics into case study assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A

    2014-12-01

    I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking. Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks. Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components. I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should," and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  8. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.

  9. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    decisions based on indicators. In essence, visualizing indicators and their dependencies can communicate the information to the stakeholders efficiently if done correctly, or mislead them if not done properly. In this paper we present results of a case study conducted in a unit of Ericsson. During the case...... study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  10. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  11. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...... arbejdstilbud. Konklusionen foreslår at give unge mere tid til at træffe de alvorlige valg vedr. deres fremtid ved at indføre et refugium, som i tankegang minder om Eriksons ungdomsmoratorium....

  12. Case Studies, Make-Your-Case Studies, and Case Stories: A Critique of Case-Study Methodology in Sustainability in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Walker, Kim E.; Wals, Arjen E.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we raise serious concerns about existing case-study research on sustainability in higher education. Our key concern is that the research does not live up to its potential for improving the field of sustainability in higher education. We have argued that case-study research in the field falls short of its promise due to a lack of…

  13. Decentralized electrification of an isolated town by means of photovoltaic solar energy; Electrificacion descentralizada de una poblacion aislada mediante energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred [Universidad Nacional de Energia, Lima (Peru)

    1997-12-31

    The insular community of Taquile in the Titicaca Lake is performing a pilot project of domiciliary electrification with photovoltaic systems. The project wants to evaluate the feasibility of a basic rural electrification with photovoltaic systems based in private initiatives, under the frame of the free market economy, in vogue in Peru. [Espanol] En la comunidad insular de Taquile en el Lago Titicaca se esta ejecutando un proyecto piloto de electrificacion domiciliaria con sistemas fotovoltaicos. El proyecto quiere evaluar la posibilidad de una electrificacion rural basica con sistemas fotovoltaicos en base a iniciativas privadas, dentro del marco de la economia de mercado libre, vigente en el Peru.

  14. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  15. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Study of 48 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Bharpoda, Pragnesh; Reddy, Raghuveer

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis represents a group of highly lethal infections characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical profile, microbial flora, and predisposing risk factors in patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Lastly, we aimed to formulate a protocol for management of necrotizing fasciitis. Forty-eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis patients who reported to our hospital between April 2007 and September 2009 were included in the study. The commonest predisposing factors were age greater than 50 years (58 % cases) and diabetes mellitus (52 % cases). The commonest site involved was extremity (70.8 %). Majority of infections were polymicrobial (87.5 %). Repeated aggressive debridement was the commonest surgical procedure performed. Early and aggressive surgical debridement, often in multiple sittings, supplemented by appropriate antibiotics and supportive therapy, forms the key to a successful outcome in necrotizing fasciitis.

  16. Microbial study of meningitis and encephalitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heba S; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Rakha, Magda E; Yingst, Samuel L; Baskharoun, Magda F

    2007-01-01

    Meningitis and/or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem especially during outbreaks. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for effective earlier treatment. This study aimed to identify the possible microbial causes of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases. CSF and serum samples were collected from 322 patients who had signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis and/or encephalitis. Out of 250 cases with confirmed clinical diagnosis, 83 (33.2%) were definitely diagnosed as bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis cases (by using CSF culture, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and CSF stain), 17 (6.8%) were definitely diagnosed as having viral causes ( by viral isolation on tissue culture, PCR and ELISA), and one (0.4%) was diagnosed as fungal meningitis case (by India ink stain, culture, and biochemical tests). Also, there was one encephalitis case with positive serum ELISA IgM antibodies against Sandfly scilian virus. N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia and M. tuberculosis were the most frequently detected bacterial agents, while Enteroviruses, herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster viruses were the most common viral agents encountered. Further studies are needed to assess the role of different microbial agents in CNS infections and their effective methods of diagnosis.

  17. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  18. Biliteracy, Spelling, and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgette, Ekaterina; Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this case study is to examine biliteracy and its effects on a young child's orthographic and writing growth. The analysis of the kindergartener's spelling development and compositional growth in reference to both language systems indicates that biliteracy had a positive effect on the student's acquisition of English…

  19. New Lives: Some Case Studies in Minamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Kazuko

    Three case studies of young Japanese adults who fell ill with Minamata disease (a form of methyl-mercury poisoning) are presented and the adjustment of the individuals to the disease is analyzed in terms of a model of creativity. The model distinguishes three types of creativity: identificational (in which one identifies with old ideas and…

  20. A Case Study of Horizontal Teacher Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Trav D.

    Horizontal teacher evaluation increases understanding of teaching through the critical examination of educational goals and classroom practices. This examination includes teachers' classroom observations of one another coupled with in-depth teacher conversations or dialogue about teaching aims and practices. A qualitative case study of a…

  1. Eastern's Employee Communication Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha

    1988-01-01

    Explores communication behaviors and reactions of employees during crisis periods, using a qualitative case study of Eastern Airlines pilots. Finds that useful theories for crisis communication can be developed only after sufficient inquiry into the communication needs and behaviors of message receivers. (MS)

  2. ESL and Digital Video Integration: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J., Ed.; Gromik, N., Ed.; Edwards, N., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that digital video technology is of particular interest to English language learners; students are drawn to its visual appeal and vibrant creative potential. The seven original case studies in this book demonstrate how video can be an effective and powerful tool to create fluid, fun, interactive, and collaborative…

  3. Portfolio Manager Selection – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Within a delegated portfolio management setting, this paper presents a case study of how the manager selection process can be operationalized in practice. Investors have to pursue a thorough screening of potential portfolio managers in order to discover their quality, and this paper discusses how...

  4. Lifelong Learning in SMEs: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Rick; Smith, Vikki; Devins, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Learning centers using information-communications technologies were established in three British industrial estates. A case study of one organization shows the center contributed to lifelong learning and enhanced information technology training and employee confidence. Transfer of training and productivity improvements were not as clear. (Contains…

  5. Effective communication. A Platonic case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Gerry C.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; Van Noord, Gertjan

    As a contribution to the valedictory volume for John Nerbonne I present a case study of two thematically similar passages in Plato where I will make use of an analysis based on discourse cohesion and above all on the rhetorical and manipulative use of particles to show how a single (leading)

  6. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  7. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  8. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  9. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  10. WP6 - The Ag2020 Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens G; Borch, Kristian; Trombi, Giacomo;

    2010-01-01

    of the Future are presented. Finally, in section 1.4, is described the structure of the present report,which is firmly followed by the four case studies involved in the Project, namely the Rhodope Mountainous region in Bulgaria (CS1), The Kastelli region (Herakleion nomos) in Greece (CS2), the Central Denmark...

  11. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment approach that combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Rather, the case studies are intended to help identify what needs to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. This draft document is part of a process that will inform the development of EPA’s research strategy to support nanomaterial risk assessments. The complex properties of various nanomaterials make evaluating them in the abstract or with generalizations difficult if not impossible. Thus, this document focuses on two specific uses of nano-TiO2, as a drinking water treatment and as topical sunscreen. These case studies do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments; rather, they present the structure for identifying and prioritizing research needed to support future assessments.

  12. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...

  13. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…

  14. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...

  15. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  16. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  17. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  18. Understanding Parkinson disease: an evolving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Gwyn M; Carty, Anne E S; Salemno, Christin M; Siskind, Michele M; Thomas, Cathi A

    2014-10-15

    Thirty years ago, Parkinson disease was described as a shortage of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Today, understanding of this disorder includes possible genetic influences, premorbid and nonmotor issues, and a variety of neurologic, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. Using a case study, this article presents the current science of Parkinson disease.

  19. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...... engineering design education....

  20. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  1. Peasant Politics in Chile: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, James; Zemelman, Hugo

    The major purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the formation of a new structure of authority and the process of change from capitalist oligarchy to pluralistic collectivism--an aspect of political development. A case study is based upon interviews with 12 informants who were involved in the seizure of a large farm from its owner. The…

  2. Case Study of Home-School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerrebere, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    This case study evaluated one site of a California teacher home visit program. Home visits have been an important means of connecting families and schooling. In 1999, California inaugurated a statewide home visit program to promote effective partnership between home and school for low-achieving schools. At this site, families in 3 kindergarten…

  3. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  4. Helping Adolescents in Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Obaid, Beatrice

    1989-01-01

    Addresses problem of adolescent suicide by developing five stages (suicidal signs, establishing rapport, making referral, constructive actions, and self-management) that may be used to help adolescents in distress. Uses five stages in case study to demonstrate the roles played by teacher, friend, and parents in helping adolescent through a crisis.…

  5. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  6. Gifted Teenagers with Problems: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Theresa; Goodner, Jane

    Case studies are presented of three gifted students, indicating the social and academic problems which are standing in the way of their potential development. The students include a Vietnamese-American ninth-grade girl who has difficulty with English and does not feel accepted by other students, an underachieving seventh grade boy who speaks out…

  7. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  8. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…

  9. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  10. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  11. Learning Team Strategies: Soccer Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Salustowicz, R.P.; Schmidhuber, J.

    1998-01-01

    We use simulated soccer to study multiagent learning. Each team's players (agents) share action set and policy, but may behave differently due to position-dependent inputs. All agents making up a team are rewarded or punished collectively in case of goals. We conduct simulations with varying t

  12. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology. A case study describes an aspect of a real problem in sufficient detail for the engineer and scientist to understand the tribological situation and the failure. The nature of the problem is analyzed and the tribological properties are examined.

  13. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology and space tribology. Two case studies describe aspects of real problems in sufficient detail for the engineer and the scientist to understand the tribological situations and the failures. The nature of the problems is analyzed and the range of potential solutions is evaluated. Courses of action are recommended.

  14. Fraternization in Accounting Firms: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Tim; Kizirian, Tim; Leese, Wallace

    2004-01-01

    This case study sheds light on how to avoid risks caused by manager-subordinate dating relationships (fraternization) such as employee misunderstandings, retaliation charges, favoritism complaints, wrongful termination lawsuits, and sexual harassment lawsuits, as well as associated ethical risks. Risk avoidance can be accomplished through a better…

  15. Teaching Business Intelligence through Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomykalski, James J.

    2015-01-01

    In teaching business students about the application and implementation of technology, especially involving business intelligence, it is important to discover that project success in enterprise systems development efforts often depend on the non-technological problems or issues. The focus of this paper will be on the use of multiple case studies in…

  16. A case study of Inle Lake, Myanmar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governance research has looked at (sustainable) tourism ... Subsequently this model is used to present a case study of Inle Lake, Myanmar. ... Trade initiatives, the World Trade Organisation (2015) frames ... public assets, whereas powerful international actors .... Teams shared and validated their initial findings by means of.

  17. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. Results show that low-carbon technologies remain essential contributors to reducing emissions and altering emissions trends up to 2050. By pushing the limit of current practicality, emissions reduction can reach 20 to 28 percent and the advent of carbon peaking could shift from 2040 to 2030. In addition, the effect of electrification at end-use sectors is studied. Results show that electrifying transport could reduce emissions and bring the advent of carbon peaking forward, but the effect is less significant compared with low-carbon technologies. Moreover, it implies the importance of decarbonizing power supply before electrifying end-use sectors.

  18. Avio case study: the MRO process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Angelo; Dimartino, Angelo; Errico, Fabrizio; Giangreco, Enza

    This chapter presents the case study of the Avio Brindisi plant where a profound process of change has been in progress for a number of years. We use the TEKNE Project methodology of change to analyze the different aspects of the case, highlighting the firm's strategic, organizational and technological characteristics and the environment it operates in. In particular, we envisage a change in the plant's business model in response to the expansion of its client segments and a potential new approach to MRO operations based on advanced fleet management practices that would radically change the firm's organization and value network with respect to its MRO service offering, thereby yielding extensive global market opportunities.

  19. Empathy Development Through Case Study and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Heidi A; Bassett, Susan; Pasquariello, Libby

    2016-01-01

    Because empathy is integral to the nurse-patient relationship, nurse educators are challenged to explore teaching strategies that may aid in the development of empathy among students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent exposure to a single patient through case study and simulation had an impact on empathy levels in senior-level baccalaureate nursing students. Results provide interesting conclusions for faculty members and offer a basis for ongoing discussion.

  20. CAT: A CASE STUDY OF GRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZe; ChenJiliang

    2004-01-01

    The Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has developedsuccessfully with its adoption by testing agencies. The authors ofthis paper point out the advantages and disadvantages of CATsand then take GRE as a case study to probe into the scoringalgorithm in CAT. By analyzing some typical score reports ofcomputer-adaptive GRE General Test, they study some majorfactors affecting the final score such as the percentage ofcorrectness and difficulty levels.

  1. Mobile Technologies Adoption: An Exploratory Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Yan; HUANG Lihua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of task-technology fit and literature review of mobile technology acceptance, a research model is presented based on the features of mobile technologies and the actual usage of mobile applications in business environments, which identifies the characteristics of mobile applications and fitting tasks. An exploratory case is studied to understand how ABC Company, Hong Kong, utilizes mobile selling applications in their sales management process. This study gives some managerial suggestions for enterprises to successfully use mobile applications.

  2. PANCYTOPENIA - A STUDY OF 58 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia means decrease in all three cell lines. It is the striking feature of of many illness ranging from megaloblastic anaemia to leukemias. The underlying pathology of pancytopenia will determine the management and prognosis. OB JECTIVE: To identify the various causes of Pancytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken at A Private Lab. RESULTS: 58 cases were studied, 30males and 28 females with age ranging from 3 yrs to 90 yrs. Most of the cases presented wit h generalized weakness, followed by pallor, hepatosplenomegaly and bleeding manifestations. CONCLUSION: The present study was helpful in understanding the various causes of diseases process with bone marrow aspiration done in few of the pancytopenic patien ts along with support of biochemical investigations which were helpful in planning further investigations and management.

  3. Dieulafoy's lesion: A case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Walmsley; Yuk-Tong Lee; Joseph JY Sung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) accounts for 1-5.8% of cases of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Its mortality is high, approaching 20%, despite recent advances in endoscopic therapy. We aimed to report our experience in the treatment of DL.METHODS: A retrospective case study of all patients with DL between January 1993 and January 2003 was done. Characteristics, treatment methods, success rates and 30-d mortality of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were noted to have DL in the study period. Thirty-three records were available for assessment in which 35 DL were identified. The median age of the patients was 67 years with male to female ratio of 5.6:1. Significant comorbidities existed in 69% of the patients. Eighty-nine percent of the DL was found at first endoscopy, three DL at laparotomy. Significant coexistent endoscopic findings existed in 23%. Hemostasis was achieved in 88% by using adrenaline injection, or in combination with heater probe application at first endoscopy. Four cases had re-bleeding, all were successfully treated endoscopically. The 30-d mortality rate was 23%.CONCLUSION: Successful endoscopic hemostasis could be achieved in 100% of cases of DL. The overall mortality may still remain high, mainly due to the comorbidities and age of these patients.

  4. Let There Be Light: the Role of Electrification in Liberia's Post-Conflict Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Rick

    2007-07-01

    Early in 2006, President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf made re-electrification a cornerstone of Liberia's stabilization and redevelopment programs. After 14 years of civil war, there was no electric grid or commercial electricity in the country. The Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC) was moribund, with no infrastructure or customers. An international donors group of Ghana, the EC, the World Bank, and USAID formulated a $7 million Emergency Power Program to restore power to parts of Monrovia. In four months, this group, with the active participation of GOL and LEC, imported generators, rebuilt distribution networks, and began commercial service. By the end of 2006, LEC was serving 280 customers and had achieved operational self-sufficiency. There were streetlights in the capital for the first time in years. A second phase, increasing generation and customers 5-fold, is underway. It is funded at $22 million by a donor group including Norway. At its conclusion, 70% of Monrovia's neighborhoods will have access to service. International private financing of a next phase is in the offing. Critical lessons offered: Electrification is central to post-conflict stabilization; Capacity development is as important as technology; Commercialization of electricity is required; and, Top level support is critical. (auth)

  5. Experiences with a small scale Solar/Wind pilot installation for basic electrification in the chilean altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapiain, Raul; Ovalle, Ricardo; Torres, Ariel; Brockmeyer, Ricarda; Schmidt, Reinhold [Centro de Energias Renovables/Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica, (Chile); Meer, Andreas V. [Solar Institute, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Basic rural electrification programmes are already carried out in the rural areas of northern Chile by local communities and local governments using photovoltaic systems. Solar Home Systems, 12 VDC are installed for individual households while systems for schools, public lighting etc. are realized with bigger systems, 220 VAC. Within a cooperation with the Solar Institute of the Fachhochschule Juelich, Germany, the Renewable Energy Center of the University of Tarapaca designed, installed and evaluated the first solar/wind hybrid installation for basic electrification in northern Chile, realized in Colpitas, a typical small village in the chilean altiplano. The following paper presents results and experiences of this first pilot installation. [Espanol] Ya se estan llevando a cabo programas de electrificacion rural basica en las areas rurales del Norte de Chile por las comunidades y los gobiernos locales, usando sistemas fotovoltaicos. Se instalan Sistemas Domesticos Solares de 12VDC para casas-habitacion individuales, mientras que los sistemas para escuelas, alumbrado publico, etc., se ejecutan con sistemas mas grandes de 220VAC. Con la coperacion del Instituto Solar de la Fachhochschule en Julich, Alemania, el Centro de Energia Renovable de la Universidad de Tarapaca, diseno, instalo y evaluo, la primera instalacion hibrida solar/viento para electrificacion basica en el Norte de Chile, realizado en Colpitas, un pueblo tipico pequeno del altiplano chileno. El siguiete articulo presenta los resultados y experiencias de esta primera instalacion piloto.

  6. Renewable rural electrification. Sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Alan Colin [Resource Based Sustainable Development, Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Rogers, David E. [Energy and Processes, Material Science and Manufacturing, CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-01-15

    The investigation summarised in this paper applied a sustainability assessment methodology on a renewable energy technological system in a rural village project that was commissioned by the South African Department of Minerals and Energy. The project comprised of wind, solar and lead-acid battery energy storage technologies that were implemented as a mini-hybrid off-grid electrification system for the village. The sustainability assessment methodology predicts the outcomes of such interventions by way of a learning model using discipline experts in the fields of economics, sociology, ecosystem sustainability, institutional governance, and the physics and chemistry of energy conversion processes. The comparison of the project's outcomes with a South African sustainable development framework shows that the specific village renewable off-grid electrification system is not viable. The main reason is that charges for electricity supply costs in village grids are too high for available subsidies; the economies of scale for renewable energy supply technologies favour national grids. The failure of the integrated system may also be attributable to the complexity of the social-institutional sub-system, which resulted in uncertainty for project planners and system designers, and the lack of resilience of the technological system to demands from the socio-economic and institutional sub-systems. Policy-related recommendations are made accordingly. (author)

  7. The Pendulum A Case Study in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Gregory L

    2005-01-01

    The pendulum: a case study in physics is a unique book in several ways. Firstly, it is a comprehensive quantitative study of one physical system, the pendulum, from the viewpoint of elementary and more advanced classical physics, modern chaotic dynamics, and quantum mechanics. In addition, coupled pendulums and pendulum analogs of superconducting devices are also discussed. Secondly, this book treats the physics of the pendulum within a historical and cultural context,showing, for example, that the pendulum has been intimately connected with studies of the earth's density, the earth's motion,

  8. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  9. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-11-20

    Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  10. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2004-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  11. Web Fuzzy Clustering and a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mao-fu; HE Jing; HE Yan-xiang; HU Hui-jun

    2004-01-01

    We combine the web usage mining and fuzzy clustering and give the concept of web fuzzy clustering, and then put forward the web fuzzy clustering processing model which is discussed in detail. Web fuzzy clustering can be used in the web users clustering and web pages clustering. In the end, a case study is given and the result has proved the feasibility of using web fuzzy clustering in web pages clustering.

  12. RECURRENT PERINATAL LOSS: A CASE STUDY*

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent’s history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to exam...

  13. Concentrated Photo Voltaics (CPV: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centro S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated PhotoVoltaic (CPV, among green energy solutions, nowadays has the ambition to reach grid-parity without subside. CPV substitutes large areas of expensive semiconductor solar cells, with concentrating optics made of cheap materials. Moreover the cells that are suitable for CPV exhibits an unprecedented efficiency and their technology is progressing every year. A case study project, TwinFocus®, will be presented in detail.

  14. Nursing's divided loyalties: an historical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, E D

    1989-01-01

    Using the historical version of the case study method, this research explored an example of turn-of-the-century nurses' conflicted loyalties. One training school alumnae association was examined to demonstrate that nurses acted out simultaneous loyalty to competing entities: individual graduates attributes vs. associational eligibility requirements; member vs. institutions' needs; and local vs. national nursing concerns. As a result of these divided loyalties, the nurses did not meet the alumnae organizational goals they set for themselves.

  15. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S. (Ed.); Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  16. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet; Laurent Guillier; Murielle Naïtali

    2015-01-01

    Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours) in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated w...

  17. Case studies in government procurement fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, James R. S.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited MBA Professional Report The purpose of this research is to provide guidance that will increase awareness and facilitate class discussions on ethical situations that contracting officers are exposed to during their business relationships with contracting firms. The cases explore the specifics of individual incidents of ethical and procedural procurement violations. Additionally, this study provides conclusions and recommendations tha...

  18. Case studies of soil in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-08-01

    The material and symbolic appropriations of soil in artworks are numerous and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in film, architecture, and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and film are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil as a contribution to raising soil awareness.

  19. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    as Aurora and Grob. Fourteen teams responded. The bids submitted covered a wide-range of size and performance for a $10 million UFP, causing the...Delos Reyes , 95th Air Base Wing Public Affairs, 1 December 2006 Roll Out of Firs Production Block 10 Global Hawk Systems Engineering Case Study...Delos Reyes , 95th DoD News Briefing, June 28, 1995 Air Base Wing Public Affairs, December 1, 2006 Edwards Test Production Global Hawk for Possible

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    BOYACI, Reviewed By Dr. Adnan

    2005-01-01

    161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM) as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…...

  1. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  2. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  3. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  4. Recovery Act - An Interdisciplinary Program for Education and Outreach in Transportation Electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Bohmann, Leonard [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Naber, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Beard, John [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Passerello, Chris [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Worm, Jeremy [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Chen, Bo [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Allen, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Weaver, Wayne [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Hackney, Stephen [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Keith, Jason [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Meldrum, Jay [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Mork, Bruce [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2013-01-30

    1) How the project adds to the education of engineering students in the area of vehicle electrification: This project created and implemented a significant interdisciplinary curriculum in HEV engineering that includes courses focused on the major components (engines, battery cells, e-machines, and power electronics). The new curriculum, rather uniquely, features two new classes and two new labs that emphasize a vehicle level integration of a hybrid electric powertrain that parallels the vehicle development process used by the OEMs - commercial grade software is used to design a hybrid electric vehicle, hardware-in-the-loop testing is performed on each component until the entire powertrain is optimized, the calibration is flashed to a vehicle, ride-and-drives are executed including on board data acquisition. In addition, nine existing courses were modified by adding HEV material to the courses. 2) The educational effectiveness and economic feasibility of the new curriculum: The new courses are offered at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. They are listed across the college in mechanical, chemical, electrical, and materials science and engineering. They are offered both on campus and to distance learning students. Students across the college of engineering and at all degree levels are integrating these courses into their degree programs. Over the three year project the course enrollments on-campus has totaled 1,249. The distance learning enrollments has totaled 315. With such robust enrollments we absolutely expect that these courses will be in the curriculum for the long run. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public: One outcome of the project is the construction of the Michigan Tech Mobile Lab. Two complete HEV dynamometer test cells, and four work stations are installed in the 16.2 meter Mobile Laboratory and hauled by a class 8 truck. The Mobile Lab is used to teach the university courses. It is also used to deliver short courses to

  5. The participation of the sectors of electric energy consumption in a rural electrification cooperative; A participacao dos setores de consumo de energia eletrica em uma cooperativa de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Cristiane Aparecida Pelegrin [Instituicao Toledo de Ensino (ITE), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Contabeis], e-mail: cristiane.higuchi@itelefonica.com.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Ielo, Frederico G. de Paula F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This work had the objective of to evaluate the behavior of the electrical energy distribution in a Rural Electrification Cooperative, placed inside the State of Sao Paulo, embracing the region of the county of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema. Were appraised the electric energy distribution data of the Rural Electrification Cooperative of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema - CERIPA, during the years of 2000, 2001 and 2002. Was evaluated the sale of energy evolution, clearance evolution, general load factor and the electrical distribution for consumer type. The found results allowed to end that the Rural electrification Cooperative, show a good electric energy distribution in residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  6. Case Study on Printed Matter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2012-01-01

    60 of these substances fulfill one or more of the criteria (e.g., CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (Authorisation List). This case study presents the results of the mapping of chemical substitution candidates some of which may be relevant regarding accumulation of additives...... in 2006. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals, which are the potential candidates for substitution (e.g., PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS). The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish...

  7. A Case Study on Distributed Antenna Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2007-01-01

    to changing interference and traffic conditions are less common, despite their potential for increased capacity in comparison with traditional (pico)cellular based concepts. This chapter explores a case study of one indoor environment where the site-specific propagation characteristics are taken into account...... in evaluating the capacity potential from adaptive DASs. After an introduction, the chapter gives a description of the site-specific environment considered in this study, including models for the large-scale path loss and user deployment that is later assumed for simulations. Radio resource assignment...

  8. Case Study on Printed Matter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2012-01-01

    60 of these substances fulfill one or more of the criteria (e.g., CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (Authorisation List). This case study presents the results of the mapping of chemical substitution candidates some of which may be relevant regarding accumulation of additives...... in 2006. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals, which are the potential candidates for substitution (e.g., PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS). The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish...

  9. Case study of isosurface extraction algorithm performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M; Hansen, C D; Shen, H; Schikore, D

    1999-12-14

    Isosurface extraction is an important and useful visualization method. Over the past ten years, the field has seen numerous isosurface techniques published leaving the user in a quandary about which one should be used. Some papers have published complexity analysis of the techniques yet empirical evidence comparing different methods is lacking. This case study presents a comparative study of several representative isosurface extraction algorithms. It reports and analyzes empirical measurements of execution times and memory behavior for each algorithm. The results show that asymptotically optimal techniques may not be the best choice when implemented on modern computer architectures.

  10. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, Bali: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, James M.

    1974-01-01

    The South Pacific island of Bali is used as a case study of overpopulation and food shortage. A brief description of the resources, the typical lifestyle of the Balinese farmer, and possible teaching techniques are given. (DE)

  11. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, Bali: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, James M.

    1974-01-01

    The South Pacific island of Bali is used as a case study of overpopulation and food shortage. A brief description of the resources, the typical lifestyle of the Balinese farmer, and possible teaching techniques are given. (DE)

  12. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as part of a process to identify and prioritize research to inform future assessments of the potential ecological and health implications of these materials. Two specific applications of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) are considered: (1) as an agent for removing arsenic from drinking water; and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. These case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework that combines a product life cycle perspective with the risk assessment paradigm. They are intended to help identify what may need to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. These “case studies” do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments, nor are they intended to serve as a basis for risk management decisions in the near term on these specific uses of nano TiO2. Rather, the intent is to use this document in developing the scientific and technical information needed for future assessment efforts.

  13. Semantic dementia: Brazilian study of nineteen cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract The term semantic dementia was devised by Snowden et al. in 1989 and nowadays, the semantic dementia syndrome is recognized as one of the clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and is characterized by a language semantic disturbance associated to non-verbal semantic memory impairment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe a Brazilian sample of 19 semantic dementia cases, emphasizing the clinical characteristics important for differential diagnosis of this syndrome. Methods: Nineteen cases with semantic dementia were evaluated between 1999 and 2007. All patients were submitted to neurological evaluation, neuroimaging exams and cognitive, language and semantic memory evaluation. Results: All patients presented fluent spontaneous speech, preservation of syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, word-finding difficulty, semantic paraphasias, word comprehension impairment, low performance in visual confrontation naming tasks, impairment on tests of non-verbal semantic memory and preservation of autobiographical memory and visuospatial skills. Regarding radiological investigations, temporal lobe atrophy and/or hypoperfusion were found in all patients. Conclusions: The cognitive, linguistic and of neuroimaging data in our case series corroborate other studies showing that semantic dementia constitutes a syndrome with well defined clinical characteristics associated to temporal lobe atrophy.

  14. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  15. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  16. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for providing electricity to a remote telecommunication station; Etudes et conception d'un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour l'electrification d'une station de telecommunications isolee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre eolien Gaspesie-les Iles, Gaspe, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This poster reported on a study that examined the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. Low and high penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems were studied in order to reduce the diesel consumption. The use of a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) was shown to be a viable alternative to improve the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity in remote areas where a good wind resource is available. Different technical solutions for the CAES system were compared. refs., figs.

  17. Forecast Master Program case studies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, R.; Granger, C.; Ramanathan, R. (ed.)

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a number of case studies using the computer software package FORECAST MASTER (FM). The series studied and forecast are, aggregate monthly California Electricity Sales, system energy demand data from Ontario Hydro, peak demand data for the residential and commercial customers of Georgia Power Company, Massachusetts Electric commercial sales, Narragansett Electric commercial sales, average and peak demand using Georgia Power Company data. A variety of methods have been studied by each of the contributing authors; trend line fitting, exponential smoothing, Box-Jenkins univariate forecasting, vector autoregression, state space modeling, dynamic econometric models including time-varying parameters and general order serial correlation corrections. Thus both the data sets and the modeling/forecasting methodologies are varied. A number of conclusions emerge from these case studies: FM provides a powerful set of tools to aid a utility forecaster, a great deal of caution should be exercised in pre-processing the data; it can have unintended side effects, diagnostic tests are very useful in econometric models, the Akaike Information Criterion is a useful measure for selecting the best state space model, and state space and econometric approaches both need equal amounts of care in model analysis and presentation.

  18. CRERAL: one experience in cooperative in rural electrification and a new legislation for the cooperatives; CRERAL: uma experiencia de cooperativa na eletrificacao rural e a nova legislacao para as cooperativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Joao Alderi do [Cooperativa Regional de Eletrificacao Rural do Alto Uruguai LTDA (CRERAL), Campinas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: creral@st.com.br

    2003-01-15

    Cooperativa Regional de Eletrificacao Rural do Alto Uruguai LTDA - CRERAL was created in July 23rd, 1969, to take energy to the countryside, because the concessionaire did not use to do that in that time. CRERAL has been distributing electric energy in the countryside for 33 years and, recently, it has been producing energy too. This work shows a brief historic of CRERAL and a new scenario to the cooperatives of rural electrification in relation to the new Brazilian electric model. After 33 years, CRERAL has a great experience in distributing electric energy in the countryside. In 2001, CRERAL had 5,647 partners using the energy in 37 cities in the north region of Rio Grande do Sul, with its head-office in Erechim - RS, with an electric system of 1,781 km of web and 18,890 posts, 1,475 transformers installed with a potency of 17,161 KVA. CRERAL has implanted a model of democratic management, that permits the partners to take part in the decisions of the cooperative, including organized groups in the communities (that are 105 today) and the general assembly. The partners define the priorities, the changes, the investments and the tariff to be charged. With studies starting in 1997, CRERAL started producing energy. In 2000, was inaugurated the first PCH. With a potency of 720 KW, Abauna Dam was responsible for 26% of the energy consumed by the cooperative in 2001. Cascata das Andorinhas PCH Dam, with a potency of 1,000 KW , is being built and it must be working by the end of 2002. The new electric model will bring great changes to the cooperativism of electrification with the possibility that the cooperatives be transformed in permissionaires of public service of energy, but it will also represent a great challenge to be inserted and to continuo existing in this new scenario. (author)

  19. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  20. Russian Media Educators: Case Studies Portraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to case studies of the media education works of some well knowns Russian media educators. The analysis of media educational work of the famous Russian media educators leads us to the conclusion that media education in Russia is developing, building on the synthesis of the aesthetic, socio-cultural, and practical concepts, with a focus on the development of media competence of the audience, mainly school and youth. The enthusiasts of media education, even devoid of substantial public support for its innovative projects, achieve significant and meaningful results.

  1. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  2. Parameterized Synthesis Case Study: AMBA AHB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Bloem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the AMBA AHB case study that has been used as a benchmark for several reactive synthesis tools. Synthesizing AMBA AHB implementations that can serve a large number of masters is still a difficult problem. We demonstrate how to use parameterized synthesis in token rings to obtain an implementation for a component that serves a single master, and can be arranged in a ring of arbitrarily many components. We describe new tricks - property decompositional synthesis, and direct encoding of simple GR(1 - that together with previously described optimizations allowed us to synthesize a component model with 14 states in about 1 hour.

  3. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  4. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D. [URS Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m{sup 3} of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations.

  5. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  6. Myonecrosis in Sickle Cell Anemia: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Lalita Prabha; Boddu, Prajwal; Kipferl, Steve; Basu, Anupam; Yorath, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Myonecrosis of sickle cell anaemia Symptoms: Pain • redness to feet • swelling foot Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Podiatry Objective: Rare disease Background: Myonecrosis is one of the more poorly studied, painful manifestations of sickle cell crisis. Medical literature is sparse detailing the manifestations and management of such symptoms. In myonecrosis, red cells containing sickle hemoglobin become rigid, resulting in reduced blood flow and myonecrosis. Case Report: We present a case study of a patient in sickle cell crisis with an episode of acute pain and swelling to the intrinsic muscles of the foot as a prominent feature of the crises. Although muscle biopsy is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of myositis or myonecrosis, a low intensity signal on T1 and high intensity signal on T2 at the affected muscle belly can be as conclusive as imaging studies. In an actively sickling patient any invasive intervention should be avoided as it can result in ischemic necrosis of the tissues, due to interruption of capillary flow in end-arteries. Conclusions: Early recognition is critical in sickle cell disease management, allowing for prompt and aggressive fluid resuscitation which remains a cornerstone in the management of most sickle cell vaso-occlusive crises. In this instance, off loading the extremity and early fluid resuscitation resolved the pain and swelling and prevented myonecrosis. PMID:28133359

  7. Learning with Multimedia Cases: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Berg, Ellen; Jansen, Leanne; Blijleven, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article is about the relation between case-based learning and transfer in teacher education. Through a design research approach a multimedia case has been developed. The topic of the case is "outdoor activities in science education." The core of the case is a 17 minute video that is supplemented by all kinds of background information. Results…

  8. [The SAPHO syndrome: a study of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, A; Pérez-Andrés, R; Rivas, A; Holgado, S; Casado, E; Gumá, M; Tena, X

    1999-01-23

    The SAPHO syndrome is characterized by synovitis, acne, palmo-plantar pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis. SAPHO syndrome has been occasionally described in Spain. We present our experience of 16 cases with the SAPHO syndrome diagnosed between 1984-1995. The predominant clinical symptoms were: anterior thoracic pain (14 cases), sacroiliac pain (7 cases) and peripheral arthritis (2 cases). Cutaneous involvement was characterized by palmo-plantar pustulosis (8 cases) acne (3 cases) and psoriasis (2 cases). The histocompatibility antigen B27 was negative in all cases. A computerized tomographic study revealed involvement of sterno-costo-clavicular and manubriosternal joints (14 cases) and sacroiliitis (8 cases).

  9. Impact of power sector reform on poor: A case study of south East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihag, A.R.; Misra, N.; Sharma, V.

    2004-07-01

    Electricity constitutes one of the key inputs for socio-economic development. Efficient provision of electricity not only contributes to poverty reduction indirectly through economic growth, but being central to the basic human needs of health and education, electricity access also has a direct bearing on poverty reduction. Households use energy for a variety of purposes: cooking, lighting, water heating, and space conditioning. The provision of superior energy sources like electricity and LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) has important economic and social implications because of significant monetary and non-monetary benefits vis-a-vis the use of traditional fuels. Electrification fosters business development and increases employment opportunities. Electricity is also an important input in the provision of social infrastructure such as street lighting, piped water, television, and better-equipped hospitals, and schools. Provision of electricity can thus have far-reaching implications for improving living standards, supporting development and job opportunities, and fostering social activities. To meet the challenges of the ever-increasing demand of electricity different models for reforming the power sector have been adopted across the developing world. These power sector reforms generally involve commercialisation, setting up of independent regulators, restructuring, and privatization of the electricity sector. Following a decade of energy sector reforms in many developing countries people are increasingly questioning the extent to which these reforms have benefited the poor. There is often a concern that these reforms are a retrogressive for the poor, and this study is an attempt at investigating this in a systematic manner. Ensuring that the power sector interventions are designed to benefit the poor who form the most vulnerable section in society, is vital both from the perspective of social equity and because it is likely to affect the ultimate sustainability of

  10. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Tammy L; Porter, Randall

    2012-05-01

    To present an illustrative case study of a patient with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and to increase awareness of this condition among nurse practitioners (NPs). A literature search was conducted, and deidentified patient information forms the basis of this presentation. The authors' experience and appropriate images enhance the presentation of the case study. SIH is a condition that typically occurs without a traumatic event, although it can be associated with minor trauma. It occurs when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks through a focal weakness in the dural sac or meningeal diverticula, resulting in CSF hypovolemia. Patients usually present with an orthostatic headache. The most common brain magnetic resonance imaging findings are diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement, descent of the cerebellar tonsils, and subdural fluid collections. Treatment options range from management of symptoms to surgical repair of the leak. As NPs continue to provide care in a variety of settings, including emergency departments and urgent care areas, they must be familiar with the progression of symptoms that might indicate SIH and be prepared to make appropriate referrals to prevent iatrogenic morbidity. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  12. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a widespread issue in the United States. Nine of 10 Americans regularly suffer from pain, and nearly every person will experience low back pain at one point in their lives. Undertreated or unrelieved pain costs more than $60 billion a year from decreased productivity, lost income, and medical expenses. The ability to diagnose and provide appropriate medical treatment is imperative. This case study examines a 23-year-old Active Duty woman who is preparing to be involuntarily released from military duty for an easily correctable medical condition. She has complained of chronic low back pain that radiates into her hip and down her leg since experiencing a work-related injury. She has been seen by numerous providers for the previous 11 months before being referred to the chronic pain clinic. Upon the first appointment to the chronic pain clinic, she has been diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This case study will demonstrate the importance of a quality lower back pain assessment.

  13. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MESSING

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study Jason HOWARTH John MESSING Irfan ALTAS Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master’s degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU. The Industry Master’s degree is an academic program for students currently employed in the IT industry. Using Internet Based Testing (IBT, these students are examined in test centres throughout the world. This offers many benefits. For example, students have the freedom of sitting exams at any time during a designated interval. Computer-based testing also provides instructors with valuable feedback through test statistics and student comments. In this paper, we document CSU’s use of the IBT system, including how tests are built and delivered, and how both human and statistical feedback is used to evaluate and enhance the testing process.

  14. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  15. Social Architecture: An Emergency Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Qumer Gill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management agencies are progressively using social media for the sourcing and distribution of disaster information. Emergency management agencies are often unsure as to how to best identify and assess social media concerns (e.g. information security, trust which must be addressed to develop a social media-enabled disaster information management environment. This paper adopts the Social Architecture Viewpoint Assessment (SAVA framework for identifying and assessing social media concerns from four different viewpoints: IT, Value, Resource and Management. This paper demonstrates the use of the SAVA framework in the context of an in-depth empirical case study of an Australian emergency management agency. The results of this study indicate that the SAVA framework is useful for emergency information management managers in identifying and assessing social media concerns.

  16. Climate change: a case study over India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

    1998-12-31

    A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented. Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment caused by industrialization and urbanization. Literature data show that there is either a cooling tendency or cessation of warming after the late 1950s at most of the Indian industrial cities. A case study of Nagpur, a centrally located city in India, is done to understand the possible causes of cooling. Nagpur is the only city in India for which a long-term record of temperature, for urban (Mayo Hospital) and relatively suburban (Sonegaon Airport) area, is available. The study of the diurnal asymmetry in maximum and minimum temperatures indicates that the role of suspended particulate matter dominates over that of increasing greenhouse gases.

  17. Nightmares and psychotic decompensation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R; Daly, R S

    1998-01-01

    There have been numerous reports in the literature on the descriptive similarities between a severe nightmare and an acute psychotic episode. Nightmares may be a prelude to psychotic decompensation, and it has been suggested that frequent lifelong nightmares may even be diagnostic of an underlying vulnerability to psychosis. In this report, we present a case study of a 40-year old female experiencing chronic paranoid schizophrenia, whose two witnessed psychotic relapses in the hospital were immediately preceded by intense and vivid nightmare attacks. Significantly, the content of these nocturnal dreams was thematically consistent with her waking hallucinations, suggesting a direct continuity between these experiences. We propose that further systematic study of the dreams and nightmares of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia may be particularly useful in understanding their phenomenological experience.

  18. Commercializing Emerging Renewable Energy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Lehtovaara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A broad scientific consensus exists that the global climate is changing. The Earth’s surface temperature could rise significantly over the next few decades, leading to us witnessing an entirely new and unknown planet. Improved energy efficiency, decreasing use of fossil fuels and wide diffusion of various renewable energy sources are among the focal measures to limit global warming to a sustainable level. The objective of this study is to analyse how renewable energy, such as wind power and bioenergy, could be efficiently commercialized. The evaluation is based on a case study and expert analyses exploiting lateral and parallel thinking methods, and group decision support systems tools. The results reveal that some of the generated ideas are ready for implementation to commercialize renewable energy, whereas others still require technical and commercial development and improvements before maturity.

  19. The Effect of Using Case Studies in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau, Susan E.; Kezim, Boualem

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect on learning of using case studies in business statistics courses. The authors divided students into 3 groups: a control group, a group that completed 1 case study, and a group that completed 3 case studies. Results evidenced that, on average, students whom the authors required to complete a case analysis received…

  20. 铁路电化改造项目环境影响评价研究——以神木北至大保当铁路扩能改造建设项目为例%Discussion on Environmental Impact Assessment of Railway Electrification Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    校峰; 高明强; 马源; 马敏杰

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in environmental impact assessment of railway electrification renovation project are analyzed.Based on industrial assessment policies, this paper studied the pollution characteristics of railway electrification renovation project.The ecological environment, waste gas, the water, solid waste, noise, vibration and electromagnetic produced in the phases of con-struction and operation have affected the surrounding environment.This paper indicates the importance of public participation in estate development project, the main idea of engineering analysis in EIA was summarized to provide a reference for correctly asses-sing the environmental impact of electrification renovation project of railway.%分析了铁路电化改造项目环境影响评价中存在的诸多问题.结合实际工作经验,以神木北至大保当铁路扩能改造建设项目为例,通过调查分析指出铁路电化改造项目污染特性,并提出铁路电化改造过程的施工期和运营期中的生态环境影响及废气、废水、固体废弃物、铁路运行产生噪声、振动及牵引变电站产生的工频电磁场等对周围环境的影响,并提出了公众参与在铁路电化改造项目的重要性,为环境影响评价工作者正确评价铁路电化改造项目的环境影响提供参考.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…etc. Because of the growingimportance and the popularity of the KM either as a research topic or specialized coursesubject, a crucial need for understanding, conceptualization and implementation of KM asa system has emerged since the mid 1990’s. In this sense, the book contributes criticallyto fill the gap between theory and implementation as a teaching material.This edited book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has twenty chaptersdivided into seven sections. In addition to a section of authors’ biography contributing thebook and an index, there is a preface that the basic terms and key concepts underliningthe cases discussed following chapters, which is explained in a schematized way.Besides the editor, total of 47 authors have contributed to the book. These authors arefrom different countries, academic backgrounds, and institutions. Although approximatelyone third of the authors are from USA, the rest of the authors are from Canada, England,Austria, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Bahrain and China. The authorsrepresent a variety of universities, private companies, and military institutions. Most ofthem have strong professional backgrounds, which help them address the issues bothfrom theoretical and practical perspectives. Contributions of authors having differentbackgrounds and institutions enable the book to have very comprehensive spectrum andthis makes the book attractive practically for those working different sectors

  2. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  3. Electrification of the Dupnitza-Kulata line in Bulgaria; Elektrifizierung der Strecke Dupnitza-Kulata in Bulgarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Tessun, H. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    As part of the PHARE project the 120 km long single track main line in Bulgaria between Dupnitza and Kulata at the Greek border and a short secondary line have been electrified with 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz traction power supply. The project comprised the turn-key delivery of the catenary, two traction power substations with gas-isolated 25 kV switchgear and a new high reliable control system LTS2000, as well as the other electrification and infrastructure works. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des PHARE-Projektes wurden in Bulgarien die rund 120 km lange eingleisige Hauptstrecke zwischen Dupnitza und Kulata an der griechischen Grenze und eine kurze Nebenstrecke mit 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz elektrifiziert. Das Projekt umfasste die schluesselfertige Errichtung der Fahrleitungsanlagen, zweier Unterwerke mit gasisolierter 25-kV-Schaltanlage und einer neuen hochverfuegbaren Leittechnik LTS2000 sowie die sonstigen Elektrifizierungs- und Infrastrukturarbeiten. (orig.)

  4. STAKEHOLDERS AND APART HOTELS: MULTIPLE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Freire Ferreira Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Means of accommodation involve a wide range of social actors and agents, as well as different business models. Management strategies in this sector have been increasingly important for long-term sustainability and competitiveness of business organizations. This study aims to analyze the interactions between apart-hotels and their stakeholders to foster an improvement of services provided, aligning the interface of strategic management from the point of view of managers and their key stakeholders. It is an exploratory study, with qualitative chacter, along with multiple case studies of the following establishments: Travel Inn, Hotels Slaviero and Etoile george v. Brazilian enterprises, which manage lodging facilities with apart-hotel concepts, combining features that enable comparative analysis of the study. For conceptual understanding, this study was based on literature about stakeholders, taking the work of Freeman (1984 and Freeman et al (2010 as main references. The research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with managers of lodging facilities and their key stakeholders and through direct observation and documentation. We found that not all groups of influence are considered in the planning of service flats. However, the organizations surveyed indicated that the market has realized the importance of the groups that exert influence and are influenced by their goals, and are therefore increasingly alert for integration of such groups in their strategic planning.

  5. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  6. Case-Studie af Fredericia Battle 1849

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    En gennemgang af hvordan oplevelsesøkomien fungerer diskursivt - med Fredericia Battle 1849 som case.......En gennemgang af hvordan oplevelsesøkomien fungerer diskursivt - med Fredericia Battle 1849 som case....

  7. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  8. 京九铁路电气化工程跨线建筑物下接触网特殊设计方案研究%Research on Special Design Scheme of OCS below the Buildings Spanning over the Track in Electrification Renovation Project of Beijing-Jiulong Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范海江; 赵红玉; 王蓓

    2012-01-01

    针对既有铁路电气化改造工程存在很多跨线建筑物的工程实际,总结了接触网通过跨线建筑物的各种处理方案,在京九铁路电气化改造工程中,利用各种方案有效地解决既有线改造工程跨线建筑物下接触网通过问题,满足双层集装箱通过要求,最低导线高度保证6330mm.%Aiming at the actual situation that there are many buildings spanning over railway track in electrification renovation project of existing railway, the paper summarizes various solutions of OSC passing through the buildings which span over the railway tracks. In the case of electrification renovation project in Beijing-Jiulong Railway, a variety of effective solutions were utilized to solve the relevant technical issues, so the OSC can successfully pass below the buildings which span over the railway track, can meet the requirement of two-double container's passing through, and can guarantee the wire's minimum height not lower than 6330mm.

  9. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  10. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study...

  11. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  12. A Case Study on Distributed Antenna Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2007-01-01

    Passive distributed antenna systems (DASs) consisting of distributed feeder lines or single point antennas are now often installed in large office buildings where they provide efficient coverage throughout the building. More sophisticated DASs with intelligent reuse and the ability to adapt...... to changing interference and traffic conditions are less common, despite their potential for increased capacity in comparison with traditional (pico)cellular based concepts. This chapter explores a case study of one indoor environment where the site-specific propagation characteristics are taken into account...... is described in terms of algorithms for power allocation and access port assignment, as well as algorithms for (dynamic) channel assignment. After an outline of simulation assumptions, system capacity comparisons are given between the adaptive DAS and a system with fixed channel and access port assignment...

  13. Late ulnar paralysis. Study of seventeen cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralysis are emphasized. A very prolonged symptom free interval, a rapid onset and a severe involvement. The ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are notable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal procedure of the neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury.

  14. Understanding Support - lessons from a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sauer

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Support from top management and others is agreed to be an important factor in information systems success and failure, but little is written about how it has its effect and how it might be managed to a project's advantage. A recently developed conceptual framework is described. It covers the nature and forms of support, the way support affects project outcomes, the bases on which support is provided, and the strategies by which support may be managed. The framework is used to analyse a case study in several stages. At the end of the analysis of each stage, the framework's utility is assessed in terms of its explanatory value and the practical advice it suggests. Areas for further research are identified.

  15. The virtual information: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Gravili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In todays economics, the fact that information is a major factor of production and of increasing importance as a source of competitive advantage is a generally accepted truism. The trend towards global markets has strongly impacted the competitive situation of many enterprises. Never has the economic environment been subject to so many drastic and rapid changes. This put new weight factors on the requirements for design of business process. This paper explores the case of an Italian legal office that has studied more and more innovative solutions both to satisfy the demands of the clienteles and to oppose the action of the new competitors. Comparing classic models and the theories of Porter with the characteristics and needs of new economy, it shows as the ability to possess, to easily have access, to creatively use of information constitutes one of the more strategic sources of the competitive advantage.

  16. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher W; Woods, Amanda G; Cederholm, Carmen K

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB), formerly known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN), is a bleeding disorder in neonates that is caused by inadequate serum levels of vitamin K. Vitamin K is a nutrient essential for adequate function of the coagulation cascade. Certain internal and external factors place newborn infants at higher risk for VKDB. Therefore, vitamin K prophylaxis has become the standard of care for newborns. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the administration of vitamin K to newborns, some parents are choosing to withhold vitamin K administration at birth. This case study describes an infant who developed VKDB in the absence of vitamin K prophylaxis. Although parents ultimately have the right to choose whether or not to administer vitamin K, as healthcare professionals, it is important to provide education regarding the potential complications of withholding vitamin K and the signs of VKDB if vitamin K prophylaxis at birth is withheld.

  17. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Rose, Darcy E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years; 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  18. Anxiety or neurosis: case report study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM-III in 1980, anxiety disorder was first identified as a diagnostic entity. A new theoretical approach regarding aetiology of anxiety disorders came next into the view, far from Freud’s psychoanalytical pathways. The consequences were new therapeutic guidelines, including psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy.Methods: The paper presents a case report study of a patient with social phobia. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve Axis I symptoms, is described.Conclusions: In spite of new therapeutic guidelines there is still a certain population of patients with the need for psychoanalytical oriented psychotherapy. If we are to surrender the Freud’s legacy to the medical history, we will weaken psychiatry as a science and will narrow our therapeutic field.

  19. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices.

  20. A case study in pathway knowledgebase verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nigam H

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological databases and pathway knowledgebases are proliferating rapidly. We are developing software tools for computer-aided hypothesis design and evaluation, and we would like our tools to take advantage of the information stored in these repositories. But before we can reliably use a pathway knowledgebase as a data source, we need to proofread it to ensure that it can fully support computer-aided information integration and inference. Results We design a series of logical tests to detect potential problems we might encounter using a particular knowledgebase, the Reactome database, with a particular computer-aided hypothesis evaluation tool, HyBrow. We develop an explicit formal language from the language implicit in the Reactome data format and specify a logic to evaluate models expressed using this language. We use the formalism of finite model theory in this work. We then use this logic to formulate tests for desirable properties (such as completeness, consistency, and well-formedness for pathways stored in Reactome. We apply these tests to the publicly available Reactome releases (releases 10 through 14 and compare the results, which highlight Reactome's steady improvement in terms of decreasing inconsistencies. We also investigate and discuss Reactome's potential for supporting computer-aided inference tools. Conclusion The case study described in this work demonstrates that it is possible to use our model theory based approach to identify problems one might encounter using a knowledgebase to support hypothesis evaluation tools. The methodology we use is general and is in no way restricted to the specific knowledgebase employed in this case study. Future application of this methodology will enable us to compare pathway resources with respect to the generic properties such resources will need to possess if they are to support automated reasoning.