WorldWideScience

Sample records for case study electrification

  1. The Economics of Rural Electrification Projects.Theory and Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MARK W. GELLERSON

    1982-01-01

    Developing countries will invest significant resources in rural electrification projects in the 1980s. Up to now, there has been little discussion in the economics literature concerning the appropriate method of evaluating such projects. This paper outlines such a methodology and, then, it is applied in a case-study of a proposed rural electrification project in Pakistan. Finally, important areas for fu ture research are identified.

  2. Optimizing microwind rural electrification projects. A case study in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; Capó Plaza, Gregori Miquel; Velo García, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Electrification systems based on the use of renewable energy sources are suitable for providing electricity to isolated communities autonomously. Specifically, electrification by wind power is one of the technological options that have been used recently in projects implemented in the Andean highlands of Peru. To date, these projects have tended to install individual microwind turbines at each demand point. Alternatively, we propose a solution that considers both individual generator...

  3. Children's education and home electrification: A case study in northwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments of the impact of electrification on the quality of life of households in developing countries have increased over the last decade. One aspect that has still received little attention is education and the ability of children to keep up at school. The underlying hypothesis is that electrification enables children to do their homework in the evening and so keep up with their school work. To this first hypothesis we add a second one, concerning the relation between access to electricity and attendance to school according to gender. Although most household tasks are carried out by the mothers, their daughters are also involved, and electrification could have a beneficial effect by making easier for girls to do their homework in the evening and easier for the mothers to help them. We will check the validity of these hypotheses using a case study of 162 children attending school in a small town in northwestern Madagascar. - Research Highlights: → We use a sample of 162 children in Madagascar to test the effect of access to the electricity supply in home to the education of children. → We also test the effect to the electricity supply in home to gender-specificities. → Our results confirm that electrification can contribute to reduce social reproduction with regard to education. → Our results also show that electrification helps to reduce gender inequalities.

  4. Pv rural electrification in Kiribati: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, Suresh [Energy and Atmosphere Programme, SEED/BPPS UNDP, New York (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) participated in the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) rural electrification project in Kiribati. Under this project, assistance was provided to the Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) in order to enable it to provide electricity service as a micro utility in a effective manner. The assistance provided included installation of 55 PV-based solar home systems and one community system. In addition, the assistance focussed on technical training of SEC personnel on PV systems and management training on accounting, billing, spare parts inventory, etcetera. [Espanol] En colaboracion con la Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) participo en la puesta en practica de un proyecto de electrificacion rural fotovoltaico en Kiribati. Dentro de este proyecto, se proporciono ayuda a la Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) para ponerla en condicion de suministrar el servicio electrico, en una forma efectiva, como una micro empresa electrica. La ayuda proporcionada incluyo la instalacion de 55 sistemas domesticos solares fotovoltaicos y un sistema comunitario. Adicionalmente, la ayuda se enfoco al entrenamiento tecnico del personal de SEC en sistemas fotovoltaicos y en el entrenamiento administrativo en contabilidad, facturacion, inventariado de partes de repuesto, etc.

  5. Assessment of solar electrification in Cuba. A case study based on GIS for rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, Irene; Dominguez, Javier [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Energy Dept.; Rodriguez, Maria [Solar Energy Research Center (CIES), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    A quarter of total world population, mainly in developing countries, are lacking of electricity. Due to social, economic and geographical differences, detail studies are needed in order to find the appropriate technology for each case. The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using levelized electric cost (LEC) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (orig.)

  6. Off-grid community electrification projects based on wind and solar energies: A case study in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Domenech, Bruno; Reyes, Gustavo Alberto; Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; García Villoria, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite various institutional efforts, about 22% of the total Nicaraguan population still do not have access to electricity. Due to the dispersed nature of many rural inhabitants, off-grid electrification systems that use renewable energy sources are a reliable and sustainable option to provide electricity to isolated communities. In this study, the design of an off-grid electrification project based on hybrid wind-photovoltaic systems in a rural community of Nicaragua is developed. Firstly t...

  7. Rural electrification in an imperfect world: A case study from Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity is universally recognized as a necessary, although not sufficient, requirement for social and economic development. However, increasing access to electricity in developing countries has proven to be difficult and expensive, particularly in rural areas. In this article, we analyze the dynamics of the relationship between electricity and socio-economic development by means of a cost-benefit analysis of a typical rural electrification project in Mozambique, assessing the impact of electricity on households, education, agro-business, commerce, and the public sector. We show that rural electrification can be commercially viable and cause structural transformation in rural areas within a short period of time. Finally, illustrated by the actual policy practice in Mozambique, we argue that low institutional quality is a key barrier to promote increased access to electricity for the poor

  8. Initiative for 100% rural electrification in developing countries: Case study of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest access to electricity in the World. In Senegal, less than 25% of the rural population benefit of electricity service. Solar energy offers an important potential to Senegal with over 3000 h of sunlight a year. This is a real opportunity to generalize the access to electricity. But, the efforts to bridge the gap must be diversified and completed. We approach the problem of rural electrification with a different point of view. Grid expansion and centralized solutions may be adequate for villages with a population organized in high-density of habitations. Small size villages or those with highly dispersed population may need different propositions because of cost. These regions will not be the priority of electrification programs. Furthermore, this rural population is characterized by its low income and saving. Such a conjuncture suggests the opportunity of a service based fees model for access to electricity. On the basis of a fees-for-service model, individual standalone photovoltaic systems may be a more appropriate solution to cover the priority needs of lighting and mobile phones battery charge for telecommunication. We present a pilot project in a village of Senegal to support the model and demonstrate its feasibility. - Highlights: • Rural electrification in developing countries. • Problems of access to electricity in rural areas. • Fees-for-service solution for small villages/highly dispersed population villages. • Situation of Senegal. • Presentation of a pilot project in a small village of Senegal

  9. Delivery Models for Decentralised Rural Electrification Case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel

    2012-06-15

    Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development; without it, the Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. Electrification, along with access to modern cooking fuels and mechanical power, is a catalyst for improvements in the fields of poverty reduction, food security, health, education and gender equality. Nevertheless, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity, over 95 per cent living in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia and 84 per cent of them living in rural areas. There are many different ways to electrify rural areas, not only with regard to the different technologies used, but also to the types of delivery models applied. Common rural electrification technologies include grid extension, community mini-grids, stand-alone household systems, multifunctional platforms, and central charging stations with battery banks. This report will focus on the delivery models used for community mini-grids, as there is evidence to show that mini-grids can be one of the cheaper forms of electrification (on a per unit basis, calculated over the system's lifetime) and also potentially offer a 24 hour AC service that can power a wide range of appliances.

  10. Evaluation of electrification projects with renewable energy in communities of the mountain and forest of the Peru: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses results of research on energy solutions in isolated rural areas in Peru. The communities being studied use solar panels and micro-hydroelectric systems. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the rural electrification in Peru

  11. A case study of small hydro and grid extension for rural electrification alternatives and complementarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that rural electrification in Eastern and Southern African Countries (ESAC) has so far been based largely on stand-alone diesel electric generating plant or on the extension of high-voltage transmission grids fed by large hydro and/or thermal electric generating stations. The alternative of furnishing supply at modest investment and competitive cost from a nearby small- hydro plant has rarely been considered in those countries of the sub-region that have ample hydro-power resources. All countries in the sub-region (except Angola) import petroleum and/or petroleum product supplies, as well as all hardware for electricity supply and utilization. As a result, in most countries an acute shortage of foreign exchange severely hampers implementation of rural electrification schemes. This should turn attention increasingly to strategies which are less capital-intensive and less dependent on foreign exchange, such as small-hydro plants, where the resource is located near to rural demand. Increasing the local content of small-hydro project implementation has paid off in recent years, considerably reducing costs in a number of Asian and Latin American projects. Local contributions have taken the form of resource assessment at a particular site, design, construction works, and fabrication of relatively simple components of power plant such as hydraulic equipment, low pressure penstocks and gates, as well as simpler types of turbines (e.g., the Banki type). Inadequacy of indigenous technical capacity to make similar local contributions in the ESAC has meant that the few recent small-hydro projects have relied on importing both expertise and equipment. The high costs resulting have frequently fueled arguments against pursuit of small-hydro projects

  12. Institutional barriers to a ‘perfect’ policy: A case study of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the political and institutional factors that have influenced the success of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan (Plan d'Action Sénégalais d'Électrification Rurale, PASER). PASER is of interest because its innovative design attracted extensive offers of finance from donors and independent power providers, however it has had limited effect on electrification levels. This paper examines PASER's progress and problems in detail, with the aim of informing rural electrification policy internationally. An extensive literature review was combined with 26 semi-structured stakeholder interviews, to produce a snapshot of the Plan's status after its first decade of operation. PASER's experiences are compared with other reform-based rural electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. PASER has faced significant institutional and political barriers, with delays arising from organisational opposition, inconsistent ministerial support, protracted consultations and the inherent challenges of implementing an innovative policy framework in a country with limited institutional capacity. The development of human and institutional capacity has been compromised by inconsistent political commitment. Such experiences mirror those of electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. Whilst PASER's successes in garnering external support and fundraising are noteworthy and won praise from early reviews, in terms of delivery the Plan has failed to resolve common institutional barriers. - Highlights: • Factors influencing the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan are investigated. • 26 Stakeholder interviews inform a review of the Plan after 10 years of operation. • The Plan has attracted extensive finance, but installations are severely delayed. • The delays are found to be largely the result of institutional and political barriers. • These barriers mirror the experiences of electrification

  13. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  14. Geographic Information Technologies for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies. Case Study: Carchi, Ecuador; Tecnologias de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables. Caso de Estudio: Carchi, Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Sarmiento, R. A.; Dominguez Bravo, J.; Amador Guerra, J.

    2013-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, INEC, INAMHI , CONELEC and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Car chi's electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Carchi, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author)

  15. Flow Electrification in Nonaqueous Colloidal Suspensions, Studied with Video Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolpekin, V.A.; Ende, van den D.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mellema, J.

    2004-01-01

    Flow electrification in nonaqueous suspensions has been scarcely reported in the literature but can significantly affect colloidal stability and (phase) behavior, perhaps even without being recognized. We have observed it in shear flow experiments on concentrated binary suspensions of hydrophobized

  16. Electrification of local public transport: evaluation and results for the case of L’Aquila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study demonstrates the technical and economic feasibility of electrification of some lines of the local public transport service in L’Aquila, an ambitious project with environmental and socio-economic implications. The study traces an effective evaluation path of aid to public transport companies interested the introduction of electric bus fleets.

  17. The role for low carbon electrification technologies in poverty reduction and climate change strategies: A focus on renewable energy mini-grids with case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a potential poverty reduction and climate change strategy, this paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy technologies for rural electrification in developing countries. Although each case must be considered independently, given a reliable fuel source, renewable energy mini-grids powered by biomass gasifiers or micro-hydro plants appear to be the favoured option due to their lower levelised costs, provision of AC power, potential to provide a 24 h service and ability to host larger capacity systems that can power a wide range of electricity uses. Sustainability indicators are applied to three case studies in order to explore the extent to which sustainable welfare benefits can be created by renewable energy mini-grids. Policy work should focus on raising awareness about renewable energy mini-grids, improving institutional, technical and regulatory frameworks and developing innovative financing mechanisms to encourage private sector investments. Establishing joint technology and community engagement training centres should also be encouraged. - Highlights: ► Renewable mini-grids are a valuable climate change and poverty reduction strategy. ► They can be cheaper than diesel on a levelized basis and offer grid level service. ► Awareness about mini-grids should be raised and institutional frameworks improved. ► Financing mechanisms should be developed to encourage private sector investments. ► Joint technology and community engagement training centres should be established.

  18. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  19. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  20. Geographical Information Systems and the Integration of Renewable Energies in the Electrification of Rural Communities. Case Study: Electrification of the Cuban Municipality of Guama; Aplicacion de los Sistemas de Informacion Geografica a la Integracion de las Energias Renovables en la Produccion de Electricidad en las Comunidades Rurales. Caso de Estudio: Electrificacion del Municipio Cubano de Guama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2007-09-27

    The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using level electric cost (LEG) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (Author) 43 refs.

  1. Wind-blown Sand Electrification Inspired Triboelectric Energy Harvesting Based on Homogeneous Inorganic Materials Contact: A Theoretical Study and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenwen; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification between heterogeneous materials has been widely studied. Inspired from wind-blown sand electrification, we design a novel kind of TENG based on size dependent electrification using homogeneous inorganic materials. Based on the asymmetric contact theory between homogeneous material surfaces, a calculation of surface charge density has been carried out. Furthermore, the theoretical output of homogeneous material based TENG has been simulated. Therefore, this work may pave the way of fabricating TENG without the limitation of static sequence.

  2. Wind-blown Sand Electrification Inspired Triboelectric Energy Harvesting Based on Homogeneous Inorganic Materials Contact: A Theoretical Study and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenwen; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification between heterogeneous materials has been widely studied. Inspired from wind-blown sand electrification, we design a novel kind of TENG based on size dependent electrification using homogeneous inorganic materials. Based on the asymmetric contact theory between homogeneous material surfaces, a calculation of surface charge density has been carried out. Furthermore, the theoretical output of homogeneous material based TENG has been simulated. Therefore, this work may pave the way of fabricating TENG without the limitation of static sequence. PMID:26817411

  3. Contact electrification of insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic charge that is generated when two materials are contacted or rubbed and then separated is a well-known physical process that has been studied for more than 2500 years. Contact electrification occurs in many contexts, both natural and technological. For example, in dust storms the collisions between particles lead to electrostatic charging and in extreme cases, extraordinary lightning displays. In electrophotography, toner particles are intentionally charged to guide their deposition in well-defined patterns. Despite such a long history and so many important consequences, a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind contact electrification remains elusive. An open question is what type of species are transferred between the surfaces to generate charge—experiments suggest various species ranging from electrons to ions to nanoscopic bits of material, and theoretical work suggests that non-equilibrium states may play an important role. Another open question is the contact electrification that occurs when two insulating materials with identical physical properties touch—since there is no apparent driving force, it is not clear why charge transfer occurs. A third open question involves granular systems—models and experiments have shown that a particle-size dependence for the charging often exists. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of contact electrification and highlight recent research efforts aimed at understanding these open questions. (topical review)

  4. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  5. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  6. The value of cooperatives in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sectors of many developing countries underwent substantial reforms during the 1980s and 1990s, driven by global agendas of privatization and liberalization. However, rural electrification offered little by way of market incentives for profit-seeking private companies and was often neglected. As a consequence, delivery models for rural electrification need to change. This paper will review the experiences of various rural electrification delivery models that have been established in developing countries, including concessionary models, dealership approaches and the strengthening of small and medium-sized energy businesses. It will use examples from the USA, Bangladesh and Nepal, together with a detailed case study of a Nepali rural electric cooperative, to explore the role that local cooperatives can play in extending electricity access. It is shown that although there is no magic bullet solution to deliver rural electrification, if offered appropriate financial and institutional support, socially orientated cooperative businesses can be a willing, efficient and effective means of extending and managing rural electricity services. It is expected that this paper will be of particular value to policy-makers, donors, project planners and implementers currently working in the field of rural electrification.

  7. The value of cooperatives in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sectors of many developing countries underwent substantial reforms during the 1980s and 1990s, driven by global agendas of privatization and liberalization. However, rural electrification offered little by way of market incentives for profit-seeking private companies and was often neglected. As a consequence, delivery models for rural electrification need to change. This paper will review the experiences of various rural electrification delivery models that have been established in developing countries, including concessionary models, dealership approaches and the strengthening of small and medium-sized energy businesses. It will use examples from the USA, Bangladesh and Nepal, together with a detailed case study of a Nepali rural electric cooperative, to explore the role that local cooperatives can play in extending electricity access. It is shown that although there is no magic bullet solution to deliver rural electrification, if offered appropriate financial and institutional support, socially orientated cooperative businesses can be a willing, efficient and effective means of extending and managing rural electricity services. It is expected that this paper will be of particular value to policy-makers, donors, project planners and implementers currently working in the field of rural electrification. (author)

  8. Climate change mitigation and electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of mitigation scenarios with deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions have focused on expanded use of demand-side electric technologies, including battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and heat pumps. Here we review such “electricity scenarios” to explore commonalities and differences. Newer scenarios are produced by various interests, ranging from environmental organizations to industry to an international organization, and represent a variety of carbon-free power generation technologies on the supply side. The reviewed studies reveal that the electrification rate, defined here as the ratio of electricity to final energy demand, rises in baseline scenarios, and that its increase is accelerated under climate policy. The prospect of electrification differs from sector to sector, and is the most robust for the buildings sector. The degree of transport electrification differs among studies because of different treatment and assumptions about technology. Industry does not show an appreciable change in the electrification rate. Relative to a baseline scenario, an increase in the electrification rate often implies an increase in electricity demand but does not guarantee it. - Highlights: ► Until recently few mitigation scenarios paid attention to electrification. ► Recent scenarios show an increasing focus on demand-side electric technologies. ► They are represented by various interests. ► Level of electrification increases with stringency of climate policy. ► Prospect of electrification differs across sectors.

  9. Rural electrification in multiethnic Arizona: A study of power, urbanization and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Leah Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    From as early as the 1880s until as late as the 1970s, electrical power served as a critical tool for bringing America's diverse western communities into an urban industrial era. This study examines the process of electrification in three demographically diverse rural regions of Eastern Arizona. These three regions include the valleys of the Southeast, the White Mountains, and the Navajo Reservation to the north. While federal programs aided rural residents, local and regional factors determined the timing and nature of electrification and its impact. Access to electricity depended upon economics and technological advances, as well as a combination of local community and regional characteristics such as location, landscape, demographics, politics, and culture. At the turn of the century, electricity, with its elaborate and extensive infrastructure of wires, towers, and poles, emerged across America's cultural landscapes as the industrial era's most prominent symbol of progress, power, and a modern, urban lifestyle. Technological innovations and mechanization flourished, but primarily in the urban areas of the Northeast. People living outside concentrated settlements, of all ethnic backgrounds, had few hopes for delivery due to the cost of building power lines to a limited market. Arizona's rural population has historically been ethnically diverse, and its landscape varies from desert valleys to mountains of alpine forest. The federal government owns much of the land. Aided by federal guidance and funding sources like the New Deal's Rural Electrification Administration (REA), the existing rural communities took the initiative and constructed electrical systems specific to their local and regional needs. While products of the communities that built them, these systems symbolized and defined newly urbanized regions within the context of old rural landscapes, lifestyles, and traditions. In some ways the rural electrification process urbanized rural Arizona. The

  10. And then they lived sustainably ever after?-Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue. This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way

  11. Simulation of the electrification of a tropical cyclone using the WRF-ARW model: An idealized case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liangtao; Zhang, Yijun; Wang, Fei; Zheng, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Evolution of the electrification of an idealized tropical cyclone (TC) is simulated by using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The model was modified by addition of explicit electrification and a new bulk discharge scheme. The characteristics of TC lightning is further examined by analyses of the electrification and the charge structure of the TC. The findings thus obtained are able to unify most of the previous inconsisitent observational and simulation studies. The results indicate that the TC eyewall generally exhibits an inverted dipole charge structure with negative charge above the positive. In the intensification stage, however, the extremely tall towers of the eyewall may exhibit a normal tripole structure with a main negative region between two regions of positive charge. The outer spiral rainband cells display a simple normal dipole structure during all the stages. It is further found that the differences in the charge structure are associated with different updrafts and particle distributions. Weak updrafts, together with a coexistence region of different particles at lower levels in the eyewall, result in charging processes that occur mainly in the positive graupel charging zone (PGCZ). In the intensification stage, the occurrence of charging processes in both positive and negative graupel charging zones is associated with strong updraft in the extremely tall towers. In addition, the coexistence region of graupel and ice crystals is mainly situated at upper levels in the outer rainband, so the charging processes mainly occur in the negative graupel charging zone (NGCZ).

  12. Left lane road electrification

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J

    2010-01-01

    We propose the partial electrification of multilane motorways in suburban areas as a practical alternative in order to reduce the weight and price of electrically-powered automobiles. These could then be supplied energy en-route, thus significantly reducing the weight and cost of vehicle-mounted batteries. Our theoretical study is based on the circumstances of Madrid (Spain), a six million inhabitant region, but should be easily adaptable to other metropolitan areas.

  13. Operational costs and reliability in a large rural electrification programme based on solar home systems

    OpenAIRE

    Narvarte Fernández, Luis; Carrasco Moreno, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Experiences in decentralized rural electrification programmes using solar home systems have suffered difficulties during the operation and maintenance phase, due in many cases, to the underestimation of the maintenance cost, because of the decentralized character of the activity, and also because the reliability of the solar home system components is frequently unknown. This paper reports on the reliability study and cost characterization achieved in a large photovoltaic rural electrification...

  14. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  16. Socio- economic impact study of the electrification by the photovoltaic solar system in the AIJ/RPTES project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the results of the study relating to the socio-economical impact of the electrification by photovoltaic solar system in the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES. The localities concerned with the study are the provinces of BALE and the MOUHOUN. The data analyzes relating to the electrification by solar system of the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES, revealed that solar electrical energy contributed to a significant degree to the socio-economic development, especially at the level of the structures having profited from the solar equipment. The principal conclusions drawn from these analyzes attested that: the solar system corresponds as well as possible for rural environment as well on the technological level as on the capacity plan of maintenance. The following reasons come to corroborate this fact: the weakness of the costs of management of the photovoltaic modules; the photovoltaic technic, in spite of a low incidental maximum power (1 kw/ m2), satisfied the priority needs for the rural populations (lighting, access to information and education, conservation of the vaccines in the CSPS, etc). - be photovoltaic installations cause: an average financial profit by CSPS of 180 487.5 FCFA/an, and a financial economy in the parents of the new-born babies estimated at 36,600 FCFA/an in each CSPS; an average financial economy by household of 49,452 FCFA/an

  17. Navajo Electrification Demonstraiton Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Ahasteen, Project Manager

    2006-07-17

    This is a final technical report required by DOE for the Navajo Electrification Demonstration Program, This report covers the electric line extension project for Navajo families that currently without electric power.

  18. Comparative Analysis of On- and Off-Grid Electrification: The Case of Two South Korean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s main industry is the manufacturing industry, and it requires stable energy. Korea heavily relies on importing oils to produce energy, thus efficient energy management is critical. This is why many renewable and smart energy policies and infrastructure planning are being set up currently. Supplying reliable and sustainable renewable energy to remote areas has especially been questioned; therefore, adopting sustainable and clean energy based on renewable resources cannot be delayed any more. This research examines the most economically, technologically and environmentally suitable energy grid of two South Korean Islands. Several hybrid energy system configurations that analyze and identify the optimal grid-connected and grid-independent hybrid power generation systems are simulated in this study. According to the results of the study, the optimal regionally detached power generation system was the wind-PV-battery-converter hybrid system. At the end of this paper, implications and limitations are discussed.

  19. Rural electrification for isolated consumers: Sustainable management model based on residue biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a case study of the electrification of a riparian community in the State of Para, Brazil, within the scope of the Program for Electric Power Service Universalization in Brazil. The community is located in a remote area; approximately 100 km from the municipal district, there is no regular transport to access the community, and adequate communication service. The community is provided with electrification facilities through a small biomass-based power plant, directly firing residues produced by the local economic activity. The objective of the paper is to propose a sustainable management model that is suitable for community's isolation conditions, considering the high costs with operation and maintenance related to the supply of isolated consumers in small locations. A simulation is conducted for the operation of the small biomass-based power plant, the generation costs are determined, the legal aspects are analyzed, and a suggestion for the management model is presented. - Highlights: → Electrification of isolated consumers is a great challenge for utilities. → Using local labor and resources allows lower energy costs for electrification. → Creation of a specific legislation for utilities is required. → Should also be implemented social activities together with electrification.

  20. Utility led rural electrification in Morocco: combining grid extension, mini-grids, and solar home systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dafrallah, Touria

    2016-01-01

    Morocco has become known for being an example of a well-performing utility-led rural electrification program, but so far little independent research has scrutinized this extraordinary case. Based on a critical review of the available literature, this study attempts to draw a picture of the evolut...

  1. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  2. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  3. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  4. Driving and hindering factors for rural electrification in developing countries: Lessons from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification is essential for bringing about social and economic developments, but the progress is distressingly slow in most developing countries. The Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (BREP) has been highlighted as a positive case among developing countries, but from 2006 onwards there have been doubts about the program's chances of success. In this paper, we examine the rural electrification practices in Bangladesh and evaluate the claim that, whereas they were successful up to 2005, they then began to decline in terms of their performance. This study determines the factors behind the initial success of the program as well as those that account for the recent downturn in BREP. We found that the BREP was a clear success in terms of its growth and progress; however, its performance has been declining since 2006. The key driving factors for the success of this program had to do with prioritizing system investment, community involvement, anti-corruption features, standardized practices and performance-based incentives while excluding political parties. The major issues accounting for the decline were the lack of organizational autonomy, a shortage of funding, unrealistic tariffs, and power supply shortages. Renewable-based, off-grid technologies have been successfully supplementing the on-grid program in remote areas. - Highlights: • Rural electrification is essential for bringing about socio-economic developments. • The pace of rural electrification in the developing countries has been very slow. • A multitude of issues plays behind in making the task a success or a failure. • Lack of policy reforms, unrealistic tariffs are the main hinderers. • Rural electrification cannot be successful by sticking to a rigid model

  5. El Salvador - Rural Electrification (Impact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation seeks to determine the impact of electrification on the cost of energy, energy consumption, time allocation, and household income. Because the...

  6. STUDY OF THE MANUAL POWER EQUIPMENT OF TRACTION ELECTRIFICATION SYSTEM OF THE RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the operation of power equipment of traction substations (TS of Ukrainian electrified railways. The search of the new modern methods and approaches improved monitoring, diagnostics and maintenance of power equipment TS during operation to maintain the required level of reliability of the traction power supply of electrified railway and limit the power equipment accidents TS. Methodology. The study of changes of a technical condition of TSs’ equipment over the last 11 years was done for achieving this goal. This research was done for solving problems of power supply railways with high quality on the base of the reports analysis of the management and power supply of Ukrzaliznytsia. Findings. It was found that on the base of the new methods of maintenance is the risk analysis of old equipment or equipment with some defects (rev servicing equipment for the actual technical condition.Reliable performance of power supply devices has significant impact for solving the problem of safety on the railways of Ukraine. Different kinds of accumulated damage are at the first place before of failures of an electric power supply of electrified railway. The study of main causes of violations from 2002 to 2012 year showed that 80% of the reasons disorders normal operation of the traction power supply over the period constitutes next factors. There are damage to the main power equipment TS; power off the grid; overload and surge; and the impact of weather conditions. The primary power equipment failure of TS are constituted about 43%. Relevant constant monitoring, testing and diagnostics of the equipment with the creation and use of micro-processor smart automated monitoring and diagnosis are topical in the current operating conditions. Originality. The new directions for further improvement of maintenance electrified traction substations for electrified railways were considered. Modern strategies and management techniques and

  7. Rural electrification: utilities' chafe or challenge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, Adriaan N.

    2001-01-01

    The earlier research on electricity supply to rural areas has tended to address the technical and financial performance of both grid connected and decentralised power systems and the socio-economic impact of electrification. However, this study has chosen to examine the impact of the developments an

  8. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  9. Tribo-electrification and Powder Adhesion Studies in the Development of Polymeric Hydrophilic Drug Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad U. Ghori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of tribo-electric charge during pharmaceutical powder processing can cause a range of complications, including segregation of components leading to content uniformity and particle surface adhesion. This phenomenon becomes problematical when excipients are introduced to a powder mixture alongside the highly charging active pharmaceutical ingredient(s (APIs. The aim of this study was to investigate the tribo-electric charging and adhesion properties of a model drug, theophylline. Moreover, binary powder mixtures of theophylline with methylcellulose (MC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, having different polymer to drug ratios, were formed in order to study the impact of polymer concentration, particle size, substitution ratio and molecular size on the tribo-electric charging and surface adhesion properties of the drug. Furthermore, the relationship between tribo-electric charging and surface adhesion was also studied. The diversity in physicochemical properties of MC/HPMC has shown a significant impact on the tribo-electric charging and adhesion behaviour of theophylline. It was found that the magnitude of electrostatic charge and the level of surface adhesion of the API were significantly reduced with an increase in MC and HPMC concentration, substitution ratios and molecular size. In addition, the tribo-electric charge showed a linear relationship with particle surface adhesion, but the involvement of other forces cannot be neglected.

  10. Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ► China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ► Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrification program. ► The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ► Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ► Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

  11. Solar PV based rural electrification in Rema rural village

    OpenAIRE

    Admasu, Alemshet Ayele

    2011-01-01

    Energy is a basic need for the overall growth and improvements of people’s living standard.But around 2 to 3 billion people in the world have no access to electric lighting. Like otherdeveloping countries the rural electrification in Ethiopia is very low and government takessome actions to promote the investment in these areas but due to economic constraints andlow level of technological advancement the growth is very low.This study focuses on solar PV based rural electrification, its impact ...

  12. Nanocontact electrification: patterned surface charges affecting adhesion, transfer, and printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jesse J; Barry, Chad R; Knuesel, Robert J; Wang, Xinyu; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2011-06-01

    Contact electrification creates an invisible mark, overlooked and often undetected by conventional surface spectroscopic measurements. It impacts our daily lives macroscopically during electrostatic discharge and is equally relevant on the nanoscale in areas such as soft lithography, transfer, and printing. This report describes a new conceptual approach to studying and utilizing contact electrification beyond prior surface force apparatus and point-contact implementations. Instead of a single point contact, our process studies nanocontact electrification that occurs between multiple nanocontacts of different sizes and shapes that can be formed using flexible materials, in particular, surface-functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and other common dielectrics (PMMA, SU-8, PS, PAA, and SiO(2)). Upon the formation of conformal contacts and forced delamination, contacted regions become charged, which is directly observed using Kelvin probe force microscopy revealing images of charge with sub-100-nm lateral resolution. The experiments reveal chemically driven interfacial proton exchange as the dominant charging mechanism for the materials that have been investigated so far. The recorded levels of uncompensated charges approach the theoretical limit that is set by the dielectric breakdown strength of the air gap that forms as the surfaces are delaminated. The macroscopic presence of the charges is recorded using force-distance curve measurements involving a balance and a micromanipulator to control the distance between the delaminated objects. Coulomb attraction between the delaminated surfaces reaches 150 N/m(2). At such a magnitude, the force finds many applications. We demonstrate the utility of printed charges in the fields of (i) nanoxerography and (ii) nanotransfer printing whereby the smallest objects are ∼10 nm in diameter and the largest objects are in the millimeter to centimeter range. The printed charges are also shown to affect the electronic

  13. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  14. Establishment of a Kind of Three-dimensional Thunderstorm Cloud Electrification-Discharge Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the establishment of a kind of three-dimensional thunderstorm cloud electrification-discharge mode.[Method] Based on a kind of three-dimensional strong convective cloud mode,several parameterization schemes of electrification-discharge mechanism which were mature and had experimental basis were coupled into the strong convective cloud mode.The three-dimensional strong convective mode could simulate electrification-discharge process,and the three-dimensional thundersto...

  15. Develop of the rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power

  16. A comparison study of performance for three stand-alone PV systems used in rural electrification in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya is a national program to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program 250 systems with a total peak power of about 300 K Wp has been put into work starting the beginning of the year 2003, the sizes of the systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, the systems was designed to supply different family needs. All systems are equipped by a data logger to collect the system parameters. In this paper we will compare the performance of three different PV sizes through two year of work. The results showed that the systems are performing incomparable to the deigned parameters, very little power failure was reported, and there are technical and social issues has to be addressed before the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  17. On the Electrification of Pyrocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Lindsey, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    The electrification (or lack thereof) of pyrocumulus clouds is examined for several different wildfires that occurred during 2012-2013. For example, pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all occurred during summer 2012) electrified and produced small intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew to high altitudes (over 10 km above mean sea level, or MSL). This occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave infrared channel on a geostationary satellite, as well as by incident reports. In the Hewlett Gulch case, the fire growth led to increased updrafts within the plume, as inferred by multiple-Doppler radar syntheses, which led to the vertical development and subsequent electrification - a life cycle as short as 30 minutes. The lightning, detected by a three-dimensional lightning mapping network, was favored in high-altitude regions (10 km MSL) containing modest reflectivities (25 dBZ and lower), 0 dB differential reflectivity, and reduced correlation coefficient (0.6-0.7). This indicated the likely presence of ice particles (crystals and aggregates, possibly rimed) mixed with ash. Though neither multiple-Doppler nor polarimetric observations were available during the electrification of the High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes, their NEXRAD observations showed reflectivity structures consistent with Hewlett Gulch. In addition, polarimetric and multiple-Doppler scanning of unelectrified High Park plumes indicated only irregularly shaped ash, and not ice, was present (i.e., reflectivities 5 dB, correlation < 0.4), and there was no broaching of the 10 km altitude. Based on these results, the electrification likely was caused by ice-based processes that did not involve significant amounts of graupel. Results for pyrocumulus clouds above notable 2013 wildfires that also experienced rapid growth (e.g., Black Forest, Yarnell Hill, West Fork, Tres Lagunas, etc.) will be compared

  18. Truckstop - and Truck - Electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conclusions of this paper are: 0.5-1.5 G/H and/or BUSG/Y-how much time and money will it take to quantify and WHY BOTHER TO DO SO? No shortage of things to do re truckstop-+ truck - electrification; Better that government and industry should put many eggs in lots of baskets vs. all in one or few; Best concepts will surface as most viable; Economic appeal better than regulation or brute force; Launch Ground Freight Partnership and give it a chance to work; Demonstration is an effective means to educate, and learn from, customers-learning is a two way street; Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD 3) are all important but only deployment gets results; TSE can start small in numbers of spaces to accommodate economically inspired growth but upfront plans should be made for expansion if meaningful idle reduction is to follow via TE; 110VAC 15A service/ parking space is minimal-if infrastructure starts like this, upfront plans must be made to increase capacity; Increased electrification of truckstop and truck alike will result in much better life on the road; Improved sleep will improve driver alertness and safety; Reduced idling will significantly reduce fuel use and emissions; Universal appeal for DOD, DOE, DOT, EPA, OEMs, and users alike; Clean coal, gas, hydro, nuclear, or wind energy sources are all distinctly American means by which to generate electricity; Nothing can compete with diesel fuel to serve mobile truck needs; stationary trucks are like power plants-they don't move and should NOT be powered by petroleum products whenever possible; Use American fueled power plants-electricity-to serve truck idling needs wherever practical to do so; encourage economic aspect; Create and reward industry initiatives to reduce fuel use; Eliminate FET on new trucks, provide tax credits (non highway fuel use and investment), provide incentives based on results; Encourage newer/ cleaner truck use; solicit BAAs with mandatory OEM/ fleet participation/ lead

  19. Truckstop -- and Truck!-- Electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skip Yeakel

    2001-12-13

    The conclusions of this paper are: 0.5-1.5 G/H and/or BUSG/Y--how much time and money will it take to quantify and WHY BOTHER TO DO SO? No shortage of things to do re truckstop--+ truck!-- electrification; Better that government and industry should put many eggs in lots of baskets vs. all in one or few; Best concepts will surface as most viable; Economic appeal better than regulation or brute force; Launch Ground Freight Partnership and give it a chance to work; Demonstration is an effective means to educate, and learn from, customers--learning is a two way street; Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD 3) are all important but only deployment gets results; TSE can start small in numbers of spaces to accommodate economically inspired growth but upfront plans should be made for expansion if meaningful idle reduction is to follow via TE; 110VAC 15A service/ parking space is minimal--if infrastructure starts like this, upfront plans must be made to increase capacity; Increased electrification of truckstop and truck alike will result in much better life on the road; Improved sleep will improve driver alertness and safety; Reduced idling will significantly reduce fuel use and emissions; Universal appeal for DOD, DOE, DOT, EPA, OEMs, and users alike; Clean coal, gas, hydro, nuclear, or wind energy sources are all distinctly American means by which to generate electricity; Nothing can compete with diesel fuel to serve mobile truck needs; stationary trucks are like power plants--they don't move and should NOT be powered by petroleum products whenever possible; Use American fueled power plants--electricity--to serve truck idling needs wherever practical to do so; encourage economic aspect; Create and reward industry initiatives to reduce fuel use; Eliminate FET on new trucks, provide tax credits (non highway fuel use and investment), provide incentives based on results; Encourage newer/ cleaner truck use; solicit BAAs with mandatory OEM/ fleet

  20. Policy and Governance Framework for Off-grid Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop an adequate policy and governance framework for off- grid rural electrification by: assessing the effectiveness and key socio-economic factors and governance structures in present off-grid electricity supply schemes; and exploring and testing sustainable decentralized service-delivery models for future large-scale off-grid rural electrification in ...

  1. Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly permeate everyday life in industrialized societies. The aim of this paper is to explore ICT-related transformations of everyday practices and discuss the implications, particularly for residential electricity consumption. The present socio-technical changes are seen in a historical perspective, and it is argued that the integration of ICT into everyday practices can be seen as a new round of household electrification, comparable to earlier rounds that also led to higher electricity consumption. A case study carried out in Denmark in 2007-2008 explores the present changes in everyday life. Based on qualitative interviews, the study focuses on people's ways of integrating ICTs into their everyday practices, on any significant changes in these practices, and on the influence of the changed practices on electricity consumption. The paper concludes with a discussion on the implications for energy policy.

  2. Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly permeate everyday life in industrialized societies. The aim of this paper is to explore ICT-related transformations of everyday practices and discuss the implications, particularly for residential electricity consumption. The present...... socio-technical changes are seen in a historical perspective, and it is argued that the integration of ICT into everyday practices can be seen as a new round of household electrification, comparable to earlier rounds that also led to higher electricity consumption. A case study carried out in Denmark...... in 2007–2008 explores the present changes in everyday life. Based on qualitative interviews, the study focuses on people’s ways of integrating ICTs into their everyday practices, on any significant changes in these practices, and on the influence of the changed practices on electricity consumption...

  3. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  4. Least-cost network evaluation of centralized and decentralized contributions to global electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice between centralized and decentralized electricity generation is examined for 150 countries as a function of population distribution, electricity consumption, transmission cost, and the cost difference between decentralized and centralized electricity generation. A network algorithm is developed to find the shortest centralized transmission network that spans a given fraction of the population in a country. The least-cost combination of centralized and decentralized electricity that serves the country is determined. Case studies of Botswana, Uganda, and Bangladesh illustrate situations that are more and less suited for decentralized electrification. Specific maps for centralized and decentralized generation are presented to show how the least-cost option varies with the relative costs of centralized and decentralized generation and transmission cost. Centralized and decentralized fractions are calculated for 150 countries. For most of the world's population, centralized electricity is the least-cost option. For a number of countries, particularly in Africa, substantial populations and regions may be most cost-effectively served by decentralized electricity. - Highlights: ► Centralized and decentralized electrification are compared for 150 countries. ► A cost-optimized network algorithm finds the least-cost electrification system. ► Least-cost infrastructures combine centralized and decentralized portions. ► For most people, centralized electricity is cheapest option. ► In much of Africa, decentralized electricity may be cheaper than centralized.

  5. Locally manufactured wind power technology for sustainable rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, the use of wind power for rural electrification has been limited. However the fact that micro-wind turbines can be manufactured using only basic workshop tools, techniques and materials, and therefore can be produced locally is often overlooked. Local manufacture has the potential to boost the local economy, build local capacity, reduce costs and produce resilient and flexible energy systems. However, locally manufactured technology must be seen as socially embedded due to the variety of local knowledge, skills, equipment and materials needed to construct and maintain such systems, as well as the organisational structures needed to ensure their long term sustainability. Evidence from successful initiatives suggests that stable institutional support from intermediaries such as the local/national government or NGOs is necessary to foster the development of a wind power industry based on local manufacture. The roles of these intermediaries include identifying and targeting windy areas with favourable environmental conditions, conducting research and development, collecting feedback from end users, creating supply chains for new parts and materials and developing relevant knowledge and skills. In this paper, three case studies of specific initiatives are analysed to draw out the social, economic and technical factors that could facilitate wider adoption of the technology. - Highlights: ► Local manufacture of wind turbines often overlooked for rural electrification. ► Flexible to adapt to local context and benefits local economy, capacity and supply chain. ► Development of technology discussed and 3 case studies of dissemination analysed. ► Critical factors: institutional support, system level planning, continuity of supply. ► Dissemination successful in Inner Mongolia; work continues elsewhere.

  6. Tracking Electrification in Vietnam Using Nighttime Lights

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Min; Kwawu Mensan Gaba

    2014-01-01

    We report on a systematic ground-based validation of DMSP-OLS night lights imagery to detect rural electrification in Vietnam. Based on an original survey of village-level units in Vietnam, this study compares nighttime light output from the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) against ground-based survey data on electrical infrastructure and electricity use in 200 electrified villages. Monthly and annual composites record a one-poin...

  7. Connective power: Solar electrification and social change in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Arne Edward

    Household solar photovoltaic systems have emerged as a key alternative to grid-based rural electrification in many developing countries. This may seem a victory for appropriate technology advocates, but my research indicates that the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya, which is among the largest developing country solar markets per capita, is far removed from the classic "small is beautiful" neo-populist vision of building small-scale alternatives to global capitalism. Instead, solar electrification is more closely connected to neo-liberal goals of market-based service provision and economic integration. In this study I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including surveys, intra-household energy allocation studies, and historical analysis, to analyze the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya. I find that "connective" applications, including television, radio, and cellphones, are centrally important. Television is especially notable; the expansion of TV broadcasting to rural areas was a key condition for solar market development. Solar electricity is also used for lighting. In Kenya, income and work related uses of solar lighting are modest, while education uses are more significant. However, in many households, especially those with small systems, intra-household dynamics constrain key social uses (e.g. children's studying), as the energy is allocated to other uses. Social use patterns combine with access dynamics in Kenya's unsubsidized market to shape the social significance of solar electrification. Solar ownership is dominated by the rural upper and middle classes. Thus, productivity and education uses make small contributions to differentiation and middle class formation. Additionally, solar electrification's role in supporting rural television and radio use improves business advertisers' ability to expand consumer goods markets. These findings link solar electrification to important processes of rural development

  8. Electrification of Shaken Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Onur; Nordsiek, Freja; Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Granular charging of particle laden flows are widespread and has long been observed. Volcanic ash clouds, desert sandstorms, dust devils, thunderstorms and snowstorms all undergo electrification at large scale. However the mechanism by which such processes occur, is not yet well understood. We confine granular particles to an oscillating cylindrical chamber which is enclosed and sealed by two conducting plates. The primary measurement obtained is the voltage between the two plates. We find that collective effects occurring in the bulk of the material play a significant role in the electrification process. We extend the previous results by the addition of photodectection capabilities to the experimental chamber. We present simultaneous measurements of voltage and light emission.

  9. Rural electrification in isolated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the plan of the rural electrification in Guatemala considering the factors that affect costs of installation of power systems such as topography, energy consumption and homes density. Also advantages and limitations of hydro power, solar energy and wind energy are discussed with analyses of costs of production of wind energy. The geothermal energy in Guatemala is also described with analyses of feasibility

  10. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  11. Libyan intuitive for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the obstacles in rural electrification is choosing the type of the electric source which best fits rural areas technically, socially, and economically. Renewable sources can be used to electrify rural areas. Rural electrification in Libya by photovoltaic systems in a national program which is devoted to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program the installation of 300 systems was started at the beginning of the year 2003 with a total power of 400 K Wp, the sizes of stand alone systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, beside a hybrid system of diesel and PV. The systems was designed to supply different family needs a total of 5000 inhabitants will benefit from this project. In this paper we will introduce the rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya program, company the performance of three different PV sizes through the first two years of working. The systems performing well and with performance ratio much more than the deigned, very little power failure was reported, and there are social and technical issues to be addressed before, and after the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  12. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  13. Delivery Mechanisms for Rural Electrification. A report from a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Arvidson, Anders; Katyega, Maneno (eds.)

    2004-04-01

    The workshop was attended by 28 participants from Kenya, Mozambique South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe, representing energy service providers (private, public and cooperative), consumer groups, public energy authorities, researchers, consultants, NGOs and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. The topic of the workshop was how different types of electricity delivery mechanisms - i.e. the combination of an energy supply technology and the organisation managing it - can support rural development. Which energy services have high priority for rural development? What are the appropriate delivery mechanisms? How can the expansion of different delivery mechanisms be supported and made to work efficiently? These are some of the key questions that were discussed in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop were to share experiences and develop a better understanding of existing and potential energy delivery mechanisms that contribute to development in rural areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. The workshop was targeted at, amongst others, the authorities which are in the process of being formed, or have recently been formed, to take charge of rural electrification such as the Rural Electrification Agencies and Rural Electrification Funds. Four case studies were presented and discussed to provide an introduction to the topic, and concrete examples of different delivery mechanisms were given to inspire the workshop discussions. Focus group discussions were used to explore the participants perceptions and experience of: (i) what rural development is, (ii) what role energy plays in rural development, (iii) which energy services are important for rural development, (iv) which delivery mechanisms are used and appropriate for different situations of energy service delivery in rural areas, and (v) what the institutional framework requirements are for delivering different types of energy services and supporting different types of

  14. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  15. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary

  16. Mini-grids for rural electrification of developing countries analysis and case studies from South Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C

    2014-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that billions of people in the developing world do not have access to clean energies, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative to achieve universal energy access by 2030. Although electricity grid extension remains the most prevalent way of providing access, it is now recognized that the central grid is unlikely to reach many remote areas in the near future. At the same time, individual solutions like solar home systems tend to provide very limited services to consumers. Mini-grids offer an alternative by combining the benefits of a grid-

  17. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  18. The rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel genset. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  19. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  20. The role of Decentralized Distributed Generation in achieving universal rural electrification in South Asia by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is motivated by the goal of achieving ‘Universal Energy Access’ by 2030 and looks at electricity access for rural households in the South Asian region. The ‘MESSAGE-Access’ model is employed to assess the cost effectiveness of centralized and Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) technologies. Delivery mechanisms are modelled to include mini-grid and stand-alone systems and the analysis includes an estimation of rural household electricity demand from lighting and appliances. We assume two future demand scenarios with a ‘minimum threshold’ and a ‘higher threshold’ of electricity consumption of 65 and 420 kW h per household per year, respectively. We find that the cost of delivering electricity by centralized generation and grid distribution is up to four times the cost of stand-alone and mini-grid DDG options in the case of ‘minimum threshold’ demand scenario. These results are robust to alternate assumptions regarding costs of technologies. We also estimate that public subsidy bill for kerosene can be substantially reduced if all households switch to electricity as their primary source of lighting. Thus, promoting DDG options can reduce capital investments needed to meet access goals significantly and have an important role to play, in meeting the goal of universal electrification by 2030. - Highlights: ► We model and assess DDG options for rural electrification in South Asia. ► Particularly, when demand is low, off-grid and mini-grid are least cost options for electrification. ► DDG options can be 3–4 times cheaper than extending a central grid. ► Kerosene lighting is up to 6 times as expensive as electric lighting. ► If electricity replaces kerosene for lighting, large subsidy savings can be realized.

  1. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  2. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  3. Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP) - Cumulative through February 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the use of shorepower at 50 planned American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded truck stop electrification sites across the nation. Trucks participating in the study have idle-reduction equipment installed that was purchased with rebates through the ARRA. A total of 5,000 rebates will be approved.

  4. Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP) - Cumulative through June 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the use of shorepower at 50 planned American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded truck stop electrification (TSE) sites across the nation. Trucks participating in the study have idle-reduction equipment installed that was purchased with rebates through the ARRA. A total of 5,000 rebates will be approved.

  5. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  6. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  7. The implications of the marketing promotional compound in a cooperative of the rural electrification: the case of CERTAJA-RS; As implicacoes do composto promocional de marketing numa cooperativa de eletrificacao rural: o caso da CERTAJA-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Padilha, Ana Claudia Machado; Silva, Tania Nunes da; Mattos, Paloma [UniversidadeFederal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios

    2006-07-01

    The present study it consisted of analyzing the made up of marketing of the cooperative of agricultural electrification - CERTAJA, aiming at to identify which is the current actions developed and implemented for the cooperative. For this, it was used as analysis object the tools of the made up of marketing, the 4 P's (product, price, point of distribution and promotion), that it was identified by means of questionnaires saw e-mail to the manager of the department of energy, to the vice president, to the responsible one for the financial department and to the assessorship of the press that has fort linking with the department of marketing. As main results it is cited consolidation of communication channels that offer possibility to the social picture to participate of the decisions of the cooperative, as well as having information for way written and said decisions to them of management and administration. The supply of electric energy has as focus the satisfaction of the cooperated ones that they are partner-proprietors of the cooperative, being excellent to offer to these and excessively consuming a product or service that takes care of to its expectations. (author)

  8. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  9. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  10. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  11. Flow Induced Electrification of Liquid Insulated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Andrew Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The transport or motion of semi-insulating liquids has led to flow induced static electrification and catastrophic failures in several industries. While techniques for reducing the hazard have been developed, the roles of seemingly important parameters are poorly understood. The objective of this thesis was to measure and understand the fundamental parameters of the flow electrification process that, together with the laws of electroquasistatics and physicochemical hydrodynamics, can be used to predict the performance of complex flow systems, with particular attention to transformer applications. A rotating cylindrical electrode apparatus, which provided cylindrical Couette flow, was used to simulate flow electrification in an electric power transformer. The apparatus had Shell Diala A transformer oil filling the annulus between coaxial cylindrical stainless steel electrodes that were either bare metal, or covered by a thin copper sheet and/or EHV-Weidmann HiVal pressboard insulation. Extensive experiments characterized the time transient and steady state behavior of the electrification through measurements of the volume charge density, the terminal voltage, and the terminal current as the system was driven out of equilibrium by changes in the flow rate (inner cylinder rotation rates of 100-1400 rpm, Reynolds numbers of 5 times 10^3-5 times 10^5), temperature (15-70 ^circ), insulation moisture content (0.5-20 ppm in the oil), applied voltage (0-2 kV DC), and concentration of the non-ionizable anti-static additive 1,2,3 benzotriazole (BTA, 0-60 ppm). Generally, the electrification increased with flow rate and temperature but the BTA appeared to cause competing effects: it decreased the volume charge density on the liquid side of the interface (by a factor of 4), which reduces the electrification, but also decreased the oil conductivity (by a factor of 10), which enhances the electrification. A critical oil BTA concentration of 5 -8 ppm minimized the electrification

  12. Atmospheric electrification in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, K

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric electrification is not a purely terrestrial phenomenon: all Solar System planetary atmospheres become slightly electrified by cosmic ray ionisation. There is evidence for lightning on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and it appears likely to exist on Mars, Venus and Titan. Atmospheric electricity has controversially been implicated in climate on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This paper reviews planetary atmospheric electricity including ionisation and ion-aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a global electric circuit, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification could be important throughout the Solar System, particularly at the outer planets which receive little solar radiation, increasing the significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ions has been predicted to affect ...

  13. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  14. Incubating Innovation for Rural Electrification. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In June, the team held a workshop on ''Low Carbon Sustainable Rural Electrification'' in Salima, Malawi. Co-organized with the Government of Malawi's Department of Energy, this event gathered participants from the energy, telecom, non-profit, banking sectors as well as from governmental and international agencies to discuss the potential development of private led off-grid electrification in Malawi where only 9% of the population has currently access to electricity. A very active participation provided us with insightful feedback and valuable recommendations.

  15. Renewable energy for rural electrification in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the possibility of application of the eolic technologies is presented and for the electrification of small rural consumers in the Uruguay, comparing them with the alternative of being connected to the National electric net using the but economic of the systems with return for earth. It was carried out to summary of the existent alternatives in both technologies and it builds to shammer to evaluates it the generation cost and with to classification, for consumption level, of the potential users, it can make to Map of the Uruguay that allows to guide on the solution to adopt according to the consumption level, the distance to the National electric net and according to the characteristics of the wind in the geographical location of the location. All the systems were evaluated on a base of 20 year-old operation keeping in mind the replacements of the materials whose useful life is inferior. In this work, the results of the studies are presented and the followed methodology is shown on a concrete example

  16. Tracking Electrification in Vietnam Using Nighttime Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Min

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a systematic ground-based validation of DMSP-OLS night lights imagery to detect rural electrification in Vietnam. Based on an original survey of village-level units in Vietnam, this study compares nighttime light output from the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS against ground-based survey data on electrical infrastructure and electricity use in 200 electrified villages. Monthly and annual composites record a one-point increase in brightness along DMSP-OLS’s 63-point brightness scale for every 60–70 additional streetlights or 240–270 electrified homes. Using a time series of 90 nightly images, the data show a one-point increase in brightness for every 125–200 additional streetlights, or 550–700 additional electrified homes. The results highlight the potential to use night lights imagery to support efforts to connect the 1.2 billion people who lack electricity around the world.

  17. Utility perspectives on railway electrification in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, L.C.; Bamford, T.B.; Ashmore, S.G.; Engelhardt, K.H.; Fussel, C.F.; (Furst, G.B)

    1985-12-01

    A study was carried out to identify and examine utility concerns in railway electrification and the effects they will have on the electric utilities. The mainline electric railway load has some special characteristics and requirements from a utility viewpoint. It is a large single phase load which may give rise to three-phase voltage and current imbalances on the utility supply. Electric locomotives employ power electronics in their control circuitry, yielding considerable harmonic content in their power consumption. Inrush currents which occur frequently are also characteristic at the traction substations and may give rise to flicker on utility supply buses. Most Canadian utilities, and utilities in general, do not employ common regulating policies or criteria to limit unbalances, and there remains a significant amount of research to be carried out in the area. Most utilities employ comprehensive guidelines to limit harmonic content and voltage flicker generated by large customers. The division of mainlines into isolated electrical sections, and the mobility of trains as electrical loads, yields a comparatively low overall load factor upon which a railway is metered and billed. It was found economical for railways to electrify those mainlines with a traffic higher than 26 million gross annual tonnes, considerably lower than recent internal estimates carried out by the railways. 73 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Life cycle assessment of village electrification based on straight jatropha oil in Chhattisgarh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decentralized power generation plant fuelled by straight jatropha oil was implemented in 2006 in Ranidhera, Chhattisgarh, India. The goal of this study was to assess the environmental sustainability of that electrification project in order to provide a scientific basis for policy decisions on electrifying remote villages. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was conducted on jatropha-based rural electrification and then compared with other electrification approaches such as photovoltaic (PV), grid connection and a diesel-fuelled power generator. In summary, the jatropha-based electrification in Ranidhera reduces greenhouse gas emissions over the full life cycle by a factor of 7 compared to a diesel generator or grid connection. The environmental performance is only slightly improved, mainly due to the high air pollution from pre-heating the jatropha seeds. With additional measures oil extraction and overall efficiency could be further improved. However, environmental benefits can only be achieved if jatropha is cultivated on marginal land and land use competition can be excluded. Under these conditions, jatropha-based electricity generation might be a useful alternative to other renewable electrification options, as the technology is very sturdy and can be maintained even in remote and highly under-developed regions.

  19. Impact evaluation of productive use—An implementation guideline for electrification projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a consensus in the international community that rural electrification and, in particular, the productive use of electricity contributes to poverty alleviation. At the same time, efforts to evaluate the impacts of development projects have increased substantially. This paper provides a hands-on guide for designing evaluation studies regarding the impacts of productive electricity usage. Complementary to the existing literature on evaluation methods, this guide familiarizes project managers with the concrete steps that have to be undertaken to plan and implement an evaluation. The guide comprises three modules based on enterprise surveys and on anecdotal case studies. For each module, the implementation is described on a step-by-step basis including conceptual issues as well as logistics and methodological questions. - Highlights: ► Hands-on evaluation guideline for development project managers. ► Step-by-step procedure on how to implement evaluation. ► Impacts of productive electricity use.

  20. And Then They Lived Sustainably Ever After? - Experiences from Rural Electrification in Tanzania, Zambia and Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth

    2008-07-01

    Accelerating the introduction of basic, clean energy services is seen as a key strategy for promoting sustainable development in rural areas. Still, many people worldwide lack access to modern energy such as electricity, and Africa lags behind other developing regions of the world. Support to rural electrification is therefore given high priority by the national governments and donor organisations. There is a trend to encourage the involvement of other actors than national utilities for implementation of rural electrification. At the same time, it is required that the activities shall contribute to sustainable development. The objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to reach increased knowledge on the impact from organisational factors on project sustainability, and to examine whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. A key activity of the research work has been to improve and develop the present methodologies used for evaluations, as to attain a more functional in-field evaluation method. The thesis presents findings from seven rural electrification cases in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way. In addition, a literature survey shows that among stakeholders there are a number of 'concepts-taken-for-granted' as regards to rural electrification. These are not supported by the findings from the seven cases. The observed deviations between expectations and realities can obstruct the

  1. Experience of static electrification in power transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a discussion of a static electrification event in each of the 1050 MVA units installed at the Koeburg Nuclear Power Plant in South Africa. Results of a tear-down inspection performed after the event are given, as is an analysis of the event. A number of photographs are included

  2. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  3. An Optical Fiber Sensor for Electrification Measurement in Power Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Static electrification and partial discharges caused by oil flow in power transformers lead to many accidents. In this paper, an optical fiber sensor which can be directly mounted inside high-voltage electric devices for electrification measurement in power transformers is introduced. Unlike the existing normal electrification measurement methods which only be used in static oil, the new one takes optical fiber as its probe and measures the electrification in flowing oil by detecting luminous flux, and is available for on-line monitoring.

  4. Ford Motor Company's Global Electrification Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Hughes-Cromwick

    2011-01-01

    Ford Motor Company has developed global platforms for its vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles and forthcoming battery-electric and plug-in hybrids. Providing electrification technologies is a key element of Ford's broader strategy of producing vehicles that have improved fuel economy and reduced greenhouse emissions. The breadth of this effort—across a range of vehicle types—is unique in the automotive industry. Of particular importance is using the same vehicle platforms for electri...

  5. Photovoltaic system for rural electrification in Balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Balochistan province, most of the population is living in rural areas and devoid of life's facilities. In rural areas of Balochistan where most of the population -up-to 85% is located, more than four million people lack the essential energy Nices needed to satisfy the most basic needs and to improve living standards. In this paper author has suggested some techniques which will reduce the load and make Solar Photovoltaic Systems quite viable for rural electrification in Balochistan. (author)

  6. 2012 international year for sustainable energy for all: African Frontrunnership in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012 has been declared the “International Year for Sustainable Energy for All” by the UN. While Africa remains the most ‘underpowered’ continent, the prognosis for a brighter future is looking good, as key stakeholders (governments, private sector, civil society, and the donor community) have mobilized at an unprecedented scale to experiment with new policies, regulatory frameworks, and business models to rapidly upscale access to sustainable energy. The top-down, central grid expansion approach to increasing electricity access is very capital intensive and yet has gained considerable momentum at the expense of lower cost options that utilize decentralized off-grid solutions. A decentralized bottom-up approach could also use indigenous renewable energy sources and foster more significant linkages with livelihood opportunities in the rural un-served territories. This paper evaluates the emerging experiments through the lenses of C.K. Prahalad's “bottom of the pyramid” theory and Clayton Christensen's “disruptive technologies” perspective. Three front-runner initiatives involving new business models, innovative technologies, and institutional capacity building will be analyzed. In addition, the paper examines a regulatory policy initiative designed to stimulate clean energy investments in Ghana. Though the examples are all from Ghana, they illustrate general challenges to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. - Highlights: ► An analysis of innovative electricity access case studies from Ghana. ► Off-grid electrification options are keys to expanding electricity access in Africa. ► Base of the pyramid strategies for rural electrification has a niche in Africa. ► International collaboration will be crucial to achieve universal electricity access.

  7. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: → Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. → The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. → A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. → External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  8. Direct probing of contact electrification by using optical second harmonic generation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-01

    Contact electrification between two different materials is one of the oldest fields of study in solid-state physics. Here, we introduced an innovative system based on optical electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFI-SHG) technique that can directly monitor the dynamic performance of the contact electrification on the surface of polyimide film. After the contact, the EFI-SHG system visualized briefly three relaxations of the tribo-induced charges on the surface of a polyimide film, a fast relaxation within 3 min followed by two much slower relaxations, which were possibly related to different charge diffusion routes. The contact electrification under several special experimental conditions (wind, water and steam) was studied to demonstrate the high flexibility and material selectivity of the EFI-SHG. The EFI-SHG studies confirmed the motion of the water can remove the surface charge, while the appearance and the evaporation of a thin water layer cannot enhance the charge diffusion. We anticipate that this experimental technique will find a variety of applications in the field of contact electrification and the development of the recently invented triboelectric nano generator.

  9. Lighting up the World The first global application of the open source, spatial electrification toolkit (ONSSET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Siyal, Shahid; Broad, Oliver; Zepeda, Eduardo; Bazilian, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    In September 2015, the international community has adopted a new set of targets, following and expanding on the millennium development goals (MDGs), the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all is one of the 17 set goals that each country should work towards realizing. According to the latest Global Tracking Framework, 15% of the global population live without access to electricity. The majority of those (87%) reside in rural areas. Countries can reach universal access through various electrification options, depending on different levels of energy intensity and local characteristics of the studied areas, such as renewable resources availability, spatially differentiated costs of diesel-fuelled electricity generation, distance from power network and major cities, population density and others, data which are usually inadequate in national databases. This general paucity of reliable energy-related information in developing countries calls for the utilization of geospatial data. This paper presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based electrification analysis for all countries that have not yet reached full access to electricity (Sub-Saharan Africa, Developing Asia, Latin America and Middle East). The cost optimal mix of electrification options ranges from grid extensions to mini-grid and stand-alone applications and is identified for all relevant countries. It is illustrated how this mix is influenced by scrolling through various electrification levels and different oil prices. Such an analysis helps direct donors and investors and inform multinational actions with regards to investments related to energy access.

  10. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Identification of mangroves and coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Kachchh using principal component analysis and geo-spatial techniques: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prerna, R.; Naidu, V.S.; Soniya, S.

    sensing and GIS in heterogeneous domains like, coastal vulnerability, land-use / land-cover changes, rural electrification and distribution network, automated building footprint extraction using LiDAR and a variety of other spatio-temporal analyses... the Services of Coral Reef Systems for Sustainable Coastal Management: Case Study of the Gulf of Kachchh (India), Center for Environment and Social Concerns (CESC), Ahmedabad, India; University of Delhi, India and; University of Liverpool, UK [3] Anonymous...

  12. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the associ

  13. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  14. Rural Electrification in China: History and Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuyuan Peng; Jiahua Pan

    2006-01-01

    China has been highly successful in electrifying rural areas in the past half century.Institutional structure and its reform are important for investment and, therefore,development of rural electrification. Over time, there have been three major institutional changes initiated by the central government; When the People's Republic was founded in 1949, it was short of capital, technology and management professionals to promote rural electrification, so rural electricity had a separate administrative system from the urban areas. From 1949 to 1977, China established a comprehensive vertical system of rural electricity administration under strict central planning. At the end of the 1970s, with the adoption of economic reform policy, the central government handed over the management of the local electricity system to local government. County levelhas proved the most effective implementation unit for both planning and project implementation of the rural electricity system. From 1998 to 2002, the central government has been separating local electricity supply from local governments to facilitate the commercial operation of the utility market.After 2002, the rural electricity system was merged with the urban system, forming an integrated national electricity administrative system in China.

  15. Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

  16. NRECA`s electrification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper looks at the role of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) with regard to applying renewable energy in a village setting. This group has historically been active with state utilities to promote extension of the grid system, and until recently has no historical involvement with renewable resources. They have realized that most future clients will not be served by extending the grid, because of the costs involved, and that renewables play a part of the solution to this problem. NRECA has sought to provide project management and management consultant services, emphasizing training, management efficiency, cost of services studies, and assistance in dealing with regulations. They specialize in forming, training, and supporting user-owned electric service companies, and rely on other partners for technological services and support.

  17. Connective power: solar electrification and social change in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, A. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Market-based rural electrification with solar energy is increasingly common in developing countries. This article revolves around three main claims about solar electrification in Kenya's unsubsidized market: (1) The benefits of solar electrification are captured primarily by the rural middle class. (2) Solar electricity plays a modest role in supporting economically productive and education-related activities, but 'connective' applications such as television, radio, and cellular telephone charging often receive a higher priority. (3) Solar electrification is more closely tied to increased television use, the expansion of markets, more rural-urban communication, and other processes that increase rural-urban connectivity than to poverty alleviation, sustainable development, or the appropriate technology movement. [Author].

  18. Vanuatu, the country of rural decentralized electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of decentralized rural electrification in Vanuatu was presented. Vanuatu is a sparsely populated rural country in the south Pacific. The country includes 92 populated islands spread over 1,000 kilometers in the south Pacific, halfway between Fiji and Australia. The low population density and the tremendous distances between the different islands have made local electrical networks a necessity in Vanuatu. Apart from the two principal urban centres, Vanuatu does not have a centralized electrical distribution network. In the early 1990s the government initiated a program to provide independent power sources to the isolated communities. Photovoltaic cells are used to power most telecommunications services. Solar cells are also used to provide power to important community buildings such as the schools or nursing stations on the remote islands. Two small hydroelectric generating stations of 600 kW were also installed with the help of the German government

  19. The Electrification of Tramways in Ostrava in 1900–1901

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Závodná

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the electrification of tramways in Ostrava in 1900-1901. As the administrative, economic and cultural centre of an evolving industrial agglomeration, Ostrava had specific transportation requirements. Tram electrification was in response to these requirements. Two private companies, Brünner Lokaleisenbahngesellschaft and Ganz & Comp., (Mährisch-Ostrauer Elektrizitäts-Aktien-Gesellschaft) negotiated an agreement. The first part of this paper deals with technical aspects of...

  20. Meeting electrification's social objectives in South Africa, and implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrification programmes and projects are usually planned and evaluated on the basis of their economic (financial) and socio-economic performance. It is not usually recognised that electrification is often carried out for social objectives of poverty alleviation and political effect. Examination of electrification in South Africa reveals clearly that initial electrification was to meet economic objectives, later socio-economic objectives were adopted, and recently the objectives were social. Social electrification, particularly rural electrification, is not viable according to usual assessment methods, which are frequently distorted to provide the justification for a project to proceed. The technology of network electrification changed to meet the constraints, challenging usual perceptions about the relative costs of urban and rural electrification and the potential for photovoltaic electrification. Adopting a specification for social electrification allows suitable tariffs for electrification to be identified, indicates how capital investment decisions might be modified for social electrification, and identifies implications for electricity industry restructuring. A better understanding of electrification's social objectives has implications for projects and programmes in other developing countries

  1. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  2. Indicators for assessment of rural electrification-An approach for the comparison of apples and pears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for the assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability. An issue of growing importance is whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. This paper presents a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The paper presents the indicators and gives a detailed example of the procedure to calculate an indicator based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies. It is suggested that this interdisciplinary approach will lead to an improved basis for evaluation of projects than previous, more limited approaches. Projects promoted on the basis of information only about prioritised dimensions of sustainability, such as environment, may fail as a result of weaknesses in other dimensions. The proposed method may reduce this risk

  3. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. The Electrification of Tramways in Ostrava in 1900–1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Závodná

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the electrification of tramways in Ostrava in 1900-1901. As the administrative, economic and cultural centre of an evolving industrial agglomeration, Ostrava had specific transportation requirements. Tram electrification was in response to these requirements. Two private companies, Brünner Lokaleisenbahngesellschaft and Ganz & Comp., (Mährisch-Ostrauer Elektrizitäts-Aktien-Gesellschaft negotiated an agreement. The first part of this paper deals with technical aspects of electrification the change-over from steam power to electric power, while the second section analysesthe dealings between these private companies, subsequent municipalization and the involvement of the municipal self-government of Moravská Ostrava.

  6. A new systems paradigm for the rural electrification program, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas, Fernando; Santiago, Andrea

    2010-09-15

    The Philippines has pushed rural electrification for two decades. Recently, the government achieved 100% electrification at the village level. Despite the significant recent economic growth, poverty has increased in some areas. These are usually agricultural and have many un-electrified areas. The multilaterals have launched programs that couple electricity with livelihood projects. The authors argue this is insufficient to guarantee sustainability. A systems view of rural poverty suggests that several components must be designed to work together. In addition to the electricity and livelihood, skills, attitudes, management and markets must be incorporated to make a lasting impact on poverty.

  7. Integrated solar energy systems for rural electrification in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabah, K.V.O. [Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2005-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa where population is projected to increase by 124% in the next 20 years, grid extension has advanced more slowly than in any other major regions; only about a third of the urban residents, and a mere 8% of the rural population, are served by grid electricity. Today, it is estimated that nearly two billion people worldwide remain without access to electricity or the immediate prospect of grid electrification. The situation in Kenya is no different. About 80% urban and 99.5% rural households, respectively, in Kenya have no access to electricity and its services. The annual electricity demand currently stands at 6% and increasing. However, we have shown that Kenya is well endowed with abundant renewable energy (RE) potential, especially solar energy resources. In our study we have observed that Kenya gets an annual average exposure to sunshine of about 10 h per day in most regions, and an annual mean radiation of 6.98 kW h/m{sup 2}, which if harnessed efficiently could contribute to improve quality of life in rural and poor urban sector in Kenya. (author)

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management; Heterogeneite spatiale d'un service de reseau, equite et efficacite collective: la distribution rurale d'electricite et la maitrise de la demande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, F

    2005-11-15

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  9. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may be...... achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  10. Nesidioblastosis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, A L

    1997-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among neonates. Transient in nature, it usually resolves with an increase in glucose intake. However, as clinicians, we must recognize that prolonged hypoglycemia may be caused by increased insulin production. Nesidioblastosis is one cause of persistent hyperinsulinism of the newborn. This case study reviews fetal physiology, neonatal presentation, and treatment. PMID:9325879

  11. : Case studies: France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonerandi, Emmanuelle; Santamaria, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on territorial governance : urban region of Lyon (France) and the "Pays" policy (France) in the framework of the ESPON 2.3.2 project Études de cas sur la gouvernance territoriale : région urbaine de Lyon et politique des pays

  12. The challenge of energy poverty: Brazilian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. -Research highlights: → The access to electricity led to a marked change in the reality of the researched population. → Energy poverty and energy inequality were reduced significantly. → The strategy of combating energy poverty through programs of rural electrification is efficient.

  13. Rotordynamic Stability Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Pranabesh

    2004-01-01

    In this article case studies are presented involving rotordynamic instability of modern high-speed turbomachinery relating the field data to analytical methods. The studies include oil seal related field problems, instability caused by aerodynamic cross-coupling in high-pressure, high-speed compressors, and hydrodynamic bearing instability resulting in subsynchronous vibration of a high-speed turbocharger. It has been shown that the analytical tools not only help in problem diagnostics, bu...

  14. Prague Case Study Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, Tomáš; Patočková, Věra; Illner, Michal; Vobecká, Jana; Čermák, Daniel

    Aarau: Centre for Democracy Studies Aarau (ZDA), 2014 - (Widmer, C.; Kübler, D.), s. 131-177 ISBN 978-3-9524228-2-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280802 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : urban neighbourhods * regeneration * Prague Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.zdaarau.ch/dokumente/en/ZDA_Working-Papers/No3_RUN_case-studies_2014.pdf

  15. MIDAS case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.

    1989-07-01

    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  16. Renewable energy rural electrification. Sustainability aspects of the Mexican programme in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 20 years Mexico has been fertile ground for rural projects using renewable energy technologies. In many cases, however, sustainability aspects were either improperly handled or essentially ignored. Such was the case, for instance, with solar thermal water pumping projects, solar water desalination, and even complete 'solar towns'. Painful but important lessons were learned from such failed projects. Now, sustainability is the focal point of a current rural electrification programme with renewable energy. As of this writing, over 24,000 individual home photovoltaic lighting systems have already been installed in different regions of Mexico; another 12,000 systems are estimated to have been installed in rural areas as a result of private commercial activities; seven village-size hybrid systems (photovoltaic-wind and photovoltaic-wind-diesel) have also been implemented. With this, the Mexican renewable energy rural electrification programme stands among the largest programmes of its kind in the world today. The question of the programme's sustainability has been a major concern at the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), where activities have been under way since the start to lend it technical support. The lessons learned in the process will be discussed in this article. (author). 8 refs

  17. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  18. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  19. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Options for rural electrification in Arua District, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposed a power generation system suitable for rural area application. The electrification options were proposed for secondary schools, health centres, households and trading centre loads using solar PV system, diesel fired generators, biogas co-fired diesel generators and grid extension. The study is based on simulation, modeling and optimization of renewable energy system. Designs for the options considered were based on the electricity demand and environmental conditions of Arua district. From the designs, capital costs for each option were determined. This was used in carrying out simulations in HOMER computer program to come up with the most cost effective options. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the effects of variation in costs such as diesel price and capital cost of solar PV system.Based on simulation results, it has been found that the trading centre, with 500 kW of electrical demand, must be electrified using the grid extension. The breakeven grid distance is 75.1 km. Grid extension become cost effective compared to diesel generators and solar PV system within this distance. The load at household level ranges from as low as 16 W to 5 kW. For 103 W peak load, the most cost effective option was solar PV system. The second best option was biogas co-fired diesel generator. For schools and health centres with load of up to 15 kW, biogas co-fired generator is the best compared to the total cost of 18 kW diesel fired generator which is higher. Therefore, where biogas cannot be generated, diesel generators should be used. Based on the amount of pollutants produced, a biogas co-fired diesel generator is the best option. (full text)

  1. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed

  2. Deconstructing the concept of renewable energy-based mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2016-01-01

    between the option of large-scale grid extension and pico-scale stand-alone solutions like solar home systems or solar lanterns. International expectations of mini-grids are high, with the International Energy Agency suggesting that they will play a significant role in reaching the goal of universal...... electrification and the challenges identified in the literature, the study concludes by proposing three avenues for further research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website....

  3. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  4. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  5. Efficient System Design and Sustainable Finance for China's Village Electrification Program: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S.; Yin, H.; Kline, D. M.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes a joint effort of the Institute for Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEE), and the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support China's rural electrification program. This project developed a design tool that provides guidelines both for off-grid renewable energy system designs and for cost-based tariff and finance schemes to support them. This tool was developed to capitalize on lessons learned from the Township Electrification Program that preceded the Village Electrification Program. We describe the methods used to develop the analysis, some indicative results, and the planned use of the tool in the Village Electrification Program.

  6. Final Report - Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project - FY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth L. Craig, Interim General Manager

    2007-03-31

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year projects which addresses the needs of unserved Navajo Nation residents without basic electricity services. The Navajo Nation is the United States' largest tribe, in terms of population and land. An estimated 18,000 Navajo Nation homes do not have basic grid-tied electricity--and this third year of funding, known as NEDP-3, provided 351 power line extensions to Navajo families.

  7. Parallel Development? Productivity Growth Following Electrification and the ICT Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Edquist, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates labor productivity growth and the contribution to labor productivity growth in Swedish manufacturing during electrification and the ICT revolution. The paper distinguishes between technology-producing, intensive and less intensive technology-using industries during these technological breakthroughs. The results show that labor productivity growth and the overall contribution to labor productivity growth was considerably higher in technology-producing industries followi...

  8. Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments

  9. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  10. Investigation of contact electrification based broadband energy harvesting mechanism using elastic PDMS microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triboelectric energy harvesting has recently garnered a lot of interest because of its easy fabrication and high power output. Contact electrification depends on the chemical properties of contacting materials. Another important factor in contact electrification mechanism is surfaces’ elastic and topographical characteristics. One of the biggest limitations of resonant mechanism based devices is their narrow operating bandwidth. This paper presents a broadband mechanism which utilizes stiffness induced in the cantilever motion due to contact between two triboelectric surfaces. We have conducted experiments using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropad patterns to study the effect of micropad array configuration on the performance of triboelectric energy harvesting devices. The maximum power output measured from the device was observed to be 0.69 μW at an acceleration of 1 g. Due to the non-linearity introduced by contact separation mechanism, the bandwidth of the triboelectric energy harvester was observed to be increased by 63% at an acceleration level of 1 g. A hybrid energy harvesting mechanism has also been demonstrated by compounding the triboelectric energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph. (paper)

  11. Dependence of contact electrification on the magnitude of strain in polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Mamadou; Lacks, Daniel J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new experimental approach to systematically study the effect of material strain on contact electrification. Thin sheets of latex rubber are variably strained by stretching over a hollow cylinder, analogous to a drum. The strained sheets are repeatedly contacted with another surface by a computer-controlled apparatus. The surface potential on the latex rubber is measured in real time by a non-contact electrostatic voltmeter. For unstrained latex rubber, we find that contact with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) leads to a negative surface potential that progressively increases in magnitude to more negative values with increasing number of contacts. When the latex rubber is strained, contact with PTFE causes the surface potential of the latex rubber to shift to less negative values. At strains of more than ˜50%, the polarity of the surface potential is reversed, such that contact with PTFE causes the latex rubber to charge positively. These results indicate that contact electrification intimately depends on the degree of material strain, and may explain how spatial inhomogeneities of charge exist on contacted surfaces and why there is a lack of reproducibility in contact charging experiments.

  12. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  13. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  14. FMCT verification: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: How to manage the trade-off between the need for transparency and the concern about the disclosure of sensitive information would be a key issue during the negotiations of FMCT verification provision. This paper will explore the general concerns on FMCT verification; and demonstrate what verification measures might be applied to those reprocessing and enrichment plants. A primary goal of an FMCT will be to have the five declared nuclear weapon states and the three that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities become parties. One focus in negotiating the FMCT will be verification. Appropriate verification measures should be applied in each case. Most importantly, FMCT verification would focus, in the first instance, on these states' fissile material production facilities. After the FMCT enters into force, all these facilities should be declared. Some would continue operating to produce civil nuclear power or to produce fissile material for non- explosive military uses. The verification measures necessary for these operating facilities would be essentially IAEA safeguards, as currently being applied to non-nuclear weapon states under the NPT. However, some production facilities would be declared and shut down. Thus, one important task of the FMCT verifications will be to confirm the status of these closed facilities. As case studies, this paper will focus on the verification of those shutdown facilities. The FMCT verification system for former military facilities would have to differ in some ways from traditional IAEA safeguards. For example, there could be concerns about the potential loss of sensitive information at these facilities or at collocated facilities. Eventually, some safeguards measures such as environmental sampling might be seen as too intrusive. Thus, effective but less intrusive verification measures may be needed. Some sensitive nuclear facilities would be subject for the first time to international inspections, which could raise concerns

  15. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  16. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  17. SELCO: A model for solar rural electrification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, H. Harish

    1999-11-01

    The following thesis presents the concept of a Rural Energy Service Company in India, known as SELCO. The model is being set up as a sustainable proposition for the implementation of solar photovoltaics as a viable alternative to provide reliable home lighting in the rural areas of India. The SELCO approach has already achieved noteworthy social and commercial results. Institutional, policy and operational problems have long plagued the rural electrification programs in India, resulting in thousands of villages without access to electricity. SELCO is a solar energy service company operating in Southern India since 1995, focusing on the enormous untapped market for home lighting where thousands of households have no access to electricity and severe power shortages face those already connected to the electric grid. The Company has installed nearly 2,000 solar home lighting systems. From a modest two employees company in 1995, it has grown to 35 in 1997 and from one office to eight. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that in rural India, in a market not subsidized by the government, a solar service company with available loans from local banks and cooperatives and with sales, installation, and maintenance personnel in the villages can be successful in introducing photovoltaic systems to provide basic amenities such as lighting and water pumping for the improvement of the quality of life, public health, and the environment. The initial success of SELCO lends considerable evidence to the acceptance of the hypothesis. To accomplish its mission, SELCO works with commercial, retail, and rural development banks with large rural branch networks to stimulate loans to SELCO's customers based on a standard set of attractive financing terms. SELCO through its successful model has convinced the policy makers that a way to increase rural families' access to consumer financing for solar home lighting systems is through the existing financial network available in the

  18. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  19. User-owned utility models for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the history of rural electric cooperatives (REC) in the United States, and the broader question of whether such organizations can serve as a model for rural electrification in other countries. The author points out the features of such cooperatives which have given them stability and strength, and emphasizes that for success of such programs, many of these same features must be present. He definitely feels the cooperative models are not outdated, but they need strong local support, and a governmental structure which is supportive, and in particular not negative.

  20. Review of photovoltaic energy development in Kenya for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand is rapidly growing throughout much of the developing world, where an estimated two billion people, mostly from sparsely populated areas, currently live without electricity. As electrical energy systems are selected to help meet these people's electricity need, the environmental ramifications of the generating systems become increasingly important. Photovoltaic systems generate electricity without emitting greenhouse gases, and result in global, regional and local air quality advantages. In this work we intend to carry out research and development of photovoltaic solar cells for rural electrification - especially solar powered water pumping. (author). 56 refs, 11 figs

  1. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  2. Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Luc; José B. Sokol

    2004-01-01

    This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in cha...

  3. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...

  4. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society.

  5. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus on...... the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications...... for research design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes...

  6. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia)]|[GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  7. Case Studies on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Sam CM

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. A knowledge base of case studies and resources has been established to illustrate the sustainable design strategies and features in realistic building projects all over the world. The database of case studies can be searched by project names, locations, design strategies and design features.

  8. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  9. The Big Read: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  10. Influence of Oil-paper Conditions on the Static Electrification Phenomena of Transformer Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Bouslimi; K.Taheri; I.Fofana; H.Hemmatjou; C.Volat

    2013-01-01

    This contribution is not only intended to provide a fresh review for researches on static electrification,but also contains a substantial amount of new material with a view of closing some gaps in the present state of knowledge of oil streaming electrification.In this paper,the Electrostatic Charging Tendency (ECT) of fresh (unaged) and aged transformer oils were investigated in a spinning disk system.Static electrification measurement at different aging degrees was carried out under laboratory controlled conditions.Changes in static electrification were compared to some classical aging indexes (conductivity,dissipation factor,water content,resistivity,etc.).Fast,inexpensive and reliable laboratory testing procedures developed by American Society for Testing Materials (D 6802 and D 6181) were also used to monitor decay products as trace impurities.The obtained results show that static electrification currents increase with temperature,fluid motion velocity,surface properties and the aging byproducts of the oil.The polarity,the amplitude and the time constant of the electrification currents are also affected.The results show that static electrification has relationship with thermal aging and is sensitive to turbidimetric and spectrophotometric measurements.

  11. Kickstarter - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Willumsen, Ea Christina; Byg-Fabritius, Edith Ursula Tvede

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the online crowdfunding platform Kickstarter, and discusses what makes a Kickstarter campaign successful. Two previous Kickstarter campaigns have been debated in focus groups interviews, as the basis of the study is a reception analysis of two focus group interviews. Ee apply theories from Schrøder (2000) and Batey (2008) to our analysis to study how the campaigns appeal to their backers. By drawing on ideas from Rogers (2003) and Pine & Gilmore (1998), we fu...

  12. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  13. Smart control for minimizing distribution network reinforcement cost due to electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrification of transport fleets and heating sectors is seen as one of the key strategies to further reduce the use of fossil fuels and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. However, it will potentially cause a significant increase of electricity peak demand and have adverse consequences on the electricity system, in particular on distribution networks. This paper will address the benefits of various applications of smart network control and demand response technologies for enhancing the integration of these future load categories, and for improvements in operation management and efficient use of distribution network assets. A range of numerical simulations have been carried out on different distribution network topologies (rural and urban networks) to identify the need and the cost of network reinforcement required to accommodate future load under various operating strategies such as Business as Usual (passive demand and passive network) against the smart grid approach. Applications of smart Plug-in vehicle (PiV) charging, smart heat pumps, and optimised control of network voltage regulators to reduce network investment have been studied, and selected key results of our studies on evaluating the benefits of implementing these technologies for Great Britain's distribution networks are presented and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: ► Growth of electricity loads driven by electrification of transport and heat will be significant. ► It will increase the electricity peak demand up to 2–3 times and cost tens of billion pounds if we maintain Business as Usual approach. ► A coordinated application of smart demand technologies can significantly reduce this cost. ► It requires sets of policies and regulations to facilitate timely deployment of such technologies.

  14. Rural Electrification through Decentralized Concentrating Solar Power: Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Quoilin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of small-scale solar Organic Rankine Cycles for rural electrification in remote areas of Lesotho. It is subdivided in two parts. The first part deals with the success conditions of decentralized rural electrification projects. Through a literature survey, relevant guiding principles and recommendations are formulated. The second part of the paper describes the proposed system, which is designed in agreement with the formulated recommendations. A framework for benchmarking the performance and cost of various micro-utility platforms and rural electrification distribution models is proposed.

  15. Geostatistical case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes

  16. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  17. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  18. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  19. China's rural electrification and poverty reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of rural investment in power sector on the rural economic development and poverty reduction in China. An econometric model was developed and six Chinese provinces with different economic background are studied. These provinces comprise Jiangsu and Liaoning with well-developed rural economy, Hebei and Henan with medium-developed rural economy, and Shannxi and Xinjiang with the least-developed rural economy. Over 20-yr historical data for the six provincial rural areas--counties and below, was collected in rural economic development, households, population, per capita income, community infrastructure development, capital investment, electricity consumption, output values in agriculture sector, and township and village enterprises. SPSS V10.0 software program was used in the research. This paper concludes that priority of capital investment in rural power sector should be given to Jiangsu and Liaoning if the objective of the investment is to develop rural economy, and that the priority should be given to Hebei and Henan if the objective is to reduce poverty in rural area

  20. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  1. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  2. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  3. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  4. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. The theory and practice of 100 pilot SHP-based rural electrification counties in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the theory and practice of 100 pilot small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) based rural electrification counties in China. The document reports the research contents, methodology and results, and the pilot benefit analysis and evaluation.

  6. Planning of rural electrification expansion from the stratification of consumer classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for rural electrification expansion is presented, allowing an evaluation of receipt and operational expense. Considerations about the evolution of consumers, the rural market according to tariffs classifications and energy consumption are also shown. (author)

  7. ESFER computer tool for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems used in rural electrification; ESFER herramienta de computadora para evaluar sistemas fotovoltaicos utilizados en electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, Francisco; Perez, Miguel; Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    ESFER (Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural) Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation for Rural Electrification is a computerized calculation tool for the analysis of information and evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. This article describes such a tool, as well as the parameters that are taken into account for analyzing the systems, the methodology to qualify and the computer program operation. The graphic results of a typical case are presented. ESFER pretends to be a program of general use for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. [Espanol] ESFER, Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural, es una herramienta de calculo computarizada para el analisis de informacion y evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos para electrificacion rural. En el presente articulo se describe dicha herramienta, asi como los parametros que se toman en cuenta para analizar los sistemas, la metodologia de calificacion y la operacion del programa de computadora. Se presentan los resultados graficos de un caso tipico. ESFER pretende ser un programa de uso generalizado para la evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos de electrificacion rural.

  8. Indonesia solar home systems project for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghvi, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents, from a financing aspect the broad issues involved in a plan to provide solar home systems (SHS) to provide rural electrification in several areas of rural Indonesia. The paper discusses the approaches being used to provide funding, develop awareness of the technology, and assure the success of the project. The plan involves the use of grant money to help with some of the initial costs of such systems, and thereby to encourage local financing on a terms rather than cash basis. There are needs for market development, and development of a business structure in the country to support this type of technology. Provided this plan can succeed, it may serve as a model for further efforts.

  9. Beyond the grid: photovoltaic electrification in rural Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, Jorge M.; Agredano, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Unidad de Energias No Convencionales, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-10-01

    A rural electrification programme with renewable energy systems was launched in Mexico in 1989, based mostly on solar home systems due to the large population dispersion. In spite of the high per-watt costs of current photovoltaic technology, over 1250 rural communities have already been electrified, bringing light and basic entertainment to a population of almost 200 000 people. The Mexican programme is characterised for its large scale and fast pace, and also for being socially driven. Over the years the programme has evolved into a mature, well-institutionalised process, which is described in this paper. One of the main achievements of the Mexican programme has been the full involvement of the national electric utility and other government organisations, which led to the creation of an operational framework for quality assurance, including user training and the development of technical specifications. (Author)

  10. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  11. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  12. Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically matured and markets have gradually developed, PV for rural electrification has often been perceived with scepticism from potential users, donors, government officials and researchers, and solar PV has in...

  13. An assessment of electricity and income distributional trends following rural electrification in poor northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification is considered to be a key strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. It should therefore include (1) expanding electricity access and (2) enable new consumers to increase their electricity consumption. In this paper we ask how Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts have managed to reach these objectives. A new method to measure energy and income equity is presented which uses estimations of non-parametric density curves for the analysis of energy and income distributional trends following electrification. By applying our method to a panel data set from two Brazilian states situated in the country’s poor northeast region we find that (1) rural consumers take up electricity consumption after electrification, and that (2) low consumption levels give way to higher electricity consumption levels after only a few years. This indicates immediate social benefits for households through consumption of electricity services. However, our analysis cannot verify a direct link between electricity use and rural income generation in the short term. The results emphasize the need for government and other actors to integrate rural electrification into broader rural development strategies in order to enable long-term welfare increases through electricity use. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive analysis of Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts. ► New methodology to analyze energy and income equity trends ex post electrification. ► Analysis indicates immediate social benefits for electrified households. ► We cannot establish a direct link between electricity use and income in the short-run. ► Electrification thus should be integrated in long-term rural development strategies.

  14. Highway Electrification And Automation Technologies - Regional Impacts Analysis Project: Phase I: Baseline Scenario Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scag; Path

    1993-01-01

    The Highway Electrification and Automation Technologies Regional Impacts Analysis Project addresses the transportation-related problems of freeway congestion, air pollution, and dependence on fossil fuels in southern California. This report presents a documentation of the basis for the impacts analysis. It contains sections on data collected, baseline forecast for 2025, and electrification and automation specification scenarios. This report constitutes the final report for Phase I of the proj...

  15. Progress and issues in rural electrification in Bihar, India : a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Hisaya

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification has been an important part of government policy since India gained independence. However, despite the number of electrified villages expanding rapidly in recent years, there are many that still remain un-electrified. This paper addresses the issue of intra-state disparity in access to electricity and examines the determinants of electrification at the village level using data from a survey conducted in rural Bihar, one of the underdeveloped states in India. An econometri...

  16. Sternocleidomastoid syndrome: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Missaghi, Babak

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a patient diagnosed with dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, a condition which can result in head and face pain, nausea, dizziness, coryza, and lacrimation. In this particular case, the SCM muscle had developed tightness and weakness with presence of multiple trigger points within both heads. A combination of passive and active treatments were utilized to successfully treat this condition.

  17. Kenya Groundwater Governance Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mumma, Albert; Lane, Michael; Kairu, Edward; Tuinhof, Albert; Hirji, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case study on groundwater governance in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (a) describe groundwater resource and socioeconomic settings for four selected aquifers; (b) describe governance arrangements for groundwater management in Kenya; and (c) identify the relevance of these arrangements for planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures. The ...

  18. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sorooshian, Shahryar; Jambulingam, Manimekalai; Dodangeh, Javad

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, i...

  19. Analysis of Volume Fraction, Diffusion and Electrification of Suspended Particulate Matter in a Two-Phase Couette Flow with Heat Transfer in an Inertial Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok MISRA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effects of volume fraction, diffusion and electrification of suspended particulate matter on a two-phase flow and heat transfer between 2 infinite parallel plates due to the impulsive start of the upper plate in an inertial frame of reference. The Crank-Nicholson finite difference implicit technique is employed to find the solutions of the governing equations of flow field. An illustration of dependence of physical variables on diffusion parameter, finite volume fraction & magnetic parameter is depicted through figures and tables. The electrification of particles has the effects of decreasing the velocities and increasing the temperature of carrier fluid and suspended particulate matter (SPM. This type of study helps in understanding large-scale phenomena in atmospheric and oceanic circulations.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.46

  20. Effects of the Inductive Charging on the Electrification and Lightning Discharges in Thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional cloud model with electrification and lightning processes is used to investigate the role of inductive charge separation in thunderstorm clouds. For the same dynamic and microphysical evolution, four cases that the same non-inductive charging parameterization is combined with different inductive charging process are compared. Non-inductive charge separation alone is found to be sufficient to produce a dipolar charge structure. Intracloud (IC and positive cloud-to-ground (+CG flashes are initiated between a main negative charge region and an upper positive charge region. The inductive charging process between graupel and cloud droplets exhibits a normal tripole charge structure, consisting of a lower positive charge region under the main negative charge region. In the simulated tripole structure, negative cloud-to-ground (-CG flashes are initiated between the main negative and lower positive charge regions. In addition, inductive charge separation between the graupel and ice crystal is found to be capable of producing strong charge separation in a dipole charge structure. Tests with inductive graupel-ice crystals process produce more flashes than that in the other cases.

  1. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  2. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  3. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  4. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  5. Radial-arrayed rotary electrification for high performance triboelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tiejun; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-03-01

    Harvesting mechanical energy is an important route in obtaining cost-effective, clean and sustainable electric energy. Here we report a two-dimensional planar-structured triboelectric generator on the basis of contact electrification. The radial arrays of micro-sized sectors on the contact surfaces enable a high output power of 1.5 W (area power density of 19 mW cm-2) at an efficiency of 24%. The triboelectric generator can effectively harness various ambient motions, including light wind, tap water flow and normal body movement. Through a power management circuit, a triboelectric-generator-based power-supplying system can provide a constant direct-current source for sustainably driving and charging commercial electronics, immediately demonstrating the feasibility of the triboelectric generator as a practical power source. Given exceptional power density, extremely low cost and unique applicability resulting from distinctive mechanism and structure, the triboelectric generator can be applied not only to self-powered electronics but also possibly to power generation at a large scale.

  6. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P S

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country`s new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties.

  7. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it's possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  8. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country's new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties

  9. Case Studies on Crossborder Ecotrade

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This compilation of four country case studies provides a comprehensive understanding of challenges, good practices, and lessons learnt under different situations. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, a cross-border vegetable trade agreement with its neighboring, Thailand, aided in stabilizing market prices and provided financial benefits to local contract farmers. Similarly, organic certification and geographic indication of sugar palm in Cambodia linked local farmers to the global market...

  10. Photovoltaics for rural electrification in developing countries a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Urmee, Tania; Holtorf, Hans-Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This guide will greatly improve the success rate of solar energy projects in remote communities in developing countries, drawing on the authors' own case studies to generate comprehensive, step-by-step procedures that replicate proven real-life strategies.

  11. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  12. Decentralized rural electrification: state of the art and technical and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the approach currently underlying decentralized rural electrification. This is based on analysing requirements, arranging them by priority, choosing appropriate solutions combining the criteria of energy efficiency with the use of local, renewable energy resources. The main decentralized rural electrification techniques in use are described briefly, along with the corresponding energy services each of them can cover. The current costs of the systems, projects, and services are discussed along with the short - and medium - term technical and economic changes in decentralized electrical production and consumption, with a view toward expanding to Larger-scale dissemination. The development of decentralized rural electrification by renewable energies has a potential impact in terms of environmental benefits and coasts cuts, and a few pointer are given as to how these costs and benefits can be better defined in the future. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Case studies in canonical stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafardi, N P; Hite, J

    1985-11-01

    In facing the challenges that confront Catholic health care today, it is important to know which civil law forms will assist in preserving the Church's ministry. The proper meshing of civil law and canon law thus provides a vehicle to strengthen the apostolate's work. The case studies presented here suggest several means of applying the principles in the new Code of Canon Law to three potentially problematic situations: the merger of a Catholic and non-Catholic hospital, the leasing of a Catholic hospital to an operating company, and the use of the multicorporate format. PMID:10274590

  14. Options for rural electrification in Mexico; Opcion para la electrificacion de pequenas comunidades rurales en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in the study carried out in communities of the Hidalgo State, localized in remote and of difficult access sites. In the study 19 different options, which are technically and economically feasible, from the stand point of commercialization and electrification of the same. The performance of these systems was evaluated with respect to their capability to satisfy 12 technical goals and 5 social-economical, as well as their environmental impact. An hybrid system based on photovoltaic cells, diesel or gasoline generator and a wind-power generator, we think is the recommended option for this type of communities. [Espanol] Este trabajo sintetiza los resultados de un estudio llevado a cabo en comunidades del estado de Hidalgo, localizadas en lugares remotos y de dificil acceso. En el estudio se analizaron 19 diferentes opciones que son factibles tecnica y comercialmente hablando para la electrificacion de las mismas. El comportamiento de estos sistemas fue evaluado con respecto a su capacidad para satisfacer 12 objetivos tecnicos y 5 socioeconomicos, asi como su impacto ambiental. Un sistema hibrido a base de celdas fotovoltaicas, generador a diesel o gasolina y generador eolico, creemos que es la opcion recomendada para este tipo de comunidades.

  15. Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the democratic transition in South Africa in the early 1990s the government has implemented a widespread electrification programme, as well as introduced a free basic electricity allowance as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet there are limited longitudinal studies on the impacts of the introduction of electricity on the patterns of household energy use, and even more so in the neglected rural sector. This study reports on the patterns of household energy use in five rural settlements in 1991 and again in 2002. Results indicate a changing pattern of energy use for lighting and powering entertainment appliances, more specifically from dry-cell batteries and paraffin to electricity. Yet for thermal needs, most notably cooking, fuelwood has remained the most widespread fuel, and the amount used per month has not changed, despite increasing scarcity of wood in the local environment. There has been an increase in the proportion of households purchasing fuelwood as opposed to collecting their own. Overall, the mean total number of fuel types used per household has increased, indicating that electricity is simply viewed as an additional energy, rather than an alternative. Yet, electricity accounted for approximately 60% of expenditure on energy sources in 2002, despite the government's policy of a free basic allowance of 5-6 kWh per month. This has implications for energy supply costing, as well as the poverty alleviation dimensions of the whole programme

  16. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  17. Energy access problem of the poor in India: Is rural electrification a remedy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India accounts for a third of the world's population without access to electricity and about 40% of those without access to modern energy. Such a situation exists despite several initiatives and policies to support poor households. Alarmed by the gravity of the situation, the government has recently announced an ambitious programme of rural electrification. This paper looks into the energy access situation of India and argues that rural electrification alone is unlikely to resolve the energy access problem because of low penetration of electricity in the energy mix of the poor

  18. Assessment of pico hydro as an option for off-grid electrification in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, P.; Smith, N.P.A.; Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ., Micro Hydro Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses off-grid electrification options for low-income households in rural Kenya, where less than 2% are grid connected. The paper outlines the electrical load priorities of rural households and describes how these are supplied at present through centrally charged automotive batteries and solar home systems. The recent introduction of pico hydro schemes (<5 kW) to Kenya is discussed, including details of the implementation of the two community schemes and the costs involved. A comparison is made between pico hydro and solar home systems and conclusions are presented on the way forward for off-grid electrification in Kenya. (Author)

  19. Benefits from a renewable energy village electrification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahnd, Alex [Kathmandu University, School of Mechanical Engineering, and RIDS-Nepal - ISIS Humla Project Director (Nepal); Kimber, Haddix McKay [University of Montana and The ISIS Foundation, Missoula, Montana (United States)

    2009-02-15

    More than 100 years after Edison's life changing discovery, 1.6-2 billion people around the globe still live without light, in dark and smoke filled homes. The remote and impoverished Himalayan villages of upper Humla, in north-west Nepal, belong to some of the 2.4 billion people who still depend on the use of traditional biomass for their daily energy services such as cooking, heating and light. These activities on open fireplaces have a direct chronic impact on the health and extremely low life expectancy of the women and children along with devastating deforestation. There is a strong relationship between prosperity and access to electricity. The more remote and isolated communities in Nepal generally live in great poverty. Eighty percent of Nepal's 28.5 million people live in rural areas, with around half of these so remote, that neither a road, nor the national grid is ever likely to reach them. While Nepal has no fossil fuel resources, it is a country that is rich in renewable energy resources such as hydropower and solar energy. These abundant and locally available renewable energy resources can be tapped into with appropriate locally developed technologies. Generating and storing electrical energy derived from these rich local energy resources can provide for appropriate and sustainable lighting, which brings potential health, education, social and economic benefits to the people who have previously lived in homes with excessive indoor air pollution. This paper describes the living conditions of some villages in upper Humla, and the possible benefits of a simple village electrification system that provides basic lighting for the homes and the consequent improvements in the living conditions of the villagers. (author)

  20. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Desiree [UCD School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s Campus, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: desiree.oleary@ucd.ie

    2005-05-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion.

  1. Deep carbon reductions in California require electrification and integration across economic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Max; Nelson, James H.; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Ting, Michael; Yang, Christopher; Jones, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    Meeting a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels in the year 2050 requires detailed long-term planning due to complexity, inertia, and path dependency in the energy system. A detailed investigation of supply and demand alternatives is conducted to assess requirements for future California energy systems that can meet the 2050 GHG target. Two components are developed here that build novel analytic capacity and extend previous studies: (1) detailed bottom-up projections of energy demand across the building, industry and transportation sectors; and (2) a high-resolution variable renewable resource capacity planning model (SWITCH) that minimizes the cost of electricity while meeting GHG policy goals in the 2050 timeframe. Multiple pathways exist to a low-GHG future, all involving increased efficiency, electrification, and a dramatic shift from fossil fuels to low-GHG energy. The electricity system is found to have a diverse, cost-effective set of options that meet aggressive GHG reduction targets. This conclusion holds even with increased demand from transportation and heating, but the optimal levels of wind and solar deployment depend on the temporal characteristics of the resulting load profile. Long-term policy support is found to be a key missing element for the successful attainment of the 2050 GHG target in California.

  2. Atmospheric Electrification in Dusty, Reactive Gases in the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Christiane; Harrison, R. Giles; Honary, Farideh; Diver, Declan A.; Aplin, Karen; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Ebert, Ute; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Gordillo-Vazquez, Francisco J.; Littlefair, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Detailed observations of the solar system planets reveal a wide variety of local atmospheric conditions. Astronomical observations have revealed a variety of extrasolar planets none of which resembles any of the solar system planets in full. Instead, the most massive amongst the extrasolar planets, the gas giants, appear very similar to the class of (young) brown dwarfs which are amongst the oldest objects in the Universe. Despite this diversity, solar system planets, extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs have broadly similar global temperatures between 300 and 2500 K. In consequence, clouds of different chemical species form in their atmospheres. While the details of these clouds differ, the fundamental physical processes are the same. Further to this, all these objects were observed to produce radio and X-ray emissions. While both kinds of radiation are well studied on Earth and to a lesser extent on the solar system planets, the occurrence of emissions that potentially originate from accelerated electrons on brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks is not well understood yet. This paper offers an interdisciplinary view on electrification processes and their feedback on their hosting environment in meteorology, volcanology, planetology and research on extrasolar planets and planet formation.

  3. Atmospheric Electrification in Dusty, Reactive Gases in the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Christiane; Harrison, R. Giles; Honary, Farideh; Diver, Declan A.; Aplin, Karen; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Ebert, Ute; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Gordillo-Vazquez, Francisco J.; Littlefair, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Detailed observations of the solar system planets reveal a wide variety of local atmospheric conditions. Astronomical observations have revealed a variety of extrasolar planets none of which resembles any of the solar system planets in full. Instead, the most massive amongst the extrasolar planets, the gas giants, appear very similar to the class of (young) brown dwarfs which are amongst the oldest objects in the Universe. Despite this diversity, solar system planets, extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs have broadly similar global temperatures between 300 and 2500 K. In consequence, clouds of different chemical species form in their atmospheres. While the details of these clouds differ, the fundamental physical processes are the same. Further to this, all these objects were observed to produce radio and X-ray emissions. While both kinds of radiation are well studied on Earth and to a lesser extent on the solar system planets, the occurrence of emissions that potentially originate from accelerated electrons on brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks is not well understood yet. This paper offers an interdisciplinary view on electrification processes and their feedback on their hosting environment in meteorology, volcanology, planetology and research on extrasolar planets and planet formation.

  4. Deep carbon reductions in California require electrification and integration across economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels in the year 2050 requires detailed long-term planning due to complexity, inertia, and path dependency in the energy system. A detailed investigation of supply and demand alternatives is conducted to assess requirements for future California energy systems that can meet the 2050 GHG target. Two components are developed here that build novel analytic capacity and extend previous studies: (1) detailed bottom-up projections of energy demand across the building, industry and transportation sectors; and (2) a high-resolution variable renewable resource capacity planning model (SWITCH) that minimizes the cost of electricity while meeting GHG policy goals in the 2050 timeframe. Multiple pathways exist to a low-GHG future, all involving increased efficiency, electrification, and a dramatic shift from fossil fuels to low-GHG energy. The electricity system is found to have a diverse, cost-effective set of options that meet aggressive GHG reduction targets. This conclusion holds even with increased demand from transportation and heating, but the optimal levels of wind and solar deployment depend on the temporal characteristics of the resulting load profile. Long-term policy support is found to be a key missing element for the successful attainment of the 2050 GHG target in California. (letter)

  5. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  6. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  7. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  8. Using Case Studies To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Connie

    Using case studies in science instruction develops problem solving and enhances listening and cooperative learning skills. Unlike other disciplines such as law and medicine, the case study method is rarely used in science education to enrich the curriculum. This study investigates the use of content-based case studies as a means of developing…

  9. An integrated framework for rural electrification: Adopting a user-centric approach to business model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification (RE) has gained prominence over the past two decades as an effective means for improving living conditions. This growth has largely been driven by socio-economic and political imperatives to improve rural livelihood and by technological innovation. Based on a content analysis of 232 scholarly articles, the literature is categorized into four focal lenses: technology, institutional, viability and user-centric. We find that the first two dominate the RE debate. The viability lens has been used less frequently, whilst the user-centric lens began to engage scholars as late as 2007. We provide an overview of the technological, institutional and viability lenses, and elaborate upon the user-centric lens in greater detail. For energy policy and practice, we combine the four lenses to develop a business model framework that policy makers, practitioners and investors could use to assess RE projects or to design future rural electrification strategies. - Highlights: ► Review of two decades of rural electrification research. ► Content analysis of 232 scholarly articles. ► Literature is categorized into four focal lenses: technology, institutional, viability and user-centric. ► We develop a business model framework for rural electrification strategies.

  10. Small Hydro Power-An Important Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MamudaAbdullahi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is trying to highlight the importance of constructing small hydropower station as the alternative source of energy for rural electrification in Nigeria and stressedthe need for the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide a clear open policy that will make environment favourable and safe for local and foreign private investors on small Hydropower.

  11. Technical and Economic Assessment of Off-grid, Mini-grid and Grid Electrification Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report is part of the Energy and Water Department's commitment to providing new techniques and knowledge which complement the direct investment and other assistance to electrification as provided by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The purpose of this report is to convey the results of an assessment o...

  12. EUROPE AND ITS GREEN FUTURE. ELECTRIFICATION AND DECARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baciu Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a great challenge which humanity faces, and which is climate change. Together with food and water shortages which will hit more and more humanity in the years ahead, climate change (which will only amplify these negative facts will bring negative consequences on economy and society, and in international relations area, too. In this context, the importance of the subject speaks for itself. The research is focused on EU objectives in climate area and in sustainable development, indicating that renewable energy could be a solution for energy independence, and for reducing CO2 concentration level, too. The subject is very important one nowadays being subject of intense debates and negotiations, having a high degree of visibility in international forums and in international press. The paper wants to show what EU aims in the future related to its development through fossil fuels consumption reduction and as a base for starting research are researched realized under the aegis of Group Futuribles from Paris, of the National Centre for Sustainable Development from Bucharest, from American Academy of Arts and Science, and International Energy Agency from Paris. We take from IEA data and present them in the tables in order to have a synthetic view upon energy in EU countries, and of course, there are presented trends in energy consumption in renewable at European level. The development of the subject with the involvements in transport area only brings a fresh air in the debates regarding reducing energy vulnerability together with fighting climate changes. There are presented some peculiarities of CO2 pollution and their implications, and consequences; and of course, solutions for fighting climate change is part of this presentation. Reducing oil consumption and expanding renewable resources (wind, solar, and hydro and nuclear energy coupled with the electrification of the economy and transportation sectors, and rising energy

  13. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  14. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Tantareanu, Cristian; Caldes-Gomez, Natalia; Santamaria-Belda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  15. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  16. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  17. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  18. The Chinese electricity access model for rural electrification: Approach, experience and lessons for others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic and infrastructural disparities between the rural and urban communities of most developing countries in general and in terms of energy access in particular are quite glaring. China presents a good example of a developing country that has successfully embarked on rural electrification projects over the last few decades and achieved a great feat of almost 100% electrification rate (. World Energy Outlook, 2009, International Energy Agency, Paris (see IEA website at (http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/electricity.asp).)). The purpose of this paper is to find out how China has achieved this feat; how China’s rural energy projects were financed and whether China provides lessons for other countries to follow. The above questions are examined through an extensive literature review and the paper finds that unlike many other countries following the top-down approach to rural electrification, China has preferred to use a phased development through a bottom-up approach where local resources, and village level development and empowerment played an important role. While the state provided the overall guidance and financial support, the integrated rural development approach has produced local-level solutions that are subsequently integrated to produce an alternative development pathway. Strong government commitment, active local participation, technological flexibility and diversity, strong emphasis on rural development through agricultural and industrial activities and an emphasis on capacity building and training have also played an important role in the success. However, despite achieving the universal access objective, China still faces a number of issues related to rural electricity use, especially in terms of regional use patterns, long-term sustainability of supply and commercial operation of the systems. The Chinese model could serve as an inspiration for other developing countries trying to ensure universal electricity access. - Highlights: ► It

  19. Relationships Among Electrification, Lightning, Kinematics, and Microphysics: Lessons From the Interaction of Observations and Numerical Storm Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgorman, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Observations and numerical storm simulations each have a role in teaching us more about the relationships among electrification, lightning, kinematics, and microphysics. Observations depict aspects of reality, but often sample with too little temporal or spatial resolution or have too many voids to test particular concepts and relationships. Furthermore, many properties critical to developing our knowledge of relationships either must be inferred indirectly from observations or cannot be observed at all. Numerical storm simulations fill this shortcoming of observations by providing a complete, physically consistent set of storm parameters with which to determine relationships. However, numerical simulations may not accurately mimic real behavior, because of shortcomings in their parameterizations or physics. Thus, numerical storm simulations must be tested against observations, and their parameterizations or physics must be refined as needed to mimic the investigated behaviors more realistically. One example in which the interaction of observations and simulations was critical was in determining that the noninductive exchange of charge between ice particles and actively riming graupel is able to produce thunderstorm electric field magnitudes capable of initiating lightning and to produce electrical storm structure similar in key respects to observed electrical structure. More recently observations and simulations have shown that lightning flash rates are roughly proportional to graupel mass or volume and to updraft mass flux or updraft volume, as one might expect from the noninductive mechanism. Furthermore, recent observations suggest strongly that the polarity of thunderstorm electrical structure is sometimes inverted from the polarity usually observed in storms, and simulation studies have recently begun examining why this occurs. However, our understanding of underlying storm properties and processes needs to be improved to address some storm relationships in

  20. Evaluating the Electrification of Vehicle Fleets Using the Veins Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, Sebastian; Berndt, Rüdiger; German, Reinhard; Eckhoff, David

    2014-01-01

    The case study discussed in this paper involves a company maintaining a vehicle fleet of one hundred vehicles. In this article we will discuss how we extend and deploy the Veins framework, which couples OMNeT++ and SUMO, to help in the process of electrifying this vehicle fleet, i.e., replacing combustion engine cars with electric vehicles to save money and lower CO$_2$ emissions.

  1. A HARD CHOICE (CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    KRAVCHENKO NATALIYA A.; KUZNETSOVA SVETLANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The case describes the problems of strategic choice: a small company successfully working in the engineering market (automation of technological processes) in the electric power industry has to make a decision on its further development in a changing external environment and increased competition. The case was carried out to be used in training programs of different levels within the courses “Strategic Management”, “Innovation Management”, “Strategic Analysis Methods”, “Change Management” whe...

  2. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jill Pable

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual ...

  3. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    one and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by...

  4. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...

  5. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...

  6. Alternate electrification and non-potable water: A health concern for Jamaicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V. Crawford

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that the absence of electricity and potable water usually result in negative effects on one’s health and is more likely to affect women than men. Aim: To determine the extent to which alternate electrification and limited potable water, impacts on health. Materials and Method: This study is informed by primary and secondary data, representing a sample size of 150 respondents (75 male and 75 female, who were interviewed via a 24-item structured interview schedule during the period 2006-2007, throughout the 14 parishes of Jamaica. In an effort to determine the number of persons to be interviewed, each parish population was divided by the island’s population (2,599,334 and then multiplied by 150. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social scientists 15. Results: The respondents of this study who use kerosene lamp as an alternate means to electricity use firewood for cooking (12% male and 15% female. This sometimes result in obstructive pulmonary disease (female 43%; male 21%. The absence of electricity also results in the consumption of improperly stored meat, thus medical implications: paroxysmal abdominal pain (colic, and diarrhea (male 91%; female, 95%. The transporting of firewood, pans of water and laundry via head-loading, sometimes result in back/spinal injury (male, 75%; female, 48%. Conclusion: Alternate access to electricity and potable water result in the use of kerosene lamp, firewood and the consumption of non-potable water (often transported on one’s head – causing medical implications such as back/spinal injury, obstructive pulmonary disease, paroxysmal abdominal pain and gastroenteritis.

  7. Transportation Electrification Education Partnership for Green Jobs and Sustainable Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Huei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mi, Chris [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gover, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This collaborative educational project between the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor, University of Michigan—Dearborn and the Kettering University successfully executed almost all the elements we proposed to do. In the original proposal, we proposed to develop four graduate courses, six undergraduate courses, four professional short courses, a K-12 electric vehicle education kit, a Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material to support the advancement of transportation electrification. The first four deliverables were all successfully developed and offered. When we held the kick-off meeting in NETL in Morgantown back in early 2010 with all the ten ARRA education teams, however, it quickly became clear that among the ten ARRA education grantee teams, our proposed “consume education” activities are not better or with the potential to create bigger impact than some of activities proposed in other teams. For example, the Odyssey 2010 event held by the West Virginia University team had planned and successfully reached to more than 230,000 attendees, which is way more than what our proposed 100k event could ever reach. It was under the suggestion of Joseph Quaranta, the ARRA education Program Director at that time, that we should coordinate and eliminate redundancy. The resources should then be focused on activities that have less overlap. Therefore, the originally proposed activities: Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material were dropped from our scope. We expanded the scope of our “education kit” activity to include some educational materials, mainly in the form of videos. The target audience also changed from general public to K-12 students. The majority of the project cost (~70%) goes toward the establishment of three undergraduate laboratories, which provides critically needed hands-on learning experience for next-generation green mobility engineers. We are very proud that the ARRA money

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  9. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Kathirvel, C.; Porkumaran, K.; S.Jaganathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC), which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed o...

  10. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  11. Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The off grid electrification by utilizing Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) is proposed to satisfy the electrical and cooking needs of the seven-uneletrified villages in the Almora district of Uttarakhand state, India. Four different scenarios are considered during modeling and optimization of IRES to ensure reliability parameters such as energy index ratio (EIR) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). The optimum system reliability, total system cost and cost of energy (COE) have also been worked out by introducing the customer interruption cost (CIC). The four different renewable energy scenarios have been compared for the considered study area using the LINGO software version 10. The fourth renewable energy scenario accounting 44.99% micro hydropower (MHP), 30.07% biomass, 5.19% biogas and 4.16% solar energy along with the additional resources of wind (1.27%) and energy plantation (12.33%) has been found to be the best among the different options considered. Furthermore, the optimal reliability for the fourth IRES system has been found to be 0.95 EIR at the optimized cost of Rs 19.44 lacs with estimated COE of Rs 3.36 per kWh. The COE obtained using LINGO software and HOMER software has also been compared and briefly discussed for all the four scenarios. In order to verify feasibility and cost of system for different biomass fuel prices, a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out and it has been found that the fourth scenario is more sustainable than the other considered options. (author)

  12. Capitalizing on the asset nature of micro energy systems to promote social transformation in economically marginalized and structurally neglected rural areas of Kenya. A case study on an asset creation program in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutsaers, R. [Gpower NGO, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2011-07-01

    Realizing the intimate relation between rural electrification and private sector development, Gpower NGO extracted a bottom up capital isolation model that is based on a hybrid approach. The customized model represents a capital isolation concept that realizes commercial energy service ventures in order to secure access to credit markets through the establishment of financial institutions. This paper represents a case study on Gpower's REA model that has been developed over the past eight years and continues to mature until 2014. The presented model demonstrates that isolation of capital under renewable energy generation- and distribution ventures could possibly spearhead development of both the First- and Third economic sectors in developing countries. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  14. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit, Staffan Laestadius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  15. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  16. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D; O. Moreaud

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  17. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  18. Academic Planning: Four Institutional Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    As part of a project studying intrainstitutional planning, management, and evaluation, four case studies were undertaken in 1976 of academic planning at Villa Maria College, Kansas City Metropolitan Community College District, West Virginia University, and Western Washington University. The case studies were part of an ongoing project, the…

  19. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU-financed INTERA......Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU......-financed INTERACTS project....

  20. The utility service concept for the sustainable electrification of the outer Islands of Kiribati

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of Kiribati in PV-based rural electrification is unusual and important, as Kiribati originally failed in its attempt to use PV for rural electrification through purchase of systems by rural households. Kiribati then changed the institutional structure of the solar implementation agency to a service-based institution and turned failure into success. The energy service concept developed by the Solar Energy Company has assured reliable operation of solar home systems during the past ten years. A currently ongoing project, funded by the European Union, is dealing with the extension of this concept to increase the solar home systems from the existing 300 to 2100, bringing the coverage of the electrified rural households to 20%

  1. Solar-based rural electrification policy design: The Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) model in Fiji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornan, M. [Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, The Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, Acton ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Solar photovoltaic technologies have for some time been promoted as a cost effective means of rural electrification in developing countries. However, institutional structures resulting in poor maintenance have adversely affected the sustainability of past solar projects. In Fiji, the Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) program is the latest attempt to promote solar-based rural electrification in a fee-for-service model, aiming to remove the high upfront capital costs associated with solar technologies and using a public-private sector partnership for maintenance. This paper assesses the program using survey and interview data. Major flaws are identified, relating to incorrect treatment of principal-agent problems, information asymmetries, motivational problems, and resourcing of government agencies. General lessons for fee-for-service solar home system models emerge, including that incentives for stakeholders must take centre stage in designing and administering such programs, and that active government support and ownership are required to make programs sustainable. (author)

  2. Standardized small diesel power plants for rural electrification in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on small townships where the forecasted power demand stays below 500 kW during the ten first years. Case study calculations were made where two hypothetical load centres form the base. Each load centre is assumed to be supplied by two alternative standardized diesel power plants. One option is a power plant consisting of two medium speed (750 rpm) generator sets, one always on stand-by. Alternatively, a power plant consisting of three high speed (1500 rpm) generator sets is evaluated for each hypothetical load centre. The calculations clearly show that the high speed, three unit option comes out cheaper than the two unit, medium speed option in all the considered cases. The fuel costs per kWh generated are almost the same in all the cases studied, i.e. between 6 and 7 US cents. The medium speed engine tends to consume more fuel per kWh generated than the high speed, as it runs more often on part load. Consequently, the fuel costs will be slightly higher for this option. It is also of interest to compare the plant failure rate of the two options. In this study no proper probability evaluation has been made, but some general reflections can be worth considering. The availability of spare parts in Tanzania is doubtful. Many small diesel power plants presently operating have to wait indefinitely, when a failure appears that requires spare parts. As long as the individual sets have the same, or nearly the same failure rate, a three unit plant has lower probability for total loss of generating capacity than a two unit plant. The main conclusion of this evaluation is that for electricity generation in rural Tanzanian villages, power plants with three small, high speed generator sets are preferable to plants with two, medium speed generator sets. A power plant made out of small sets requires less capital, consumes less fuel and is not as likely to loose its generating capacity totally. 16 refs, 10 figs, 21 tabs

  3. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of the Electrification of Residential Heat Supply in UK Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recent revival of urban living in the UK has been stimulated by many different factors, including life style choices and government policies. This has led to a rapid increase in the number of apartments in the UK cities. This increased density living has also brought about various changes in the city infrastructure, including the way energy is supplied to residential buildings. The recent trend of ‘electrification of heat’ represents one of these changes, whereby electricity rather than n...

  4. An integrated framework for rural electrification: Adopting a user-centric approach to business model development

    OpenAIRE

    Schillebeeckx, S. J. D.; Parikh, P.; R Bansal; George, G

    2010-01-01

    Rural electrification (RE) has gained prominence over the past two decades as an effective means for improving living conditions. This growth has largely been driven by socio-economic and political imperatives to improve rural livelihood and by technological innovation. Based on a content analysis of 232 scholarly articles, the literature is categorized into four focal lenses: technology, institutional, viability and user-centric. We find that the first two dominate the RE debate. The viabili...

  5. Solar PV rural electrification and energy poverty assessment in Ghana: A principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng, G. Y.; Evers, Hans-Dieter; F. O. Akuffo; Braimah, I.; Brew-Hammond, A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between solar photovoltaic (PV) rural electrification and energy poverty was assessed using social, economic and environmental indicator-based questionnaires in 96 solar-electrified and 113 non-electrified households in rural Ghana. The purpose was to assess energy-poverty status of households with and without solar PV systems, and to determine the factors that explain energy-poverty in off-grid rural households. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct energy...

  6. In-field assessment of batteries and PV modules in a large photovoltaic rural electrification programme

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Moreno, Luis Miguel; Narvarte Fernández, Luis; Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Moreton Villagra, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Assuring the sustainability of quality in photovoltaic rural electrification programmes involves enhancing the reliability of the components of solar home systems as well as the characterization of the overall programme cost structure. Batteries and photovoltaic modules have a great impact on both the reliability and the cost assessment, the battery being the weakest component of the solar home system and consequently the most expensive element of the programme. The photovoltaic module, despi...

  7. Excluding Contact Electrification in Surface Potential Measurement Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengming; Zhou, Yusheng; Zi, Yunlong; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-23

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), a characterization method that could image surface potentials of materials at the nanoscale, has extensive applications in characterizing the electric and electronic properties of metal, semiconductor, and insulator materials. However, it requires deep understanding of the physics of the measuring process and being able to rule out factors that may cause artifacts to obtain accurate results. In the most commonly used dual-pass KPFM, the probe works in tapping mode to obtain surface topography information in a first pass before lifting to a certain height to measure the surface potential. In this paper, we have demonstrated that the tapping-mode topography scan pass during the typical dual-pass KPFM measurement may trigger contact electrification between the probe and the sample, which leads to a charged sample surface and thus can introduce a significant error to the surface potential measurement. Contact electrification will happen when the probe enters into the repulsive force regime of a tip-sample interaction, and this can be detected by the phase shift of the probe vibration. In addition, the influences of scanning parameters, sample properties, and the probe's attributes have also been examined, in which lower free cantilever vibration amplitude, larger adhesion between the probe tip and the sample, and lower cantilever spring constant of the probe are less likely to trigger contact electrification. Finally, we have put forward a guideline to rationally decouple contact electrification from the surface potential measurement. They are decreasing the free amplitude, increasing the set-point amplitude, and using probes with a lower spring constant. PMID:26824304

  8. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mandelli; Emanuela Colombo; Jerome Mungwe

    2016-01-01

    Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper ...

  9. Giant adrenal cyst: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Catalina; Carsote, Mara; Chirita, Corina; Terzea, Dana; Paun, S; Beuran, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61-year-old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24-h 17-ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects. PMID:20945822

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Ice Crystal Multiplication on Non-Inductive Electrification in Thunderstorm%冰晶繁生对雷暴云非感应起电影响的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程斌; 冯桂力; 杨仲江; 余蜀豫

    2012-01-01

    为了研究冰晶繁生在雷暴云发展过程中对非感应起电过程的影响,利用三维雷暴云模式在理想层结环境下,对雷暴云内各种水成物粒子、电荷以及电场分布情况进行数值模拟。模拟结果表明:在雷暴云发展和成熟阶段,有繁生过程参与的雷暴云中下部存在一个冰晶聚集区域,从而使得云内冰晶的数量较无繁生过程增大约15%~18%,且聚集的区域范围更大;同时,繁生过程的加入也使得霰粒子数量也比无繁生过程时增大约20%;霰一冰非感应电荷转移的正区一般位于霰粒子浓度高值区附近,而负区位于冰晶和霰粒子浓度高值区相重合的区域;冰晶繁生过程通过影响雷暴云中冰晶和霰粒子浓度和分布位置,使得雷暴云非感应起电的强度和位置发生改变,导致云内起电过程提前约5~6min。%In order to study the influence of ice crystal multiplication on non-inductive electrification during the development of thunderstorm, a three-dimensional numerical model of thunderstorm was used to evalu- ate the distribution of the variant particles, charge and the electric field in the thunderstorm with an ideal environment. The result shows that there is an ice crystal gathering area in the lower part of the thunder- storm with ice crystal multiplication during its development and mature stage. It makes the number of ice crystals in the case of multiplication increase by 15 %- 18 % and the gathering area become larger compared to the condition without multiplication. And multiplication also makes the number of graupel particles in the condition with multiplication increase about 20%. The positive charged region always occurs nearby the area with high graupel concentration, while the negative charged region always appears in the overlap region with the high ice and graupel concentrations. Multiplication firstly influences the ice and graupel concentration and spacial

  11. South Africa's rapid electrification programme: Policy, institutional, planning, financing and technical innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents South Africa's electrification programme from the late 1980s to the present. The primary aim of the paper is to present the reader with an overview of the policy, institutional, planning, financing and technological developments and innovations that resulted in more than 5 million households receiving access to electricity between 1990 and 2007. Key aspects include the way in which a period of political change and policy disruption were essential to the programme's initiation, and the critical role played by organisations and individuals outside of national government in helping shape new electrification policies and strategies. In addition, the paper identifies the contribution of technology development in cost reduction and achieving the social aims of the programme. Several lessons may be drawn from the institutional and planning arrangements that the South African programme has developed, the significance of the development of appropriate cost-driven technical innovations and standards, and the acknowledgement of the social function of electrification and its funding from the fiscus (rather than through cross-subsidies)

  12. A case study of embarrassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, O T

    1977-01-01

    The psychoanalytic references to embarrassment are reviewed. Embarrassment, in the literature, is seen largely as an affect involving exhibitionistic and scopophilic conflicts and defenses against these. A case in which embarrassment was prominent is discussed. Embarrassment in the patient was an ego response which implied an external object for its manifestation. It involved exhibitionistic and scopophilic conflicts and projective defenses, but also operated in ego-gratifying and adaptive ways. Her embarrassment was understood through the analysis of an initial embarrassing dream of nakedness and other dreams and associated material as the defensive out-grouth of repeated exposures to the primal scene. Embarrassment was a resistance to remembering in the analysis, and the primal-scene experiences were partially reconstructed. The analytic situation was, in many ways, a symbolic re-creation of the primal scene, including the patient's response of embarrassment. The development of embarrassment in the patient's childhood was furthered and confirmed by its being an identification with the attitudes of both parents. Finally, some reflections on embarrassment and shame in its various forms are set forth. PMID:560404

  13. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  14. Estimated market prices of electric energy: agroenergy cooperative case study: NERAM (Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM) Project; Estimativa do preco de comercializacao da energia eletrica - estudo de caso: cooperativa de agroenergia - Projeto NERAM (Modelo de Negocio de Energia Eletrica em Comunidades Isoladas na Amazonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Xavier, Diogo Jackson Cajueiro; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Email: cdeam@ufam.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the cost of commercialization of the electricity generated from the acai seeds, under different commercial societies, namely agricultural cooperative, cooperative for rural electrification and independent producer of electricity. In the case of cooperative agriculture, the main products would be the acai pulp, among others, while the electricity would be a sub product resulting from the utilization of the residues from the process. For the other two arrangements, the electricity would be the main product, with differences in fees, taxes and financial structure between them. The taxes and fees associated with each one of the societies are considered for the estimates of energy costs. The results are presented as a variation of the electricity costs (Reais/MWh) over the load factor variation and are compared to the prices practiced for the bulk energy market for the independent producer in the Amazon region. All the results are presented with and without the subsidy for electricity. This study is part of the mark of the project {sup M}odel for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM{sup ,} financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq, that contemplates the universal access to electric-power services and the idea of Integrated Planning of Resources (PIR) for isolated systems. The results appear for the need of subsidies and they present smaller costs for the sceneries that use the cooperatives, especially the cooperative of rural electrification. (author)

  15. Should policy-makers allocate funding to vehicle electrification or end-use energy efficiency as a strategy for climate change mitigation and energy reductions? Rethinking electric utilities efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States by an order of magnitude, a portfolio of mitigation strategies is needed. Currently, many utilities pursue energy efficiency programs. We study a case where utilities could choose whether to allocate their energy efficiency budget to either end-use efficiency or vehicle electrification as a means to reduce CO2 emissions. We build a decision space that displays the conditions under which utilities should pursue either strategy. To build such decision space, assumptions are needed on how consumers respond to electric vehicle incentives, and what would be the baseline vehicle selected by consumers if no incentives were in place. Since these two aspects are highly uncertain, we treat them parametrically: if consumers are replacing a conventional vehicle with a PHEV, utility incentive programs to induce PHEV adoption appear to be cost-effective for a wide range of efficiency program costs and grid emissions factors. - Highlights: • We compare subsidies for CO2 cuts with electric efficiency and plug-in hybrid vehicles. • Our model focuses PHEVs with a 20 km range and residential electric efficiency. • The subsidy choice depends on technical, economic, and regulatory factors. • These include grid emissions factor, size of subsidy, and efficiency program costs. • PHEV grants of $800-1000/vehicle make sense in most U.S. states without decoupling

  16. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  17. Rebranding: a Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Size, Maria, (Thesis)

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore how and why companies implement rebranding campaigns. The study stemmed from a realisation by the author that the area of rebranding is very much under-researched academically although anecdotal evidence indicates and increase in the occurrence of the phenomenon in recent years. Therefore the purpose of this research is to add to the insufficient body of literature on rebranding through exploring it from a corporate perspective. The two chapte...

  18. Outage management: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

  19. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  20. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  1. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  2. A Case Study of Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuo

    In Engineering Ethics Class at Shizuoka University, the Code of Ethics and Cases for Electrical Engineers by IEEJ Ethics committee is used to promote for high education effect to correspond large number of students (140students). In this paper, a case study in the class, and survey results for ethics value of students are presented. In addition, some comments for role playing act on the case of virtual experiences by students are described.

  3. Environmental contracting: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiak, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The end of cold war levels of defense expenditures has promoted the reduction in the number of defense-related companies, creating potential monopolistic economic scenarios for defense procurement. This thesis studies one methodology to deal with these scenarios, based on the Baron-Myerson monopolist regulation mechanisms. The Baron-Myerson mechanism provides a tool to regulate monopolists when their costs are unknown or cannot be measure...

  4. Marketing-Indonesia case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Iwan; Roshetko, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research are (1) to identify the potential VAF species or products for Nanggung Farmers; (2) identify market channels & marketing problems; (3) enhances farmers' understanding of market mechanism; and (4) identify opportunities to improve the quantity & quality of VAF. The study was conducted on Sept-Oct 2006. Data and information are collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in each village that attended both men and women. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetabl...

  5. Linguistic Overgeneralization: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Nazar Al-Baldawi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study described a single child’s language acquisition. The importance of this study resided in the circumstances and the environment in which the child lived. He came from a family in which the parents were from different countries and cultures; spoke different Arabic dialects and who lived in a country in which English is spoken. The child was in his critical period of language acquisition. He seemed to have established a unique way of communicating with people surrounding him to cope with all the linguistic varieties around him. The study showed that the child had semantic, syntactic and morphological overgeneralized structures. The data and results showed that overgeneralization and language acquisition were primarily an innate faculty of the human mind and that imitation did played a primary role in language acquisition.It showed, nevertheless, that imitation and behaviorist approaches could not fully account for language acquisition nor did the generative approach. The results went in favor of an Emergentist approach of language acquisition where both innateness and imitations were crucial constituents of children’s acquisition of linguistic forms.

  6. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  7. Brick handling: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  8. Ownership and Control Structures: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on separation of ownership and control in Southeast Europe, and in particular it is a case study of Macedonia. For structured analysis of this case study we use the World Bank Microdata Library, specifically the Enterprise Surveys which contains firm-level data of a representative sample of economies private sectors. What we are interested in are the ties of ownership and control and whether such linkages contribute to the development of domestic firms and the overall ec...

  9. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  10. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  11. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  12. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... European/global ones are used for sensitivity analysis. The weighting factors for the impact categories are based on political reduction targets. Conlusion  The distribution of potential environmental impacts along the life cycle of a generic printed matter produced on a model sheet feed offset printing...... distribution of potential environmental impacts and consumption of resources along the life cycle of a generic printed matter produced on a model sheet feed offset printing industry in Europe. Main activities at all stages in the life cycle are covered. However special focus is on the production stage but...

  13. A network security case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a study to validate the Graphical Network Representation (GRPHREP) model which is being conducted on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Integrated Computer Network (ICN). The GRPHREP model is a software system application based on graph theory and object-oriented programming methodologies. It codified the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5637.1, which is concerned with classified computer secret policy, restrictions, and requirements. The Los Alamos ICN is required to control access to and support large-scale scientific and administrative computing. Thus, large-scale scientific and administrative computing. Thus we felt that this large, complex, and dynamic network would provide a good test for the graphical and functional capabilities of the model. Furthermore, the ICN is composed of multiple partitions that reflect the sensitivity and classification of the computation (data) and designate the required clearance level for the user

  14. Mining Product Data Models: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies used to prove the validity of some data-flow mining algorithms. We proposed the data-flow mining algorithms because most part of mining algorithms focuses on the control-flow perspective. First case study uses event logs generated by an ERP system (Navision) after we set several trackers on the data elements needed in the process analyzed; while the second case study uses the event logs generated by YAWL system. We offered a general solution of data-flow m...

  15. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  16. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient''s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a 99mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  18. Cost comparison of individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems for rural electrification; Comparacao de custos entre sistemas fotovoltaicos individuais e minicentrais fotovoltaicas para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Vieira, Leonardo dos Santos Reis; Galdino, Marco Antonio Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fleury@cepel.br, lsrv@cepel.br, marcoag@cepel.br; Olivieri, Marta Maria de Almeida; Borges, Eduardo Luis de Paula; Carvalho, Claudio Monteiro de; Lima, Alex Artigiani Neves [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: martaolivieri@eletrobras.com, eduardo_borges@eletrobras.com, claudio.carvalho@eletrobras.com, alex.lima@eletrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    A cost comparison for individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems is made regarding the use of these systems for rural electrification in Northern Brazil. The estimates for maintenance costs were based on existing experience for individual systems already operating in the region. A comparison was also made between modified automotive lead acid batteries commonly used in photovoltaic systems in Brazil and the much more expensive OPzS tubular types. The results of these evaluations show that the maintenance costs are expected to be lower in the case of the mini grids than in individual systems. This is because for a given number of houses to be supplied with electrical energy, they use a smaller number of components subject to failures, like inverters and charge controllers. OPzS batteries are expected to compensate for their higher prices if their predicted operating lifetime can be confirmed under the practical conditions envisaged. (author)

  19. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  20. BTS Case Study: The Galloway Family Home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case study of an energy-efficient Habitat for Humanity house that uses 30% less energy than conventional residential construction. The project was part of the Jimmy Carter Work Project in rural Appalachia in 1997

  1. Educational Potential of Case-Study Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorinova, Zoya Vladimirovna; Vorobyeva, Viktoriya Vladimirovna; Malyanova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of phenomenological and typological analysis of case-study technology educational potential. The definition “educational potential of case-study technology” is given, the main characteristics of which are changed in communication and collaborative activity quality, appearance of educational initiatives, change of participants’ position in learning process, formation of “collective subject” in collaborative activity, increase of learning (subject) results. Dep...

  2. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA) might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than w...

  3. TOP-10 DATA MINING CASE STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    GABOR MELLI; XINDONG WU; PAUL BEINAT; FRANCESCO BONCHI; LONGBING CAO; RONG DUAN; CHRISTOS FALOUTSOS; RAYID GHANI; BRENDAN KITTS; BART GOETHALS; GEOFF MCLACHLAN; JIAN PEI; ASHOK SRIVASTAVA; OSMAR ZAÏANE

    2012-01-01

    We report on the panel discussion held at the ICDM'10 conference on the top 10 data mining case studies in order to provide a snapshot of where and how data mining techniques have made significant real-world impact. The tasks covered by 10 case studies range from the detection of anomalies such as cancer, fraud, and system failures to the optimization of organizational operations, and include the automated extraction of information from unstructured sources. From the 10 cases we find that sup...

  4. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  5. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  6. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  7. Evaluation of choices for sustainable rural electrification in developing countries: A multicriteria approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification (RE) can be modelled as a multifactorial task connected to a large number of variables: decision makers need to choose the appropriate options by considering not only the techno-economic competitiveness but also socio-cultural dynamics and environmental consequences, making the task intricate. Many rural electrification projects have failed due to lack of attention to the issues beyond financial and technical dimensions. This paper presents a standardized approach for decision making concerning the extension of electricity services to rural areas. This approach first determines whether the supply provision should be grid expansion or off-grid on the basis of levelized cost of delivered electricity. If the grid expansion is found nonviable over off-grid options then a multicriteria decision aiding tool, SMAA-2 (Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis), will evaluate off-grid technologies by aggregating 24 criteria values. While applying this approach, the delivered costs of electricity by the grid in remote areas within the 1–25 km distances vary in a range of 0.10–7.85 US$/kW h depending on the line lengths and load conditions. In the off-grid evaluation, the solar PV (photovoltaic) and biogas plants are found as the most preferable alternatives with 59% and 41% acceptability in their first rank, respectively. - Highlights: • Rural electrification involves a large number of socio-cultural issues in addition to technical and environmental considerations. • Decision makers need to choose the appropriate options by considering many criteria. • Many off-grid projects failed due to noncomplying of societal issues. • Multicriteria based decision choice can safeguard the projects from these issues. • SMAA analysis can select the alternatives based on merits

  8. Social and technical history of the electrification of the lower Saint Lawrence, 1888-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower St. Lawrence region of Quebec is a rural area with little industry and does not possess important hydraulic resources. Electrification of this region progressed slowly and in an uneven manner. From 1888 to 1922, many local distributors, private or municipal, gave a mediocre quality of service to a small number of customers. A regional firm, the Compagnie de Pouvoir du Bas St-Laurent, followed in 1922 but its resources remained limited, and in a few years it passed under the control of American capitalists. The most rural sectors of the region were badly provided with electricity even in 1945, and the state, in the form of the Office de l'Electrification Rurale, had to intervene to remedy this situation. The Office took charge of organizing and financing electric power distribution cooperatives which ensured service in the most remote zones of Quebec. At the beginning of the 1960s, the inequalities in electric power rates in the region supplied a weighty argument to those in favor of nationalization of power companies. The Compagnie de Pouvoir was acquired by Hydro-Quebec in 1963 and the region was finally correctly integrated with the provincial grid. The cooperatives were also acquired by the Crown corporation a short time thereafter. Electrification was not only building power plants and distribution networks, but also involved development of consumption of electricity on farms and in homes. This made city comforts universal and modified rural life styles, for example by the introduction of electric appliances. 430 refs., 35 figs., 70 tabs

  9. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Horstmann, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  10. Management by Values: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable manage...

  11. Wind tunnel simulation experiment and investigation on the electrification of sandstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; Jianjun; YAN; Muhong; DONG; Guangrong; ZHANG; Hongfa

    2004-01-01

    Electric discharge phenomenon is often observed during the passage of sandstorms over desert regions and sometimes does great damage to human beings. Based on previous researches on the electrification of sandstorms by the scholars both at home and aboard,the authors conducted the simulation experiments on the electric fields of sandstorm-triggered creeping-saltating sand, suspending sand and watered suspending sand in the large-scale wind tunnel. According to the experimental results the electric field structure and its formation mechanism were analysed and discussed, the quantity of electric charges and electric field strength were measured and calculated, and finally several conclusions were drawn.

  12. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H. [Ag. Nucleo Universitario, Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  13. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  14. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  15. An Analisys of Business VPN Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzio Gallo; Michele Perilli; Michelangelo De Bonis

    2009-01-01

    A VPN (Virtual Private Network) simulates a secure private network through a shared public insecure infrastructure like the Internet. The VPN protocol provides a secure and reliable access from home/office on any networking technology transporting IP packets. In this article we study the standards for VPN implementation and analyze two case studies regarding a VPN between two routers and two firewalls.

  16. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  17. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  18. The Weibull statistical analysis for evaluating microstructural effects on electrification-fusion phenomenon of Sn-xZn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, G.-A.; Yang, C.-W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lui, T.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: z7408020@email.ncku.edu.tw; Chen, L.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-05

    Microstructural features of Sn-xZn alloys with varying zinc content of 7, 9, and 14 wt.% on the electrification-fusion phenomenon was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity of Sn-xZn alloys increases with increasing zinc content. The increase of zinc-rich phase is the main factor in the increase of the electrical conductivity. The melting latent heat of Sn/Zn eutectic phase tended to decrease with increasing zinc content, the evidence was consistent with the increase of critical fusion current density of Sn-xZn alloys. Based on the data fluctuation of fusion current densities, the Weibull model provided a powerful statistical analysis for assessing the minimum critical fusion current density, the fusion-failure mechanism and the reliability for the solders. The statistical Weibull model analysis results indicated that the Weibull modulus of Sn-xZn alloys decreases with increasing zinc content. The hypereutectic Sn-14Zn alloy, which shows microstructural inhomogeneity and a large data fluctuation of critical fusion current density, was unreliable for further electronic devices and PCB applications.

  19. Mining Product Data Models: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies used to prove the validity of some data-flow mining algorithms. We proposed the data-flow mining algorithms because most part of mining algorithms focuses on the control-flow perspective. First case study uses event logs generated by an ERP system (Navision after we set several trackers on the data elements needed in the process analyzed; while the second case study uses the event logs generated by YAWL system. We offered a general solution of data-flow model extraction from different data sources. In order to apply the data-flow mining algorithms the event logs must comply a certain format (using InputOutput extension. But to respect this format, a set of conversion tools is needed. We depicted the conversion tools used and how we got the data-flow models. Moreover, the data-flow model is compared to the control-flow model.

  20. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  1. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  2. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  3. Case study in time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhongjie, Xie

    1993-01-01

    This book is a monograph on case studies using time series analysis, which includes the main research works applied to practical projects by the author in the past 15 years. The works cover different problems in broad fields, such as: engineering, labour protection, astronomy, physiology, endocrinology, oil development, etc. The first part of this book introduces some basic knowledge of time series analysis which is necessary for the reader to understand the methods and the theory used in the procedure for solving problems. The second part is the main part of this book - case studies in differ

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Björkqvist, Kira

    2012-01-01

    The importance of taking responsibility for the common environmental and social welfare has become of essence in the business world of the 21st century. This thesis provides the reader with knowledge on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and shows the reader a comparative study on how CSR is reported on in three case study companies chosen for this thesis. This thesis is a descriptive study that uses the research method of content analysis to determine the commonalities and differences...

  5. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption. A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, S.M. [Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, Pinninkatu 47, 33100 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals. (author)

  6. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, S.M., E-mail: suvisanna.mustonen@tut.f [Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, Pinninkatu 47, 33100 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  7. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    Few historians document Lyndon Johnson's efforts to construct a state-wide political machine at the local level early in his congressional career. The literature glorifies Johnson for hydroelectric river development and rural electrification. This thesis acknowledges the transformative nature of rural electrification in Central Texas through the efforts of Johnson but, more importantly, reveals how extensively Johnson sought to capitalize on the tail-end of the New Deal to utilize government-funded relief projects to establish a state-wide political machine. An analysis of the correspondence between Johnson, his local political operators, members of his state-wide network, and rural constituents reveals another layer to the complexity of Johnson and further exposes his ambitious, calculating nature. Johnson used rural electrification to first create a community of supporters in his congressional district then used rural electrification and multipurpose river development programs to cultivate political contacts across the state of Texas. This thesis explores the first time that Lyndon Johnson used patronage to develop a political community as a publicly elected official. Johnson pushed for constant expansion of operations to ensure a steady supply of new jobs while displaying a cavalier attitude about specific regulations regarding the allocation of funds. His machine manipulated and massaged congressional appropriations restrictions and utilized multiple congressional revenue streams to stretch finances further and lower overhead costs to increase the scope of operations thus further improving the lives of his constituents. Johnson also used this movement to efficiently and effectively construct a foundation for his political machine. This thesis also clarifies an early moment in Johnson's beliefs about civil rights. Instead of standing on principle, Johnson relied on extortion and threats to fight racism at this early juncture in his political career because of

  8. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  9. ESSO — Electrification of the Central Labe Districts between 1916 and 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Holovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elektrárenský svaz stredolabských okresu, LLC (in English “The Power Plant Union of the Central Labe (Elbe” districts, which will be referred to here as “ESSO”, came into existence in 1916 in response to growing interest in electrification of the surroundings of Kolín. The Union was an extension of Križík’s earlier activities. Most of the power was produced by Križík’s power plant, which was extensively refurbished between 1919 and 1923. In 1919, the hydroelectric power plant in Podebrady was connected to the mains. Between 1924 and 1935, the Union gradually took over the hydroelectric power stations in Nymburk (1924, Kolín (1931, and Prelouc (1935. The Union´s most extensive project for a new steam power plant located in Kolín was initiated in 1929. The first stage of construction of the power plant was completed in 1932. It should be noted that the structure was designed by the well-known architect Jaroslav Fragner. The Union significantly influenced the electrification process for the central Labe district and its surroundings. The Union also successfully extended the number of electricity users. In addition, its activities raised the standard of living of the local citizens. The Union, which had already been nationalized, ceased to exist in 1950.

  10. Assessment and evaluation of PV based decentralized rural electrification: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges of providing electricity to rural households are manifold. Ever increasing demand-supply gap, crumbling electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure, high cost of delivered electricity are a few of these. Use of renewable energy technologies for meeting basic energy needs of rural communities has been promoted by the Governments world over for many decades. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the first among several renewable energy technologies that was adopted globally as well as in India for meeting basic electricity needs of rural areas that are not connected to the grid. This paper attempts at reviewing and analyzing PV literature pertaining to decentralized rural electrification into two main categories - (1) experiences from rural electrification and technology demonstration programmes covering barriers and challenges in marketing and dissemination; institutional and financing approaches; and productive and economic applications, (2) techno-economic aspects including system design methodologies and approaches; performance evaluation and monitoring; techno-economic comparison of various systems; and environmental implications and life cycle analysis. The paper discusses the emerging trends in its concluding remarks. (author)

  11. Electrification of General Motors' vehicles. A portfolio of solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, Uwe D.; Nitz, Larry T. [General Motors Company, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The electrification of the automobile is progressing fast and is changing the architecture of future vehicles tremendously. This trend is a result of the need for higher vehicle efficiency and the desire to diversify the energy sources used for transportation. General Motors offers a wide portfolio of solutions for vehicle electrification to meet the expectations of customers. Micro-hybrid systems for engine stop-start will become a standard solution for many market segments. Mild and strong hybrid systems together with optimized combustion engines enable the next level of propulsion system efficiency. Plugin hybrids offer the possibility to supplement the energy in the fuel with energy from the grid. The Chevrolet Volt and the Opel Ampera are electric vehicles with extended range. They operate as an electric vehicle as long as there is useful energy in the battery. However, unlike a battery electric vehicle they do not suffer from lost vehicle utility when the battery is depleted. Volt and Ampera can continue operation by using an internal combustion engine. General Motors will widen its portfolio by offering battery-electric vehicles and fuel cellelectric vehicles in the near future. GM sees a coexistence of all the different electrified propulsion systems over the coming decades. (orig.)

  12. Design Calculation And Estimating Of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Electrification For A Model Village (30 Kw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theingi Htun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar thermal energy produces immediate environmental benefits. Solar thermal energy can be converted into electrical energy with the help of parabolic trough electrification system. Electricity can be produced directly from thermal energy using solar thermal collectors which can generate heat energy for a working fluid. Myanmar is situated in the Northern hemisphere. Therefore, the solar collectors must be placed south-facing position when the solar radiation is calculated. To generate the required electrical energy of 30 kW, the total area of the installed collectors is about 194 m2 . The concentrator has an aperture of 1.4 m and a length of 1.4 m, while the absorber tube (0.0315 m inner diameter and 0.0325 m outer diameter. The outlet temperature of working fluid (molten salt was 763.4994 ̊C in April and 752.9932 ̊C in December. As the rated capacity of a model village is greater than 500 W, the selected nominal system voltage must be DC 120 V. In this paper, design calculation of solar thermal electrification consists of calculation of series and parallel collectors, daily load consumption and distribution system for desired loads for day and night, and estimated cost of electrical components for 400 V distribution system.

  13. OCAD University's Imagination Catalyst: a Case Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Reichenbacher, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide the context for an incubator case study, this paper provides a brief overview of the support mechanisms for Canadian university-based innovation and commercialization, especially regarding government (federal, provincial, municipal). It then proceeds to describe OCAD University’s specialized commercialization and incubator unit, the Imagination Catalyst, which supports talent

  14. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  15. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  16. A Case Study from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Martha

    2000-01-01

    Presents the case study success story of a University of Port Elizabeth Advancement Program student named Elroy Africander. Underscores two significant components of student transition programs: the need for support for students' personal and emotional growth, and that practitioners should regularly assess the strengths and weaknesses of programs…

  17. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  18. Case Studies on Globalization and Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhard Freyer

    2008-01-01

    Financial globalization has greatly improved the efficiency of capital transfers around the world, with the cost of facilitating criminal money laundering activities. Based on case studies on conditions for money laundering in the process of globalization and transformation in Europe, are discussed the challenges that a “global financial village” must confront.

  19. Physical Science Connected Classrooms: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…

  20. The Verbal Noncommunicator: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie

    1991-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a nine-year-old male with language impairment and specific pragmatic disabilities. His interactions with an adult, a language age-matched peer, and a chronological age-matched peer were observed and analyzed to determine conversational responsiveness and assertiveness. Findings support Fey's (1986) verbal…

  1. Acoustical case studies of three green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebein, Gary; Lilkendey, Robert; Skorski, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Case studies of 3 green buildings with LEED certifications that required extensive acoustical retrofit work to become satisfactory work environments for their intended user groups will be used to define areas where green building design concepts and acoustical design concepts require reconciliation. Case study 1 is an office and conference center for a city environmental education agency. Large open spaces intended to collect daylight through clerestory windows provided large, reverberant volumes with few acoustic finishes that rendered them unsuitable as open office space and a conference room/auditorium. Case Study 2 describes one of the first gold LEED buildings in the southeast whose primary design concepts were so narrowly focused on thermal and lighting issues that they often worked directly against basic acoustical requirements resulting in sound levels of NC 50-55 in classrooms and faculty offices, crosstalk between classrooms and poor room acoustics. Case study 3 is an environmental education and conference center with open public areas, very high ceilings, and all reflective surfaces made from wood and other environmentally friendly materials that result in excessive loudness when the building is used by the numbers of people which it was intended to serve.

  2. Case Studies: Windows onto Clinical Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    By examining the structures and activities common to six case studies of clinical teacher supervision, this article identifies five conditions that facilitate changes in teacher thinking and behavior: development of a supportive, collegial relationship; teacher control over supervision products; continuity over time; focused, descriptive records…

  3. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  4. Performance Support Case Studies from IBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke-Moran, Celia; Swope, Ginger; Morariu, Janis; deKam, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Presents two case studies that show how IBM addressed performance support solutions and electronic learning. The first developed a performance support and expert coaching solution; the second applied performance support to reducing implementation time and total cost of ownership of enterprise resource planning systems. (Author/LRW)

  5. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  6. Teaching the Holocaust through Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misco, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to the curricular challenges teachers face with Holocaust education, including cursory treatments and a lack of focus on individual experiences. First, the author argues for a case-study approach to help students reengage concrete and complex features of the Holocaust as a point of departure for subsequent inquiry. In…

  7. Library Virtual Tours: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Beth; Grogg, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual tours delivered via the Web have become a common tool for both instruction and outreach. This article is a case study of the creation of a virtual tour for a university library and is intended to provide others interested in creating a virtual tour of their library the opportunity to learn from the mistakes and successes of fellow…

  8. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…

  9. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  10. Acquaintance Rape: A Case Study Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Rosalie D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a case study approach to acquaintance rape used in a Personal Health and Lifestyles course at the University of Nevada in Reno that allows students to discuss the characters in a scenario, an instructional process seen as less threatening than describing personal experiences. (MDM)

  11. Case studies on selected natural food antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Mendiola, J. A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, a broad description of several case studies related to common antioxidants found in food-related products is presented. In this regard, special attention is put on the novel advanced environmentally-friendly extraction methods nowadays employed to extract and purify those potent antioxidants from natural matrices. A brief description of these extraction processes is provided together with some of the instrumentation needed. Besides, the studies carried out so f...

  12. MARKET INTEGRATION: CASE STUDIES OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Jason R.V.; Parcell, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    The grain/oilseed industry is undergoing considerable structural change in the form of mergers and the addition of new processing facilities to add value beyond commodity grade. The rapid structural changes in this industry call into question the relevance of previous research conducted in these areas. Focusing on two structural change events in northeast Missouri as case studies provides an incisive glimpse at the larger impact of structural change on the grain/oilseed industry. This study a...

  13. Empathy Development Through Case Study and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Heidi A; Bassett, Susan; Pasquariello, Libby

    2016-01-01

    Because empathy is integral to the nurse-patient relationship, nurse educators are challenged to explore teaching strategies that may aid in the development of empathy among students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent exposure to a single patient through case study and simulation had an impact on empathy levels in senior-level baccalaureate nursing students. Results provide interesting conclusions for faculty members and offer a basis for ongoing discussion. PMID:26448156

  14. Success against the odds: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadbayli, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the leadership behaviours and practices necessary for school ‘turnaround’. The research was conducted by taking a multi perspective approach within a qualitative research study to explore the case of a UK based school facing ‘special measures’ and in disadvantaged circumstances. Research methods employed include a documentary study and semi-structured interviews with six members of staff. The results indicated that effective turnaround leaders em...

  15. Can We Generalize from Case Studies?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul F. Steinberg

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the role of generalization in comparative case studies, using as exemplars the contributions to this special issue on climate change politics. As a research practice, generalization is a logical argument for extending one’s claims beyond the data, positing a connection between events that were studied and those that were not. No methodological tradition is exempt from the requirement to demonstrate a compelling logic of generalization. The article presents a taxonomy of...

  16. CAT: A CASE STUDY OF GRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZe; ChenJiliang

    2004-01-01

    The Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has developedsuccessfully with its adoption by testing agencies. The authors ofthis paper point out the advantages and disadvantages of CATsand then take GRE as a case study to probe into the scoringalgorithm in CAT. By analyzing some typical score reports ofcomputer-adaptive GRE General Test, they study some majorfactors affecting the final score such as the percentage ofcorrectness and difficulty levels.

  17. Mobile Technologies Adoption: An Exploratory Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Yan; HUANG Lihua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of task-technology fit and literature review of mobile technology acceptance, a research model is presented based on the features of mobile technologies and the actual usage of mobile applications in business environments, which identifies the characteristics of mobile applications and fitting tasks. An exploratory case is studied to understand how ABC Company, Hong Kong, utilizes mobile selling applications in their sales management process. This study gives some managerial suggestions for enterprises to successfully use mobile applications.

  18. Rural Electrification of Coban Municipality, Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala) using Intigis Model; Electrificacion Rural en el Municipio de Coban, Departamento de Alta Verapaz (Guatemala) segun el Modelo Intigis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Bravo, J.; Pinedo Pascua, I.; Auger Campos, C.; Cedillo Heine, A.; Gil Garcia, M.

    2009-05-15

    The present project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energies and Environment Masters given by the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). It has been developed in collaboration with the research centre CIEMAT, the NGO Energy without Borders (ESF) and the University UPM, with the purpose of analyzing in a real context the application of Geographic Information Systems in renewable energies regional integration. The final aim of our study is to provide the isolated communities, specifically 13 communities in Alta Verapaz (Department of Coban, Guatemala), with the necessary conditions of electrification. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the area. Through the analysis of the geographic, technical and economic information gathered, using the IntiGIS methodology we will identify which is the most suitable autonomous generating system to cover the basic needs of the rural population in these Guatemalan communities. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  20. Chloride Channel Myotonia: Study of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghofrani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channel Myotonia is a form of channelopathy, and Myotonia is its manifestation. Myotonia may be defined as delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after its contraction. Decreased chloride conductance across the transverse tubular system, renders the muscle membrane hyper-excitable and leads to repetitive firing, creating Myotonia. Myotonia congenital is another name for chloride channel Myotonia. Myotonia congenital appears in autosomal dominant type called Thomson disease, autosomal recessive type called Becker disease, and a type with sporadic occurrence. Symptoms appear in the first or second decade of life. Repeated muscle contraction, the so called warm up, result in resolution of the Myotonia stiffness. Muscle stiffness and hypertrophy is another finding at physical examination. In this study we report on 5 patients, which had clinical and electrical signs of Myotonia. Muscle hypertrophy and warm up phenomena were present in all cases. CPK measurement of all cases were normal. 2 patients underwent muscle biopsy that showed only atrophy and increased central nuclei. In three cases autosomal recessive inheritance (Becker, in one case autosomal dominant inheritance (Thomsen and in one case sporadic occurrence was suggested. With respect to successful results of carbamazepine therapy in 4 patients, and being excellent in one of them, we suggest carbamazepine for the first choice of Myotonia treatment.

  1. Using case studies in management education: the student perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    BRENNAN, ROSS; Ahmad, S. Jaseem

    2005-01-01

    Case studies are widely used in management education. Most of the literature discussing the case study method has reflected the perspective of the teacher, implying a teacher-centred view of the case study as a learning strategy. Little is known about the student perspective on case studies. If we are to use the case study method as a component of a student-centred learning experience, then we must know how students perceive case studies, and understand the differences in attitude...

  2. Vitiligo: A study of 120 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common pignientary disorder and of major social and cosmetic concern in India. Purpose of the study was to find out age at onset and sex incidence in vitiligo, role of hereditary factors and associations with other diseases. 120 self reporting vitiligo patients attending out patient department of a service hospital were selected for the study and this data was analysed. In the present series out of 120 cases 62 (51.6% were males and 58(48.35%were females. There was practically no difference in sex incidence. The lowest age of onset was two years and the oldest was 65 years. In the majority of patients,52(43.2%, disease started before twenty years of age.8 (6.6% cases gave definite family history of vitiligo. Exposed areas of the body were commonly affected in majority (66.6% of cases. The legs were commonest site of involvement in 60(50% cases. Circunicript type of vitiligo (46.6% was heading the list. Majority of patients (56.6% had multiple lesions. Diabetes mellitus was found in 2 (2.6% patients. Cause of vitiligo is still idiopathic. Hereditary factors hardly play any role in manifestation of vitiligo

  3. From Candles to Light: The Impact of Rural Electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Arraiz, Irani; Calero, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of access to electricity via solar-powered home systems (SHSs) in rural communities in Peru. Applying propensity score matching at the community as well as at the household level, the authors find that households with SHSs spend less on traditional sources of energy---candles and batteries for flashlights---and that the subsequent savings are commensurate to the fee for SHS use. People in households with SHSs spend more time awake, and women in particular change ...

  4. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings, and to...... explain about their problems and opportunities in the nursery business. The assessment was made within the framework of Improved Seed Supply for Agroforestry in African Countries (ISSAAC), a Danida supported programme implemented in cooperation between Forest & Landscape Denmark and World Agroforestry...

  5. The Pendulum A Case Study in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Gregory L

    2005-01-01

    The pendulum: a case study in physics is a unique book in several ways. Firstly, it is a comprehensive quantitative study of one physical system, the pendulum, from the viewpoint of elementary and more advanced classical physics, modern chaotic dynamics, and quantum mechanics. In addition, coupled pendulums and pendulum analogs of superconducting devices are also discussed. Secondly, this book treats the physics of the pendulum within a historical and cultural context,showing, for example, that the pendulum has been intimately connected with studies of the earth's density, the earth's motion,

  6. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  7. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2004-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  8. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entwistle Vikki A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  9. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-01-01

    161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM) as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…...

  11. Gamification in teaching music : case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cristina; Figueiredo, Mauro; Bidarra, José

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here aims to assess the quality of learning that occurred by the introduction of an educational application in the teaching/learning process of music education – 2nd cycle of basic education. The investigation focused on the use of a set of multimedia materials designed to provide support for instrumental practice (recorder and guitar) and backing vocals, according to the technique of the sing along. The students had access to the materials in two ways: in the first case, ...

  12. Case Study on Inventory Management Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere Darya; Borisov Arkady

    2015-01-01

    Inventory management is a challenging problem area in supply chain management. Companies need to have inventories in warehouses in order to fulfil customer demand, meanwhile these inventories have holding costs and this is frozen fund that can be lost. Therefore, the task of inventory management is to find the quantity of inventories that will fulfil the demand, avoiding overstocks. This paper presents a case study for the assembling company on inventory management. It is proposed to use inve...

  13. Private power financing: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Public Utility Regulatory Power Act (PURPA) in the USA and the UK's Electricity Act passed in 1989 are discussed and the first UK private power project is considered. A case study is presented, and covers the questions of when to approach the bank; banker versus investment bank; project fundamentals; the sponsor and the management team; the strength of the key project agreements; syndication of the project debt; and bank support during construction and operation. (author)

  14. Six Case Studies of Economically Successful Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kulenovic, Z. Joe; Cech, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to synthesize the findings of six individual case studies (Bucaramanga, Colombia; Coimbatore, India; Kigali, Rwanda; Gaziantep, Turkey; Changsha, China; and Tangier, Morocco) by analyzing the similarities and dissimilarities among them and identifying common, cross-cutting themes. The intent is to highlight what institutions and strategies successful cities have relied on to spur economic development, under what conditions such success has occurred, and what ...

  15. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Ryan; Mark Leung

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates fro...

  16. Customer Buying Behavior : Case Study: Algol Technics

    OpenAIRE

    Weckman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research the customer buying behavior in a specific market. This thesis is made for a subgroup of Algol Technics which specializes in the marketing of driver seats. The research areas included brand recognition, price and quality, as well as the communications channels. The theoretical framework presented consists of the marketing strategies, marketing mix, Porter’s five forces analysis, customer relationship marketing, and market analysis. The case compan...

  17. Six case studies of contents tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This short series of research notes brings together some of the case studies that have been researched by members of the project ‘International Comparative Research on the Spreading and Reception of Culture through Contents Tourism’. This research has been funded since April 2014 by a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science grant (Kiban A, grant number 26243007). However, the project had its roots in a small group research project started in the Research Faculty of Media and...

  18. Case Study for Holylight(HK)

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kong Ho

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the case company – Holylight (HK) was thoroughly studied. The company structure, business strategic management and Marketing mix (4ps) were analyzed using SWOT analysis. It was found that Holylight (HK) had huge poten-tial in the business its stable supplies from the United States of America, Europe and Australia; Alliance partnership company ensure the steady sales channel in potential market – China that further development and expansion are highly feasible. However th...

  19. Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company- A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    George H. (Jody) Tompson; Dan Verreault; Tompson, Holly B.

    2009-01-01

    Owners of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company (HMNC) are facing an expansion opportunity. A land owner has preperty available that would enable the HMNC to expand its acreage and revenue by about 20%. To fully consider this opportunity the owners must decide 1)whether the expansion is strategically and financially viable, 2)how to raise capital to finance the expansion, and 3)whether they have the skills to manage the company's growth during expansion. This is a case study describing a real comp...

  20. Telepractice for Pediatric Dysphagia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Melissa Roth; Justine Joan Sheppard

    2014-01-01

    A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger’s Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. O...

  1. Rumination Syndrome in Ethiopia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are commonly believed to be rare or nonexistent in Africa. However, due to exposure to Western culture, a rise in eating disorders among African women is reported in the literature. This case study describes a 17-year-old Ethiopian girl who meets the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa and the Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders criteria for rumination syndrome. The article discusses the diagnostic delays, the difficu...

  2. Power and organisational change: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    João Pedro Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the results of a case study conducted in a Portuguese manufacturing organization, a part of a large group, which endured profound organizational changes. The initial objective of the research was to explore, in a processual way, the long-term interactions between an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, the consultants that implemented it and management accounting and control, in this organization. However, during the fieldwork, the researcher was confronted with an a...

  3. Mobile phone surveys: the Slovenian case study

    OpenAIRE

    VEHOVAR Vasja; Belak, Eva; Batagelj, Zenel; Čikić, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    almost 10% of households are now available only over the mobile phone. With this, Slovenia positions itself as a typical EU country andcan serve as a case study for issues related to mobile phone interview surveys. The paper addresses the general context of mobile phone usage and thecalculations of mobile phone coverage rates. It also discusses the non-coverage problems related to mobile and mobile-only households. It is shown, that even with a relatively small non-coverage the corresponding ...

  4. Mobile phone surveys: the Slovenian case study:

    OpenAIRE

    Batagelj, Zenel; Belak, Eva; Čikić, Sanja; VEHOVAR Vasja

    2004-01-01

    In 2004, the number of mobile phone subscriptions in Slovenia reached the total number of inhabitants. Consequently, the fixed telephone coverage has started to decline; almost 10% of households are now available only over the mobile phone. With this, Slovenia positions itself as a typical EU country and can serve as a case study for issues related to mobile phone interview surveys. The paper addresses the general context of mobile phone usage and the calculations of mobile phone coverage rat...

  5. Case studies of soil in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-08-01

    The material and symbolic appropriations of soil in artworks are numerous and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in film, architecture, and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and film are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil as a contribution to raising soil awareness.

  6. Case study: Wireless Sensor Networks Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Jain; Pawan Shakdwipee; Sunil Sharma

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the history of research in sensor networks over the past decades, including two important programs of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN) and the Sensor Information Technology (SensIT) programs. Technology trends that impact the development of sensor networks are reviewed, and new applications such as infrastructure security, habitat monitoring. The paper concludes by presenting some recent case studies results in...

  7. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based on information obtained from software profiling and the resulting design is validated through cosimulation. A locally developed interface model, Merlin, is used as the basis for co-simulation. The ac...

  8. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S.; Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  9. Web Fuzzy Clustering and a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mao-fu; HE Jing; HE Yan-xiang; HU Hui-jun

    2004-01-01

    We combine the web usage mining and fuzzy clustering and give the concept of web fuzzy clustering, and then put forward the web fuzzy clustering processing model which is discussed in detail. Web fuzzy clustering can be used in the web users clustering and web pages clustering. In the end, a case study is given and the result has proved the feasibility of using web fuzzy clustering in web pages clustering.

  10. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...

  11. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  12. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  13. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  14. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, S. [ECOTRADE, Inc., Glendale, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  15. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matete Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This case-study attempts to present a brief glossary of Northern Sotho medical terms. It is a follow-up of a similar case-study (Madiba, Mphahlele and Kganyago 2003, which was an attempt to capture and present Northern Sotho cooking terms. Case-study I consists of the names for utensils, ingredients and the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. With both these case-studies, the intention has been to use the opportunities availing themselves for the pres-ervation and valorisation of Northern Sotho, including the extension of its corpora to support national dictionary-making processes. The case-study methodology has been very useful for the purposes of this project and the context within which it was undertaken. It aims to provide a model for the collection and presentation of authentic Northern Sotho terminology which otherwise would hardly have been accessible.

    Keywords: CULTURAL GLOSSARY, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, CORPUS, OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION, ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, TRADITIONAL MEDICAL TERMS, COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, STRUCTURAL APPROACH, METONYMY, HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES, TASK-BASED LEARNING

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die totstandbrenging van kulturele woordversamelings: Ge-vallestudie II. Hierdie gevallestudie probeer om 'n beperkte woordelys van Noord-Sotho- mediese terme aan te bied. Dit is 'n voortsetting van 'n soortgelyke gevallestudie (Madiba, Mpha-hlele en Kganyago 2003 wat 'n poging was om Noord-Sothokookterme te versamel en aan te bied. Gevallestudie I bestaan uit die name van gereedskap, bestanddele, en die prosesse betrokke by die voorbereiding van kulturele geregte. Met altwee hierdie gevallestudies was die bedoeling om die geleenthede te gebruik wat hulleself aanbied vir die bewaring en bestendiging van Noord-Sotho, insluitende die uitbreiding van sy korpora om die nasionale woordeboeksamestellingsprosesse te ondersteun. Die gevallestudiemetodologie was baie nuttig vir die doeleindes van

  16. Case studies in atomic collision physics

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, E W

    2013-01-01

    Case Studies in Atomic Collision Physics II focuses on studies on the role of atomic collision processes in astrophysical plasmas, including ionic recombination, electron transport, and position scattering. The book first discusses three-body recombination of positive and negative ions, as well as introduction to ionic recombination, calculation of the recombination coefficient, ions recombining in their parent gas, and three-body recombination at moderate and high gas-densities. The manuscript also takes a look at precision measurements of electron transport coefficients and differential cr

  17. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, Bali: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, James M.

    1974-01-01

    The South Pacific island of Bali is used as a case study of overpopulation and food shortage. A brief description of the resources, the typical lifestyle of the Balinese farmer, and possible teaching techniques are given. (DE)

  18. Using Case Study Analysis and Case Writing to Structure Clinical Experiences in a Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Deborah M.; Bodur, Yasar

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the design and results of a two-semester study on the use of case study analysis and case writing in clinical experiences in an undergraduate teacher education program. Findings indicated that structured experiences with case studies and case writing increase preservice teachers' informed decision making on educational…

  19. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  20. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report is the Danish case study report in the EU-financed project INTERACTS, which analyses experience and expectations to the interaction between NGOs, Science Shops and universities. The report analyses potentials and barriers to NGO’s and similar civil society groups’ use of research and...... pond. Each case is described and reflected separately. A cross-analysis analyses the interactions among the involved actor group (clients, students, researchers, and Science Shops) discussing how the knowledge in the projects were developed and how the knowledge were used by the actors to try to gain...... impact on either research development or societal discourses. When civil society groups request assistance through the Science Shops, their need for knowledge and research is based on a need for scientific documentation of a certain topic, a need for enhancement of new knowledge and/or a need for...

  1. Rural electrification with multiple actors - the experience of the brazilian state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of resources and the new scenery of private utilities turn necessary to look for the ways that allow to illuminate the rural zone. Several international papers show the involvement of different segments of the society as being a viable alternative to execute this goal. This paper analyses the experience of Sao Paulo in the practice of a program of rural electrification in which the society is involved. The model, the operational difficulties and the alternatives made to agile program are appraised. The main conclusion is that, in spite of the difficulties, the model in which the society is included is a viable alternative to solve the subject of the lack of energy in the countryside. (author)

  2. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  3. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  4. Stochastic Impact Assessment of the Heating and Transportation Systems Electrification on LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    According to the new energy policy agreements, a conceptual and technological re-structuration of the Danish energy sector is expected. One of the key points for its successful implementation is the partial electrification of the heating and transportation systems. This fact, which reflects an...... enormous load increase, influences already the design and planning of the future power system. Great percentage of this new load is expected to be accommodated at local distribution level. Therefore, it implies that the distribution system operator will have to handle an increasing number of highly rated...... loads in networks which were not designed for them. In low voltage grids especially, depending on the system penetration grade and the way they are disposed produces a completely different reaction of the network. This paper introduces a methodology for stochastically evaluating the impact caused by...

  5. Transportation Electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendeman, Lawrence; Crouch, Alan

    2013-12-17

    This project has accomplished the following objectives: to address the critical need for technician training in new and emerging propulsion technologies by developing new courses, including information and training on electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles; to integrate the new certificate with the existing Associate of Applied Science Degree and Certificate automotive degrees; to disseminate these leading edge courses throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia and neighboring Mid-Atlantic States; and to provide training opportunities for displaced workers and underrepresented populations seeking careers in the automotive industry.

  6. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-01-01

    The case study research approach is widely used in a number of different ways within the information systems community. This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study. A critical analysis of the conduct and outcomes of two recently published positivist case studies is reported. One is a multiple case study that vali...

  7. Socio-economic and Environmental impacts, planning and administration of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the population in Sudan still lives in the rural areas where they still suffer from problems of poverty, unemployment, high rates of illiteracy, poor health services, shortage of water, and migration to urban areas. Development plans within decentralization efforts taking place in the country should give great importance to rural development by activating rural productive sector comprising agriculture and small scale industries. Rural electrification (RE) can play an important role as akey infrastructure for rural development, and could change the rural communities socially and economically to the better. RE also have desirable environmental impacts when substituting polluting and scare fuels such as petroleum fuel and fuel wood by electricity. Compared with urban electrification, RE is characterized by scattered consumers, low demands, and low load factors. This results in high connection costs of electricity per consumer, and high unit (Kwh) cost. In Sudan, rural electricity demands range from small industries of 50 or industries and individual farms. To bring electricity supply to these different categories of rural consumers at a reasonable investment cost requires proper planning. It needs regular data collection and updating, selection of appropriate technology, project formulation, financing implementation, management, and follow-up. The Sudan National Electricity Corporation (NEC), gives priority to the generation and transmission of electricity to the big urban and industrial areas. NEC treats RE as low priority to which resources are only devoted after the more urgent needs of the urban and industrial consumers not impossible, for a utility like the NEC to construct, operate, and maintain a large number of small scale projects in rural areas. To enable RE to play an effective institution with RE as its primary objectives is very crucial. This paper aims to highlight the importance of RE and its impacts on the rural inhabitants socially

  8. Electrification of the Canadian road transportation sector: A 2050 outlook with TIMES-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a newly developed bottom-up model of the entire Canadian energy system (TIMES-Canada) to assess potentials for electrification of the road transport sector. A special emphasis has been put on the modelling of the Canadian road transport, by considering a variety of vehicles for passenger and freight transportation. Besides a business-as-usual (baseline) scenario, we have analysed an energy policy scenario imposing targets for electric vehicle penetration and a climate policy scenario imposing targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Our analysis shows on the one hand that electric vehicles penetrate notably the passenger vehicle market after 2040 in the baseline scenario and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario (following the assumed penetration targets). On the other hand, the assumed climate policy forces a stronger penetration of electric vehicles for passenger transportation, with a progressive phasing out of internal combustion engine vehicles, whereas the latter vehicles remain dominant for freight transportation but with a shift away of fossil fuels and in favour of biofuels. A sensitivity analysis on the (assumed) evolution of electric vehicles over time confirms these general trends. -- Highlights: •We use a newly developed TIMES-Canada model of the entire Canadian energy system. •We assess potentials for electrification of the Canadian road transport sector. •We analyse three scenarios: baseline, energy policy and climate policy. •EVs penetrate notably after 2040 in the baseline and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario. •The climate policy forces a stronger penetration of EVs

  9. Environmental qualification - facilities and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term environmental qualification is used for assurance or guarantee for satisfactory performance of hardware under specified environmental conditions including normal, abnormal and accident conditions. To generate confidence about satisfactory performance in reasonable time, hardware must be tested under accelerated conditions. For testing and measuring performance parameters, it is essential to have adequate facilities and experienced and inquisitive staff so that qualified and reliable hardware can be manufactured by active participation of manufacturers, users and researchers. Top priority is given to the determination of characteristics, capabilities and limitations of hardware before really starting accelerated testing so that maximum information can be extracted before failure of hardware. This paper describes test and measurement facilities set up at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for environmental qualification and some case studies where it has been possible to make significant contributions towards reliability assessment, upgrading and indigenisation. Apart from climatic test facilities (thermal and humidity chambers), a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) environment simulator and synergistic simulator (combined environment test facility comprising temperature, humidity, gamma radiation and electrical stresses for studying interaction effects) have been set up. Notable case studies are :(1) Assessment of residual life-spans of cables and elastomeric components, (2) Reliability upgradation of indicating alarm meters and solenoid valves, (3) Assessment of survival capability of process instruments under LOCA environment, (4)Assessment of reusability of relays exposed to smoke and water spray in fire incident in a nuclear power station. (author)

  10. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in the U.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cement production and cement industry employment. The cement industry in California consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy, annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3 million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of waste materials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paper focused on providi...

  11. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  12. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...... on information obtained from software profiling and the resulting design is validated through cosimulation. A locally developed interface model, Merlin, is used as the basis for co-simulation. The achieved speed-up is estimated based on an analysis of profile information....

  13. Russian Media Educators: Case Studies Portraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to case studies of the media education works of some well knowns Russian media educators. The analysis of media educational work of the famous Russian media educators leads us to the conclusion that media education in Russia is developing, building on the synthesis of the aesthetic, socio-cultural, and practical concepts, with a focus on the development of media competence of the audience, mainly school and youth. The enthusiasts of media education, even devoid of substantial public support for its innovative projects, achieve significant and meaningful results.

  14. Reinforcement learning: Solving two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Silva, Pedro; dos Santos, Cristina Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    Reinforcement Learning algorithms offer interesting features for the control of autonomous systems, such as the ability to learn from direct interaction with the environment, and the use of a simple reward signalas opposed to the input-outputs pairsused in classic supervised learning. The reward signal indicates the success of failure of the actions executed by the agent in the environment. In this work, are described RL algorithmsapplied to two case studies: the Crawler robot and the widely known inverted pendulum. We explore RL capabilities to autonomously learn a basic locomotion pattern in the Crawler, andapproach the balancing problem of biped locomotion using the inverted pendulum.

  15. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  16. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  17. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  18. 'Click Rural' - the rural program for rural electrification: his effects and implications the western Parana, Brazil after 20 years later; O programa de eletrificacao rural 'Clic rural': seus efeitos e implicacoes na regiao oeste do Parana 20 anos depois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    This study verified through a sampling the technical standard of attendance adopted by the greater program for rural electrification denominated 'Clic Rural' ever implanted in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period of 1984-1992 at the concession area of COPEL - Parana Energy Company. The work was based on a field research with visits and a questionnaire applied of rural proprietaries.

  19. The Effect of Using Case Studies in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau, Susan E.; Kezim, Boualem

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect on learning of using case studies in business statistics courses. The authors divided students into 3 groups: a control group, a group that completed 1 case study, and a group that completed 3 case studies. Results evidenced that, on average, students whom the authors required to complete a case analysis received…

  20. Comparative Analysis of On- and Off-Grid Electrification: The Case of Two South Korean Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Heetae Kim; Seoin Baek; Kyu Ha Choi; Dojin Kim; Seongmin Lee; Dahill Kim; Hyun Joon Chang

    2016-01-01

    South Korea’s main industry is the manufacturing industry, and it requires stable energy. Korea heavily relies on importing oils to produce energy, thus efficient energy management is critical. This is why many renewable and smart energy policies and infrastructure planning are being set up currently. Supplying reliable and sustainable renewable energy to remote areas has especially been questioned; therefore, adopting sustainable and clean energy based on renewable resources cannot be delaye...

  1. Combining genetic association study designs: a GWAS case study

    OpenAIRE

    Estus, Janice L.; ,; Fardo, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explore the relationship between genome variability and disease susceptibility with either population- or family-based data. Here, we have evaluated the utility of combining population- and family-based statistical association tests and have proposed a method for reducing the burden of multiple testing. Unrelated singleton and parent-offspring trio cases and controls from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study were analyzed for genetic associ...

  2. Social Architecture: An Emergency Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Qumer Gill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management agencies are progressively using social media for the sourcing and distribution of disaster information. Emergency management agencies are often unsure as to how to best identify and assess social media concerns (e.g. information security, trust which must be addressed to develop a social media-enabled disaster information management environment. This paper adopts the Social Architecture Viewpoint Assessment (SAVA framework for identifying and assessing social media concerns from four different viewpoints: IT, Value, Resource and Management. This paper demonstrates the use of the SAVA framework in the context of an in-depth empirical case study of an Australian emergency management agency. The results of this study indicate that the SAVA framework is useful for emergency information management managers in identifying and assessing social media concerns.

  3. Commercializing Emerging Renewable Energy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Lehtovaara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A broad scientific consensus exists that the global climate is changing. The Earth’s surface temperature could rise significantly over the next few decades, leading to us witnessing an entirely new and unknown planet. Improved energy efficiency, decreasing use of fossil fuels and wide diffusion of various renewable energy sources are among the focal measures to limit global warming to a sustainable level. The objective of this study is to analyse how renewable energy, such as wind power and bioenergy, could be efficiently commercialized. The evaluation is based on a case study and expert analyses exploiting lateral and parallel thinking methods, and group decision support systems tools. The results reveal that some of the generated ideas are ready for implementation to commercialize renewable energy, whereas others still require technical and commercial development and improvements before maturity.

  4. Assessment of locally manufactured small wind turbines as an appropriate technology for the electrification of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an assessment of the challenges facing the use of small locally manufactured wind turbines as a rural electrification solution for the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua. Strongly based on the authors work experience at the non-profit, non-governmental organization blueEnergy, this assessment makes an objective analysis of the technical, social, economic and organizational challenges faced by blueEnergy when using small wind turbines for rural electrification. The article provides detail on the challenges faced and puts forward methodologies and technologies to overcome or to detect and avoid these. Based on the challenges faced, a set of key factors that are essential for the success of small wind turbines in other contexts is proposed, together with two methodologies for a preliminary feasibility assessment.

  5. Os Trigonum Syndrome: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Turan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Os trigonum syndrome is one of the rare causes of posterior foot pain. Ostrigonum, which is placed at the posterior of talus, is an accessory bone. Ostrigonum syndrome causes back foot pain due to compression between talusand calcaneus. In this study, we present a case of os trigonum syndrome ,which is a rare disease and is generally missed. A 65-year-old female patientwith a complaint of left foot pain for the last 2 months persented to our outpatientclinic. In the physical examination, plantar flexion of the ankle andtoe was painful. Patient’s pain was evaluated by the visual analog scale andnoted as 8 cm. There was sensitivity at the posterior of talus during palpation.Os trigonum syndrome was diagnosed based on radiological examinationsand a physical therapy program consisting of transcutaneous electrical nervestimulation (TENS, cold pack, foot and ankle range of motion and strengtheningexercises was started. After the treatment, pain VAS decreased to 2cm,and then the patient was followed clinically. As in our case, os trigonum syndromeshould also be taken into consideration in patients complaining withposterior foot pain apart from other frequently encountered causes. In suchcases, physical therapy programs are very effective in pain management andin reducing the cost of treatment. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2013;59:161-4.

  6. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  7. Building energy information systems. User case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, J.; Piette, M.A.; Ghatikar, G. [Lawrence Berkeley, National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze, and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  8. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty: A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng, George Yaw; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and...

  9. Energy Solutions in Rural Africa - Mapping Electrification Costs of Distributed Solar and Diesel Generation versus Grid Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Sandor; BODIS Katalin; Huld, Thomas; MONER GIRONA Magda

    2011-01-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the optimal cost conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to identify the least-cost option in off-grid areas: diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified extending the grid or by an isolated mini-grid....

  10. Stand-Alone VS. Grid Extension for Electrification in Kenya - Development of a Spatial Explicit Energy System Model

    OpenAIRE

    MORAWETZ Ulrich; Pachauri, Shonali; Schmid, Erwin; Schmidt, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development goals is strongly connected with access to electricity. The rate of electrification in Kenya is below the average in Sub-Saharan Africa. Expressed as a percentage, 14% of Kenyan inhabitants are connected to the grid. About 42% of the population has access to electricity in urban areas compared to only 4% in rural areas. A large majority of the population still relies on firewood for cooking and paraffin for lighting. Incentives t...

  11. Upgrading and electrification of Greek trunk line Piraeus-Athens-Thessaloniki, a connection to the European high speed network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitouras, C. [ERGOSE Hellas Rail Consult, Athens (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper explains the large amount of work being undertaken by Greek railways to improve their network and to make connections of the European development of modern, high speed railways. It describes the projects of infrastructure rehabilitation and new line sections along the main trunk line from Athens to Thessaloniki including electrification and new signalling. It also refers to adjacent projects towards the line to the Peleponese, in the Athens area and towards the northern border. (orig.)

  12. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  13. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  14. Obsessional Slowness in College Students: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta

    2014-01-01

    Cases of obsessional slowness, a variant of obsessive compulsive disorder, have been documented in case literature regarding relatively low functioning populations. However, obsessional slowness can also present in higher functioning populations, including college and graduate students, as illustrated here by three case examples from a competitive…

  15. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  16. Telepractice for pediatric Dysphagia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Roth, Melissa; Sheppard, Justine Joan

    2014-01-01

    A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger's Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. Over the four-week intervention period, the patient demonstrated substantial improvements in: oral acceptance of eating-related objects and a variety of foods (behavioral variable), timing of voluntary saliva swallows and aerophagia levels (swallowing variables) and quality of life. Follow-up interview analysis showed that most skills were retained or improved one-month post intervention. This intensive telepractice program proved to be feasible and effective for this pediatric patient with dysphagia. PMID:25945217

  17. Telepractice for Pediatric Dysphagia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia A. Malandraki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger’s Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. Over the four-week intervention period, the patient demonstrated substantial improvements in: oral acceptance of eating-related objects and a variety of foods (behavioral variable, timing of voluntary saliva swallows and aerophagia levels (swallowing variables and quality of life. Follow-up interview analysis showed that most skills were retained or improved one-month post intervention. This intensive telepractice program proved to be feasible and effective for this pediatric patient with dysphagia.

  18. Understanding Support - lessons from a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sauer

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Support from top management and others is agreed to be an important factor in information systems success and failure, but little is written about how it has its effect and how it might be managed to a project's advantage. A recently developed conceptual framework is described. It covers the nature and forms of support, the way support affects project outcomes, the bases on which support is provided, and the strategies by which support may be managed. The framework is used to analyse a case study in several stages. At the end of the analysis of each stage, the framework's utility is assessed in terms of its explanatory value and the practical advice it suggests. Areas for further research are identified.

  19. Unmasking Cleckley's psychopath: assessing historical case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated original case descriptions of psychopathy (Cleckley, 1941) in relation to current conceptualizations and general personality traits. Attorneys, forensic psychologists and clinical faculty members completed ratings of psychopathy and personality after reading vignettes based on Cleckley's descriptions of a psychopath. The results suggest that professionals' ratings are consistent with current conceptualizations of psychopathy. Furthermore, the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits of the vignettes aligned with the current literature on the FFM and psychopathy (i.e. low neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness). The results further supported that a general trait model, like the FFM, may be well suited to describe the underlying personality traits of psychopathy. Gender differences were also examined. PMID:26931520

  20. Case studies of attacks on communication networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sin Bok; Han, Eon Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    Recently, as the computer hardware and communications are developed, the data exchange through inter-networking has been highlighted and the data is being recognized as a great asset. Most of the organizations, businesses and enterprises are open to the external world-computer communication networks, attention must be focused on the securities of the information infrastructure. A government organization has been developing 'Circuits Analyzers', and 'Hacker-Tracking Program' and is struggling to track down sneakers. In this report, we analyze the contents of the cases where the communication network has been invaded, from the past up until now in Korea. This report also contains the result of a study on E-mail security, for the protection of KAERI Integrated Management Information System under which utilizes the CALS concepts and web services. (Author)

  1. The virtual information: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Gravili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In todays economics, the fact that information is a major factor of production and of increasing importance as a source of competitive advantage is a generally accepted truism. The trend towards global markets has strongly impacted the competitive situation of many enterprises. Never has the economic environment been subject to so many drastic and rapid changes. This put new weight factors on the requirements for design of business process. This paper explores the case of an Italian legal office that has studied more and more innovative solutions both to satisfy the demands of the clienteles and to oppose the action of the new competitors. Comparing classic models and the theories of Porter with the characteristics and needs of new economy, it shows as the ability to possess, to easily have access, to creatively use of information constitutes one of the more strategic sources of the competitive advantage.

  2. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices. PMID:24494769

  3. Robust control systems theory and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mackenroth, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    "Robust Control Systems" gives a self-contained introduction to modern Control Theory. It thus adds a textbook to the existing research-oriented literature on Robust Control. The author lays emphasis on the modern aspects of the design of controllers with prescribed performance and robustness properties. Different to the classical engineering approach, a rigorous mathematical treatment is essential for the full understanding and applicability of the modern methods such as H2 or H8 control or methods based on the structured singular value µ. Nevertheless, no prior knowledge of Control Theory is required as the classical fundamentals are introduced within the first few chapters. Subsequently a large part of the text provides elementary examples and industrial case studies, which are developed in full detail to show how modern methods can be applied to advanced problems. They make intensive use of MATLAB, especially the Control Systems Toolbox and the µ-Analysis and Synthesis Toolbox.

  4. Case studies of attacks on communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as the computer hardware and communications are developed, the data exchange through inter-networking has been highlighted and the data is being recognized as a great asset. Most of the organizations, businesses and enterprises are open to the external world-computer communication networks, attention must be focused on the securities of the information infrastructure. A government organization has been developing 'Circuits Analyzers', and 'Hacker-Tracking Program' and is struggling to track down sneakers. In this report, we analyze the contents of the cases where the communication network has been invaded, from the past up until now in Korea. This report also contains the result of a study on E-mail security, for the protection of KAERI Integrated Management Information System under which utilizes the CALS concepts and web services. (Author)

  5. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, C; Porkumaran, K; Jaganathan, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC), which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed of generation against fluctuating rural demand. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used to connect and disconnect the dump load during the operation of the system, and which absorbs the load when consumer are not in active will enhance the lifestyle of the rural population and improve the living standards. Hydroelectricity is a promising option for electrification of remote villages in India. The conventional methods are not suitable to act as standalone system. Hence, the designing of a proper ELC is essential. The improved electronic load control performance tested with simulation at validated through hardware setup. PMID:26783553

  6. Landslide Economics: Concepts and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Landslide economics is vital for fundamental understanding of landslide risk as dealing with two important topics: (i) impact assessment, either as damage statistics or cost modeling, and (ii) vulnerability assessment, i.e., the study of exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to landslide damage, ideally from both sociotechnical and financial perspective (e.g., Crovelli and Coe, 2009; Wills et al., 2014). Many aspects addressed in landslide economics have direct influence on landslide risk, including: (i) human activity is often a major causative factor of landslides, not only by predisposing or triggering them, but also as a result of inadequate (low-cost) landslide mitigation; (ii) the level of tolerable or acceptable risk, a measure driving a large part of landslide costs in industrialized countries, is highly variable, differing between individuals, public or private organizations, and societies, with its nature being to change over time; and (iii) decision makers are faced with finding the right balance in landslide mitigation, thus need to weight diverse geological and socioeconomic factors that control its effectiveness in both technical and financial terms (e.g., Klose et al., 2014a). A large part of the complexity in assessing landslide risk as measured by economic costs is due to unique problems in understanding of (i) what types of landslide damage affect human activity and infrastructure in which way, (ii) how society contributes and responds to various kinds of damage, and (iii) how landslide damage is valued in monetary terms. Landslide economics shows the potential to take account of these sociocultural factors to the benefit of risk analysis (e.g., Klose et al., 2014b). The present contribution introduces local and regional case studies in which different economic issues of landslide risk are highlighted using the example of public infrastructures in NW Germany. A special focus is on the following topics: (i) risk culture and created risk, (ii

  7. Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1987-01-01

    Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies This paper enquires whether an industrialisation policy designed by the state might be successful in achieving industrialisation and development in the third world. Three common approaches to industrialisation are analysed in terms of their structural features and consequences: import substitution, capital goods sector promotion, and manufacturing export promotion. Associating these strategies to Brazil, India and South Korea, respectiv...

  8. Case studies on age-management in organisations: report on organisational case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, E.; Conen, W.S.; Schippers, J.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of case studies was thwarted by the economic crisis and the feeling of being ‘over-researched’ by potential organisations. Although organisations in some sectors (e.g. chemical manufacturing) reported the worst part of the economic crisis was behind, many organisations indicated gett

  9. Case Study: The Mystery of the Seven Deaths--A Case Study in Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdik, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Cellular respiration, the central component of cellular metabolism, can be a difficult concept for many students to fully understand. In this interrupted, problem-based case study, students explore the purpose of cellular respiration as they play the role of medical examiner, analyzing autopsy evidence to determine the mysterious cause of death…

  10. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  11. Odontoma: a retrospective study of 73 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical findings and treatment results for impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas. We retrospectively investigated 73 odontomas in 72 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from April 2004 through November 2011. The study was performed using medical records, panoramic radiographs, and pathological reports. Data gathered included age, gender, location, chief complaints, effects on dentition, and treatment of odontoma and the impacted tooth associated with odontoma. Most compound odontomas (46.7%) were found in the second decade and complex odontomas were not related to age. Odontomas showed no gender predilection. Fifty-five cases (75.3%) of odontomas were detected on routine dental radiographs. Sixty percent of compound odontomas occurred in the canine area and 57.1% of complex odontomas in the molar areas. Impaction of permanent teeth (61.6%) was the most common complication on the adjacent teeth. Most odontomas (84.9%) were removed surgically and impacted permanent teeth were managed by surgical removal (53.2%), orthodontic treatment (25.5%), or surgical repositioning (6.4%). There was a statistically significant relation between age and preservation of the impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas (p<0.01). Early detection and treatment of odontomas increase the possibility of preservation of the impacted tooth. Therefore, it would be suggested that periodic panoramic examination during the first and second decade of life might be beneficial for the early detection and better prognosis of odontomas.

  12. Tactile Astronomy - a Portuguese case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, L.; Alves, F.; Correia, A.

    2012-09-01

    Although astronomy plays an important role in the most various outreach initiatives, as well as school science curricula, due to its strong visual component in knowledge acquisition, astronomy subjects are not entirely well addressed and accessed by visually impaired students and/or general public. This stresses the need of more tactile material production, still very scarce in an educational context whether formal or informal. This is a case study activity developed based on different schematic tactile images of several objects present in our solar system. These images in relief, highlight, through touch, several relevant features present in the different astronomical objects studied. The scientific knowledge is apprehended through the use of a tactile key, complemented with additional information. Through proper hands-on activities implementation and careful analysis of the outcome, the adapted images associated with an explanatory key prove to be a valuable resource in tactile astronomy domain. Here we describe the process of implementing such initiative near visually impaired students. The struggles and challenges perceived by all involved and the enrichment experience of engaging astronomy with visually impaired audiences, broadening horizons in an overall experience accessible to all.

  13. Odontoma: a retrospective study of 73 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical findings and treatment results for impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas. We retrospectively investigated 73 odontomas in 72 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from April 2004 through November 2011. The study was performed using medical records, panoramic radiographs, and pathological reports. Data gathered included age, gender, location, chief complaints, effects on dentition, and treatment of odontoma and the impacted tooth associated with odontoma. Most compound odontomas (46.7%) were found in the second decade and complex odontomas were not related to age. Odontomas showed no gender predilection. Fifty-five cases (75.3%) of odontomas were detected on routine dental radiographs. Sixty percent of compound odontomas occurred in the canine area and 57.1% of complex odontomas in the molar areas. Impaction of permanent teeth (61.6%) was the most common complication on the adjacent teeth. Most odontomas (84.9%) were removed surgically and impacted permanent teeth were managed by surgical removal (53.2%), orthodontic treatment (25.5%), or surgical repositioning (6.4%). There was a statistically significant relation between age and preservation of the impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas (p<0.01). Early detection and treatment of odontomas increase the possibility of preservation of the impacted tooth. Therefore, it would be suggested that periodic panoramic examination during the first and second decade of life might be beneficial for the early detection and better prognosis of odontomas.

  14. Anorexia in the Adolescence - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida de Paiva, Maria O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders lead to special biological and psychological states. The result of the total lack of food is treated in a distinct way by anorexia. Nutritionists have thus had difficulty in coming to an agreement on the best therapy to prevent such disorders. First it is essential to understand which treatment aims are and then to attempt to know how the several treatment models used nowadays can reach those aims. Someone who suffers from eating disorders, together with an inner deformation, suffers from too much sensitiveness. In order to solve these problems, one needs a change in the relationship with oneself, with the others and with the world. This study presents a teenager’s case study – Anorexia. Is, in fact, a problem that society faces and can’t ignore. Many youngsters have already died and others are following their steps. But there are also those ones that succeeded in overcoming the problem and now are reporting their stories.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…etc. Because of the growingimportance and the popularity of the KM either as a research topic or specialized coursesubject, a crucial need for understanding, conceptualization and implementation of KM asa system has emerged since the mid 1990’s. In this sense, the book contributes criticallyto fill the gap between theory and implementation as a teaching material.This edited book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has twenty chaptersdivided into seven sections. In addition to a section of authors’ biography contributing thebook and an index, there is a preface that the basic terms and key concepts underliningthe cases discussed following chapters, which is explained in a schematized way.Besides the editor, total of 47 authors have contributed to the book. These authors arefrom different countries, academic backgrounds, and institutions. Although approximatelyone third of the authors are from USA, the rest of the authors are from Canada, England,Austria, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Bahrain and China. The authorsrepresent a variety of universities, private companies, and military institutions. Most ofthem have strong professional backgrounds, which help them address the issues bothfrom theoretical and practical perspectives. Contributions of authors having differentbackgrounds and institutions enable the book to have very comprehensive spectrum andthis makes the book attractive practically for those working different sectors

  16. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  17. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The case study research approach is widely used in a number of different ways within the information systems community. This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study. A critical analysis of the conduct and outcomes of two recently published positivist case studies is reported. One is a multiple case study that validated concepts in a framework for viewpoint development in requirements definition. The other is a single case study that examined the role of social enablers in enterprise resource planning systems implementation. A number of guidelines for successfully undertaking positivist case study research are identified including developing a clear understanding of key concepts and assumptions within the positivist paradigm; providing clear and unambiguous definitions of the units and interactions when using any theory; carefully defining the boundary of the theory used in the case study; using hypotheses rather than propositions in the empirical testing of theory; using fuzzy or probabilistic propositions in recognising that reality can never be perfectly known; selecting case studies carefully, particularly single case studies; and recognising that generalisation from positivist, single case studies is inherently different from generalisation from single experiments. When properly undertaken, positivist, deductive case study research is a valuable research approach for information systems researchers, particularly when used within pluralist research programs that use a number of different research approaches from different paradigms.

  18. Quantifying Wetland Functions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. W.; Rogers, J. S.; Hoffman, A. R.; Wu, C.; Hoopes, J. A.; Armstrong, D. E.

    2007-05-01

    Wetlands are reputed to reduce peak flows and improve water quality by trapping sediment and phosphorus. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify these wetland functions. This paper reports on a study of a 45-hectare wetland in southern Wisconsin. The wetland is traversed by a stream channel that drains a predominantly agricultural 17.4 km2 watershed. During the spring and summer of 2006, we collected stage data and water samples at stations upstream and downstream of the wetland, with the former accounting for 82% of the contributing area. Continuous measurements of water stage at these stations were used to construct a streamflow record. During storm events water samples were taken automatically at 2-hour intervals for the first 12 samples and 8-hour intervals for the next 12 samples. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and dissolved reactive phosphorus. Ten events were observed during the observation period; the two largest events were 1 to 2-year storms. One-dimensional unsteady flow routing was used to estimate the maximum extent of wetland inundation for each event. When normalized for flow volume, all peak flows were attenuated by the wetland, with the maximum attenuation corresponding to the intermediate events. The reduced attenuation of the larger events appears to be due to filling of storage, either due to antecedent conditions or the event itself. In the case of sediment, the amount leaving the wetland in the two largest storms, which accounted for 96% of the exported sediment during the period of observation, was twice the amount entering the wetland. The failure of the wetland to trap sediment is apparently due to the role of drainage ditches, which trap sediment during the wetland-filling phase and release it during drainage. The export of sediment during the largest events appears to result from remobilization of sediment deposited in the low-gradient stream channel during smaller events. This

  19. Case Study: Camptocormia, a Rare Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and…

  20. Case Study Research in Software Engineering Guidelines and Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Runeson, Per; Rainer, Austen; Regnell, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Based on their own experiences of in-depth case studies of software projects in international corporations, in this book the authors present detailed practical guidelines on the preparation, conduct, design and reporting of case studies of software engineering.  This is the first software engineering specific book on the case study research method.

  1. STUDY OF MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN REFERRED OBSTETRICS CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh; Alka Murlidhar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the referred obstetric cases for reason of referral and to study the maternal and perinatal outcome. DESIGN: Prospective Observational study . STUDY POPULATION: 380 cases referred from periphery to tertiary care institute in one year duration. METHODS: INCLUSION C RITERIA : All referred ANC cases to our tertiary care i...

  2. Jazz improvisers’ shared understanding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Schober

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard (It Could Happen to You on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner’s musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener’s statements more than their partner’s argues against a simple notion that performers’ interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider’s.

  3. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  4. VINCRISTINE INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: STUDY OF 75 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Arzanian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConcern for side-effects of therapy related to treatment of childhood malignancies is becoming an increasingly important topic. In this study, we evaluated extent of vincristine (VCR induced neurotoxicity in a group of children who underwent chemotherapy, with VCR being part of the regimen.Materials & MethodsIn this investigation, for 75 children (54% boys, 46% girls, aged between 1 to 14 (mean 6.5±4.3 years, serial weekly neurological examinations were performed; of the 75, 70 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 5 Wilm's tumor. All patients were on a chemotherapy protocol of at least 4 consecutive VCR (1.5mg/m2 injections.ResultsDecreased deep tendons reflexes were seen in the Achilles reflex in 78%, and the patellar reflex in 53% of patients. Muscle weakness was found in 70% of patients, being mild in 76% of them. Four  percent of patients showed severe weakness. Petosis, jaw pain, hoarseness, abdominal pain and constipation were seen in 15%, 6%, 12%, 12% and 12% respectively. Paresthesia was observed in 32 of 52 patients, over 4 years old. No cases of foot drop, urinary retention or facial nerve palsy were seen in this patient group.ConclusionChildren on usual doses of vincristine regimen may have neuropathic side effects but most of these side effects are mild and not troublesome.Key words: Vincristine, neuropathy, neurotoxicity, side effect

  5. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  6. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  7. Dynamic optimization case studies in DYNOPT tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic programming is typically applied to optimization problems. As the analytical solutions are generally very difficult, chosen software tools are used widely. These software packages are often third-party products bound for standard simulation software tools on the market. As typical examples of such tools, TOMLAB and DYNOPT could be effectively applied for solution of problems of dynamic programming. DYNOPT will be presented in this paper due to its licensing policy (free product under GPL) and simplicity of use. DYNOPT is a set of MATLAB functions for determination of optimal control trajectory by given description of the process, the cost to be minimized, subject to equality and inequality constraints, using orthogonal collocation on finite elements method. The actual optimal control problem is solved by complete parameterization both the control and the state profile vector. It is assumed, that the optimized dynamic model may be described by a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). This collection of functions extends the capability of the MATLAB Optimization Tool-box. The paper will introduce use of DYNOPT in the field of dynamic optimization problems by means of case studies regarding chosen laboratory physical educational models.

  8. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  9. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's. PMID:25152740

  10. Refugee Problem in Europe – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Varga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.

  11. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated

  12. Evaluations of Regional Competitiveness: Making a Case for Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the concepts of regional competitiveness, including definitions, conceptual models, measurements, and the benefits and shortcomings of following a strategy to enhance competitiveness. Next, city-region rankings and indices of competitiveness are reviewed and the usefulness of these studies is summarized. Potential roles for regional scientists for improving (1) evaluations of regional competitiveness and (2) applications of evaluations to regional developmen...

  13. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  14. Robust thin-film generator based on segmented contact-electrification for harvesting wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian Song; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-11

    Collecting and converting energy from ambient air flow promise to be a viable approach in developing self-powered autonomous electronics. Here, we report an effective and robust triboelectric generator that consists of an undulating thin-film membrane and an array of segmented fine-sized electrode pairs on a single substrate. Sequential processes of contact electrification and electrostatic induction generate alternating flows of free electrons when the membrane interacts with ambient air flow. Based on an optimum rational design, the segmented electrodes play an essential role in boosting the output current, leading to an enhancement of over 500% compared to the structure without the segmentation. The thin-film based generator can simultaneously and continuously light up tens of commercial light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it possesses exceptional durability, providing constant electric output after millions of operation cycles. This work offers a truly practical solution that opens the avenue to take advantage of wind energy by using the triboelectric effect. PMID:24824071

  15. The prospects of renewable energy technologies for rural electrification: A review from Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of renewable energy technologies remains one of the major energy policies throughout the world. These technologies are proven to be successful for electrifying rural communities, especially in developing countries. Realizing the benefits of renewable energy sources, the Government of Nepal has initiated the production and distribution of renewable energy technologies in recent years, mainly to electrify rural communities. Although these technologies are suitable for providing electricity in isolated and remote rural areas, their implementation programs have not been successful as expected. This review provides broad-spectrum view about the energy situation in Nepal and highlights the current policies and subsidies for the optimal utilization of renewable energy resources in isolated and poor rural communities. In addition, major promotional barriers for their implementation in Nepal have been discussed. - Highlights: ► Nepal has enormous potential of renewable energy sources. ► Till date only small fraction of renewable energy sources has been exploited. ► However, renewable energy technologies seem to be promising options for rural electrification.

  16. Electrification of the transportation sector offers limited country-wide greenhouse gas reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional propulsion, plugin and hybrid vehicles may offer reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, regional air/noise pollution, petroleum dependence, and ownership cost. Comparing only plugins and hybrids amongst themselves, and focusing on GHG, relative merits of different options have been shown to be more nuanced, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus battery manufacturing and weight, and trip patterns. We present a life-cycle framework to compare GHG emissions for three drivetrains (plugin-electricity-only, gasoline-only-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid) across driving ranges and grid-carbon-intensities, for passenger cars, vans, buses, or trucks (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing). Parameter and model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity analyses. We find that owing to the interplay of range, GHG/km, and portions of country-wide kms accessible to electrification, GHG reductions achievable from plugins (whether electricity-only or hybrids) are limited even when assuming low-carbon future grids. Furthermore, for policy makers considering GHG from electricity and transportation sectors combined, plugin technology may in fact increase GHG compared to gasoline-only-hybrids, regardless of grid-carbon-intensity.

  17. A laboratory test of the elec-trification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The measured data in the wind-tunnel tests show that the wind-blown sand particles acquired a negative charge when their diameters are smaller than 250 mm and positive charge when their diameters are larger than 500 mm, which confirms Latham's assumption that the large particles in wind-blown sand flux acquired positive charge while nega-tive charge developed on small ones. In the meanwhile, the measured data also show that the average charge-to-mass ratio for wind-blown sand particles decreases with the in-crease of the particle diameter and the wind velocity, and increases with the rise of height. The electric field in wind-blown sand flux is mainly formed by the moving charged sand particles. Its direction is vertical to the Earth's surface and upward, which is opposite to that of the fair-weather field. The electric field increases with wind velocity and height increasing. These experimental results will lay the foundation for developing the theoretical analysis of the electrification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux.

  18. Mathematical modelling with case studies using Maple and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Mathematical ModelingMathematical models An overview of the book Some modeling approaches Modeling for decision makingCompartmental Models Introduction Exponential decay and radioactivity Case study: detecting art forgeries Case study: Pacific rats colonize New Zealand Lake pollution models Case study: Lake Burley Griffin Drug assimilation into the blood Case study: dull, dizzy, or dead? Cascades of compartments First-order linear DEs Equilibrium points and stability Case study: money, money, money makes the world go aroundModels of Single PopulationsExponential growth Density-

  19. Case studies on age-management in organisations: report on organisational case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Punte, E.; Conen, W.S.; Schippers, J.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of case studies was thwarted by the economic crisis and the feeling of being ‘over-researched’ by potential organisations. Although organisations in some sectors (e.g. chemical manufacturing) reported the worst part of the economic crisis was behind, many organisations indicated getting through the crisis was their top priority. Especially in the first few months we had difficulties with getting through to organisations. The most difficulties we had at that time with longitudi...

  20. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  1. Jane: A Case Study in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    The article reports the case history of a 15-year-old Australian girl with anorexia nervosa. Information is also given on prevalence, causes, definitions, and treatments including hospitalization, co-therapy, psychotherapy, behavior modification, family therapy, and counseling. (DB)

  2. Phyllodes tumor in adolescent. Case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Torres Aja; Julio Sarmiento Sánchez; María Caridad Rubio Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Presentation of the case of a patient (18 years old) who was assisted in the provincial mastology consultation for a non painful tumor, of sudden growth covering almost all the right breast, without other symptom or sing. After some tests, it was decided to operate. The tumor turned to be benign phyllodes. The relevance of this case lies in the infrequent appearance of this type of tumor, being even the first to be operated in our hospital.

  3. Brazilian oil spills chemical characterization : case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petrobras Research Centre has been active in responding to some significant oil spills in Brazil in the past decade. The centre has characterized spilled oil, monitored the affected ecosystems and determined the fate of oil in the environment. This paper described the use of some advanced chemical analytical techniques used in Brazilian oil spill studies to determine fractions and individual petroleum hydrocarbons in water, groundwater, sediment, sand, fish and the spilled oil itself. Some of the most recent oil spill cases were discussed in terms of chemical characterization of the spilled oil and the environmental samples from different matrices of the affected ecosystems for determining the fate of the oil in the environment and to assess environmental damage. In particular, methods such as gas chromatography/flame ionization detector, P and T/GC/PID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry have been used to examine crude and fuel oil spills in Guanabara Bay, Barigui and Iguassu Rivers, and the Sao Sebastiao Channel. The chemical analytical methods are used to determine total petroleum hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, unresolved complex mixtures, volatile monoaromatic compounds such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes), as well as parent and alkylated homologues polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and terpanes and steranes. Acute ecotoxicity data for water and sediment samples was also included. It was determined that with certain limitations, PAH ratios can help determine the origin of hydrocarbons as being either petrogenic or pyrolytic. However, alkylated PAH homologues and parent compounds such as dibenzothiophene and perylene give more precise interpretation of the data. 30 refs., 9 tabs., 11 figs

  4. A Case Study Model for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katya

    2006-01-01

    Case studies are an accepted method for reporting treatment outcomes. However, to be useful and authentic, a systematic and principled approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting case data must be observed. This paper proposes a basic case study format for documenting augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention to ensure…

  5. Case Studies In Business Market Research: An Abductive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, A.; Gadde, L

    1999-01-01

    Case studies are frequently used in industrial network research. In this paper we discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case study approach. In particular we deal with single case research aiming at theory generation. For this purpose we suggest an approach based on 'systematic combining' grounded in an 'abductive' logic.

  6. A clinico-pathological study of 70 cases of pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicopalhological study of 70 cases of pemphigus observed over a span of four and a half years from January 1992 to June 1996 at the Sir J.J. Group of Hospitals and Grant Medical College, Mumbai is reported. Pemphigus vulgaris constituted the single largest group of 43 cases, followed by pemphigus foliaceus (25 cases and pemphigus vegetans (2 cases. Majority of the cases were seen in the age group of 21-60 years, with a slight male predominance. The youngest patient was 14 years while the eldest was aged 75 years. Mucosal involvement was seen in 31 cases of pemphigus vulgaris, as opposed to only 5 cases of pemphigus foliaceus. Flaccid bullae were present in 100% cases. Pruritus was complained of in 14 cases, though it was more common in pemphigus vegetans and vulgaris. Salient histopathological features of pemphigus vulgaris observed were (I intraepidermal suprabasal blisters (35 cases, (2 presence of acantholytic cells (40 cases, (3 "Row of tombstone appearance" (I8 cases and (4 acantholysis involving follicular sheath (20 cases. Main histopathological features of pemphigus foliaceus were (1 subcorneal blister (15 case, (2 acantholysis (24 cases and (3 bulla cavity containing inflammatory infiltrate (12 cases. Both cases of pemphigus vegetans showed hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis and irregular acanthosis with intra-epidermal eosinophilic abscesses besides suprabasal lacunae.

  7. The electric vehicles as a mean to reduce CO2 emissions and energy costs in isolated regions. The São Miguel (Azores) case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of small islands around the world today, are dependent on imported fossil fuels for the majority of their energy needs especially for transport activities and electricity production. The use of locally renewable energy resources and the implementation of energy efficiency measures could make a significant contribution to their economic development by reducing fossil fuel imports. An electrification of vehicles has been suggested as a way to both reduce pollutant emissions and increase security of supply of the transportation sector by reducing the dependence on oil products imports and facilitate the accommodation of renewable electricity generation, such as wind and, in the case of volcanic islands like São Miguel (Azores) of the geothermal energy whose penetration has been limited by the valley electricity consumption level. In this research, three scenarios of EV penetration were studied and it was verified that, for a 15% LD fleet replacement by EVs with 90% of all energy needs occurring during the night, the accommodation of 10 MW of new geothermal capacity becomes viable. Under this scenario, reductions of 8% in electricity costs, 14% in energy, 23% in fossil fuels use and CO2 emissions for the transportation and electricity production sectors could be expected. - Highlights: ► EVs impacts on the electric system in energy and power profiles, costs and emissions. ► At least an EV penetration of 15% is needed to allow new geothermal power production. ► Reductions in energy, fossil fuels use and CO2 emissions of 9%, 16% and 17% respectively. ► Electricity production with more % of renewable technologies reduces unit costs.

  8. On misunderstandings in connection with case-studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2005-01-01

    and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...

  9. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  10. Antenatal stress: An Irish case study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2013-05-16

    BACKGROUND:: stress in pregnancy is common and impacts negatively on women, infants and families. A number of factors contribute to high levels of stress in pregnancy, including financial concerns, marital discord, low support systems and low socio-economic status. OBJECTIVES:: the aim of this study was to evaluate stress anxiety levels and depressive symptoms among low risk women in an area in Ireland that was particularly impacted by the 2008 economic crisis. DESIGN:: a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Perceived Stress Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data was collected at a single time during the second trimester. SETTING:: this paper reports a case study of one maternity service in Ireland. Participants included low risk pregnant women who were attending the hospital clinic for routine antenatal care. RESULTS:: of 150 questionnaires distributed, 74 completed questionnaires were returned indicating a 49.3% return rate. Findings indicated high levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptomatology among participants. There were no significant difference in mean EPDS score for different age groups (F4,69=2.48, P=0.052), living arrangements (F4,68=0.90, P=0.5) or usual occupation (F4,69=1.45, P=0.2). A score of ≥12 was taken as indicative of probable antenatal depression and 86.5% of participants responded with a score of 12 or above. PSS scores were also high and more than three quarters of respondents scored ≥15 (75.6%) and more than a third had scores ≥20 (35.1%), out of a total score of 40. There was a significant difference in mean PSS score between the different age groups (F4,69=3.60, P=0.010) but not for living arrangements or usual occupation. A STAI score of ≥39 was taken as indicative of antenatal anxiety, and 74.3% of participants responded with a score of 39 or above. There were no significant differences in mean STAI

  11. Studies on five cases of radiation enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasunaga, Akira; Shibata, Okihiko; Kubo, Hironobu; Tomonari, Kazuhide; Hadama, Tetsuo; Uchida, Yuzou; Shirabe, Joji (Oita Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Five patients with radiation enterocolitis who were surgically treated are reported. The 5 patients had received irradiation therapy more than 5,000 rad for ginecologic malignancies. The period for the onset of symptoms of irradiation enteritis ranged from 8 months to 20 years however, 3 of them developed the symptoms within one year after irradiation therapy. Emergency surgery was carried out for bowel obstruction in 3 cases and for intestinal perforation in 2 cases. Bowel resection and primary anastomosis were performed by a one-step approach in 4 of them. Transient colostomy as preventive measure was added in 2 cases. It is very important for the one-step approach to resect the intestine at the healthy part far from the lesion of irradiation enteritis and to add a transient colostomy to prevent anastomolic insufficiency. Furthermore, suture material should be used less tissue reactive one. (author).

  12. The use of case studies in teaching undergraduate neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meil, William M

    2007-01-01

    Case studies have been the cornerstone of many discoveries in neurology and continue to be an indispensable source of knowledge. Attaching a name, face, and story to the study of neurological disorders makes them more "real" and memorable. This article describes the value of the case study methodology and its advantages as a pedagogical approach. It also illustrates how the seminal case of H.M. can be used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the case study methodology. Three exercises are described for incorporating case studies into neuroscience courses. The first exercise requires students to conduct a literature review regarding their assigned case and then design an experiment to address a lingering question regarding that neurological disorder. Survey results of 90 students provide quantitative and qualitative support for this approach. The vast majority of students indicated this exercise was a valuable learning experience; sparked interest in the topic and in biopsychology; increased their knowledge and stimulated critical thinking. The second exercise discusses how students might conduct their own case studies. The third exercise emphasizes the use of case studies as a platform to examine competing hypotheses regarding neurological conditions and their treatment. A table listing case studies appropriate for undergraduate neuroscience courses is included. Cases are categorized by the type of neurological disorder and notes regarding the nature of and content of each case are provided. PMID:23493154

  13. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  14. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  15. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study I *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matete Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article is a presentation of a brief cultural glossary of Northern Sotho cooking terms. The glossary is mainly composed of names for utensils and ingredients, and action words for the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. It also contains names of dishes tied to some idiomatic expressions in a way eliciting cultural experiences that can lead to an under-standing of indigenous knowledge systems. The article seeks to explore ways of capturing cultural glossaries to feed into the national dictionary corpora by using a case-study approach to investigate the processes that led to the generation of this specific school-based project. A number of issues that surfaced in this project, can possibly serve as models for the collection of authentic glossaries that can support dictionary making in African languages.

    Keywords: CULTURAL GLOSSARY, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, CULTURAL TERMINOLOGY, CORPUS, AUTHENTIC GLOSSARY, CONTEXTUALISATION, MARGIN-ALIZED LANGUAGES, OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION, PERFORMANCE INDICATOR, ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, RANGE STATEMENT, TRADITIONAL DISHES, LANGUAGE VAL-ORISATION, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, STRUCTURAL APPROACH, METONYMY

    Opsomming: Die totstandbrenging van kulturele woordversamelings: Ge-vallestudie I. Hierdie artikel is 'n aanbieding van 'n kort kulturele woordversameling van Noord-Sothokookterme. Die woordversameling bestaan hoofsaaklik uit die name van gereedskap en bestanddele, en handelingswoorde vir die prosesse betrokke by die voorbereiding van kulturele geregte. Dit bevat ook name van geregte wat verbind is met sekere idiomatiese uitdrukkings wat op 'n manier kulturele ervarings oproep wat kan lei tot die verstaan van inheemse kennisstelsels. Die artikel probeer om maniere te ondersoek waarop kulturele woordversamelings in die nasionale woordeboekkorpusse ingevoer kan word deur 'n gevallestudiebenadering te volg om die prosesse te ondersoek wat tot die

  16. Olympus Imaging Fraud Scandal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Dennis; Madrigal, Marion; Jackson, Maura

    2014-01-01

    This case examines the two decade long tobashi scheme by Olympus Imaging Executives to hide $1.7 billion in losses. In the 1980s, a soaring yen and falling dollar caused bottom line income problems for many Japanese companies. Some companies sought to offset the declining revenue with zaiteku, a form of speculative investment. While early…

  17. Supply chain strategy: empirical case study in Europe and Asia:

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Ilkka; Sillanpää, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case study research is to present a literature review of supply chain strategy approaches, develop supply chain strategy framework and to validate a framework in empirical case study. Literature review and case study research are the research methods for this research. This study presents the supply chain strategy framework which merges together business environment, corporate strategy, supply chain demand and supply chain strategy. Research argues that all the different c...

  18. Mucocele - A study of 36 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Dhaval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucocele is one of the most common benign soft tissue tumor present in the oral cavity. They are of two types - one is extravasation and second one is retention type but the majority are extravasation type. Aims: The objective is to determine various factors related to mucocele such as role of trauma due to nearby teeth, recurrence, duration, and to find out whether there is any role of psychological stress which initiates trauma like lip or cheek biting. Materials and Methods: 36 cases of mucocele diagnosed at the Department of the Oral Pathology, Govt. Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad, between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The clinical data were recorded and histopathologic diagnosis was made. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis tool, Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Results: A diagnosis of mucocele was established in 36 cases with male-to-female ratio of 1.77:1. Most common type was extravasation in 30 (83.33% cases. The peak age of occurrence was between 1st and 3rd decade. Lateral side of the lower labial mucosa was the most affected site in 34 (94.44% cases. The history of trauma appeared the major etiological factor seen in 28 (77.77% cases. Conclusion: We conclude that there was male predominance and they were more affected in 2nd and 3rd decade. The lateral side of lower labial mucosa was the commonest site and the trauma due to teeth or lip biting was the major etiological factor for the occurrence of the mucocele. The article highlights role of psychological stress in occurrence of mucocele. The reader should understand the importance of histopathology examination and should try to control the psychological stress in such mucocele patients.

  19. Identification of Ambiguity in the Case Study Research Typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2015-01-01

    future. Relevant to varied levels and scales of case study use, the aim of this collection is to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of where we are now with case study research, so that they may better judge their own applications of the case study. From definitions to interdisciplinary...... illustrations being adopted in the collection would provide comparative perspectives and international insights to scholars who are interested in English language studies in Asia." This collection takes a dutifully contemporary approach to the exploration of the uses and interpretations of the case study across...

  20. Delusional parasitosis--study of 3 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantha K

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Delusional disorder-somatic (parasitosis type is a rare psychiatric disorder which poses a challenge to diagnostic and therapeutic skills. Pimozide, a highly specific dopamine blocker has shown promising results in the 3 cases illustrated here. These cases were seen over a period of 3 years. All the three patients believed that an insect has entered through the ear and is burrowing tracts/laying multiple eggs. They approached the ENT surgeons or neurosurgeon with a fear that their brain will be invaded. On psychiatric evaluation, no past or present history of major psychiatric illness was found. Premorbid personalities were well adjusted. Only for two patients, acute moderate stressors were detected. Delusions disappeared by the end of 2 wks but therapy was continued for 5 months.