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Sample records for case study based

  1. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    analysis of 134 case study based articles published in six leading logistics and supply chain management (SCM) journals between 1998 and 2010 is used to assess and evaluate the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in these publications. Findings – This research provides...... to address to ensure high quality of the case study based research approach in published articles. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the analysis of published articles in six logistics and SCM journals. Further research should investigate different journals in logistics and other...

  2. Using Case Studies in Calculus-based Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Debora M.

    2006-12-01

    Do your students believe that the physics only works in your classroom or laboratory? Or do they see that physics underlies their everyday experience? Case studies in physics help students connect physics principles to their everyday experience. For decades, case studies have been used to teach law, medicine and biology, but they are rarely used in physics. I am working on a calculus-based physics textbook for scientists and engineers. Case studies are woven into each chapter. Stop by and get a case study to test out in your classroom. I would love to get your feedback.

  3. A Java-Web-Based-Learning Methodology, Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Java-Web-Based-Learning Methodology, Case Study : Waterborne diseases. The recent advances in web technologies have opened new opportunities for computer-based-education. One can learn independently of time and place constraints, and have instantaneous access to relevant updated material at minimal cost.

  4. Arts-Based Learning and Leadership Development: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to explore how participants in an arts-based leadership development program learned to draw on their right brain capabilities in order to develop the creative competencies required to solve complex modern-day problems in new and different ways. The rationale for this study emerges from the researcher's…

  5. Project-Based Learning in Electronic Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    A case study of project-based learning (PBL) implemented in Tianjin University of Technology and Education is presented. This multidiscipline project is innovated to meet the novel requirements of industry while keeping its traditional effectiveness in driving students to apply knowledge to practice and problem-solving. The implementation of PBL…

  6. Competitiveness based on logistic management: a real case study

    OpenAIRE

    García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Peña García Pardo, Isidro; Ramos M. Nieto, Marta

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and effective logistic system is a strategic objective in any produc- tive business. This paper presents a real case study of a routing problem in a food industry firm. This problem is solved as a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) using the Neural Net- work (NN) and Tabu Search (TS) algorithms. A customer selection based on a profitability analysis was carried out. The aforementioned algorithms were then applied, leading to a considerable reduction in the total logistic costs. This r...

  7. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  8. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B

    2018-01-01

    Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Two case studies of children with spina bifida are presented to illustrate the clinical use of a new questionnaire measure of executive and learning-related functioning, the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning Scale (LEAF). The LEAF emphasizes clinical utility in assessment by incorporating four characteristics: brevity in administration, breadth of additional relevant content, efficiency of scoring and interpretation, and ease of availability for use. LEAF results were consistent with another executive functioning checklist in documenting everyday behavior problems related to working memory, planning, and organization while offering additional breadth of assessment of domains such as attention, processing speed, and novel problem-solving. These case study results demonstrate the clinical utility of questionnaire-based measurement of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychology and provide a new measure for accomplishing this goal.

  9. SUDDEN NATURAL DEATHS IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES- AN AUTOPSY BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Death occurring in apparently healthy individual in a case of natural death may arise suspicion of foul play. In these circumstances these cases may be subjected to medicolegal autopsy. The disease condition may be unknown to the individual and the relatives. This study was done to review the exact cause of death in sudden unexpected deaths, and enabling or assisting the legal authorities in detection of crime, to prove or disprove the foul play. Body mass index is the most frequently used indicator of body fatness. An attempt is made to find out whether there is any significant relationship between BMI and the risk for sudden cardiac death. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data of 50 cases of sudden unexpected death brought for medicolegal autopsy at govt. T.D. medical college Alappuzha in the year 2010 were studied and information were collected from the postmortem records. Data was entered in the proforma. The histopathological examination findings of relevant cases were studied. Analysis was done using MS EXCEL and Chi-square test was used as the test of significance in the comparison between two categorical variables. RESULTS In 50 cases, male predominance was observed and 88% were males in which 50% of males died of atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery disease and among females 33% died of myocardial infarction. While considering the systemic distribution of cause of death, the cardiovascular system was found to be most commonly affected, 33 cases (66% followed by respiratory system 7 cases (14%. In 4 (8% cases gastrointestinal system was affected. In Two cases (4% central nervous system was affected and others were generalized infection, which constituted 2 cases. Out of 33 cases observed in cardiovascular system the commonest cause being the atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery diseases involving 27 cases (81.81% in which the predominant involvement was seen in left anterior descending artery 21 cases (77.77% followed by right

  10. Case studies: Risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) or a system level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at a plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns with no adverse impacts on risk. Three summaries of case study applications are included to demonstrate the types of results that can be achieved through risk-based evaluation of technical specifications. (orig.)

  11. A Review of Case-Based Learning Practices in an Online MBA Program: A Program-Level Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-hee; Lee, Jieun; Liu, Xiaojing; Bonk, Curt J.; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how a case-based learning approach was used and facilitated in online business education. Perceptions of students and instructors regarding the practices of case-based learning in online environments are explored in terms of instructional design, facilitation, and technology support. This study finds case-based learning to be a…

  12. Seedbed based on IoT: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kalathas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN and the Internet of Things (IOT are widely used in providing decision support systems which solve many problems in the real-world. This paper presents IoT as the best way to solve the agricultural problems, related to seedbed resources optimization, decision making support and seed breeding monitoring. This case study provides real-time information about the seedbed that will help agriculturists make the right decisions during the seed breeding procedure. Using the basic principles of Internet and WSN technology, precision agriculture systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT technology are explained in detail, especially in network architecture, hardware architecture and software process control of the precision seed breeding monitoring system. The implemented automation system monitors data from the sensors in a feedback loop which activates the control devices based on threshold value. The implementation of WSN in seedbed monitoring (SM will optimize the control of air temperature and humidity, soil humidity, air capacity, luminance while it will minimize the time of seed breeding and it will also maximize the number of seeds which become plants ready for transplantation.

  13. Clinicians adopting evidence based guidelines: a case study with thromboprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints.

  14. Behavior-based safety on construction sites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Rafiq M

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the results of a case study and describes an important area within the field of construction safety management, namely behavior-based safety (BBS). This paper adopts and develops a management approach for safety improvements in construction site environments. A rigorous behavioral safety system and its intervention program was implemented and deployed on target construction sites. After taking a few weeks of safety behavior measurements, the project management team implemented the designed intervention and measurements were taken. Goal-setting sessions were arranged on-site with workers' participation to set realistic and attainable targets of performance. Safety performance measurements continued and the levels of performance and the targets were presented on feedback charts. Supervisors were asked to give workers recognition and praise when they acted safely or improved critical behaviors. Observers were requested to have discussions with workers, visit the site, distribute training materials to workers, and provide feedback to crews and display charts. They were required to talk to operatives in the presence of line managers. It was necessary to develop awareness and understanding of what was being measured. In the process, operatives learned how to act safely when conducting site tasks using the designed checklists. Current weekly scores were discussed in the weekly safety meetings and other operational site meetings with emphasis on how to achieve set targets. The reliability of the safety performance measures taken by the company's observers was monitored. A clear increase in safety performance level was achieved across all categories: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; access to heights; plant and equipment, and scaffolding. The research reveals that scores of safety performance at one project improved from 86% (at the end of 3rd week) to 92.9% during the 9th week. The results of intervention demonstrated large decreases in

  15. Preliminary energy demand studies for Ireland: base case and high case for 1980, 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E W

    1981-01-01

    The framework of the Base Case and the High Case for 1990 for Ireland, related to the demand modules of the medium-term European Communities (EC) Energy Model, is described. The modules are: Multi-national Macre-economic Module (EURECA); National Input-Output Model (EXPLOR); and National Energy Demand Model (EDM). The final results of the EXPLOR and EDM are described; one set related to the Base Case and the other related to the High Case. The forecast or projection is termed Base Case because oil prices are assumed to increase with general price inflation, at the same rate. The other forecast is termed High Case because oil prices are assumed to increase at 5% per year more rapidly than general price inflation. The EXPLOR-EDM methodology is described. The lack of data on energy price elasticities for Ireland is noted. A comparison of the Base Case with the High Case is made. (MCW)

  16. Seedbed based on IoT: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kalathas; D.V. Bandekas; A. Kosmidis; V. Kanakaris

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) and the Internet of Things (IOT) are widely used in providing decision support systems which solve many problems in the real-world. This paper presents IoT as the best way to solve the agricultural problems, related to seedbed resources optimization, decision making support and seed breeding monitoring. This case study provides real-time information about the seedbed that will help agriculturists make the right decisions during the seed...

  17. Exploring Global Change In Place-Based Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of global climate change makes the subject challenging for the average student, particularly given the nuanced feedbacks and exceptions to the general "warming" or "drying" trend that may be experienced at the local and regional level at which most people experience geologic processes. Geoscience educators can reduce these barriers and draw in student learners by adopting a place-based approach to teaching and researching geologic principles that relate to global change. Assisting students in recognizing and understanding the geologic environment in which they live and study has the side benefit of making the potential effect of climate change tangible. This presentation will review several approaches for using place-based case studies to explore global climate change issues in large lecture, small seminar, field research and service learning environments. The special place project used in large introductory physical geology courses requires each student to select a place familiar and unique to them for an in depth study of the common course content as the semester progresses. Students are specifically tasked with identifying how their site came to be, the geologic processes that act upon it today, how the site may have been different during the last glacial advance and how global climate change (specifically warming of 3OC over 50 years) might impact the site. The concept that change has occurred at the student's site in the past, even far from glacial environments, opens students to the scale of potential anthropogenic climate change. A freshman seminar Global Warming & Climate Change - Service in Preparation for Climate Change: The Second Battle of New Orleans focused on the environmental threats to New Orleans and southeastern Louisiana resulting from regional land use decisions in the centuries before Hurricane Katrina, and the threat that global change relating to sea level rise, acceleration of the hydrologic cycle and intensification of

  18. Exploring interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care: case study based observational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Eileen M.; Morgan, Sonya J.; Gray, Ben V.; Macdonald, Lindsay M.; Pullon, Susan R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in multimorbidity or co-occurring chronic illnesses is a leading healthcare concern. Patients with multimorbidity require ongoing care from many different professionals and agencies, and often report a lack of integrated care. Objective To explore the daily help-seeking behaviours of patients with multimorbidity, including which health professionals they seek help from, how professionals work together, and perceptions and characteristics of effective interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. Design Using a case study observational research design, multiple data sources were assembled for four patients with multimorbidity, identified by two general practitioners in New Zealand. In this paper, two case studies are presented, including the recorded instances of contact and communication between patients and professionals, and between professionals. Professional interactions were categorized as consultation, coordination, or collaboration. Results The two case studies illustrated two female patients with likely similar educational levels, but with different profiles of multimorbidity, social circumstances, and personal capabilities, involving various professionals and agencies. Engagement between professionals showed varying levels of interaction and a lack of clarity about leadership or care coordination. The majority of interactions were one-to-one consultations and rarely involved coordination and collaboration. Patients were rarely included in communications between professionals. Conclusion Cases constructed from multiple data sources illustrate the complexity of day-to-day, interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. While consultation is the most frequent mode of professional interaction, targeted coordinated and collaborative interactions (including the patient) are highly effective activities. Greater attention should be given to developing and facilitating these interactions and determining who should lead them. PMID

  19. Development of PCR for WWTP based on a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Borghi, A.; Gallo, M.; Strazza, C.; Gaggero, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    In order to apply the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) to products or services, specific rules (PCR, Product Category Rules) have to be issued to ensure comparability among different declarations within the same service group. The aim of the present study is to describe the reasons leading to each choice in the development of PCR applied to collecting and treatment service of municipal wastewater and to evaluate, through life cycle analysis (LCA), their influence on the potential environmental impact of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), analysed as a case study. Specific data were collected during the year 2003 from an Italian active sludge treatment plant with separate wastewater and sludge treatment lines. The life-cycle approach applied to the case study shows that LCA represents an environmental management tool able both to communicate environmental information by the Type 3. environmental label EPD, and to look for different scenarios that can improve the environmental performance of the Collecting and Treatment Service of Municipal Wastewater. [it

  20. DEVELOPING A CEF BASED CURRICULUM: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beril Sarayköylü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The common purposes of the studies conducted in language program evaluations are to examine the match between what is desired for the programme versus the actual state of the programme, to make judgments about learners’ level of skills and knowledge, and to make suggestions for improvement. However, it is not currently common practice in Turkey either to develop language teaching programmes based on the Common European Framework as a reference, or to introduce improvements in these programmes based on an evaluation of their effectiveness. This study aims to describe the process of developing a new teaching programme, taking CEF into consideration, at the Preparatory Programme at the School of Foreign Languages, Izmir University of Economics, and also to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme. 236 Freshman students and 48 faculty members from 5 different faculties participated in the study. The results indicated a significant relationship between students’ proficiency scores and perception of their own competencies and a significant difference in perception of their own competence in terms of levels at the preparatory program. Although faculty members stated that Preparatory Program, in general, meets the needs of the students, students still have difficulty in practising some tasks requiring higher order thinking skills. The study suggests a series of learner training sessions to raise the awareness of the students, extending duration of the modules, reviewing the order of objectives in Intermediate and Upper-Intermediate, and working in cooperation with Faculties in order to increase awareness of mutual expectations.

  1. [Electormagnetic field of the mobile phone base station: case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Surma, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents changes in the electromagnetic field intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the mobile phone base station installation on the roof of the school. The comparison of EMF intensity measured before the base station was launched (electromagnetic background measurement) and after starting its operation (two independent control measurements) is discussed. Analyses of measurements are presented and the authors also propose the method of the electromagnetic field distribution adjustment in the area of radiation antennas side lobe to reduce the intensity of the EMF level in the base station proximity. The presented method involves the regulation of the inclination. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings, but the values measured with wide margins meet the requirements of the Polish law on environmental protection.

  2. Finite Countermodel Based Verification for Program Transformation (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei P. Lisitsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Both automatic program verification and program transformation are based on program analysis. In the past decade a number of approaches using various automatic general-purpose program transformation techniques (partial deduction, specialization, supercompilation for verification of unreachability properties of computing systems were introduced and demonstrated. On the other hand, the semantics based unfold-fold program transformation methods pose themselves diverse kinds of reachability tasks and try to solve them, aiming at improving the semantics tree of the program being transformed. That means some general-purpose verification methods may be used for strengthening program transformation techniques. This paper considers the question how finite countermodels for safety verification method might be used in Turchin's supercompilation method. We extract a number of supercompilation sub-algorithms trying to solve reachability problems and demonstrate use of an external countermodel finder for solving some of the problems.

  3. Deploying an NFC-based inventory system: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Poullie, Patrick; Bocek, Thomas; Stiller, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    NFC tags and transceivers are ubiquitous and well supported. Like many academic research groups, the Communication Systems Group CSG of the University of Zürich owns many physical devices, which are required for research and teaching. Traditionally, a printed, human-readable inventory and attached labels have been used to keep track of these devices. A new inventory approach was developed with the aim of simplifying the data acquisition using an NFC tag-based system supported by an Android ap...

  4. Model-based design languages: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting; Navet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Fast-paced innovation in the embedded systems domain puts an ever increasing pressure on effective software development methods, leading to the growing popularity of Model-Based Design (MBD). In this context, a proper choice of modeling languages and related tools - depending on design goals and problem qualities - is crucial to make the most of MBD benefits. In this paper, a comparison between two dissimilar approaches to modeling is carried out, with the goal of highlighting their relative ...

  5. Community-based tourism in Cape Verde - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Lopez-Guzman; Osvaldo Borges; Ana Maria Castillo-Canalejo

    2011-01-01

    Community-based tourism is taking its place in the world as an alternative to traditional tourist destinations, especially in developing countries. This form of tourism allows for greater contact with the local community and for the tourist to experience new sensations while enabling the economic and social development of the geographic area. In this paper, the results of fieldwork carried out in the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) are presented, assessing the opinion and perception tourists visi...

  6. Contract Monitoring in Agent-Based Systems: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodík, Jiří; Vokřínek, Jiří; Jakob, Michal

    Monitoring of fulfilment of obligations defined by electronic contracts in distributed domains is presented in this paper. A two-level model of contract-based systems and the types of observations needed for contract monitoring are introduced. The observations (inter-agent communication and agents’ actions) are collected and processed by the contract observation and analysis pipeline. The presented approach has been utilized in a multi-agent system for electronic contracting in a modular certification testing domain.

  7. Indian UMPP dream turned sour: A case study based discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Mohit; Dujari, Hemant; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    India has experienced a peak power deficit of more than 12% in the last decade. In order to reduce the deficit, policymakers initiated a new energy planning policy through the introduction of Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPP). However, since the introduction of UMPP Policy in 2006, a number of instances have exhibited the limitations in its implementation and its inability to adapt to changes in the external factors. These limitations have ranged from a change in the bidding guidelines post awarding of project; to external threats such as regulatory changes in a foreign country. This paper attempts to draw learning from issues in the implementation of UMPP policy through short case discussions. The authors subsequently illustrate the issues faced during implementation and actions taken by the Government; and suggest possible measures to resolve these issues. - Highlights: ► Foresighted, flexible and transparent policies are key for infrastructure projects. ► UMPPs are effective energy planning tools ensuring suitable risk distribution. ► Stringent yet flexible provisions on changes in shareholding required post award. ► Disallowing change in bid guidelines after bid award necessary to tackle corruption. ► Framework of “Lead Procurer” required to speedily address arbitration in UMPP.

  8. Alkali based slagging: a case study from Leigh Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Creelman; J. Bamberry; L.A. Juniper; C. Ward [University of Western Sydney, Penrith South, NSW (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    A systematic study was undertaken at NRG Port Augusta Power station in South Australia to determine the cause of ash deposition (slagging) in the boilers. Conventional wisdom suggests that iron in the ash is generally a major player in furnace ash deposition; however, mineralogical and chemical analyses of the deposits showed that the binding phase was plagioclase feldspar, dominated by the sodic feldspar albite. The study resulted in recognition that the cause of the formation of ash deposits in the North Flinders furnaces was the result of the ingestion of sodium and calcium into the melt that bound the deposits. This finding was a breakthrough in understanding the deposition process within these furnaces, and emphasises that not all slagging is iron related and that systematic studies of deposits, coal and ash make fundamental contributions to understanding the ash deposition mechanisms. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Developing a CEF Based Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunluoglu, Evrim; Zazaoglu, Kismet Funda Akgul; Keskin, Michelle N.; Saraykoylu, Beril; Akdogan, Gulfem

    2012-01-01

    The common purposes of the studies conducted in language program evaluations are to examine the match between what is desired for the programme versus the actual state of the programme, to make judgments about learners' level of skills and knowledge, and to make suggestions for improvement. However, it is not currently common practice in Turkey…

  10. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  11. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  12. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  13. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Multi-Institutional Case Studies-Based Course in Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Chapin, Travis K.; Hammons, Susan R.; Stelten, Anna Van; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Wiedmann, Martin; Johnston, Lynette M.; Oliver, Haley F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel, engaging courses in food safety is necessary to train professionals in this discipline. Courses that are interactive and case-based encourage development of critical thinking skills necessary for identifying and preventing foodborne disease outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a case study…

  15. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... immunosuppression associated with HIV/AIDS puts them at a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer. 47. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as HIV infected, with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl. He was started on an antiretroviral treatment regimen comprising zidovudine, lamivudine and ...

  16. A comparative study on lecture based versus case based education on teaching general surgery to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazeni Bistegani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : various methods of teaching have different learning outcomes. Using a combination of teaching and training methods of training may boost education. This study compared lecture based and case based teaching as a combined approach in learning general surgery by medical students. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental performed on two consecutive groups of 33 and 36 students who were studying general surgery course. The two styles of teaching were lecture-based and real case teaching methods. The final exam included twenty multiple choice questions. The mean scores of each group of students were collected and analyzed accordingly with descriptive tests, Fisher’s test and T-test. Results: The mean final mark of students' who received real case based education was 16.8/20 ± 1.8 and for the lecture group was 12.7± 1.7. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P <0.0001. In both groups, there were significant differences in the mean scores of questions with taxonomy two and three, but not in the questions with taxonomy one. Students' evaluation score of the teacher of the real case group increased by 1.7/20 (8.7% in the case based group compared to the lecture group. Conclusions: Case based teaching of general surgery led to a better outcome and students were more satisfied. It is recommended that case based education of surgery be encouraged.

  17. Case-Based Instructional Practices: A Multiple-Case Study from Torts, Marketing, and Online Instructional Design Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji yoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account on case-based instructional practices. Semester-long participant observation records in torts, marketing, and online instructional design classes, instructor interviews, course syllabi and teaching materials were used to describe the within-class complexity of the practices in terms…

  18. Developing effective web-based regional anesthesia education: a randomized study evaluating case-based versus non-case-based module design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Sandra L; Smith, Hugh M

    2011-01-01

    . Although residents believe that online learning should be used in anesthesia training, the results of this study do not demonstrate improved learning or justify the time and expense of developing complex case-based training modules. While there may be practical benefits of Web-based education, educators in regional anesthesia should be cautious about developing curricula based on learner preference data.

  19. Applying Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Arnone, Marilyn P.; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the case-based method (CBM) instructional-design theory and its application in designing self-directed online instruction. The purpose of this study was to validate and refine the theory for a self-directed online instruction context. Guided by formative research methodology, this study first developed an online tutorial…

  20. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penalvo, Francicso Jose

    2013-01-01

    Our differences in language, cultures, and history around the world play a vital role in the way we learn. As technology-based education continues to be used worldwide, there is an ever growing interest in how multiculturalism comes into effect. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches explores the…

  1. The Place of Community-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on one strand of community engagement: community-based learning for students. It considers in particular Interchange as a case study. Interchange is a registered charity based in, but independent of, a department in a Higher Education Institution. It brokers between undergraduate research/work projects and Voluntary Community…

  2. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. The MORPG-Based Learning System for Multiple Courses: A Case Study on Computer Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game-based (MORPG) Learning system which enabled instructors to construct a game scenario and manage sharable and reusable learning content for multiple courses. It used the curriculum of "Introduction to Computer Science" as a study case to assess students' learning…

  4. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  5. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  6. A Study on Satellite Diagnostic Expert Systems Using Case-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tack Park

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research works are on going to monitor and diagnose diverse malfunctions of satellite systems as the complexity and number of satellites increase. Currently, many works on monitoring and diagnosis are carried out by human experts but there are needs to automate much of the routine works of them. Hence, it is necessary to study on using expert systems which can assist human experts routine work by doing automatically, thereby allow human experts devote their expertise more critical and important areas of monitoring and diagnosis. In this paper, we are employing artificial intelligence techniques to model human experts' knowledge and inference the constructed knowledge. Especially, case-based approaches are used to construct a knowledge base to model human expert capabilities which use previous typical exemplars. We have designed and implemented a prototype case-based system for diagnosing satellite malfunctions using cases. Our system remembers typical failure cases and diagnoses a current malfunction by indexing the case base. Diverse methods are used to build a more user friendly interface which allows human experts can build a knowledge base in as easy way.

  7. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  8. Experiential Learning of Robotics Fundamentals Based on a Case Study of Robot-Assisted Stereotactic Neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carlos; Vale, Carolina; Machado, Toni; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Rito, Manuel; Monteiro, Sérgio; Bicho, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has been playing an important role in modern surgery, especially in procedures that require extreme precision, such as neurosurgery. This paper addresses the challenge of teaching robotics to undergraduate engineering students, through an experiential learning project of robotics fundamentals based on a case study of robot-assisted…

  9. Project-Based Social Justice Mathematics: A Case Study of Five 6th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Maighread L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore how five sixth grade female students navigated the process of project-based learning as they designed and implemented their own project centered on mathematics while using a social justice lens. The theoretical frameworks of Authentic Intellectual Work and Social Justice…

  10. The inception phase of a case study of outcomes - based education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case study involves a dynamic interaction between a university lecturer, playing the role of 'outside facilitator', and the History and Geography teachers at two independent schools. The article describes how teachers in a given context respond to outcomes-based education assessment policy, and the tools and ...

  11. Postgraduate Work-Based Learning Programmes in English Higher Education: Exploring Case Studies of Organizational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul; Preece, David

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the paper outlines and discusses the nature of work-based learning (WBL) and WBL programmes, and the overall direction of government strategy towards WBL programmes in Higher Education (HE) in England, with particular reference to postgraduate programmes, policy documents, and the WBL literature. Drawing upon case study research,…

  12. Leadership in school-based management: a case study in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article, derived from a qualitative case study undertaken among a number of divergent secondary schools in Gauteng province, is an attempt to conceptualise the important and pivotal leadership role of the school principal in ensuring school improvement via effective school-based management in South African ...

  13. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  14. The Dynamics of Project-Based Learning Extension Courses: The "Laboratory of Social Projects" Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, Joao Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In this case study we discuss the dynamics that drive a free-of-charge project-based learning extension course. We discuss the lessons learned in the course, "Laboratory of Social Projects." The course aimed to teach project management skills to the participants. It was conducted from August to November of 2015, at Federal University of…

  15. Identification and medical utilization of incident cases of alcohol dependence: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chun-Hung; Li, Min-Shan; Yang, Tien-Wey; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Su, Sheng-Shiang; Hung, Yen-Ni; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2018-05-05

    Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) often seek help from medical professionals due to alcohol-related diseases, but the overall distribution of medical specialties identifying new AD cases is unclear. We investigated how such cases were identified and how medical resources were utilized before the identification of AD in a nationwide cohort. We enrolled a population-based cohort (N = 1,000,000) using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan; 8181 cases with incident AD were retrieved between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. For this nested case-control study, four controls were matched for age and sex with each case based on risk-set sampling. We measured various dimensions of medical utilization before AD was diagnosed, including department visited, physical comorbidity, and medication used. Conditional logistic regression was used for estimating the variables associated with AD. Patients living in less urbanized areas who were unemployed were more likely to develop AD. The highest proportions (34.2%) of AD cases were identified in the internal medicine department, followed by the emergency (22.3%) and psychiatry (18.7%) departments. AD patients had a higher risk of comorbid chronic hepatic disease (adjusted RR = 2.72, p identification of AD than controls. AD patients also had greater numbers of hospital admissions than controls, including non-psychiatric and psychiatric hospitalizations. Outpatient visit numbers were similar for AD patients and controls. The findings indicate that clinicians providing care in diverse medical settings should be prepared to screen for unhealthy alcohol use and to mitigate its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection has several oral manifestations, including oral candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia. Occasionally unusual presentations requiring rigorous investigations are seen, and in these cases the diagnosis sometimes remains a dilemma owing to limited investigation facilities.1-3 We present the case of a patient who.

  17. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution create...

  18. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution creates a better context for NPD than the in-house solution. Less forwarding of unsol...

  19. A case study to estimate costs using Neural Networks and regression based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bhuiyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bombardier Aerospace’s high performance aircrafts and services set the utmost standard for the Aerospace industry. A case study in collaboration with Bombardier Aerospace is conducted in order to estimate the target cost of a landing gear. More precisely, the study uses both parametric model and neural network models to estimate the cost of main landing gears, a major aircraft commodity. A comparative analysis between the parametric based model and those upon neural networks model will be considered in order to determine the most accurate method to predict the cost of a main landing gear. Several trials are presented for the design and use of the neural network model. The analysis for the case under study shows the flexibility in the design of the neural network model. Furthermore, the performance of the neural network model is deemed superior to the parametric models for this case study.

  20. On estimation of time-dependent attributable fraction from population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li

    2017-09-01

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  3. Using Web-Based, Group Communication Systems to Support Case Study Learning at a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Rourke

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the capacity of Web-based, group communication systems to support case-based teaching and learning. Eleven graduate students studying at a distance were divided into three groups to collaborate on a case study using either a synchronous voice, an asynchronous voice, or a synchronous text communication system. Participants kept a detailed log of the time they spent on various activities, wrote a 1,500-word reflection on their experience, and participated in a group interview. Analysis of these data reveals that each group supplemented the system that had been assigned to them with additional communication systems in order to complete the project. Each of these systems were used strategically: email was used to share files and arrange meetings, and synchronous voice systems were used to brainstorm and make decisions. Learning achievement was high across groups and students enjoyed collaborating with others on a concrete task.

  4. case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    particularly in patients who commence ART with low CD4 counts and established opportunistic infections. IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS ...

  5. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-01

    Sep 1, 2010 ... of the two diseases surgery can be successful, recovery can be similar to that .... lymphocytes predominated in 68% of cases, and that there was an .... using ferritin is the fact that it acts as an acute-phase reactant and will be ...

  6. [Evaluation by case managers dementia : An explorative practice based study on types and content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Nicole A B M; Jukema, Jan S; van Bemmel, Marlies; Adriaansen, Marian J M; Smits, Carolien H M

    2017-06-01

    This practice based explorative study aims to provide insight into the ways in which case managers shape and fill up the evaluation phase of their support of the informal care network of persons with dementia. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. A group of 57 case managers of persons with dementia in three different organisational networks took part in this study. Results from the quantitative and qualitative data are organized into four themes: (1) attitude towards evaluation, (2) forms of evaluation, (3) implementation of evaluation and (4) content of evaluation. There are different ways in shaping evaluation and the content of it. The importance of interim and final evaluation is recognized, but is difficult to realize in a methodical way. Barriers experienced by the case managers include various factors associated both with clients as professionals. Case managers evaluate continuously and in an informal way to assess whether the extent of their assistance is meeting the needs of the client and informal network. Case managers do not use systematic evaluation to measure the quality of care they offer to persons with dementia and their caregivers. The findings demand a discussion on the level of clients, as well as on the professional and societal level about the way case managers should evaluate their support.

  7. Hospital branding in Italy: A pilot study based on the case method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates if, and in affirmative case how, Italian hospitals are managing corporate brand communication. Thanks to results of qualitative research, this article offers insights on Italian hospital branding. The pilot study based in the case method is to be considered a starting point for wider investigations on this topic, and it is useful for managers and practitioners who want to understand the role of corporate brand in hospital communication management and to connect health care professionals with the audience in a meaningful way in those countries in which the health care system is a mix of both public and private institutions.

  8. A prevalence-based association test for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Jiang, Lan; Li, Chun; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Haines, Jonathan L; Williams, Scott M

    2008-11-01

    Genetic association is often determined in case-control studies by the differential distribution of alleles or genotypes. Recent work has demonstrated that association can also be assessed by deviations from the expected distributions of alleles or genotypes. Specifically, multiple methods motivated by the principles of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) have been developed. However, these methods do not take into account many of the assumptions of HWE. Therefore, we have developed a prevalence-based association test (PRAT) as an alternative method for detecting association in case-control studies. This method, also motivated by the principles of HWE, uses an estimated population allele frequency to generate expected genotype frequencies instead of using the case and control frequencies separately. Our method often has greater power, under a wide variety of genetic models, to detect association than genotypic, allelic or Cochran-Armitage trend association tests. Therefore, we propose PRAT as a powerful alternative method of testing for association.

  9. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  10. A First Case Study of a Life Cycle-Based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    cycle impacts. Our approach is evaluated in a case study, through which we outline future research needs to fully operationalize a consistent and Life Cycle-based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA). We build on a flexible mass balance-based modeling system yielding cumulative multimedia transfer fractions...... and exposure pathway-specific Product Intake Fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. When combined with chemical masses in products and further with toxicity information, this approach is a resourceful way to inform AA. Our case study reveals that replacing...... various population groups including workers, consumers and the general public, while life cycle impacts need to focus on categories relevant for a given AA chemical-product application. We systematically define the scope of AA and identify key elements for quantitatively considering exposure and life...

  11. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based cas...

  12. Bridging the Gap: A Design-based Case Study of a Mathematics Skills Intervention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Safaralian, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Abstract of the DissertationBridge the Gap: A Design-based Case Study of a Mathematics Skills Intervention ProgrambyLeila SafaralianDoctor of Education in Educational LeadershipUniversity of California, San Diego, 2017California State University, San Marcos, 2017Kenneth P. Gonzalez, ChairMany students aspire to continue their educational journey, but far too many enter college without the basic content knowledge, skills, or habits of mind needed to succeed. Research on college readiness indic...

  13. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  14. The Effectiveness of a Case Study-Based First-Year Biology Class at a Black Women's College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; Benning, Tracy; Woods, Natasha; McGinnis, Gene; Chu, Joanne; Netherton, Josh; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a case study-based approach in the introductory biology course at Spelman College. The course taught to entering freshmen was divided into three modules--ecology, evolution, and biodiversity, each designed around a case study. They noted that (1) case study teaching was dramatically more effective than the traditional lecture…

  15. Person-centred web-based support--development through a Swedish multi-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Ulrika; Berg, Marie; Koinberg, Ingalill; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt; Ranerup, Agneta; Lundin, Carina Sparud; Skärsäter, Ingela

    2013-10-19

    Departing from the widespread use of the internet in modern society and the emerging use of web applications in healthcare this project captures persons' needs and expectations in order to develop highly usable web recourses. The purpose of this paper is to outline a multi-case research project focused on the development and evaluation of person-centred web-based support for people with long-term illness. To support the underlying idea to move beyond the illness, we approach the development of web support from the perspective of the emergent area of person-centred care. The project aims to contribute to the ongoing development of web-based supports in health care and to the emerging field of person-centred care. The research design uses a meta-analytical approach through its focus on synthesizing experiences from four Swedish regional and national cases of design and use of web-based support in long-term illness. The cases include children (bladder dysfunction and urogenital malformation), young adults (living close to persons with mental illness), and two different cases of adults (women with breast cancer and childbearing women with type 1 diabetes). All of the cases are ongoing, though in different stages of design, implementation, and analysis. This, we argue, will lead to a synthesis of results on a meta-level not yet described. To allow valid comparisons between the four cases we explore and problematize them in relation to four main aspects: 1) The use of people's experiences and needs; 2) The role of use of theories in the design of person-centred web-based supports; 3) The evaluation of the effects of health outcomes for the informants involved and 4) The development of a generic person-centred model for learning and social support for people with long-term illness and their significant others. Person-centred web-based support is a new area and few studies focus on how web-based interventions can contribute to the development of person-centred care. In

  16. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  17. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    of several DHSs. Furthermore ?Udspil? was chosen for being a non-formal learning activity based on individual participation, even though linked to institutionalized learning practices, which were carried out in cooperation between several local institutions.Last but not least, the project represents...... an attempt to create links between research, policy and practice in education. In fact the project was based on two interrelated activities. One activity intended to promote a debate on democracy among practitioners, politicians and scholars; the other activity, which is at the core of our investigation...

  18. A multimedia case based approach to the study of office ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August-Dalfen, Sharon; Snider, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    Multimedia technology has the capacity to provide students with an interactive approach to problem based learning and to bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and clinical practice. The present paper describes the design and development of the program ErgoROM, a CD which presents a case study to assist occupational therapy students in their studies of office ergonomics. A pilot study showed that overall, 91% of respondents rated the ErgoROM as either "Excellent" or "Very Good". Additionally they reported that ErgoROM had a positive impact on active learning and critical thinking.

  19. A case study for INPRO methodology based on Indian advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Under Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) a methodology (INPRO methodology) has been developed which can be used to evaluate a given energy system or a component of such a system on a national and/or global basis. The INPRO study can be used for assessing the potential of the innovative reactor in terms of economics, sustainability and environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues. India, a participant in INPRO program, is engaged in a case study applying INPRO methodology based on Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). AHWR is a 300 MWe, boiling light water cooled, heavy water moderated and vertical pressure tube type reactor. Thorium utilization is very essential for Indian nuclear power program considering the indigenous resource availability. The AHWR is designed to produce most of its power from thorium, aided by a small input of plutonium-based fuel. The features of AHWR are described in the paper. The case study covers the fuel cycle, to be followed in the near future, for AHWR. The paper deals with initial observations of the case study with regard to fuel cycle issues. (authors)

  20. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  1. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  2. Reproductive factors in relation to breast cancer: A hospital based case control study in Jammu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer Bhavna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To Study the risk factors of Breast cancer , Setting:All the newly registered cases of Breast cancer in one year from Ist May 2004. Study Design:A Hospital based case control study. Methodology:Data was collected by a face to face interview using the prestructured Questionnaire after taking informed consent. Results: 100 cases of Breast Cancer and 100 controls were analyzed. Mean age of breast cancer cases was 50.20 ± 12.49 years. Income (p >0.39, Educational Status (p>0.35 Age at Marriage (p>0.36 Age at First pregnancy (p>0.32 Total No of live Birth (p>0.09 Duration of Breast Feeding (P>0.07 Showed no statistically significant relationship to the risk of Breast Cancer. Dietary History (p<0.001 Smoking History (p<0.04 Physical Activity (p<0.001 Age at Menarche (p<0.002 History of Breast Feeding (p<0.04 History of Abortion (p<0.003 were shown to be Statistically Significant to the risk of Breast Cancer . Conclusion : The risk factor which are often implicated in the risk of Breast Cancer may not hold true in our settings.

  3. Born Global from the Resource-Based Theory: A Case Study in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tabares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a born global firm goes into international market from inception at its early years. The objective of this paper is to analyze from the resource-based theory how a born global firm engages in international market. This empirical investigation has been carried out as an explorative single-case study, a high-tech firm, Digital Partner, based in Medellin, Antioquia. The main findings of the research show that organizational capabilities based on intellectual capital are crucial for the development of a born global. Thus, capabilities such as entrepreneurship, global vision, internationally market knowledge, learning management, IT capabilities, technological innovation, collaborative work, networks and customer orientation are recurrent and they correspond to other similar research results. Contributions of the study are both academic (for the advance of the research in born global field and practical (for the design of governmental policies to foster born global firms.

  4. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  5. Medical illness, medication use and suicide in seniors: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voaklander, D C; Rowe, B H; Dryden, D M; Pahal, J; Saar, P; Kelly, K D

    2008-02-01

    Suicide among seniors is a significant health problem in north America, particularly for men in whom the rates rise steadily after 50 years of age. The goal of this study was to examine elder suicides identified from a large population-based database using case-control methods to determine disease and medication factors related to suicide. A population-based 1 : 5 case-control study was conducted comparing seniors aged 66 years and older who had died by suicide with age and sex-matched controls. Case data were obtained through British Columbia (BC) Vital Statistics, whereas controls were randomly selected from the BC Health Insurance Registry. Cases and controls were linked to the provincial PharmaCare database to determine medication use and the provincial Physician Claims and Inpatient Hospitalization databases to determine co-morbidity. Between 1993 and 2002 a total of 602 seniors died by suicide in BC giving an annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Firearms were the most common mechanism (28%), followed by hanging/suffocation (25%), self-poisoning (21%), and jumping from height (7%). In the adjusted logistic model, variables related to suicide included: lower socioeconomic status, depression/psychosis, neurosis, stroke, cancer, liver disease, parasuicide, benzodiazepine use, narcotic pain killer use and diuretic use. There was an elevated risk for those prescribed inappropriate benzodiazepines and for those using strong narcotic pain killers. This study is consistent with previous studies that have identified a relationship between medical or psychiatric co-morbidity and suicide in seniors. In addition, new and potentially useful information confirms that certain types and dosages of benzodiazepines are harmful to seniors and their use should be avoided.

  6. A Case-Based Study with Radiologists Performing Diagnosis Tasks in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, José Eduardo; Albiero Berni, Jean Carlo; Edmilson da Silva Maia, Carlos; Marques da Silva, Ana Maria; Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Maciel, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    In radiology diagnosis, medical images are most often visualized slice by slice. At the same time, the visualization based on 3D volumetric rendering of the data is considered useful and has increased its field of application. In this work, we present a case-based study with 16 medical specialists to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of a Virtual Reality interface in fracture identification over 3D volumetric reconstructions. We developed a VR volume viewer compatible with both the Oculus Rift and handheld-based head mounted displays (HMDs). We then performed user experiments to validate the approach in a diagnosis environment. In addition, we assessed the subjects' perception of the 3D reconstruction quality, ease of interaction and ergonomics, and also the users opinion on how VR applications can be useful in healthcare. Among other results, we have found a high level of effectiveness of the VR interface in identifying superficial fractures on head CTs.

  7. Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modelling as a Tool to Support Risk Assessment: Three Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Mielke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present three case studies of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK modelling in regulatory risk assessment. (1 Age-dependent lower enzyme expression in the newborn leads to bisphenol A (BPA blood levels which are near the levels of the tolerated daily intake (TDI at the oral exposure as calculated by EFSA. (2 Dermal exposure of BPA by receipts, car park tickets, and so forth, contribute to the exposure towards BPA. However, at the present levels of dermal exposure there is no risk for the adult. (3 Dermal exposure towards coumarin via cosmetic products leads to external exposures of two-fold the TDI. PBTK modeling helped to identify liver peak concentration as the metric for liver toxicity. After dermal exposure of twice the TDI, the liver peak concentration was lower than that present after oral exposure with the TDI dose. In the presented cases, PBTK modeling was useful to reach scientifically sound regulatory decisions.

  8. Medical risk factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: 5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor. RESULTS: The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori. Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.

  9. Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2017-09-07

    To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.

  10. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  11. Construction Material-Based Methodology for Military Contingency Base Construction: Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FOB Forward Operating Base GIS geographic information system HSS hollow structural section HT high...rods. These products include mild steel (MS) and high ERDC/CERL TR-16-19 96 tensile ( HT ) ribbed bars from billets, plain bars, and rebar (“Dangote...use producers are those who produce blocks strictly for private use. Some clients and contractors engage in the business of making blocks for private

  12. The use of microblog-based case studies in a pharmacotherapy introduction class in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansheng; Wang, Fei; Shi, Luwen

    2013-09-08

    Microblog is a Web 2.0 technology that provides an online social networking platform for communicating and sharing information among web users. Pharmacy educators have previously used microblog to promote active engagement of students. However, there is very little research to demonstrate how to use microblogging effectively to enhance pedagogy in a blended or face-to-face classroom environment. We used the most popular microblog website in China to create a "space" within the classroom to evaluate an interactive microblogging forum for the integration of pharmacotherapy case studies. This study is aimed to determine students' attitudes toward microblog-based case studies (MBC) in a pharmacotherapy class. We created a group on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblog website in China, to explore the possibilities of using microblog-based case discussions in pharmacy education to promote and motivate student learning. The class teaching activities began in November 2011; individual group assignments to a single case study were administered to 21 groups with a total of 126 participating pharmacy students. Each group was required to share a discussion care plan on the microblogging platform. Individual students were expected to participate in an online discussion related to at least two other group cases by posting their comments on the microblog platform. All postings were tracked and analyzed, and then a post MBC survey was administered anonymously to determine students' opinions towards MBC. A total of 126 students posted 592 messages and 112 students (89%) completed the survey. More than 80% of students agreed that MBC improved communication; nearly 70% agreed that MBC increased the amount of interaction, and over 50% found value in reading other students' messages. However, 25% students believed the collaborative learning was not effective and 22% indicated the quality of interaction was low. MBC appears to be well-accepted learning method to students in this study

  13. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin

    2014-05-01

    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  14. Esophageal cancer among Brazilian agricultural workers: case-control study based on death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Armando; Alexandre, Pedro Celso Braga; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Markowitz, Steven B; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Several studies suggest that agricultural workers are at higher risk to develop and die by certain types of cancer. Esophageal cancer is not commonly listed among these types. However, some recent studies indicated that if there is an association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer, it s more likely to be observed among workers highly exposed to pesticides. In the present study, the magnitude of the association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer mortality was evaluated in a high pesticide use area in Brazil, through a death certificate-based case-control study. Cases were individuals from both genders, 30-59 years old, for whom basic cause of death was ascertained as cancer of the esophagus. For each case, one control was randomly selected from all possible controls for which the basic cause of death was ascertained as different from neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. In addition, controls matched their cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were then calculated to estimate the magnitude of the risk. Results showed that, in general, agricultural workers were at significantly higher risk to die by esophageal cancer, when compared to non-agricultural workers. Stratified analysis also revealed that the magnitude of such risk was slightly higher among illiterate agricultural workers, and simultaneous adjustment for several covariates showed that the risk was quantitatively higher among younger southern agricultural workers. These results suggest the esophageal cancer may be included among those types of cancer etiologically associated to agricultural working. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  16. Population-based worksite obesity management interventions: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Martha C; Thomson, Erin; Kash, Kathryn

    2011-06-01

    Due to the increased prevalence of obesity and associated direct and indirect costs to employers, weight management programs have become an integral component of employer and insurer benefits plans. The programs vary in foci, scope, breadth, and implementation. The aim of this study was to explore promising employer-sponsored population-based obesity management programs. A case study that utilized a telephonic semi-structured questionnaire was conducted with small and large organizations located in different regions of the United States that had been recruited to participate. Eight employers and 1 health care advocacy coalition who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed about features of their weight management programs. The case study revealed a number of themes consistent with reports in the literature and reflecting cited best practices. Key findings include confirmation that weight management is a significant component of the wellness strategy in all participating organizations because employers are invested in population health programs and cost savings. Based upon their experience and knowledge, occupational health specialists are responsible for designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating employee health programs. Almost all employers utilize electronic media as a prominent component of wellness and disease management initiatives. Experience has shown that incentives-both financial and nonmonetary-are effective motivators for employee engagement and outcomes. However, while employers report success, favorable outcomes have been difficult to quantify.

  17. Case studies of extended model-based flood forecasting: prediction of dike strength and flood impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuparu, Dana; Bachmann, Daniel; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Verkade, Jan; de Bruijn, Karin; de Leeuw, Annemargreet

    2017-04-01

    Flood forecasts, warning and emergency response are important components in flood risk management. Most flood forecasting systems use models to translate weather predictions to forecasted discharges or water levels. However, this information is often not sufficient for real time decisions. A sound understanding of the reliability of embankments and flood dynamics is needed to react timely and reduce the negative effects of the flood. Where are the weak points in the dike system? When, how much and where the water will flow? When and where is the greatest impact expected? Model-based flood impact forecasting tries to answer these questions by adding new dimensions to the existing forecasting systems by providing forecasted information about: (a) the dike strength during the event (reliability), (b) the flood extent in case of an overflow or a dike failure (flood spread) and (c) the assets at risk (impacts). This work presents three study-cases in which such a set-up is applied. Special features are highlighted. Forecasting of dike strength. The first study-case focusses on the forecast of dike strength in the Netherlands for the river Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn and IJssel. A so-called reliability transformation is used to translate the predicted water levels at selected dike sections into failure probabilities during a flood event. The reliability of a dike section is defined by fragility curves - a summary of the dike strength conditional to the water level. The reliability information enhances the emergency management and inspections of embankments. Ensemble forecasting. The second study-case shows the setup of a flood impact forecasting system in Dumfries, Scotland. The existing forecasting system is extended with a 2D flood spreading model in combination with the Delft-FIAT impact model. Ensemble forecasts are used to make use of the uncertainty in the precipitation forecasts, which is useful to quantify the certainty of a forecasted flood event. From global

  18. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C.; Braff, David L.; Calkins, Monica E.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. Methods The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Results Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs. PMID:25432636

  19. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Dobie, Dorcas J; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Raquel E

    2015-04-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs.

  20. Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, B. [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.

  1. Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, B [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.

  2. An approach to multicore parallelism using functional programming: A case study based on Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate multicore parallelism in the context of functional programming by means of two quantifier-elimination procedures for Presburger Arithmetic: one is based on Cooper’s algorithm and the other is based on the Omega Test. We first develop correct-by-construction prototype...... platform executing on an 8-core machine. A speedup of approximately 4 was obtained for Cooper’s algorithm and a speedup of approximately 6 was obtained for the exact-shadow part of the Omega Test. The considered procedures are complex, memory-intense algorithms on huge formula trees and the case study...... reveals more general applicable techniques and guideline for deriving parallel algorithms from sequential ones in the context of data-intensive tree algorithms. The obtained insights should apply for any strict and impure functional programming language. Furthermore, the results obtained for the exact...

  3. A study on critical success factors on building IT based flat organization: A case study of Mellat Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Farajollah Rahnavard; Azadeh Asefikia

    2014-01-01

    A flat organization is a firm that has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between employee and executives. The idea is to take advantage of well-trained workers when they are more directly involved in the decision making process, rather than closely supervised by various layers of management. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors on building information technology (IT) based flat organization in a case study of...

  4. Occupation and leukemia: a population-based case-control study in Iowa and Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A; Zheng, T; Linos, A; Stewart, P A; Zhang, Y W; Cantor, K P

    2001-07-01

    Studies have suggested that risk of leukemia may be associated with occupational or industrial exposures and risk may vary by the histological type of the disease. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Iowa and Minnesota to evaluate the association between various occupations, industries, and occupational exposures and leukemia risk. A total of 513 cases and 1,087 controls was included in the study. A lifetime occupational history and other risk factor information were collected through in-person interviews, and a job-exposure matrix was used to assess possible risks associated with specific exposures. A significantly increased risk of leukemia was observed among agricultural service industries and among nursing and healthcare workers. Janitors, cleaners, and light truck drivers also experienced increased risk. Those employed in plumbing, heating and air conditioning industries, and sales of nondurable goods (such as paints and varnishes) had an increased risk. Printers, painters, and workers in the food and metal industries had a nonsignificantly increased risk of leukemia. Analyses by specific exposures and histology of leukemia showed that risk of leukemia associated with occupational or industrial exposures may vary by histological type of the disease. An increased risk of leukemia among workers employed in agricultural industries, nursing and healthcare workers, and in a few occupations with possible exposure to solvents is consistent with earlier studies. Associations of risk with occupations not observed previously deserve further assessment. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Economics of pyrolysis-based energy production and biochar utilization: A case study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cao, Xiaoyong

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an alternative form of renewable energy production and a potential source of greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. This study examines how poplar-based biochar can be applied in Taiwan for electricity generation and for soil improvement and to what extent it brings economic and environmental benefits. It is a preliminary study and focuses on the balances of different economic and environmental items. This paper reports on a case study examination of the economic and greenhouse gas implications of pyrolysis plus biochar utilization. The case study involves using poplar grown on set-aside land in Taiwan with the biochar applied to rice fields. We examine both fast and slow forms of pyrolysis and find how the profitability varies under different price structures. The results show that fast pyrolysis is more profitable than slow pyrolysis under current electricity price, GHG price and crop yield as the slow pyrolysis generates relatively less electricity but lower value product—biochar. We also find that fast pyrolysis and slow pyrolysis offset about 1.4 t and 1.57 t of CO 2 equivalent per ton of raw material, respectively. - Highlights: • Profitability varies due to sales revenue from electricity generation. • Neither fast pyrolysis nor slow pyrolysis is profitable under current electricity price. • Both systems offset about 1.4 t to 1.57 t of CO 2 equivalent per ton of raw material

  6. Smoking and adult glioma: a population-based case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Han, Wei; Wu, Yanping; Zou, Xiaonong; Nasca, Philip C; Xue, Fang; Chen, Yuanli; Zhang, Biao; Pang, Haiyu; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Zixing; Li, Junyao

    2016-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of numerous cancers; however, an association of smoking with adult gliomas has not been found in a population. This case-control study included 4556 glioma cases (ICD-9 code 191.0-191.9) aged ≥ 30 years and 9112 controls from a national survey of smoking and mortality in China in 1989-1991. Controls from 325 255 surviving spouses of all-cause deaths were randomly assigned to cases in each of 103 areas according to sex and age groups at a ratio of 2:1. Smoking information was ascertained retrospectively by interviewing surviving spouses. After adjustment for confounders, smoking increased the risk of glioma deaths by 11% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.21). Compared with non-smokers; the increased risk was 9% (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99-1.20) in men and 16% (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.36) in women. The risk increased with age and doses. For individuals aged ≥ 50 years, smoking was associated with higher risk of glioma death by 25% (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.15-1.38); this increased risk for smokers who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily for ≥ 30 years was 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.34-1.74). There were similar findings in both men and women and with either pathology-based or non-pathology-based comparisons. This study indicates that smoking is associated with glioma deaths in the Chinese population. Long-term heavy smoking could be a factor for risk stratification in individuals attending brain tumor clinics. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Critical evaluation of financial supporting schemes for wind-based projects: Case study Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    After a long stagnating period during the second half of the 1990s, the market of wind energy in Greece was described by remarkable but unstable growth rates that resulted in the operation of 1 GW of wind power by the end of 2009. Still though, penetration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. On the other hand, national targets regarding the Renewable Energy Sources' (RES) contribution and existence of excellent wind potential areas across Greece challenge new wind energy investments. Acknowledging the unsteady development rates of wind power in Greece, efficiency of the State support mechanisms is currently investigated. Based on an analytical evaluation model, the investigation undertaken is extended to provide a detailed cost-benefit analysis of several wind energy case studies, including mainland and island applications as well as comparison with both conventional power stations and photovoltaic plants. For this purpose, the financial support provided by the State is directly compared with benefits accruing from the operation of wind parks, considering also the avoidance of social costs deriving from thermal power stations. Based on the results obtained, the beneficial characteristics of wind energy applications for the Greek society are clearly demonstrated, especially in the case of non-interconnected island grids. - Research highlights: → Since the mid-1990s, growth of wind power capacity in Greece has been unstable. → As a result, integration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. → Considering the situation, efficiency of State support mechanisms is evaluated. → An analytical cost-benefit model is developed and applied to various case studies. → Benefits from wind energy, especially in island regions, are designated.

  8. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  9. Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  11. Case based reasoning applied to medical diagnosis using multi-class classifier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viveros-Melo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case-based reasoning (CBR is a process used for computer processing that tries to mimic the behavior of a human expert in making decisions regarding a subject and learn from the experience of past cases. CBR has demonstrated to be appropriate for working with unstructured domains data or difficult knowledge acquisition situations, such as medical diagnosis, where it is possible to identify diseases such as: cancer diagnosis, epilepsy prediction and appendicitis diagnosis. Some of the trends that may be developed for CBR in the health science are oriented to reduce the number of features in highly dimensional data. An important contribution may be the estimation of probabilities of belonging to each class for new cases. In this paper, in order to adequately represent the database and to avoid the inconveniences caused by the high dimensionality, noise and redundancy, a number of algorithms are used in the preprocessing stage for performing both variable selection and dimension reduction procedures. Also, a comparison of the performance of some representative multi-class classifiers is carried out to identify the most effective one to include within a CBR scheme. Particularly, four classification techniques and two reduction techniques are employed to make a comparative study of multiclass classifiers on CBR

  12. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Montero, Dolores

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design Population based case-control study. Setting General practices included in the UK general practice research database. Subjects 1651 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 248 cases of ulcer perforation among patients aged 40 to 79 years between April 1993 and September 1997, and 10 000 controls matched for age, sex, and year that the case was identified. Interventions Review of computer profiles for all potential cases, and an internal validation study to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis on the basis of the computerised information. Main outcome measures Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants within 30 days before the index date. Results Current exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was identified in 3.1% (52 of 1651) of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding but only 1.0% (95 of 10 000) of controls, giving an adjusted rate ratio of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.4). This effect measure was not modified by sex, age, dose, or treatment duration. A crude incidence of 1 case per 8000 prescriptions was estimated. A small association was found with non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (relative risk 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9) but not with antidepressants lacking this inhibitory effect. None of the groups of antidepressants was associated with ulcer perforation. The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding beyond the sum of their independent effects (15.6, 6.6 to 36.6). A smaller interaction was also found between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and low dose aspirin (7.2, 3.1 to 17.1). Conclusions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however

  13. Student Response to Remote-Online Case-Based Learning: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-03-22

    Case-based learning (CBL) typically involves face-to-face interaction in small collaborative groups with a focus on self-directed study. To our knowledge, no published studies report an evaluation of Web conferencing in CBL. The primary aim of this study was to explore student perceptions and attitudes in response to a remote-online case-based learning (RO-CBL) experience. This study took place over a 2-week period in 2013 at Monash University, Victoria, Australia. A third year cohort (n=73) of physiotherapy students was invited to participate. Students were required to participate in 2 training sessions, followed by RO-CBL across 2 sessions. The primary outcome of interest was the student feedback on the quality of the learning experience during RO-CBL participation. This was explored with a focus group and a survey. Most students (68/73) completed the postintervention survey (nonparticipation rate 8%). RO-CBL was generally well received by participants, with 59% (40/68) of participates stating that they'd like RO-CBL to be used in the future and 78% (53/68) of participants believing they could meet the CBL's learning objectives via RO-CBL. The 4 key themes relevant to student response to RO-CBL that emerged from the focus groups and open-ended questions on the postintervention survey were how RO-CBL compared to expectations, key benefits of RO-CBL including flexibility and time and cost savings, communication challenges in the online environment compared to face-to-face, and implications of moving to an online platform. Web conferencing may be a suitable medium for students to participate in CBL. Participants were satisfied with the learning activity and felt they could meet the CBL's learning objectives. Further study should evaluate Web conferencing CBL across an entire semester in regard to student satisfaction, perceived depth of learning, and learning outcomes.

  14. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  15. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  16. Strategic decisions in transport: a case study for a naval base selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Caruzzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A decision on a military strategic environment, such as the selection of a new naval base, is a complex process and involves various criteria. In this context, few studies are available on the problems of military-naval transport decisions. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a maritime transport case study using a multi-methodology framework in a process of strategic decision making in logistics. Through a review of the literature, normative documents from the Brazilian armed forces, and interviews with military officers, criteria and preferences were identified and a hierarchical structure was constructed for a case study in the Brazilian Navy–the location of the second Fleet Headquarters. The results indicated that São Marcos Bay, in Maranhão State, was the best location among the alternatives. The multi-criteria approach was shown to be a valuable tool in assisting the decision making process and to understand the trade-offs between strategic and operational criteria in a transport decision.

  17. Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: a population-based case-control study in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T; Cantor, K P; Zhang, Y; Keim, S; Lynch, C F

    2001-04-01

    A number of occupations and industries have been inconsistently associated with the risk of brain cancer. To further explore possible relationships, we conducted a population-based case-control study of brain glioma in the state of Iowa, involving 375 histologically confirmed incident cases and 2434 population-based controls. Among men, the industries and/or occupations that had a significantly increased risk for employment of more than 10 years included roofing, siding, and sheet metalworking; newspaper work; rubber and plastics products, particularly tires and inner tubes; miscellaneous manufacturing industries; wholesale trade of durable goods, grain, and field beans; cleaning and building service occupations; miscellaneous mechanics and repairers; and janitors and cleaners. Subjects who worked in plumbing, heating, and air conditioning; electrical services; gasoline service stations; and military occupations also experienced a significantly increased risk. Among women, significant excess risk was observed for occupations in agricultural services and farming, apparel and textile products, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing, various retail sales, record-keeping, and restaurant service. Workers in industries with a potential for gasoline or motor exhaust exposures experienced a non-significant excess risk of brain glioma.

  18. Making the case for evidence-based design in healthcare: a descriptive case study of organizational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lorie K; Kazley, Abby Swanson; White, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the organizational decision-making process used in the selection of evidence-based design (EBD) concepts, the criteria used to make these decisions, and the extent to which leadership style may have influenced the decision-making process. Five research questions were formulated to frame the direction of this study, including: (1) How did healthcare leaders learn of innovations in design? (2) How did healthcare leaders make decisions in the selection of healthcare design concepts? (3) What criteria did healthcare leaders use in the decision-making process? (4) How did healthcare leaders consider input from the staff in design decisions? and (5) To what extent did the leadership style of administrators affect the outcomes of the decision-making process? Current issues affecting healthcare in the community led the principal investigator's organization to undertake an ambitious facilities expansion project. As part of its planning process, the organization learned of EBD principles that seemingly had a positive impact on patient care and safety and staff working conditions. Although promising, a paucity of empirical research addressed the cost/benefit of incorporating many EBD concepts into one hospital setting, and there was no research that articulated the organizational decision-making process used by healthcare administrators when considering the use of EBD in expansion projects. A mixed-method, descriptive, qualitative, single-case study and quantitative design were used to address the five research questions. The Systems Research Organizing Model provided the theoretical framework. A variety of data collection methods was used, including interviews of key respondents, the review of documentary evidence, and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. A participatory process was used throughout the design decision phases, involving staff at all levels of the organization. The Internet and architects facilitated learning about

  19. Application of geostatistical simulation to compile seismotectonic provinces based on earthquake databases (case study: Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohammad; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2018-04-01

    This article is devoted to application of a simulation algorithm based on geostatistical methods to compile and update seismotectonic provinces in which Iran has been chosen as a case study. Traditionally, tectonic maps together with seismological data and information (e.g., earthquake catalogues, earthquake mechanism, and microseismic data) have been used to update seismotectonic provinces. In many cases, incomplete earthquake catalogues are one of the important challenges in this procedure. To overcome this problem, a geostatistical simulation algorithm, turning band simulation, TBSIM, was applied to make a synthetic data to improve incomplete earthquake catalogues. Then, the synthetic data was added to the traditional information to study the seismicity homogeneity and classify the areas according to tectonic and seismic properties to update seismotectonic provinces. In this paper, (i) different magnitude types in the studied catalogues have been homogenized to moment magnitude (Mw), and earthquake declustering was then carried out to remove aftershocks and foreshocks; (ii) time normalization method was introduced to decrease the uncertainty in a temporal domain prior to start the simulation procedure; (iii) variography has been carried out in each subregion to study spatial regressions (e.g., west-southwestern area showed a spatial regression from 0.4 to 1.4 decimal degrees; the maximum range identified in the azimuth of 135 ± 10); (iv) TBSIM algorithm was then applied to make simulated events which gave rise to make 68,800 synthetic events according to the spatial regression found in several directions; (v) simulated events (i.e., magnitudes) were classified based on their intensity in ArcGIS packages and homogenous seismic zones have been determined. Finally, according to the synthetic data, tectonic features, and actual earthquake catalogues, 17 seismotectonic provinces were introduced in four major classes introduced as very high, high, moderate, and low

  20. Holistic stakeholder-oriented and case study-based risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    Case studies of storm events in the Berlin conurbation demonstrate the chance of a holistic approach and its potential data sources. Data sets of population, but also data provided by insurance and transport companies, and operating data provided by fire brigades, are used. Various indicators for risk analysis are constructed to identify hot spots. These hot spots can be shortcomings or critical aspects in structure, communication, the warning chain, or even in the structure of potentially affected stakeholders or in the civil protection system itself. Due to increasing complexity of interactions and interdependencies in or between societies and nature, it is important to choose a holistic approach. For risk analyses like the storms in Berlin, it captures many important factors with their effects. For risk analyses, it is important to take potential users into concern: The analysis gets important due to its use later on. In addition to a theoretical background, a focus on the application should be set from the beginning on. To get usable results, it is helpful to complement the theoretical meta-level by a stakeholder-oriented level. An iterative investigation and combination of different layers for the risk analysis explores important influencing factors and allows a tailoring of results to different stakeholder groups. Layers are indicators, gained from data sets like losses from insurance data. Tailoring is important, because of different requirements e.g. by technical or medical assistance. Stakeholders' feedback in the iterative investigation also shows structural limitations for later applications, like special laws the fire brigades have to deal with. Additionally, using actors' perspectives offers the chance to convince practitioners of taking part in the analysis. Their participation is an essential component in applied science. They are important data suppliers, whose goodwill is needed to ensure good results. Based on their experience, they can also help

  1. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Qian, Y.; Huang, X.; Yu, H.; Yang, J.; Han, R.; Su, J.; Du, W.; Zhou, J; Dong, M.; Yu, X.; Duijnhoven, F.; Kampman, E.; Wu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the

  2. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  3. TRUTH OR DARE: ONLINE DELIBERATION. A CASE STUDY OF TWO INTERNET BASED DELIBERATIVE PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Maria BIDAȘCĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I attempt to discuss how the internet can be used to stimulate an effective communication between citizens and decision-makers. In particular, I will aim to see if it can facilitate a greater degree of deliberation among citizens, if it can make democracy more inclusive and if it can make decision makers more responsible. I will first look at the definition and characteristics of deliberative democracy. Then after looking at what has been written so far about the effect of online discussions on democracy, I shall analyze the role the internet played in two case studies: web based participatory budgeting (PB and domnuleprimar.ro (DearMrMayor.ro. Both of these platforms were designed to create a closer bond between decisionmakers and citizens and will thus prove relevant to the discussion. Finally, I conclude that while the two case studies seem to favor increased inclusiveness, it only partially increases accountability and does not register any significant progress with regard to deliberation. Still, I argue that reasons for optimism exist even with regard to the deliberative aspect. Since the debate regarding the value of online deliberation is far from over, more research is needed in order to perhaps design a framework which will allow us to exploit the democratic value of the internet to its full potential.

  4. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  5. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  6. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: nationwide, population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case-control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82-0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72-0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90-0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84-0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  7. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the populati...

  8. How to Achieve Better Results Using PASS-Based Virtual Screening: Case Study for Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Pogodin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of new pharmaceutical substances is currently boosted by the possibility of utilization of the Synthetically Accessible Virtual Inventory (SAVI library, which includes about 283 million molecules, each annotated with a proposed synthetic one-step route from commercially available starting materials. The SAVI database is well-suited for ligand-based methods of virtual screening to select molecules for experimental testing. In this study, we compare the performance of three approaches for the analysis of structure-activity relationships that differ in their criteria for selecting of “active” and “inactive” compounds included in the training sets. PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances, which is based on a modified Naïve Bayes algorithm, was applied since it had been shown to be robust and to provide good predictions of many biological activities based on just the structural formula of a compound even if the information in the training set is incomplete. We used different subsets of kinase inhibitors for this case study because many data are currently available on this important class of drug-like molecules. Based on the subsets of kinase inhibitors extracted from the ChEMBL 20 database we performed the PASS training, and then applied the model to ChEMBL 23 compounds not yet present in ChEMBL 20 to identify novel kinase inhibitors. As one may expect, the best prediction accuracy was obtained if only the experimentally confirmed active and inactive compounds for distinct kinases in the training procedure were used. However, for some kinases, reasonable results were obtained even if we used merged training sets, in which we designated as inactives the compounds not tested against the particular kinase. Thus, depending on the availability of data for a particular biological activity, one may choose the first or the second approach for creating ligand-based computational tools to achieve the best possible results in

  9. Human-centered modeling in human reliability analysis: some trends based on case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron-Dupin, F.; Reer, B.; Heslinga, G.; Straeter, O.; Gerdes, V.; Saliou, G.; Ullwer, W.

    1997-01-01

    As an informal working group of researchers from France, Germany and The Netherlands created in 1993, the EARTH association is investigating significant subjects in the field of human reliability analysis (HRA). Our initial review of cases from nuclear operating experience showed that decision-based unrequired actions (DUA) contribute to risk significantly on the one hand. On the other hand, our evaluation of current HRA methods showed that these methods do not cover such actions adequately. Especially, practice-oriented guidelines for their predictive identification are lacking. We assumed that a basic cause for such difficulties was that these methods actually use a limited representation of the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) paradigm. We proposed a human-centered model, which better highlights the active role of the operators and the importance of their culture, attitudes and goals. This orientation was encouraged by our review of current HRA research activities. We therefore decided to envisage progress by identifying cognitive tendencies in the context of operating and simulator experience. For this purpose, advanced approaches for retrospective event analysis were discussed. Some orientations for improvements were proposed. By analyzing cases, various cognitive tendencies were identified, together with useful information about their context. Some of them match psychological findings already published in the literature, some of them are not covered adequately by the literature that we reviewed. Finally, this exploratory study shows that contextual and case-illustrated findings about cognitive tendencies provide useful help for the predictive identification of DUA in HRA. More research should be carried out to complement our findings and elaborate more detailed and systematic guidelines for using them in HRA studies

  10. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  11. A Process Re-engineering Framework for Reverse Logistics based on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Kai Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years as a channel for companies to achieve operational excellence. The process involves manipulation of returned materials, or even products, which forms a pivotal role in sustainable development throughout the whole supply chains. To make reverse logistics possible, process re-engineering may need to be carried out. However, the processes involved in reengineering are practically complicated. Objectives, benefits, and applicability of any process re-engineering require a careful and detailed strategic planning. This paper aims to propose an easy-to-follow step-by-step framework for practitioners to perform process re-engineering, to learn and identify the critical issues in each step, and to be successful in applying process re-engineering in order to enhance reverse logistics performance. A learner-centred approach is adopted based on a case study of process re-engineering, which is demonstrated in the paper for explanation.

  12. Treating disorganized attachment in the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Hannah; Murphy, Anne; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam

    2018-05-24

    This paper describes the treatment of a mother and child who demonstrated disorganized attachment behaviors in their interactions with one another. The mother, who was diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder, felt incapable of managing her aggressive toddler and his emotional needs. The dyad was referred for therapy due to concerns about his developmental progress, evident delays having been mainly attributed to the problems observed within the parent-child relationship. The primary intervention applied to working with the dyad was the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©), developed by Anne Murphy in collaboration with Miriam Steele and Howard Steele. The mother also received individual psychotherapy as a supplement to the dyadic and group work of GABI©. The process and outcome of this comprehensive approach to treating a vulnerable dyad is explored in this case study. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    in the style of denotational semantics; – the output of the generated compiler is effectively three-address code, in the fashion and efficiency of the Dragon Book; – the generated compiler processes several hundred lines of source code per second. The source language considered in this case study is imperative......, block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs...... by specializing a definitional interpreter with respect to the program. Specialization is carried out using type-directed partial evaluation, which is a mild version of partial evaluation akin to lambda-calculus normalization. Our definitional interpreter follows the format of denotational semantics, with a clear...

  14. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) need retrofitting in order to better handle changes in the wastewater flow and composition, reduce operational costs as well as meet newer and stricter regulatory standards on the effluent discharge limits. In this study, we use an optimization based...... technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  15. Evidence-based medicine - an appropriate tool for evidence-based health policy? A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Elvbakken, Kari Tove

    2016-03-05

    Evidence-based policy (EBP), a concept modelled on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM), is widely used in different areas of policymaking. Systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses gradually became the methods of choice for synthesizing research evidence about interventions and judgements about quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Critics have argued that the relation between research evidence and service policies is weak, and that the notion of EBP rests on a misunderstanding of policy processes. Having explored EBM standards and knowledge requirements for health policy decision-making, we present an empirical point of departure for discussing the relationship between EBM and EBP. In a case study exploring the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC), an independent government unit, we first searched for information about the background and development of the NOKC to establish a research context. We then identified, selected and organized official NOKC publications as an empirical sample of typical top-of-the-line knowledge delivery adhering to EBM standards. Finally, we explored conclusions in this type of publication, specifically addressing their potential as policy decision tools. From a total sample of 151 SRs published by the NOKC in the period 2004-2013, a purposive subsample from 2012 (14 publications) advised major caution about their conclusions because of the quality or relevance of the underlying documentation. Although the case study did not include a systematic investigation of uptake and policy consequences, SRs were found to be inappropriate as universal tools for health policy decision-making. The case study demonstrates that EBM is not necessarily suited to knowledge provision for every kind of policy decision-making. Our analysis raises the question of whether the evidence-based movement, represented here by an independent government organization, undertakes too broad a range of commissions using

  16. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  17. Risk-Based, Hypothesis-Driven Framework for Hydrological Field Campaigns with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, B.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    There are several stages in any hydrological modeling campaign, including: formulation and analysis of a priori information, data acquisition through field campaigns, inverse modeling, and prediction of some environmental performance metric (EPM). The EPM being predicted could be, for example, contaminant concentration or plume travel time. These predictions often have significant bearing on a decision that must be made. Examples include: how to allocate limited remediation resources between contaminated groundwater sites or where to place a waste repository site. Answering such questions depends on predictions of EPMs using forward models as well as levels of uncertainty related to these predictions. Uncertainty in EPM predictions stems from uncertainty in model parameters, which can be reduced by measurements taken in field campaigns. The costly nature of field measurements motivates a rational basis for determining a measurement strategy that is optimal with respect to the uncertainty in the EPM prediction. The tool of hypothesis testing allows this uncertainty to be quantified by computing the significance of the test resulting from a proposed field campaign. The significance of the test gives a rational basis for determining the optimality of a proposed field campaign. This hypothesis testing framework is demonstrated and discussed using various synthetic case studies. This study involves contaminated aquifers where a decision must be made based on prediction of when a contaminant will arrive at a specified location. The EPM, in this case contaminant travel time, is cast into the hypothesis testing framework. The null hypothesis states that the contaminant plume will arrive at the specified location before a critical amount of time passes, and the alternative hypothesis states that the plume will arrive after the critical time passes. The optimality of different field campaigns is assessed by computing the significance of the test resulting from each one

  18. A real options-based CCS investment evaluation model: Case study of China's power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Fan, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper establishes a carbon captures and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model. → The model is based on real options theory and solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. → China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment. → The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. -- Abstract: This paper establishes a carbon capture and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model based on real options theory considering uncertainties from the existing thermal power generating cost, carbon price, thermal power with CCS generating cost, and investment in CCS technology deployment. The model aims to evaluate the value of the cost saving effect and amount of CO 2 emission reduction through investing in newly-built thermal power with CCS technology to replace existing thermal power in a given period from the perspective of power generation enterprises. The model is solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. Since the model could be used as a policy analysis tool, China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment through scenario analysis. The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. Thus, there is an important trade off for policy makers between reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the interests of power generation enterprises. The research presented would be useful for CCS technology evaluation and related policy-making.

  19. Multilevel governance in community-based environmental management: a case study comparison from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sattler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze four case studies from Latin America using the concept of multilevel governance to assess at what vertical and horizontal levels and in what roles various state, market, and civil society actors interact for successful community-based environmental management (CBEM. In particular, we address the problem of how a conflict over natural resources with high negative impacts on the livelihoods of the respective communities could be overcome by a governance change that resulted in a multilevel governance arrangement for CBEM. The analysis involves a mixed-methods approach that combines a variety of empirical methods in social research such as field visits, personal interviews, participant observations, and stakeholder workshops. To visualize results, we introduce two schemes to present the composition of the governance structures for cross-case comparison. The first scheme plots the different actors into an arrangement that shows their associations with different societal spheres and at which territorial scales they are primarily involved. The second scheme differentiates these actors based on their complementing governance roles. Active roles are attributed to actors who implement activities on the ground, whereas passive roles are assigned to actors who provide specific resources such as knowledge, funding, legislative framework, or others. All cases involved governance actors from more than one societal sphere who operate on at least three different territorial levels (local to international and in distinct roles. Results show that multilevel governance can strengthen CBEM in different ways. First, the success of CBEM is an outcome of the sum of horizontal and vertical interactions of all involved actors, and there is no most appropriate single level of social organization at which a problem can best be addressed. Only the cooperation of actors from different societal spheres within and across levels ensures accessibility to needed

  20. A Case Study of Policies and Procedures to Address Cyberbullying at a Technology-Based Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Bettina Polite

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…

  1. Prediction of quantitative phenotypes based on genetic networks: a case study in yeast sporulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exciting application of genetic network is to predict phenotypic consequences for environmental cues or genetic perturbations. However, de novo prediction for quantitative phenotypes based on network topology is always a challenging task. Results Using yeast sporulation as a model system, we have assembled a genetic network from literature and exploited Boolean network to predict sporulation efficiency change upon deleting individual genes. We observe that predictions based on the curated network correlate well with the experimentally measured values. In addition, computational analysis reveals the robustness and hysteresis of the yeast sporulation network and uncovers several patterns of sporulation efficiency change caused by double gene deletion. These discoveries may guide future investigation of underlying mechanisms. We have also shown that a hybridized genetic network reconstructed from both temporal microarray data and literature is able to achieve a satisfactory prediction accuracy of the same quantitative phenotypes. Conclusions This case study illustrates the value of predicting quantitative phenotypes based on genetic network and provides a generic approach.

  2. Vibration measurement-based simple technique for damage detection of truss bridges: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath C. Siriwardane

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bridges experience increasing traffic volume and weight, deteriorating of components and large number of stress cycles. Therefore, assessment of the current condition of steel railway bridges becomes necessary. Most of the commonly available approaches for structural health monitoring are based on visual inspection and non-destructive testing methods. The visual inspection is unreliable as those depend on uncertainty behind inspectors and their experience. Also, the non-destructive testing methods are found to be expensive. Therefore, recent researches have noticed that dynamic modal parameters or vibration measurement-based structural health monitoring methods are economical and may also provide more realistic predictions to damage state of civil infrastructure. Therefore this paper proposes a simple technique to locate the damage region of railway truss bridges based on measured modal parameters. The technique is discussed with a case study. Initially paper describes the details of considered railway bridge. Then observations of visual inspection, material testing and in situ load testing are discussed under separate sections. Development of validated finite element model of the considered bridge is comprehensively discussed. Hence, variations of modal parameters versus position of the damage are plotted. These plots are considered as the main reference for locating the damage of the railway bridge in future periodical inspection by comparing the measured corresponding modal parameters. Finally the procedure of periodical vibration measurement and damage locating technique are clearly illustrated.

  3. Planning and Designing Web- Based Electronic Commerce: a case study in the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Teubner

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce (EC comprises new ways of doing business with customers, suppliers and other business partners. EC is enabled by information and communication technology, in particular the World Wide Web (in short, the Web. While numerous organisations have started to use the Web as an interface to clients and business partners, many have been disappointed by lower than expected response rates and higher than expected costs. One reason for non profitable Web based EC applications is that they do not reflect the strategic preconditions of EC. This lack may be due to deficits in the process of developing an EC-strategy for their Web application. Furthermore, there is a void of instruments and tools to support this process. In order to fill this void, this paper proposes two basic frameworks for planning a Web based EC application. The application of these frameworks is illustrated by the example of a medium seized insurance company. Based on experiences drawn from the case study, the proposed frameworks will be evaluated.

  4. Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies. This report summarizes some of the recent progress in characterizing uncertainty and variability in physi...

  5. Occupation and breast cancer risk in Polish women: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Bardin-Mikolajczak, Alicja; Zatonski, Witold; Gromiec, Jan; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Brinton, Louise A; Blair, Aaron

    2007-02-01

    The etiology of breast cancer is not well understood and the role of occupational exposures in breast carcinogenesis is still uncertain. The population-based case-control study included 2,386 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2000-2003, and 2,502 controls. Lifetime occupational histories and information on other potential breast cancer risk factors were obtained through personal interviews. Conditional logistic regression analyses calculated odds ratios (ORs) associated with various occupations and industries after control for potential confounders. We found statistically significant excesses of breast cancer among engineers (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.0-3.8), economists (2.1; 1.1-3.8), sales occupations-retail (1.2; 1.0-1.5), and other sales occupations (1.2; 1.0-1.5). Industries showing significantly elevated risks included special trade contractors (2.2; 1.2-4.3), electronic and electric equipment manufacturers (1.7; 1.1-2.7); and public administration/general government n.e.c. (2.7; 1.3-5.7). Each of these findings was supported by a statistically significant positive trend for duration of employment (Pelectronic and electric equipment manufacturing industry and for the occupations with potential exposure to magnetic fields deserve further evaluation.

  6. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  7. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  8. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1...

  9. Neonatal encephalopathy and socioeconomic status: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently

  10. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions: a nationwide register-based external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2014-04-01

    Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA) (90th percentile) at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively). LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively), but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]). The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (95th percentile). Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference values. However, a sensitivity analysis using individualized norms

  12. Dietary patterns and adult asthma: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakolis, I; Hooper, R; Thompson, R L; Shaheen, S O

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of diet and asthma have focused on relations with intakes of individual nutrients and foods and evidence has been conflicting. Few studies have examined associations with dietary patterns. We carried out a population-based case-control study of asthma in adults aged between 16 and 50 in South London, UK. Information about usual diet was obtained by food frequency questionnaire and we used principal components analysis to define five dietary patterns in controls. We used logistic and linear regression, controlling for confounders, to relate these patterns to asthma, asthma severity, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in 599 cases and 854 controls. Overall, there was weak evidence that a 'vegetarian' dietary pattern was positively associated with asthma [adjusted odds ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile of pattern score 1.43 (95% CI: 0.93-2.20), P trend 0.075], and a 'traditional' pattern (meat and vegetables) was negatively associated [OR 0.68 (0.45-1.03), P trend 0.071]. These associations were stronger amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.030 and 0.001, respectively), and the association with the 'vegetarian' pattern was stronger amongst whites (P trend 0.008). No associations were observed with asthma severity. A 'prudent' dietary pattern (wholemeal bread, fish and vegetables) was positively associated with chronic bronchitis [OR 2.61 (1.13-6.05), P trend 0.025], especially amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.002). Overall there were no clear relations between dietary patterns and adult asthma; associations in nonsupplement users and whites require confirmation. The finding for chronic bronchitis was unexpected and also requires replication.

  13. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children

  14. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  15. Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Pedersen, Carsten B; Anderson, Cameron; Ko, Pauline; Burne, Thomas H; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Hougaard, David M; Mortensen, Preben B

    2010-09-01

    Clues from the epidemiology of schizophrenia suggest that low levels of developmental vitamin D may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. To directly examine the association between neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia. Individually matched case-control study drawn from a population-based cohort. Danish national health registers and neonatal biobank. A total of 424 individuals with schizophrenia and 424 controls matched for sex and date of birth. The concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25[OH]D3) was assessed from neonatal dried blood samples using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy method. Relative risks were calculated for the matched pairs when examined for quintiles of 25(OH)D3. Compared with neonates in the fourth quintile (with 25[OH]D3 concentrations between 40.5 and 50.9 nmol/L), those in each of the lower 3 quintiles had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (2-fold elevated risk). Unexpectedly, those in the highest quintile also had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia. Based on this analysis, the population-attributable fraction associated with neonatal vitamin D status was 44%. The relationship was not explained by a wide range of potential confounding or interacting variables. Both low and high concentrations of neonatal vitamin D are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and it is feasible that this exposure could contribute to a sizeable proportion of cases in Denmark. In light of the substantial public health implications of this finding, there is an urgent need to further explore the effect of vitamin D status on brain development and later mental health.

  16. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  17. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  18. Analyzing data from a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María Ángeles; Lubiano, María Asunción; de la Rosa de Sáa, Sara; Sinova, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The fuzzy rating scale was introduced to cope with the imprecision of human thought and experience in measuring attitudes in many fields of Psychology. The flexibility and expressiveness of this scale allow us to properly describe the answers to many questions involving psychological measurement. Analyzing the responses to a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire is indeed a critical problem. Nevertheless, over the last years, a methodology is being developed to analyze statistically fuzzy data in such a way that the information they contain is fully exploited. In this paper, a summary review of the main procedures is given. The methods are illustrated by their application on the dataset obtained from a case study with nine-year-old children. In this study, children replied to some questions from the well-known TIMSS/PIRLS questionnaire by using a fuzzy rating scale. The form could be filled in either on the computer or by hand. The study indicates that the requirements of background and training underlying the fuzzy rating scale are not too demanding. Moreover, it is clearly shown that statistical conclusions substantially often differ depending on the responses being given in accordance with either a Likert scale or a fuzzy rating scale.

  19. Rangeland Use Rights Privatisation Based on the Tragedy of the Commons: A Case Study from Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonten Nyima Yundannima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland use rights privatisation based on a tragedy of the commons assumption has been the backbone of state policy on rangeland management and pastoralism in China. Through an empirical case study from Pelgon county, Tibet Autonomous Region in China, this paper provides an empirical analysis of rangeland use rights privatisation. It shows that the tragedy of the commons is not the correct model to apply to Tibetan pastoralism because pasture use in Tibet has never been an open-access institution. Thus, when the tragedy of the commons model is applied as a rationale for rangeland use rights privatisation, the result is not what is intended by the policy, but rather a misfit to features of pastoralism and thus disruption of the essence of pastoralism, i.e. mobility and flexibility. The paper further shows that a hybrid institution combining household rangeland tenure with community-based use with user fees is a restoration of the pastoralist institution. This demonstrates the capacity of pastoralists to create adaptive new institutions congruent with the interdependent and integrated nature of pastoralism consisting of three components: pastoralists, livestock, and rangeland.

  20. Aircraft operational reliability—A model-based approach and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiassou, Kossi; Kanoun, Karama; Kaâniche, Mohamed; Seguin, Christel; Papadopoulos, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The success of an aircraft mission is subject to the fulfillment of some operational requirements before and during each flight. As these requirements depend essentially on the aircraft system components and the mission profile, the effects of failures can be very severe if they are not anticipated. Hence, one should be able to assess the aircraft operational reliability with regard to its missions in order to be able to cope with failures. We address aircraft operational reliability modeling to support maintenance planning during the mission achievement. We develop a modeling approach, based on a meta-model that is used as a basis: (i) to structure the information needed to assess aircraft operational reliability and (ii) to build a stochastic model that can be tuned dynamically, in order to take into account the aircraft system operational state, a mission profile and the maintenance facilities available at the flight stop locations involved in the mission. The aim is to enable operational reliability assessment online. A case study, based on an aircraft subsystem, is considered for illustration using the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism

  1. WATERSHED BASED WEB GIS: CASE STUDY OF PALOPO WATERSHED AREA SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin Rumi PRASAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and land resource information complete, accurate, and current is an input in management planning, evaluation, and monitoring Watershed. Implementation of this research is conducted with optimum utilization of secondary data that is supported by direct field measurement data, digitalizing the maps associated, Geographic Information Systems modeling, and model calibration. This research has resulted in a Geographic Information System Management of potential Watershed GIS Web-based or abbreviated WEB GIS MPPDAS using Palopo watershed area, South Sulawesi as a case study sites for the development of a prototype that consists of three applications the main website ie Web Portal, Web GIS, and Web Tutorial. The system is built to show online (and offline maps watershed in the administrative area of Palopo along with the location of its potential accumulated in the four (4 groups of layers, including groups of main layer (2 layer, a group of base layer (14 layers, groups of thematic layers (12 layers, a group of policy layer (8 layer. In addition to display a map, use the WEB application of GIS MPPDAS can also use tools or controls in the application to perform analyzes in its monitoring and evaluation, including: Geocoding, Add layer, Digitizing, Selection, Measurements, Graph, Filtering, Geolocation, Overlay cartographic, and etc.

  2. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Vision-based Detection of Acoustic Timed Events: a Case Study on Clarinet Note Onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzica, A.; van Gemert, J. C.; Liem, C. C. S.; Hanjalic, A.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic events often have a visual counterpart. Knowledge of visual information can aid the understanding of complex auditory scenes, even when only a stereo mixdown is available in the audio domain, \\eg identifying which musicians are playing in large musical ensembles. In this paper, we consider a vision-based approach to note onset detection. As a case study we focus on challenging, real-world clarinetist videos and carry out preliminary experiments on a 3D convolutional neural network based on multiple streams and purposely avoiding temporal pooling. We release an audiovisual dataset with 4.5 hours of clarinetist videos together with cleaned annotations which include about 36,000 onsets and the coordinates for a number of salient points and regions of interest. By performing several training trials on our dataset, we learned that the problem is challenging. We found that the CNN model is highly sensitive to the optimization algorithm and hyper-parameters, and that treating the problem as binary classification may prevent the joint optimization of precision and recall. To encourage further research, we publicly share our dataset, annotations and all models and detail which issues we came across during our preliminary experiments.

  4. Strategic approaches to simulation-based education: A case study from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Nestel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses some of the challenges met when developing widely distributed, broad spectrum, simulation-based education (SBE for health professionals, such as resource duplication, inconsistent facilities utilization, discipline-specific silos, and the intersection of academic institutions and health services sectors. We examine three primary contributors to successful simulation-based practices - strategic planning, program development, and professional networks. Further, we provide examples of how each of these contributors function at different levels to assure comprehensive, yet sustainable approaches to implementing SBE for greatest impact at national, state, regional, and institutional levels. We draw on the example of Australia and its state and regional government structures, including the challenges in providing health services across a widely variable geography and population distribution. The types of health services and issues relating to health provision and management reflect those found in many western countries. Our hope is that the experiences gained at each level of governance within Australia may inform similar, successful development in other countries. We emphasize the importance of leadership and investment at the national level that serves to inform state, regional, and institutional efforts through a "trickle down" effect. Although evaluation of the strategic planning, program development, and professional networks described in this case study is still ongoing, their preliminary coordination has resulted in significant investment and support at all levels.

  5. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  6. Occupation and bladder cancer: a population-based, case-control study in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tongzhang; Cantor, Kenneth P; Zhang, Yawei; Lynch, Charles F

    2002-07-01

    While considerable efforts have been made to investigate the role of occupation and industry in the risk of bladder cancer, many reported associations have not been consistent, and strong evidence of increased risk is apparent for few occupational groups. To further examine the issue, a large, population-based, case-control study was conducted in the state of Iowa among both men and women. A total of 1452 incident bladder cancer cases and 2434 controls were included in the study. Occupational history was collected from respondents for each job held for 5 years or longer since age 16. Among men, excess risk was observed for industries including plumbing, heating, and air conditioning (odds ratio [OR], = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.0); rubber and plastic products (OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.5), motor vehicle parts and supplies (OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 16.5), and occupations including supervisors for transportation and material moving (OR = 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29.9), material-moving-equipment operators (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.6), automobile mechanics (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.6), painters (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 7.7), and metal- and plastic-working machine operators (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.4). Among women, significant excess risk was observed for secondary school teachers and record clerks. Housekeepers and butlers and workers in laundering and dry cleaning were also at increased risk. In conclusion, these results suggest that occupational exposures may play a significant role in the risk of bladder cancer.

  7. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors and testicular cancer: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Gabe S; Chang, Shine; Strom, Sara S; Sweeney, Anne M; Annegers, J Fred; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2007-01-01

    Some evidence exists to support the hypothesis that elevated levels of circulating maternal estrogens during early pregnancy may increase risk of testicular germ cell cancer. However, the results from studies evaluating maternal factors have been mixed. We evaluated maternal factors, particularly those associated with excess estrogen levels, as risk factors for testicular cancer. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas of 144 testicular cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 1996 and 86 friend controls matched to cases on age, race, and state of residence. Risk factor data about the mother, the son, and the pregnancy were obtained from the mothers by telephone interviews and from the sons by self-administered questionnaires. Extreme nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.9]. Adjustment for potential confounders slightly lowered this risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9-3.8). Risks were modestly increased for other factors that are proxy measures for maternal estrogens, including preterm delivery (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.4-12.9), birth weight 4000 g (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.9-3.2), albeit nonsignificantly so. Our finding that severe nausea was associated with increased testicular cancer risk adds evidence to support the in utero estrogen exposure hypothesis because nausea early in pregnancy is related to rising levels of circulating estrogens. For other factors, which are less direct measures of maternal estrogens, the modest associations found indicate a suggestive pattern in support of the excess estrogen hypothesis.

  8. Ethical issues in human genome epidemiology: a case study based on the Japanese American Family Study in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A

    2002-04-01

    Recent completion of the draft sequence of the human genome has been greeted with both excitement and skepticism, and the potential of this accomplishment for advancing public health has been tempered by ethical concerns about the protection of human subjects. This commentary explores ethical issues arising in human genome epidemiology by using a case study approach based on the ongoing Japanese American Family Study at the University of Washington in Seattle (1994-2003). Ethical issues encountered in designing the study, collecting the data, and reporting the study results are considered. When developing studies, investigators must consider whether to restrict the study to specific racial or ethnic groups and whether community involvement is appropriate. Once the study design is in place, further ethical issues emerge, including obtaining informed consent for DNA banking and protecting the privacy and confidentiality of family members. Finally, investigators must carefully consider whether to report genotype results to study participants and whether pedigrees illustrating the results of the study will be published. Overall, the promise of genomics for improving public health must be pursued based on the fundamental ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

  9. Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural Northern Ethiopia: A population based nested case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Yirgu

    Full Text Available In low income and middle income countries, neonatal mortality remains high despite the gradual reduction in under five mortality. Newborn death contributes for about 38% of all under five deaths. This study has identified the magnitude and independent predictors of neonatal mortality in rural Ethiopia.This population based nested case control study was conducted in rural West Gojam zone, Northern Ethiopia, among a cohort of pregnant women who gave birth between March 2011 and Feb 2012. The cohort was established by Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP project in 2010 by recruiting mothers in their third trimester, as identified by trained community volunteers. Once identified, women stayed in the cohort throughout their pregnancy period receiving Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH training by health extension workers and community volunteers till the end of the first 48 hours postpartum. Cases were 75 mothers who lost their newborns to neonatal death and controls were 150 randomly selected mothers with neonates who survived the neonatal period. Data to identify cause of death were collected using the WHO standard verbal autopsy questionnaire after the culturally appropriate 40 days of bereavement period. Binomial logistic regression model was used to identify independent contributors to neonatal mortality.The neonatal mortality rate was AOR(95%CI = 18.6 (14.8, 23.2 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality declined with an increase in family size, neonates who were born among a family of more than two had lesser odds of death in the neonatal period than those who were born in a family of two AOR (95% CI = 0.13 (0.02, 0.71. Mothers who gave birth to 2-4 AOR(95%CI = 0.15 (0.05, 0.48 and 5+ children AOR(95%CI = 0.08 (0.02, 0.26 had lesser odds of losing their newborns to neonatal mortality. Previous history of losing a newborn to neonatal death also increased the odds of neonatal mortality during the last birth AOR

  10. Integrating EMDR into an evolutionary-based therapy for depression: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Krupnik, Valery

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present an intervention in a case of major depression, where eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy was integrated into an evolutionary-based psychotherapy for depression. At the end of the treatment and at follow up assessment we observed a more accepting disposition and decreased depressive but not anxiety symptoms.

  11. Integrating EMDR into an evolutionary-based therapy for depression: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, Valery

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present an intervention in a case of major depression, where eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy was integrated into an evolutionary-based psychotherapy for depression. At the end of the treatment and at follow up assessment we observed a more accepting disposition and decreased depressive but not anxiety symptoms. PMID:25984310

  12. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  13. Setting performance-based financing in the health sector agenda: a case study in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieleunou, Isidore; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Fotso, Jean-Claude Taptué; Tamga, Denise Magne; Yumo, Habakkuk Azinyui; Kouokam, Estelle; Ridde, Valery

    2017-08-01

    More than 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced performance-based financing (PBF) in their healthcare systems. Yet, there has been little research on the process by which PBF was put on the national policy agenda in Africa. This study examines the policy process behind the introduction of PBF program in Cameroon. The research is an explanatory case study using the Kingdon multiple streams framework. We conducted a document review and 25 interviews with various types of actors involved in the policy process. We conducted thematic analysis using a hybrid deductive-inductive approach for data analysis. By 2004, several reports and events had provided evidence on the state of the poor health outcomes and health financing in the country, thereby raising awareness of the situation. As a result, decision-makers identified the lack of a suitable health financing policy as an important issue that needed to be addressed. The change in the political discourse toward more accountability made room to test new mechanisms. A group of policy entrepreneurs from the World Bank, through numerous forms of influence (financial, ideational, network and knowledge-based) and building on several ongoing reforms, collaborated with senior government officials to place the PBF program on the agenda. The policy changes occurred as the result of two open policy windows (i.e. national and international), and in both instances, policy entrepreneurs were able to couple the policy streams to effect change. The policy agenda of PBF in Cameroon underlined the importance of a perceived crisis in the policy reform process and the advantage of building a team to carry forward the policy process. It also highlighted the role of other sources of information alongside scientific evidence (eg.: workshop and study tour), as well as the role of previous policies and experiences, in shaping or influencing respectively the way issues are framed and reformers' actions and choices.

  14. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa : differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Brandao, Isabel; Roma-Torres, Antonio; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN A

  15. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  16. Service Quality of Online Shopping Platforms: A Case-Based Empirical and Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ming Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function is significantly related to the customer loyalty. Further analytical study is conducted to reveal that the optimal service level on the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function for the risk averse OSP uniquely exists. Moreover, the analytical results prove that (i if the customer loyalty is more positively correlated to the service level, it will lead to a larger optimal service level, and (ii the optimal service level is independent of the profit target, the source of uncertainty, and the risk preference of the OSP.

  17. A Geo-Event-Based Geospatial Information Service: A Case Study of Typhoon Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media is valuable in propagating information during disasters for its timely and available characteristics nowadays, and assists in making decisions when tagged with locations. Considering the ambiguity and inaccuracy in some social data, additional authoritative data are needed for important verification. However, current works often fail to leverage both social and authoritative data and, on most occasions, the data are used in disaster analysis after the fact. Moreover, current works organize the data from the perspective of the spatial location, but not from the perspective of the disaster, making it difficult to dynamically analyze the disaster. All of the disaster-related data around the affected locations need to be retrieved. To solve these limitations, this study develops a geo-event-based geospatial information service (GEGIS framework and proceeded as follows: (1 a geo-event-related ontology was constructed to provide a uniform semantic basis for the system; (2 geo-events and attributes were extracted from the web using a natural language process (NLP and used in the semantic similarity match of the geospatial resources; and (3 a geospatial information service prototype system was designed and implemented for automatically retrieving and organizing geo-event-related geospatial resources. A case study of a typhoon hazard is analyzed here within the GEGIS and shows that the system would be effective when typhoons occur.

  18. A consumer-based approach to salt reduction: Case study with bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Lucía; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2016-12-01

    In recent years high sodium intake has raised growing concern worldwide. A widespread reduction of salt concentration in processed foods has been claimed as one of the most effective strategies to achieve a short-term impact on global health. However, one of the major challenges in reducing salt in food products is its potential negative impact on consumer perception. For this reason, gradual salt reduction has been recommended. In this context, the aim of the present work was to present a consumer-based approach to salt reduction, using bread as case study. Two consumer studies with a total of 303 consumers were carried out. In the first study, four sequential difference thresholds were determined through paired-comparison tests, starting at a salt concentration of 2%. In the second study, 99 consumers performed a two-bite evaluation of their sensory and hedonic perception of five bread samples: a control bread containing 2% salt and four samples with reduced salt content according to the difference thresholds determined in the first study. Survival analysis was used to determine average difference thresholds, which ranged from 9.4% to 14.3% of the salt concentration of the control bread. Results showed that salt concentration significantly influenced consumer overall liking of the bread samples. However, large heterogeneity was found in consumer hedonic reaction towards salt reduction: two groups of consumers with different preference and hedonic sensitivity to salt reduction were found. Results from the present work confirm that cumulative series of small salt reductions may be a feasible strategy for reducing the sodium content of bread without affecting consumer hedonic perception and stress the importance of considering consumer perception in the design of gradual salt reduction programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative evaluation of activity-based costing and variable costing: a case study at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Josefina Maria da Silva SILVA

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to compare the results with the application of Activity Based Costing and Variable Costing methods in an administrative unit of the Brazilian Federal Government: the Radiopharmacy Facility of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research), which produces radiopharmaceuticals products and develops R and D activities. Faced with the need to adopt a more economical and managerial public administration, this research has provided information to assess which of the two costing methods proves more suitable for cost management in that unit. The research is exploratory and a single-case study. We traced about 80% of material costs by observation 'in loco' of the entire manufacturing process of technetium generator, which represents the main product in terms of production volume and revenues. The results show that the Contribution Margin Variable Costing of 29.12% is very close to the operating income of 28.86%, ahead of support activities, obtained by ABC. It is also noted that the operational result of the product does not change by using either one or another costing method. In the two costing methods the end result is 24.20%. This occurs because the production is on demand. There is no inventory of finished product because it is radioactive. The research has revealed that both methods provide useful information for the management and optimization of costs and results of processes/activities, and that the two methods, in this case, may be used in an integrated and complementary approach, enabling to use the best information content of both. (author)

  20. [Influential factors on congenital gastrointestinal malformation:a hospital-based case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuejin; Xu, Guang; Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wang, Youjie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influential factors on congenital gastrointestinal malformation and to provide evidences for prevention. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among infants with or without congenital gastrointestinal malformation at Children's hospital of Hunan province, from April 2011 to August 2012. Parents of 120 cases with congenital gastrointestinal malformation and another 170 controls were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Congenital gastrointestinal malformation was associated with intakes of maternal medication (OR = 3.35, 95%CI:1.51-7.41) and folic acid (OR = 0.28, 95%CI:0.15-0.52), exposure to paints (OR = 5.05, 95%CI:1.32-19.29) and pesticides (OR = 15.20, 95%CI:1.55-148.99) prior to or during pregnancy, and also associated with medication intake of the father (OR = 3.70, 95% CI:1.13-12.10), smoking (OR = 2.39, 95% CI:1.24-4.62), drinking alcohol (OR = 2.47, 95% CI:1.20-5.07), exposure to the agents for indoor cleaning (OR = 16.42, 95% CI:1.71-157.92) and exposure to paints (OR = 9.92, 95% CI:2.66-36.98) before conception. Congenital gastrointestinal malformation was affected by multiple factors. Potential risk factors for congenital gastrointestinal malformation would include intakes of medication by the pregnant mother, exposure to paints exposure and pesticide exposure before or during pregnancy, and medication intake by the father, smoking, drinking alcohol, exposure to indoor cleaning agents/paint before conception. The amount of folic acid intake by mother before or during pregnancy was likely to reduce the risk for congenital gastrointestinal malformation.

  1. Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (?5 years). Zolpidem exposu...

  2. A study on critical success factors on building IT based flat organization: A case study of Mellat Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajollah Rahnavard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A flat organization is a firm that has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between employee and executives. The idea is to take advantage of well-trained workers when they are more directly involved in the decision making process, rather than closely supervised by various layers of management. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors on building information technology (IT based flat organization in a case study of banking industry. Using principal component analysis, the study applies factor analysis for two internal and external factors. In terms of internal factors, there are three factors including Processes and the electronic decision making, Teaching and Electronic Learning and Work in IT. In addition, the study has detected four factors including Electronic Supply, IT structure, Appropriate IT usage and Electronic Communication.

  3. UAV-based Natural Hazard Management in High-Alpine Terrain - Case Studies from Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Adams, Marc; Lechner, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have become a standard tool for geodata collection, as they allow conducting on-demand mapping missions in a flexible, cost-effective manner at an unprecedented level of detail. Easy-to-use, high-performance image matching software make it possible to process the collected aerial images to orthophotos and 3D-terrain models. Such up-to-date geodata have proven to be an important asset in natural hazard management: Processes like debris flows, avalanches, landslides, fluvial erosion and rock-fall can be detected and quantified; damages can be documented and evaluated. In the Alps, these processes mostly originate in remote areas, which are difficult and hazardous to access, thus presenting a challenging task for RPAS data collection. In particular, the problems include finding suitable landing and piloting-places, dealing with bad or no GPS-signals and the installation of ground control points (GCP) for georeferencing. At the BFW, RPAS have been used since 2012 to aid natural hazard management of various processes, of which three case studies are presented below. The first case study deals with the results from an attempt to employ UAV-based multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor the state of natural hazard protection forests. Images in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) band were collected using modified low-cost cameras, combined with different optical filters. Several UAV-flights were performed in the 72 ha large study site in 2014, which lies in the Wattental, Tyrol (Austria) between 1700 and 2050 m a.s.l., where the main tree species are stone pine and mountain pine. The matched aerial images were analysed using different UAV-specific vitality indices, evaluating both single- and dual-camera UAV-missions. To calculate the mass balance of a debris flow in the Tyrolean Halltal (Austria), an RPAS flight was conducted in autumn 2012. The extreme alpine environment was challenging for both the mission and the evaluation of the aerial

  4. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems as a tool for landscape design research - investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions (architectonic plan analysis. The concept ‘composition’ refers to a conceivable arrangement, an architectural expression of a mental construct that is legible and open to interpretation. Landscape architectonic compositions and their representations embody a great wealth of design knowledge as objects of our material culture and reflect the possible treatment of the ground, space, image and program as a characteristic coherence. By exploring landscape architectonic compositions with GIS, design researchers can acquire design knowledge that can be used in the creation and refinement of a design.  The research aims to identify and illustrate the potential role of GIS as a tool in landscape design research, so as to provide insight into the possibilities and limitations of using GIS in this capacity. The critical, information-oriented case of Stourhead landscape garden (Wiltshire, UK, an example of a designed landscape that covers the scope and remit of landscape architecture design, forms the heart of the study. The exploration of Stourhead by means of GIS can be understood as a plausibility probe. Here the case study is considered a form of ‘quasi-experiment’, testing the hypothesis and generating a learning process that constitutes a prerequisite for advanced understanding, while using an adjusted version of the framework for landscape design analysis by Steenbergen and Reh (2003. This is a theoretically informed analytical method based on the formal interpretation of the landscape architectonic composition addressing four landscape architectonic categories: the basic, the spatial, the symbolic and the programmatic form. This study includes new aspects to be

  5. A Collective Case Study of Secondary Students' Model-Based Inquiry on Natural Selection through Programming in an Agent-Based Modeling Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This is a collective case study seeking to develop detailed descriptions of how programming an agent-based simulation influences a group of 8th grade students' model-based inquiry (MBI) by examining students' agent-based programmable modeling (ABPM) processes and the learning outcomes. The context of the present study was a biology unit on…

  6. Project-based learning in a high school engineering program: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Todd

    Generating greater student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been a major topic of discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers in recent years, as increasing the number of graduates in these fields is widely considered a necessary step for sustaining the progress of today's society. Fostering this interest must occur before students reach college, and substantial efforts have been made to engage students at K-12 levels in STEM-focused learning. Attempts to involve students in engineering, a vital and growing profession, yet one in which students often have little experience, have frequently emphasized the design and construction of physical products, a practice supported by project-based learning. This thesis examines the environment of an engineering high school course that employed the project-based model. The course is part of a dedicated curricular program which aims to provide students with positive experiences in engineering-related activities while also preparing them for the rigors of college. A case study was conducted to provide insight into the benefits and drawbacks of the learning model. The study's outcomes are intended to provide guidance to educators participating in the design and/or facilitation of project-based activities, particularly those involved with engineering education. The research was performed using a qualitative approach. Long-term engagement with course participants was deemed critical to gaining a comprehensive understanding of the interactions and events that transpired on a daily basis. Nine educators involved with the program were interviewed, as were nineteen of the course's thirty-nine students. A wealth of other relevant data -- including surveys, field notes, and evaluations of student work -- was compiled for analysis as well. The study findings suggest that experiences in problem solving and teamwork were the central benefits of the course. Limitations existed due to a

  7. Acute respiratory infection case definitions for young children: a systematic review of community-based epidemiologic studies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daniel E; Gaffey, Michelle F; Smith-Romero, Evelyn; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Morris, Shaun K

    2015-12-01

    To explore the variability in childhood acute respiratory infection case definitions for research in low-income settings where there is limited access to laboratory or radiologic investigations. We conducted a systematic review of community-based, longitudinal studies in South Asia published from January 1990 to August 2013, in which childhood acute respiratory infection outcomes were reported. Case definitions were classified by their label (e.g. pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection) and clinical content 'signatures' (array of clinical features that would be always present, conditionally present or always absent among cases). Case definition heterogeneity was primarily assessed by the number of unique case definitions overall and by label. We also compared case definition-specific acute respiratory infection incidence rates for studies reporting incidence rates for multiple case definitions. In 56 eligible studies, we found 124 acute respiratory infection case definitions. Of 90 case definitions for which clinical content was explicitly defined, 66 (73%) were unique. There was a high degree of content heterogeneity among case definitions with the same label, and some content signatures were assigned multiple labels. Within studies for which incidence rates were reported for multiple case definitions, variation in content was always associated with a change in incidence rate, even when the content differed by a single clinical feature. There has been a wide variability in case definition label and content combinations to define acute upper and lower respiratory infections in children in community-based studies in South Asia over the past two decades. These inconsistencies have important implications for the synthesis and translation of knowledge regarding the prevention and treatment of childhood acute respiratory infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  9. Mass market development strategies of software industries: Case study based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success in competitive mass market software development depends on the quality of software development and market segments targeted. Market segments are categorized by uncertainties contributed by “Newness” and “turbulences”, making the software success stochastic in nature. Selecting good market segments, delivering high quality software versions in the lowest time than competitors, result in increasing demand in markets and ultimately revenues. Enhanced customer base is beneficial for current product as well as for future products of industry in the form of increased reputation and increased involvement of customers in future development. The case study was conducted with 13 representatives drawing experiences of 14 mass market projects. Results indicate that software solutions are delivered to few investors or in highly competitive markets, as per the survey's findings of the marketing departments. The software organizations are reluctant to deliver relatively complex solutions in new markets unless and until strongly convinced with the probable success. The method for selection of market segments belonging to new and existing markets for undertaking the software delivery is also proposed in this paper. The model will help software industry decide the market segments and high abstract level features that could increase probability of software success. Poor selection of markets or targeting markets of “improper” size affects the market share of the industry to a great extend.

  10. VOICES AGAINST EXTREMISM: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED CVE COUNTER-NARRATIVE CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Macnair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.

  11. A Simplified Approach to Risk Assessment Based on System Dynamics: An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Guarnieri, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Seveso plants are complex sociotechnical systems, which makes it appropriate to support any risk assessment with a model of the system. However, more often than not, this step is only partially addressed, simplified, or avoided in safety reports. At the same time, investigations have shown that the complexity of industrial systems is frequently a factor in accidents, due to interactions between their technical, human, and organizational dimensions. In order to handle both this complexity and changes in the system over time, this article proposes an original and simplified qualitative risk evaluation method based on the system dynamics theory developed by Forrester in the early 1960s. The methodology supports the development of a dynamic risk assessment framework dedicated to industrial activities. It consists of 10 complementary steps grouped into two main activities: system dynamics modeling of the sociotechnical system and risk analysis. This system dynamics risk analysis is applied to a case study of a chemical plant and provides a way to assess the technological and organizational components of safety. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Communicating Archaeological Risk with Web-Based Virtual Reality: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Landeschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade 3D technologies have become very effective and are widely used for managing and interpreting archaeological data. A better way to perceive, understand and communicate Cultural Heritage has been achieved through VR applications, which have enabled archaeologists to make both reconstructions of original landscapes and to put artefacts in their original context. Furthermore, the exponential growth of the Web has led to a massive availability of digital content, even in the field of Cultural Heritage, that can be accessed in an easier and more intuitive manner by a broader audience. The case study presented here is designed to demonstrate the potential importance of Web3D technologies for communicating specific research aspects, such as the ones connected to the GIS-based spatial analysis applied to the archaeological landscape. To this end, a research project was undertaken in order to get a final predictive model for detecting archaeological presence in an area of the Pisa coastal plain, implemented in a Web-orientated Virtual Reality system. The end-user is able to navigate the model in real-time and observe different thematic layers, such as the distribution of the archaeological sites, maps of lithology, land use and, finally, the assessment of the archaeological risk.

  13. Leveraging Lean in construction: A case study of a BIM-based HVAC manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Conway

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impetus towards efficiency in the AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction & Operations sector is driving the implementation of Lean practices. BIM technologies and BIM processes provide methods by which this can be achieved. Major clients of building services contractors have begun to mandate the use of BIM and some are using BIM preparedness/experience as pre-tender qualification criteria. In this case study, an initial review has been conducted of the achievements of a major Irish M&E contractor in implementing BIM. The firm purpose-built a facility for the off-site manufacture of building services components. The operations of the plant are efficient and quality assured through the use of an appropriately skilled workforce at all stages of manufacture, and tracking software that has developed as the knowledge of the contractor grew. Standardised processes have been developed which have resulted in greater efficiencies and lower costs for the contractor as a result of fewer requirements for onsite modifications (such as those caused by clashes, less waste, and greater flexibility. Despite some initial objections, the employees of the company are now more satisfied with their working conditions and are, as a result, more productive. Through investment in BIM-based, Lean processes, the contractor can now better compete when tendering for large-scale projects in Ireland and worldwide, including the rapidly-increasing number where BIM experience and preparedness is mandated.

  14. Performance of grid-tied PV facilities: A case study based on real data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díez-Mediavilla, M.; Dieste-Velasco, M.I.; Rodríguez-Amigo, M.C.; García-Calderón, T.; Alonso-Tristán, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new procedure to analyse the performance of PV facilities is presented. • It only requires limited amounts of data that are easily sourced. • Data sets on production were collected over two complete years. • The transformerless inverter outperforms the isolated inverter. - Abstract: A new procedure is presented to analyse the performance of grid-tied PV facilities. It needs limited amounts of data that are easily sourced and is based on knowledge of the analysed system and its mode of operation. The procedure is applied, in a case study, to compare real PV production at two 100 kW p grid-connected PV installations. Located in the same geographical region, the installation of these two facilities followed the same construction criteria – PV panels, panel support system and wiring – and the facilities were exposed to the same atmospheric temperature and solar radiation. They differ with regard to their inverter technology: one facility uses an inverter with an integrated transformer system and the other uses a transformerless inverter. The results show that the transformerless inverter system performed better than the isolated system by a factor of 1.2%, which, in economic terms, represents more than 2000 €/year

  15. Network centrality based team formation: A case study on T-20 cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Dey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates the novel utilization of small world network properties for the formation of team of players with both best performances and best belongingness within the team network. To verify this concept, this methodology is applied to T-20 cricket teams. The players are treated as nodes of the network, whereas the number of interactions between team members is denoted as the edges between those nodes. All intra country networks form the cricket network for this case study. Analysis of the networks depicts that T-20 cricket network inherits all characteristics of small world network. Making a quantitative measure for an individual performance in the team sports is important with respect to the fact that for team selection of an International match, from pool of best players, only eleven players can be selected for the team. The statistical record of each player considered as a traditional way of quantifying the performance of a player. But the other criteria such as performing against a strong opponent or performance as an effective team member such as fielding, running between the wickets, good partnership deserves more credential. In this paper a revised method based on social networking is presented to quantify the quality of team belongingness and efficiency of each player. The application of Social Network Analysis (SNA is explored to measure performances and the rank of the players. A bidirectional weighted network of players is generated using the information collected from T-20 cricket (2014–2016 and used for network analysis. Thus team was formed based on that ranking and compared with their IPL (Indian Premier League performances of 2016.

  16. Novel Stool-Based Protein Biomarkers for Improved Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Linda J W; de Wit, Meike; Pham, Thang V; Coupé, Veerle M H; Hiemstra, Annemieke C; Piersma, Sander R; Oudgenoeg, Gideon; Scheffer, George L; Mongera, Sandra; Sive Droste, Jochim Terhaar; Oort, Frank A; van Turenhout, Sietze T; Larbi, Ilhame Ben; Louwagie, Joost; van Criekinge, Wim; van der Hulst, Rene W M; Mulder, Chris J J; Carvalho, Beatriz; Fijneman, Remond J A; Jimenez, Connie R; Meijer, Gerrit A

    2017-12-19

    The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for detecting hemoglobin is used widely for noninvasive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but its sensitivity leaves room for improvement. To identify novel protein biomarkers in stool that outperform or complement hemoglobin in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas. Case-control study. Colonoscopy-controlled referral population from several centers. 315 stool samples from one series of 12 patients with CRC and 10 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples) and a second series of 81 patients with CRC, 40 with advanced adenomas, and 43 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 129 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples); 72 FIT samples from a third independent series of 14 patients with CRC, 16 with advanced adenomas, and 18 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 24 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples). Stool samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify protein combinations that differentiated CRC or advanced adenoma from control samples. Antibody-based assays for 4 selected proteins were done on FIT samples. In total, 834 human proteins were identified, 29 of which were statistically significantly enriched in CRC versus control stool samples in both series. Combinations of 4 proteins reached sensitivities of 80% and 45% for detecting CRC and advanced adenomas, respectively, at 95% specificity, which was higher than that of hemoglobin alone (P control samples (P control samples. Proof of concept that such proteins can be detected with antibody-based assays in small sample volumes indicates the potential of these biomarkers to be applied in population screening. Center for Translational Molecular Medicine, International Translational Cancer Research Dream Team, Stand Up to Cancer (American Association for Cancer Research and the Dutch Cancer Society), Dutch Digestive Foundation, and VU

  17. Designing for Diverse Learning: Case Study of Place-Based Learning in Design and Technologies Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Marnie; MacGregor, Denise; Price, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Place-based learning experiences in Design and Technologies education connect people and place with design processes and products. Drawing on place-based learning, this case study shares the experiences of eight final year pre-service Design and Technologies education students from the University of South Australia as they collaborated with…

  18. A Case Study of Student Engagement in Collaborative Group Learning in a Blended Community Based (Service) Learning Module

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrigle, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: A participatory action research case study employed mixed methods to examine student collaboration and engagement in a Community Based (Service) learning module. A quasi experimental testing of Coates (2007) typology of student engagement found low agreement between students and lecturers in assigning the terms, passive, intense, independent or collaborative to student postings to discussion fora. Evidence from this case study found greater student collaboration in discussion fora w...

  19. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda: a population -based case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2015-08-21

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with subjects enrolled prospectively from May 2011 to May 2013. Cases of homicide victimization were identified via police reports, and crime details were provided by law enforcement agencies. Three controls were matched to each case by sex, 5-year age group and village of residence. Socioeconomic and personal background data, including genocide exposure, were provided via interview of a family member or through village administrators. Conditional logistic regression, stratified by gender status, was used to identify risk factors for homicide victimization. During the study period, 156 homicide victims were enrolled, of which 57 % were male and 43 % were female. The most common mechanisms of death were wounds inflicted by sharp instruments (knives or machetes; 41 %) followed by blunt force injuries (36.5 %). Final models indicated that risk of homicide victimhood increased with victim alcohol drinking patterns. There was a dose response noted for alcohol use: for minimal drinking versus none, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.1, 95%CI: 1,3-7.9; for moderate drinking versus none, aOR = 10.1, 95%CI: 3.7-24.9; and for heavy drinking versus none, aOR = 11.5, 95%CI: 3.6-36.8. Additionally, having no surviving parent (aOR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.1), previous physical and/or sexual abuse (aOR = 28.1, 95%CI: 5.1-28.3) and drinking illicit brew and/or drug use (aOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 2.4-18.6) were associated with a higher risk of being killed. The test of interaction revealed that the variables that

  20. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Wong, May Chun Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53-13.00, Pchronic periodontitis was analyzed in 10 studies. The pooled result showed that HCMV also has a significant association with chronic periodontitis (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.41-9.16, P = 0.007). Similar results were found in the sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was observed. Two eligible studies were included to investigate the association between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and chronic periodontitis risk. The association between HSV and chronic periodontitis was inconclusive (OR = 2.81 95% CI = 0.95-8.27, P = 0.06). Only one included study investigated the association between human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21-4.86). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV

  1. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pu Chang

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation.Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls.In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001. After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47. This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26.Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a

  2. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation. Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls. In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001). After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47). This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26). Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a risk factor

  3. Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueker, Marly Eliane; Silva, Vivianne Monteiro; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Pignati, Wanderley Antonio; Mattos, Ines Echenique; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2016-08-12

    Most fetal defects are associated with genetic and environmental causes, among them, exposure of pregnant women to intensive pesticide use. Agribusiness is the economic basis of the state of Mato Grosso, the largest consumer of pesticides of all Brazilian states. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between past parental exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of congenital malformations in children in Mato Grosso, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso, from March to October 2011. Data was collected in all public, private, and health plan referral hospitals that provide care for pregnant women in the state of Mato Grosso and were situated in Cuiabá. Cases were children under 5 years of age with congenital malformations classified in Chapter XVIII of the International Classification of Diseases-10 and controls were children within the same age range, without congenital malformations, treated at the same hospitals. Malformation-related data was obtained from the patients' medical records. Socioeconomic data and information about parental exposure to pesticides were obtained in an interview with the mother using a standardized questionnaire. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to assess the relation between parent report of past pesticide use and congenital malformations. We also assessed effect modification to verify whether low maternal education level modified the association between exposure and our outcome. We observed positive effect modification of the association of paternal past exposure to pesticide and congenital malformation in the offspring by maternal education for mothers with low educational level (OR = 8.40, 95 % CI 2.17-32.52), father's work related to farming (OR = 4.65, 95 % CI 1.03-20.98) and paternal past exposure to pesticides (OR = 4.15, 95 % CI 1.24-13.66). These findings provide further evidence that paternal exposure to

  4. Instruction in Divergent Thinking for Conceptual Design: A Case Study Based on a Corkscrew

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Chieh Liu; Chin-Yu Kao; Amaresh Chakrabarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstraction is a powerful tool for designers in the conceptual design stage. Such abstractions take various forms, and little is known as to how a particular method of abstraction would support designers in specific design cases. A method is proposed which includes a deliberate step for divergent thinking. The method presents learners with an abstract representation of an existing artifact, and encourages them to explore potential concepts that are different in style but are based on the same...

  5. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  6. 55 cases of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-01-01

    themselves, and adverse reactions to hair dye may not necessarily be recorded by the health care system, unless the reactions are especially severe. Based on this assumption, we suspected that hair dye dermatitis was occurring more frequently than reported in the literature. Consumer complaint-based data......Severe facial and scalp dermatitis following the use of permanent hair dyes has been reported in several cases. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is known as a potent contact allergen, and PPD is allowed in hair dye at a concentration of 6%. Hair dye reactions are usually diagnosed by the patients...

  7. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Richard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. Methods We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. Conclusion In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  8. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  9. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  10. Habitat-Lite: A GSC case study based on free text terms for environmental metadata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Hirschman, Lynette; Clark, Cheryl; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Mardis, Scott; Luciano, Joanne; Kottmann, Renzo; Cole, James; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Field, Dawn

    2008-04-01

    There is an urgent need to capture metadata on the rapidly growing number of genomic, metagenomic and related sequences, such as 16S ribosomal genes. This need is a major focus within the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and Habitat is a key metadata descriptor in the proposed 'Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence' (MIGS) specification. The goal of the work described here is to provide a light-weight, easy-to-use (small) set of terms ('Habitat-Lite') that captures high-level information about habitat while preserving a mapping to the recently launched Environment Ontology (EnvO). Our motivation for building Habitat-Lite is to meet the needs of multiple users, such as annotators curating these data, database providers hosting the data, and biologists and bioinformaticians alike who need to search and employ such data in comparative analyses. Here, we report a case study based on semi-automated identification of terms from GenBank and GOLD. We estimate that the terms in the initial version of Habitat-Lite would provide useful labels for over 60% of the kinds of information found in the GenBank isolation-source field, and around 85% of the terms in the GOLD habitat field. We present a revised version of Habitat-Lite and invite the community's feedback on its further development in order to provide a minimum list of terms to capture high-level habitat information and to provide classification bins needed for future studies.

  11. The Crisis Response to a School-Based Hostage Event: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Summers, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been increased public, professional, and legislative interest in school crisis prevention and intervention. It is recommended that comprehensive crisis teams be established at the school, district, and community levels. A case study was conducted in which interviews were utilized to facilitate an increased…

  12. Transformation-based exploration of data parallel architecture for customizable hardware : a JPEG encoder case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corvino, R.; Diken, E.; Gamatié, A.; Jozwiak, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the design of MPSoCs for complex data-intensive applications. This method aims at a blend exploration of the communication, the memory system architecture and the computation resource parallelism. The proposed method is exemplified on a JPEG Encoder case study

  13. Multiple Case Study of STEM in School-Based Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Eric A.; Myers, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated the integration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in three Florida high school agriculture programs. Observations, interviews, documents, and artifacts provided qualitative data that indicated the types of STEM knowledge taught. Variables of interest included student and teacher…

  14. Mind the Gap: A Case Study of Values-Based Decision Making in a Nonprofit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jana L.

    2013-01-01

    Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…

  15. College-Based Case Studies in Using PowerPoint Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Smith, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study reexamined PowerPoint's potential to enhance traditional pedagogical practices in higher education. The study addressed (1) the conditions under which PowerPoint meets students' needs in typical lecture-based classrooms, (2) whether professors consider PowerPoint-based lectures more effective than lectures supported by material on…

  16. Study on effectiveness of flood control based on risk level: case study of Kampung Melayu Village and Bukit Duri Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, experiences flood which causes activities disruption and losses almost every year. Many studies have been done to mitigate the impact of flooding. Most of them focus on reducing the inundated area as an indicator of the effectiveness of flood control. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of several flood control alternatives based on risk level reduction. The case study is located in Kampung Melayu Village and Bukit Duri Village which are densely populated with several economic area and almost every year experiencing severe flooding in Jakarta. Risk level analysis was carried out by the method based on guidelines issued by the Head of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB No. 2/2012 with few modifications. The analysis is conducted on five alternatives of flood control which are diversion channel to East Flood Canal (KBT, diversion channel to the West Flood Canal (KBB in Pasar Minggu, river improvement, capacity enhancement on all components, and capacity enhancement focusing on one component. From the results, it is showed that enhancing capacity which focus on preparedness component by two levels are the best in terms of investment value to risk level reduction.

  17. EXPLAINING THE AUDIT RISK AND ITS COMPONENTS: A COMPARATIVE CASE-STUDY BASED ON AUDIT REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VOICULESCU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The players activating in the post-recession business environment have to and begin to be more and more prudent and attentive to any sign of human errors, uncertainty, lack of objectivity, attempt of fraud which may occur when financial statements are prepared, in their own case or in the case of their trade clients/suppliers, debtors, business partners, in general. Auditors thus became the mediators between the producers and the users of accountant information, using their high theoretical training, authority, competence and independence as pledge for the fairness of the financial statements and for the compliance with the Law. But even their reports are subject to uncertainty, therefore the author considered useful to approach in the current paper the issue of risk in financial audit, by use of a study-case of several audit reports, in order to explain and exemplify it and to highlight the difference between its components’ evaluation.

  18. A hospital based autopsy study of 50 cases at combined military hospital (cmh), sialkot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, N.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the pattern of deaths on autopsy carried out on Armed Forces personnel in CMH Sialkot. Study Design: Retrospective analytical study Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Sialkot (CMH), from 2009 to 2012 Materials and Methods: In a total of fifty (50) cases detailed postmortems were carried out and gross features on external examination and different systemic examinations were recorded. Histopathology of various organs was done in all cases. Chemical and toxicological examination of various abdominal viscera was carried out in all sudden and suspicious deaths. Results: Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) was most common cause of death (38%) followed by road traffic accidents (14%) and electrocution (8%). Sudden adult death syndrome accounted for 4 cases of deaths. Other causes were drowning, cerebral malaria, heat stroke, gunshot wounds, myocarditis, brain hemorrhage, meningitis and diabetic ketoacidosis. Most of these cases were young soldiers (n=30) followed by Non-Commissioned Officers (n=17). Conclusion: A large number of our young soldiers dying of heart problems is an alarming situation. Awareness among the troops of various risk factors is most important. Precautionary measures against preventable causes should be taken. (author)

  19. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  20. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  1. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE AND ROLE OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: RISK BASED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.

  2. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.; Lanaras, Ch.; Baltsavias, E.; Cho, K.; Remondino, F.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two approaches namely change detection based on SAR data and co-registration of optical and SAR satellite images. With respect to SAR data, our efforts are subdivided into three parts: (1) initial coarse change detection for entire area, (2) flood area detection, and (3) linearfeature change detection. The investigations are based on pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images. In (1), two pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are accurately co-registered and radiometrically calibrated. Data are fused in a false-color image that provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifying areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. However, a bunch of inevitable false alarms appear within the scene caused by speckle, temporal decorrelation, co-registration inaccuracy and so on. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X data are used to extract the flood area by using thresholding and morphological approaches. The validated result indicates that using SAR data combining with suitable morphological approaches is a quick and effective way to detect flood area. Except for usage of SAR data, the false-color image composed of optical images are also used to detect flood area for further exploration in this part. In (3), Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image of pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images not only to suppress false alarms of irregular-features, but also to enhance the change signals of linear-features (e.g. buildings

  3. Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    King, Melony G; Olson, Sara H; Paddock, Lisa; Chandran, Urmila; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Parekh, Niyati; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the US. The consumption of refined sugars has increased dramatically over the past few decades, accounting for almost 15% of total energy intake. Yet, there is limited evidence on how sugar consumption affects ovarian cancer risk. Methods We evaluated ovarian cancer risk in relation to sugary foods and beverages, and total and added sugar intakes in a population-based case?control study. Cases were women with newly diagnosed epi...

  4. Scenario-Based Case Study Analysis of Asteroid Mitigation in the Short Response Time Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, B.; Greenaugh, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroid impact on Earth is a rare but inevitable occurrence, with potentially cataclysmic consequences. If a pending impact is discovered, mitigation options include civil-defense preparations as well as missions to deflect the asteroid and/or robustly disrupt and disperse it to an extent that only a negligible fraction remains on a threatening path (National Research Council's "Defending the Planet," 2010). If discovered with sufficient warning time, a kinetic impactor can deflect smaller objects, but response delays can rule out the option. If a body is too large to deflect by kinetic impactor, or the time for response is insufficient, deflection or disruption can be achieved with a nuclear device. The use of nuclear ablation is considered within the context of current capabilities, requiring no need for nuclear testing. Existing, well-understood devices are sufficient for the largest known Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHOs). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center and the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration are collaborating to determine the critical characterization issues that define the boundaries for the asteroid-deflection options. Drawing from such work, we examine the timeline for a deflection mission, and how to provide the best opportunity for an impactor to suffice by minimizing the response time. This integrated problem considers the physical process of the deflection method (impact or ablation), along with the spacecraft, launch capability, risk analysis, and the available intercept flight trajectories. Our joint DOE/NASA team has conducted case study analysis of three distinctly different PHOs, on a hypothetical earth impacting trajectory. The size of the design reference bodies ranges from 100 - 500 meters in diameter, with varying physical parameters such as composition, spin state, and metallicity, to name a few. We assemble the design reference of the small body in question using

  5. Integration between ground based and satellite SAR data in landslide mapping: The San Fratello case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Federica; Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Bianchini, Silvia; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Fanti, Riccardo; Moretti, Sandro; Basile, Giuseppe; Casagli, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of the integration of PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and GB-InSAR (Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) for landslide hazard mitigation was evaluated for mapping and monitoring activities of the San Fratello landslide (Sicily, Italy). Intense and exceptional rainfall events are the main factors that triggered several slope movements in the study area, which is susceptible to landslides, because of its steep slopes and silty-clayey sedimentary cover. In the last three centuries, the town of San Fratello was affected by three large landslides, developed in different periods: the oldest one occurred in 1754, damaging the northeastern sector of the town; in 1922 a large landslide completely destroyed a wide area in the western hillside of the town. In this paper, the attention is focussed on the most recent landslide that occurred on 14 February 2010: in this case, the phenomenon produced the failure of a large sector of the eastern hillside, causing severe damages to buildings and infrastructures. In particular, several slow-moving rotational and translational slides occurred in the area, making it suitable to monitor ground instability through different InSAR techniques. PS-InSAR™ (permanent scatterers SAR interferometry) techniques, using ERS-1/ERS-2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, and COSMO-SkyMed SAR images, were applied to analyze ground displacements during pre- and post-event phases. Moreover, during the post-event phase in March 2010, a GB-InSAR system, able to acquire data continuously every 14 min, was installed collecting ground displacement maps for a period of about three years, until March 2013. Through the integration of space-borne and ground-based data sets, ground deformation velocity maps were obtained, providing a more accurate delimitation of the February 2010 landslide boundary, with respect to the carried out traditional geomorphological field survey. The integration of GB-InSAR and PSI techniques proved to

  6. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical

  7. Metamorphoses of cogeneration-based district heating in Romania: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacobescu, Flavius; Badescu, Viorel

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. - Research Highlights: →Birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating system in a medium size city. →The industrialization degree is the main factor which controlled the reconfiguration of the district heating system. →Each stage of the evolution of district heating system has been a technological leap. →Cogeneration is a solution for district heating even in case of abrupt social changes.

  8. Cervical spondylomyelopathy ('wobbler' syndrome) in the dog: a study based on 224 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past 10 to 12 years, cervical spondylomyelopathy has been increasingly recognised in large breed dogs. The breeds mainly affected are dobermanns, great danes and basset hounds. Factors such as age, sex and location of the lesions are discussed in detail based on findings from 224 cases seen at the University of Liverpool Small Animal Hospital. The anatomical changes responsible for the signs show some striking similarities in young dogs of all the breeds affected. Where the condition is commoner later in life, such as in the dobermann, the changes and their effect on the spinal cord show considerable differences. These different findings are compared, and an attempt made to explain them

  9. Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unplanned Deliveries at Home: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catak, Binali; Oner, Can

    2015-01-01

    Unplanned home deliveries can vary with social and cultural factors. The aim of this study was to define the risk factors of unplanned home births. This case control study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey. The study group was composed of 229 women who had unplanned home delivery. Six factors (presence of health insurance, duration of living in Istanbul, educational status of the woman, the number of individuals living in the household, the age of the woman at the time of current delivery, and the status of having received care prior to delivery) were determined as independent risk factors for unplanned deliveries at home.

  10. Report on decision-making of geological disposal. Discussion based on case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruzawa, Shigenobu

    2004-01-01

    History of geological disposal from 1950 to 2000 in the world and some examples of change of policy in France, Sweden and Canada are explained. On the case study of three countries, investigations of background of the change, site decision process, communication, flexible concept of disposal are stated. Japan decided the high level radioactive waste is disposed in underground (300m deeper) under the Law Concerning the Final Disposal of Special Radioactive Waste in June, 2000. NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established to manage disposal of radioactive waste in October, 2000. NUMO started to accept application for the site of disposal in the country in December, 2002. The above case study is a good guide to promote geological disposal of radioactive waste. (S.Y.)

  11. Can Interactive Web-Based CAD Tools Improve the Learning of Engineering Drawing? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Cerra, Pablo; Suárez González, Jesús M.; Busto Parra, Bernardo; Rodríguez Ortiz, Diana; Álvarez Peñín, Pedro I.

    2014-01-01

    Many current Web-based learning environments facilitate the theoretical teaching of a subject but this may not be sufficient for those disciplines that require a significant use of graphic mechanisms to resolve problems. This research study looks at the use of an environment that can help students learn engineering drawing with Web-based CAD…

  12. Measuring Efficacy of Information Security Policies : A Case Study of UAE based company

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays information security policies are operative in many organizations. Currently few organizations take the pain of verifying the efficacy of these policies. Different standards and procedures exist about methods of measuring efficacy of information security policies. Choosing and implementing them depends mainly on the key performance indicators (KPIs) and key risk indicators (KRIs) of any particular organization. This thesis is a case study of an organization in United Arab Emirates (U...

  13. Calculating the Efficiency of Steam Boilers Based on Its Most Effecting Factors: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil M. Muhaisen; Rajab Abdullah Hokoma

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with calculating boiler efficiency as one of the most important types of performance measurements in any steam power plant. That has a key role in determining the overall effectiveness of the whole system within the power station. For this calculation, a Visual-Basic program was developed, and a steam power plant known as El-Khmus power plant, Libya was selected as a case study. The calculation of the boiler efficiency was applied by using heating ...

  14. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  15. A Case Study Based Analysis of Performance Metrics for Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, B. L.; Ajami, N.; Quesnel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Aging infrastructure, population growth, and urbanization are demanding new approaches to management of all components of the urban water cycle, including stormwater. Traditionally, urban stormwater infrastructure was designed to capture and convey rainfall-induced runoff out of a city through a network of curbs, gutters, drains, and pipes, also known as grey infrastructure. These systems were planned with a single-purpose and designed under the assumption of hydrologic stationarity, a notion that no longer holds true in the face of a changing climate. One solution gaining momentum around the world is green infrastructure (GI). Beyond stormwater quality improvement and quantity reduction (or technical benefits), GI solutions offer many environmental, economic, and social benefits. Yet many practical barriers have prevented the widespread adoption of these systems worldwide. At the center of these challenges is the inability of stakeholders to know how to monitor, measure, and assess the multi-sector performance of GI systems. Traditional grey infrastructure projects require different monitoring strategies than natural systems; there are no overarching policies on how to best design GI monitoring and evaluation systems and measure performance. Previous studies have attempted to quantify the performance of GI, mostly using one evaluation method on a specific case study. We use a case study approach to address these knowledge gaps and develop a conceptual model of how to evaluate the performance of GI through the lens of financing. First, we examined many different case studies of successfully implemented GI around the world. Then we narrowed in on 10 exemplary case studies. For each case studies, we determined what performance method the project developer used such as LCA, TBL, Low Impact Design Assessment (LIDA) and others. Then, we determined which performance metrics were used to determine success and what data was needed to calculate those metrics. Finally, we

  16. Selection bias in population-based cancer case-control studies due to incomplete sampling frame coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Nieto, F Javier; Newcomb, Polly A; Palta, Mari

    2012-06-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are choosing to opt out of population-based sampling frames due to privacy concerns. This is especially a problem in the selection of controls for case-control studies, as the cases often arise from relatively complete population-based registries, whereas control selection requires a sampling frame. If opt out is also related to risk factors, bias can arise. We linked breast cancer cases who reported having a valid driver's license from the 2004-2008 Wisconsin women's health study (N = 2,988) with a master list of licensed drivers from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WDOT). This master list excludes Wisconsin drivers that requested their information not be sold by the state. Multivariate-adjusted selection probability ratios (SPR) were calculated to estimate potential bias when using this driver's license sampling frame to select controls. A total of 962 cases (32%) had opted out of the WDOT sampling frame. Cases age <40 (SPR = 0.90), income either unreported (SPR = 0.89) or greater than $50,000 (SPR = 0.94), lower parity (SPR = 0.96 per one-child decrease), and hormone use (SPR = 0.93) were significantly less likely to be covered by the WDOT sampling frame (α = 0.05 level). Our results indicate the potential for selection bias due to differential opt out between various demographic and behavioral subgroups of controls. As selection bias may differ by exposure and study base, the assessment of potential bias needs to be ongoing. SPRs can be used to predict the direction of bias when cases and controls stem from different sampling frames in population-based case-control studies.

  17. Reliability analysis of idealized tunnel support system using probability-based methods with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharouni-Nik, Morteza; Naeimi, Meysam; Ahadi, Sodayf; Alimoradi, Zahra

    2014-06-01

    In order to determine the overall safety of a tunnel support lining, a reliability-based approach is presented in this paper. Support elements in jointed rock tunnels are provided to control the ground movement caused by stress redistribution during the tunnel drive. Main support elements contribute to stability of the tunnel structure are recognized owing to identify various aspects of reliability and sustainability in the system. The selection of efficient support methods for rock tunneling is a key factor in order to reduce the number of problems during construction and maintain the project cost and time within the limited budget and planned schedule. This paper introduces a smart approach by which decision-makers will be able to find the overall reliability of tunnel support system before selecting the final scheme of the lining system. Due to this research focus, engineering reliability which is a branch of statistics and probability is being appropriately applied to the field and much effort has been made to use it in tunneling while investigating the reliability of the lining support system for the tunnel structure. Therefore, reliability analysis for evaluating the tunnel support performance is the main idea used in this research. Decomposition approaches are used for producing system block diagram and determining the failure probability of the whole system. Effectiveness of the proposed reliability model of tunnel lining together with the recommended approaches is examined using several case studies and the final value of reliability obtained for different designing scenarios. Considering the idea of linear correlation between safety factors and reliability parameters, the values of isolated reliabilities determined for different structural components of tunnel support system. In order to determine individual safety factors, finite element modeling is employed for different structural subsystems and the results of numerical analyses are obtained in

  18. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  19. Use of Scaffolding in Problem-Based Learning in an Elementary Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gather data on the scaffolding a facilitator developed and used for learners during a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) setting. The study explored how the learners developed their ability to share their understanding and current knowledge by solving the presented real-world problem through investigation…

  20. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  1. Flipping Every Student? A Case Study of Content-Based Flipped Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to explore university-level foreign language learners' perceptions of the content-based flipped classroom approach and factors influencing their perceptions. The research questions guiding the study are three-fold. (a) What attitudes and perceptions do students have about language and knowledge acquisition in the content-based…

  2. Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Tina Malene; Bomme, Maria; Hveem, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux, but whether other tobacco products increase the risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if snus increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based...

  3. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Drozdovitch, V.; Bouville, A.; Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  4. AUTOPSY-BASED STUDY OF SILENT LIVER DISEASES IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF EASTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Prava Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An autopsy is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of corpse to determine the cause of death and to evaluate any diseases that maybe present. Most of the chronic liver diseases even in advanced stages may cause no signs and symptoms and may go undiagnosed or are found coincidently during general health checkup, investigation being done for some other disease, surgery or autopsy. The underlying cause of chronic liver diseases vary in different geographic areas and are based on various factors such as socioeconomic status, lifestyle, diet, local and other endemic diseases. Hence, we have conducted this study to unearth the silent liver diseases in medicolegal cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine and Toxicology of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, during 2012 to 2015. All medicolegal cases received for autopsy are included in the study. Routine HE stain and special stain like reticulin, Masson trichrome stain was used wherever necessary and results were analysed. RESULTS Autopsy was done in 139 cases. Portal inflammation and fibrosis was found in 35 (25.18% cases. Sinusoidal dilatation and congestion in 29 cases (20.86%, cirrhosis and bridging fibrosis was found in 16 cases (11.5%, steatohepatitis in 27 cases (19.42%, cholestasis in 3 cases (2.16%, hepatitis 1 case (0.72% and hepatocellular carcinoma in 1 case (0.72%. The others include autolytic changes and normal liver. CONCLUSION Autopsy and histopathological study of liver is the best method to determine the clinically latent liver diseases.

  5. Public Librarians as Partners in Problem-Based Learning in Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietikäinen, Virpi; Kortelainen, Terttu; Siklander, Pirkko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Teachers in Finland are demanded to develop students' competencies in information literacy. However, they can meet this demand only by collaborating with public librarians. The aim in this case study was to explore the perspectives of teachers, librarians and students in a problem-based project and to analyse the advantages and…

  6. Collaborative Model-based Systems Engineering for Cyber-Physical Systems, with a Building Automation Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, John; Gamble, Carl; Payne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to the model-based engineering of cyber-physical systems that permits the coupling of diverse discrete-event and continuous-time models and their simulators. A case study in the building automation domain demonstrates how such co-models and co-simulation can promote early...

  7. A Case Study on Collective Cognition and Operation in Team-Based Computer Game Design by Middle-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined team-based computer-game design efforts by children with diverse abilities to explore the nature of their collective design actions and cognitive processes. Ten teams of middle-school children, with a high percentage of minority students, participated in a 6-weeks, computer-assisted math-game-design program. Essential…

  8. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  9. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  10. Globalization and Multilingualism: Case Studies of Indigenous Culture-Based Education from the Indian Sub-Continent and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the major program initiatives honoring Indigenous knowledge, culture, heritage, arts, and skills through curricular reforms and culturally appropriate educational practices on the Indian sub-continent. It presents case studies of Indigenous culture-based education, with reference to mother tongue and multicultural…

  11. Distance Learning Engineering Students Languish under Project-Based Learning, but Thrive in Case Studies and Practical Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Arthur James

    2016-01-01

    The International Engineering Alliance lists 12 important graduate attributes that students must demonstrate during their higher educational career. One of these important graduate attributes is the ability to solve problems, which can be demonstrated by the use of project-based learning, case studies, and practical workshops. The purpose of this…

  12. Does Online Game-Based Learning Work in Formal Education at School? A Case Study of VISOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Environment) is a teacher-facilitated pedagogical approach to integrating constructivist online game-based learning into formal curriculum teaching in school education. This paper reports a case study on the implementation of VISOLE in secondary Geography education. We compared the pedagogical…

  13. BladeRunners and Picasso Cafe: A Case Study Evaluation of Two Work-Based Training Programs for Disadvantaged Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Sheila; Foley, Kelly; Schwartz, Saul; Taylor-Lewis, Musu

    In 1998, Canada's Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) conducted case studies of two work-based training and skill development programs for street youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. The BladeRunners program places youth on construction sites while encouraging them to work toward an apprenticeship in the building trades. The…

  14. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. [Acquiring skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management: comparison of high-fidelity simulation versus computer-based case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Vilma; Gonzalez, Carlos; Delfino, Alejandro E; Altermatt, Fernando R; Corvetto, Marcia A

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high fidelity simulation versus a computer-based case solving self-study, in skills acquisition about malignant hyperthermia on first year anesthesiology residents. After institutional ethical committee approval, 31 first year anesthesiology residents were enrolled in this prospective randomized single-blinded study. Participants were randomized to either a High Fidelity Simulation Scenario or a computer-based Case Study about malignant hyperthermia. After the intervention, all subjects' performance in was assessed through a high fidelity simulation scenario using a previously validated assessment rubric. Additionally, knowledge tests and a satisfaction survey were applied. Finally, a semi-structured interview was done to assess self-perception of reasoning process and decision-making. 28 first year residents finished successfully the study. Resident's management skill scores were globally higher in High Fidelity Simulation versus Case Study, however they were significant in 4 of the 8 performance rubric elements: recognize signs and symptoms (p = 0.025), prioritization of initial actions of management (p = 0.003), recognize complications (p = 0.025) and communication (p = 0.025). Average scores from pre- and post-test knowledge questionnaires improved from 74% to 85% in the High Fidelity Simulation group, and decreased from 78% to 75% in the Case Study group (p = 0.032). Regarding the qualitative analysis, there was no difference in factors influencing the student's process of reasoning and decision-making with both teaching strategies. Simulation-based training with a malignant hyperthermia high-fidelity scenario was superior to computer-based case study, improving knowledge and skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management, with a very good satisfaction level in anesthesia residents. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  16. Acquiring skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management: comparison of high-fidelity simulation versus computer-based case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mejía

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high fidelity simulation versus a computer-based case solving self-study, in skills acquisition about malignant hyperthermia on first year anesthesiology residents. Methods: After institutional ethical committee approval, 31 first year anesthesiology residents were enrolled in this prospective randomized single-blinded study. Participants were randomized to either a High Fidelity Simulation Scenario or a computer-based Case Study about malignant hyperthermia. After the intervention, all subjects' performance in was assessed through a high fidelity simulation scenario using a previously validated assessment rubric. Additionally, knowledge tests and a satisfaction survey were applied. Finally, a semi-structured interview was done to assess self-perception of reasoning process and decision-making. Results: 28 first year residents finished successfully the study. Resident's management skill scores were globally higher in High Fidelity Simulation versus Case Study, however they were significant in 4 of the 8 performance rubric elements: recognize signs and symptoms (p = 0.025, prioritization of initial actions of management (p = 0.003, recognize complications (p = 0.025 and communication (p = 0.025. Average scores from pre- and post-test knowledge questionnaires improved from 74% to 85% in the High Fidelity Simulation group, and decreased from 78% to 75% in the Case Study group (p = 0.032. Regarding the qualitative analysis, there was no difference in factors influencing the student's process of reasoning and decision-making with both teaching strategies. Conclusion: Simulation-based training with a malignant hyperthermia high-fidelity scenario was superior to computer-based case study, improving knowledge and skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management, with a very good satisfaction level in anesthesia residents.

  17. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, Laura; Boiocchi, Riccardo; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    (WWTPs). As a consequence, these experiments might not be representative for full-scale performance, and unexpected behaviour may be observed when simulating WWTP models using the derived process equations. In this paper we want to highlight problems encountered using a simplified case study: a modified......: problems related to the overall mathematical model structure and problems related to the published set of parameter values. The paper describes the model implementation incompatibilities, the variability in parameter values and the difficulties of reaching similar conditions when simulating a full...

  18. The shallows: Development of Alibaba in Chinese domestic logistics system : A Case Study Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to critically analyse the influence of Alibaba as 3PL service providers for Chinese businesses needs and Domestic Logistics. Alibaba is the case study selected for discussion here. Mixed research methods are used, the research is a mix of both primary data and secondary data. A primary data collection method has been used where consumers were queried The aim of the research is to critically analyse the influence of Alibaba as 3PL service providers for Chinese busine...

  19. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  20. Association between zolpidem use and glaucoma risk: a Taiwanese population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (± 5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables. The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03-1.68). This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue.

  1. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa: differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bárbara C; Gonçalves, Sónia F; Martins, Carla; Brandão, Isabel; Roma-Torres, António; Hoek, Hans W; Machado, Paulo P

    2016-06-01

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN METHOD: A case-control design was used to compare a group of women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for AN (N = 98) and BN (N = 79) with healthy controls (N = 86) and with other psychiatric disorders (N = 68). Each control group was matched with AN patients regarding age and parental social categories. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing each person with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview. Compared to AN, women with BN reported significantly higher rates of paternal high expectations, excessive family importance placed on fitness/keeping in shape, and negative consequences due to adolescent overweight and adolescent objective overweight. Overweight during adolescence emerged as the most relevant retrospective correlate in the distinction between BN and AN participants. Family expectations and the importance placed on keeping in shape were also significant retrospective correlates in the BN group.

  2. Investigation of an online, problem-based introduction to nuclear sciences: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Easter, M.; Jiazhen, W.; Jonassen, D.

    2006-01-01

    An online, grant-funded course on nuclear engineering in society was developed at a large Midwestern university with the goal of providing non-majors a meaningful introduction to the many applications of nuclear science in a modern society and to stimulate learner interest in academic studies and/or professional involvement in nuclear science. Using a within-site case study approach, the current study focused on the efficacy of the online learning environment's support of learners' acquisition of knowledge and the impact of the environment on learners' interest in and beliefs about nuclear sciences in society. Findings suggest the environment successfully promoted learning and had a positive impact on learners' interests and beliefs. (authors)

  3. Investigation of an online, problem-based introduction to nuclear sciences: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Easter, M.; Jiazhen, W.; Jonassen, D. [Univ. of Missouri - Columbia, 111 London Hall, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    An online, grant-funded course on nuclear engineering in society was developed at a large Midwestern university with the goal of providing non-majors a meaningful introduction to the many applications of nuclear science in a modern society and to stimulate learner interest in academic studies and/or professional involvement in nuclear science. Using a within-site case study approach, the current study focused on the efficacy of the online learning environment's support of learners' acquisition of knowledge and the impact of the environment on learners' interest in and beliefs about nuclear sciences in society. Findings suggest the environment successfully promoted learning and had a positive impact on learners' interests and beliefs. (authors)

  4. Enhanced Web-Based Otitis Study Case vs. Simple Paper-Case: Impact on Medical Student Objective Structured Clinical Exam Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Malloy, M.D., M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distance education methods have taken on greater importance as medical student education has moved off campus into the community. What the best methods are for conveying information to students at distant sites has not been determined. Objective: To determine if students at distant community sites who received an otitis media study case by e-mail that was enhanced with a referral to a web-based otitis study case, performed better on otitis OSCE stations than students who received the same case not enhanced with visuals or referrals to a web-based otitis case. Design/Methods: Students were randomized by community site to receive either the enhanced (E or simple otitis study case (S. Students were e-mailed an otitis media study case during the 5th week of the rotation. Those randomized to the E-case received a case that started with a case scenario followed by a "Task" that instructed them to go to this web address: http://www.aap.org/otitismedia/www/vc/ear/index.cfm (American Academy of Pediatrics Otitis Web Site. They were then to select "Case 1" which was a continuation of the case scenario present on their e-mail. A list of learning objectives was also printed on the e-mail. Students receiving the S-case viewed the same case scenario and objectives, but were not instructed to go to the web page. All students rotated through two OSCE otitis stations. In the first station they interviewed a simulated patient(OSCE-SP and counseled her on the management of her 12 month old with otitis. Within that station they viewed a video of a pneumoscopic exam of two ears, one ear with otitis and the other ear normal. At the 2nd otitis station the student presented the case to a faculty and was asked a series of questions about otitis media(OSCE-PR. Scores on the two stations were compared by group. Results: There were 198 students who took the OSCE. 178 (90% responded to a survey that indicated they had opened and read the e-mailed case. There

  5. Estimation of net greenhouse gas balance using crop- and soil-based approaches: Two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jianxiong; Chen, Yuanquan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wansheng

    2013-01-01

    The net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB), estimated by combining direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can reveal whether an agricultural system is a sink or source of GHGs. Currently, two types of methods, referred to here as crop-based and soil-based approaches, are widely used to estimate the NGHGB of agricultural systems on annual and seasonal crop timescales. However, the two approaches may produce contradictory results, and few studies have tested which approach is more reliable. In this study, we examined the two approaches using experimental data from an intercropping trial with straw removal and a tillage trial with straw return. The results of the two approaches provided different views of the two trials. In the intercropping trial, NGHGB estimated by the crop-based approach indicated that monocultured maize (M) was a source of GHGs (− 1315 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 ), whereas maize–soybean intercropping (MS) was a sink (107 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 ). When estimated by the soil-based approach, both cropping systems were sources (− 3410 for M and − 2638 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 for MS). In the tillage trial, mouldboard ploughing (MP) and rotary tillage (RT) mitigated GHG emissions by 22,451 and 21,500 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 , respectively, as estimated by the crop-based approach. However, by the soil-based approach, both tillage methods were sources of GHGs: − 3533 for MP and − 2241 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 for RT. The crop-based approach calculates a GHG sink on the basis of the returned crop biomass (and other organic matter input) and estimates considerably more GHG mitigation potential than that calculated from the variations in soil organic carbon storage by the soil-based approach. These results indicate that the crop-based approach estimates higher GHG mitigation benefits compared to the soil-based approach and may overestimate the potential of GHG mitigation in agricultural systems. - Highlights: • Net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) of

  6. 451 Case studies Cardiac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Case Studies. 29 ... A case of a 26-year-old ASA I physical status male undergoing septoplasty had an abrupt ... myocardial infarction, severe hypertensive crisis, cerebral .... or no formal management is required in an ASA I patient.8 One.

  7. Selection and ranking of occupational safety indicators based on fuzzy AHP: A case study in road construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janackovic, Goran Lj.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP. A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies. The case study confirmed that organisational factors have a dominant effect on the quality of the occupational health and safety management system in Serbian road construction companies.

  8. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  9. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  10. Coupling Uncertainties with Accuracy Assessment in Object-Based Slum Detections, Case Study: Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratomo, J.; Kuffer, M.; Martinez, Javier; Kohli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our

  11. The Use of Mobile Technologies in Project-Based Science: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine how a group of elementary students perceived their engagement in a project-based science intervention investigating the water quality of a local lake. The students collaborated with a scientist to conduct various experiments and used handheld computers to collect and analyze data in order to examine the…

  12. Case Study: Use of Problem-Based Learning to Develop Students' Technical and Professional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…

  13. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  14. Managing School-Based Curriculum Innovations: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Edmond H. F.; Wan, Sally W. Y.; Galton, Maurice; Lee, John C. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study was originally designed to explore the impact of a distributed approach to developing curriculum leadership among schoolteachers. Previous papers have focused on reporting evidence of teacher learning in the process of engaging teachers in various types of curriculum decision-making in an innovation project based on interview data. This…

  15. Case Study on Optimal Routing in Logistics Network by Priority-based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Lin, Lin; Gen, Mitsuo; Shiota, Mitsushige

    Recently, research on logistics caught more and more attention. One of the important issues on logistics system is to find optimal delivery routes with the least cost for products delivery. Numerous models have been developed for that reason. However, due to the diversity and complexity of practical problem, the existing models are usually not very satisfying to find the solution efficiently and convinently. In this paper, we treat a real-world logistics case with a company named ABC Co. ltd., in Kitakyusyu Japan. Firstly, based on the natures of this conveyance routing problem, as an extension of transportation problem (TP) and fixed charge transportation problem (fcTP) we formulate the problem as a minimum cost flow (MCF) model. Due to the complexity of fcTP, we proposed a priority-based genetic algorithm (pGA) approach to find the most acceptable solution to this problem. In this pGA approach, a two-stage path decoding method is adopted to develop delivery paths from a chromosome. We also apply the pGA approach to this problem, and compare our results with the current logistics network situation, and calculate the improvement of logistics cost to help the management to make decisions. Finally, in order to check the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results acquired are compared with those come from the two methods/ software, such as LINDO and CPLEX.

  16. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior

  17. Replacement of traditional lectures with computer-based tutorials: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Lavelle

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot project with a group of 60 second-year undergraduates studying the use of standard forms of contract in the construction industry. The project entailed the replacement of two of a series of nine scheduled lectures with a computer-based tutorial. The two main aims of the project were to test the viability of converting existing lecture material into computer-based material on an in-house production basis, and to obtain feedback from the student cohort on their behavioural response to the change in media. The effect on student performance was not measured at this stage of development.

  18. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  19. Autoimmunity and susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Ola; Engels, Eric A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Gridley, Gloria; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Olsen, Jørgen H; Kerstann, Kimberly F; Wheeler, William; Hemminki, Kari; Linet, Martha S; Goldin, Lynn R

    2006-09-20

    Personal history of autoimmune diseases is consistently associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In contrast, there are limited data on risk of Hodgkin lymphoma following autoimmune diseases and almost no data addressing whether there is a familial association between the conditions. Using population-based linked registry data from Sweden and Denmark, 32 separate autoimmune and related conditions were identified from hospital diagnoses in 7476 case subjects with Hodgkin lymphoma, 18,573 matched control subjects, and more than 86,000 first-degree relatives of case and control subjects. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of relative risks for each condition using logistic regression and also applied multivariable hierarchical regression models. All P values are two-sided. We found statistically significantly increased risks of Hodgkin lymphoma associated with personal histories of several autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9 to 4.0), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.2 to 15.1), sarcoidosis (OR = 14.1, 95% CI = 5.4 to 36.8), and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (OR = infinity, P = .002). A statistically significant increase in risk of Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with family histories of sarcoidosis (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.1) and ulcerative colitis (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.6). Personal or family history of certain autoimmune conditions was strongly associated with increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. The association between both personal and family histories of sarcoidosis and a statistically significantly increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma suggests shared susceptibility for these conditions.

  20. Education and occupations preceding Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, R; Elbaz, A; Sanft, K R; Peterson, B J; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Grossardt, B R; de Andrade, M; Maraganore, D M; Rocca, W A

    2005-11-22

    To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independent sources of data: a review of the complete medical records in the system and a telephone interview. Occupations were coded using the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification. Subjects with 9 or more years of education were at increased risk of PD (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1 to 3.6; p = 0.02), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing education (test for linear trend, p = 0.02; medical records data). Physicians were at significantly increased risk of PD using both sources of occupational data. By contrast, four occupational groups showed a significantly decreased risk of PD using one source of data: construction and extractive workers (e.g., miners, oil well drillers), production workers (e.g., machine operators, fabricators), metal workers, and engineers. These associations with increased or decreased risk did not change noticeably after adjustment for education. Subjects with higher education and physicians have an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD), while subjects with some occupations presumed to involve high physical activity have a decreased risk of PD.

  1. Tourism Village Model Based on Local Indigenous: Case Study of Nongkosawit Tourism Village, Gunungpati, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih; Nihayah, Dyah Maya; Sudibyo, Syafitri Amalia; Winda, Fajri Nur

    2018-02-01

    Officially, Nongkosawit Village has become a tourism village since 2012. However, the economic impact has not been received by the society yet because of inappropriate tourism village model. Therefore, this study aims to find out the best model for the development of Nongkosawit Tourism Village. This research used Analytical Hierarchy Process method. The results of this research shows that the model of tourism village which was suitable to the local indigenous of Nongkosawit Tourism Village was the cultural based tourism village with the percentage of 58%. Therefore, it is necessary to do re-orientation from the natural-based village model into the cultural-based village model by raising and exploring the existing culture through unique and different tourism products.

  2. Factors influencing a problem-based learning implementation: A case study of IT courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Norida Muhd; Mohd, Haslina; Baharom, Fauziah; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Puteh, Nurnasran; Marzuki @ Matt, Zaharin; Husain, Mohd Zabidin; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    IT students must be trained to work efficiently as teamwork. One of the techniques that can be used to train them is through Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The PBL implementation can be influenced by various factors depending on the ultimate goal of the study. This study is focusing on the IT students' perception of the PBL implementation. The student's perception is important to ensure the successfulness of the PBL implementation. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that might influence the implementation of PBL of IT courses. This study aims to identify some catalyst factors that may influence the PBL implementation of IT courses. The study involved three (3) main phases: identifying PBL implementation factors, constructing a PBL model, and PBL model validation using statistical analysis. Four main factors are identified: PBL Characteristics, PBL Course Assessment, PBL Practices, and PBL Perception. Based on these four factors, a PBL model is constructed. Then, based on the proposed PBL model, four hypotheses are formulated and analyzed to validate the model. All hypotheses are significantly acceptable. The result shows that the PBL Characteristics and PBL Course Assessment factors are significantly influenced the PBL Practices and indirectly influenced the Students' Perception of the PBL Implementation for IT courses. This PBL model can assist decision makers in enhancing the PBL teaching and learning strategy for IT courses. It is also can be tested to other courses in the future.

  3. An Examination of XMOOCs: An Embedded Single Case Study Based on Conole’s 12 Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil KOCDAR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to examine the xMOOCs offered by one of the mainstream MOOC platforms in Conole’s 12 dimensions. For this purpose, the research employed an embedded single case study using heuristic inquiry to collect data. The researchers participated in three xMOOCs and took into consideration the characteristics of these MOOCs by rating them as low, medium or high in terms of Conole’s 12 dimensions. Inter-rater reliability was 92 percent. The study showed that the openness, massiveness, diversity, use of multimedia, communication among learners, learning pathway and amount of reflection dimensions were high. The communication with instructors, degree of collaboration and autonomy dimensions were medium, and the quality assurance, certification, and formal learning dimensions were low. After explaining characteristics of xMOOCs from the perspective of open learning, the study highlighted that xMOOCs dramatically differ with regard to the implementation of the freemium business model to education and course delivery methods. It was concluded that MOOCs are not a new form of learning, but a new form of organizing learning similar to the open university movement, but which promises more flexibility and access than open universities.

  4. Permanent health education based on research with professionals of a multidisciplinary residency program: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the perception of professional members of a multi-professional residency program on Permanent Health Education. It is a case study research using a qualitative approach, with sixteen members of a multi-professional residency program. The data were collected from January to May 2012, through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and systematic observation, and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis. Two categories were identified: Permanent Health Education establishing collective spaces of reflection of practices and Permanent Health Education that promotes integration between disciplines. The members of the multiprofessional residency team were found to be aware that permanent education permeates their training and enables reflection on their clinical practices and multidisciplinary action as producers of health actions.

  5. Climate change drives wind turbines in China: case study of market based wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [EET Consulting, Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of government policy and clean development mechanism (CDM) on wind power development in China. Firstly we review the background of Chinese wind power development and policy, as well as literature of climate change and CDM. We then present methodology, scenarios and data of a case study for the development of a large-scale grid-connected wind farm. We undertake project financial analysis under three scenarios. Our analysis results show that the project FIRR is 8.31% if CDM benefit is not taken into account, 8.72% if CDM benefit is considered with the price of the certified emission reduction (CER) at US dollars 4, and 10.28% if both the CDM benefit and government policy on cutting value added tax (VAT) by 50% are taken into account. This paper concludes that CDM and government preferential policy on value added tax will make wind power development financially viable in China. (author)

  6. Building a new life: a chaplain's theory based case study of chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, James L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case study of spiritual care for a patient suffering from Parkinson's disease who was referred to the chaplain in an out-patient depression research program. The chaplain's interventions were informed by an application of narrative theory, and the article demonstrates how this theory enabled the chaplain to help a patient develop new coping strategies for dealing with chronic disease. Using narrative theory, the chaplain assisted the patient to develop a new sense of identity as a spiritual, contingent self as the disease eroded his physical self and former life. The article includes a description of a patient's spiritual needs, chaplain interventions, and an outcomes measure of those interventions. The author argues that narrative theory provides chaplains with a language to identify and craft the unique intervention that spiritual care has in the life trajectory of this Parkinson's patient and other patients dealing with chronic illnesses.

  7. Using the critical incident technique in community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkora, Jeffrey; Stupar, Lauren; O'Donnell, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Successful community-based participatory research involves the community partner in every step of the research process. The primary study for this paper took place in rural, Northern California. Collaborative partners included an academic researcher and two community based resource centers that provide supportive services to people diagnosed with cancer. This paper describes our use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to conduct Community-based Participatory Research. We ask: Did the CIT facilitate or impede the active engagement of the community in all steps of the study process? We identified factors about the Critical Incident Technique that were either barriers or facilitators to involving the community partner in every step of the research process. Facilitators included the CIT's ability to accommodate involvement from a large spectrum of the community, its flexible design, and its personal approach. Barriers to community engagement included training required to conduct interviews, depth of interview probes, and time required. Overall, our academic-community partners felt that our use of the CIT facilitated community involvement in our Community-Based Participatory Research Project, where we used it to formally document the forces promoting and inhibiting successful achievement of community aims.

  8. Guiding web-based self-study in accounting basics : Case: Lahti University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrweck, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Accounting, and work life in general, is going through rapid changes. The political and financial environment forces the educational system to adapt to the new circumstances. How can Lahti University of Applied Sciences (LUAS) meet these challenges in the field of accounting? E-learning has been one answer to the new requirements in education, and developing web-based solutions is one of the institutions’ aims. This study begins with the intention of finding out the present situation of t...

  9. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro; Jesuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed...

  10. Exploring Collaborative and Community Based Planning in Tourism Case Study Sitia-Cavo Sidero Project

    OpenAIRE

    Katsouli, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    The present paper has explored the policy planning and development in emerging tourism settings in Sitia. Comprehensively, this study, in the name of sustainable development, focused on the extent of collaborative and community-based planning. For that reason exploratory research has been used; the context and the structure of this paper aimed to uncover the socially constructed reality of Sitia's stakeholders, within the dynamic environment, and respond to and questions. Therein significant ...

  11. Procrastinating Behavior in Computer-Based Learning Environments to Predict Performance: A Case Study in Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Rebeca; Esteban, María; Sánchez-Santillán, Miguel; Núñez, José C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research about student performance has traditionally considered academic procrastination as a behavior that has negative effects on academic achievement. Although there is much evidence for this in class-based environments, there is a lack of research on Computer-Based Learning Environments (CBLEs). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate student behavior in a blended learning program and specifically procrastination behavior in relation to performance through Data Mining techniques. Materials and Methods: A sample of 140 undergraduate students participated in a blended learning experience implemented in a Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Developmental Learning Environment) Management System. Relevant interaction variables were selected for the study, taking into account student achievement and analyzing data by means of association rules, a mining technique. The association rules were arrived at and filtered through two selection criteria: 1, rules must have an accuracy over 0.8 and 2, they must be present in both sub-samples. Results: The findings of our study highlight the influence of time management in online learning environments, particularly on academic achievement, as there is an association between procrastination variables and student performance. Conclusion: Negative impact of procrastination in learning outcomes has been observed again but in virtual learning environments where practical implications, prevention of, and intervention in, are different from class-based learning. These aspects are discussed to help resolve student difficulties at various ages. PMID:28883801

  12. Procrastinating Behavior in Computer-Based Learning Environments to Predict Performance: A Case Study in Moodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Rebeca; Esteban, María; Sánchez-Santillán, Miguel; Núñez, José C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research about student performance has traditionally considered academic procrastination as a behavior that has negative effects on academic achievement. Although there is much evidence for this in class-based environments, there is a lack of research on Computer-Based Learning Environments (CBLEs) . Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate student behavior in a blended learning program and specifically procrastination behavior in relation to performance through Data Mining techniques. Materials and Methods: A sample of 140 undergraduate students participated in a blended learning experience implemented in a Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Developmental Learning Environment) Management System. Relevant interaction variables were selected for the study, taking into account student achievement and analyzing data by means of association rules, a mining technique. The association rules were arrived at and filtered through two selection criteria: 1, rules must have an accuracy over 0.8 and 2, they must be present in both sub-samples. Results: The findings of our study highlight the influence of time management in online learning environments, particularly on academic achievement, as there is an association between procrastination variables and student performance. Conclusion: Negative impact of procrastination in learning outcomes has been observed again but in virtual learning environments where practical implications, prevention of, and intervention in, are different from class-based learning. These aspects are discussed to help resolve student difficulties at various ages.

  13. Procrastinating Behavior in Computer-Based Learning Environments to Predict Performance: A Case Study in Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Cerezo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research about student performance has traditionally considered academic procrastination as a behavior that has negative effects on academic achievement. Although there is much evidence for this in class-based environments, there is a lack of research on Computer-Based Learning Environments (CBLEs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate student behavior in a blended learning program and specifically procrastination behavior in relation to performance through Data Mining techniques.Materials and Methods: A sample of 140 undergraduate students participated in a blended learning experience implemented in a Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Developmental Learning Environment Management System. Relevant interaction variables were selected for the study, taking into account student achievement and analyzing data by means of association rules, a mining technique. The association rules were arrived at and filtered through two selection criteria: 1, rules must have an accuracy over 0.8 and 2, they must be present in both sub-samples.Results: The findings of our study highlight the influence of time management in online learning environments, particularly on academic achievement, as there is an association between procrastination variables and student performance.Conclusion: Negative impact of procrastination in learning outcomes has been observed again but in virtual learning environments where practical implications, prevention of, and intervention in, are different from class-based learning. These aspects are discussed to help resolve student difficulties at various ages.

  14. [Jealousy between siblings in early childhood. Nursing assessment based on a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Plana, María Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Childhood jealousy, when a little brother or sister is born, has always been a subject treated within the family environment. Parent's attitude in their interaction with their offspring may increase the response of the jealous child. The emotional expressions of the jealous child may lead to behaviour changes, that may occasionally put the physical integrity of the newborn at risk, since it is the most vulnerable in the family group. In view of the above mentioned, a case of a three-year-old child living with his parents and his nine-month-old sister, is presented. The child shows characteristic behaviour changes of jealousy, such as, rebelliousness, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. The brother's psychomotor discomfort leads to a proneness to accidents for the baby girl and the obvious parental concern. For these reasons nursing intervention in the family group was proposed, based on the theoretical Virginia Henderson Needs Model. The actions will come from the older brother and parents. The aim of the nursing intervention is to lead the behaviour changes in order to re-establish a safe and healthy family environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Semantic Mining based on graph theory and ontologies. Case Study: Cell Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use concepts from graph theory and cellular biology represented as ontologies, to carry out semantic mining tasks on signaling pathway networks. Specifically, the paper describes the semantic enrichment of signaling pathway networks. A cell signaling network describes the basic cellular activities and their interactions. The main contribution of this paper is in the signaling pathway research area, it proposes a new technique to analyze and understand how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information, which produce diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Our approach is based on three concepts from graph theory (modularity, clustering and centrality frequently used on social networks analysis. Our approach consists into two phases: the first uses the graph theory concepts to determine the cellular groups in the network, which we will call them communities; the second uses ontologies for the semantic enrichment of the cellular communities. The measures used from the graph theory allow us to determine the set of cells that are close (for example, in a disease, and the main cells in each community. We analyze our approach in two cases: TGF-ß and the Alzheimer Disease.

  17. Medicine Based Evidence for Individualized Decision Making: Case Study of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wivel, Ashley E; Lapane, Kate; Kleoudis, Christi; Singer, Burton H; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2017-11-01

    To guide management decisions for an index patient, evidence is required from comparisons between approximate matches to the profile of the index case, where some matches contain responses to treatment and others act as controls. We describe a method for constructing clinically relevant histories/profiles using data collected but unreported from 2 recent phase 3 randomized controlled trials assessing belimumab in subjects with clinically active and serologically positive systemic lupus erythematosus. Outcome was the Systemic lupus erythematosus Responder Index (SRI) measured at 52 weeks. Among 1175 subjects, we constructed an algorithm utilizing 11 trajectory variables including 4 biological, 2 clinical, and 5 social/behavioral. Across all biological and social/behavioral variables, the proportion of responders based on the SRI whose value indicated clinical worsening or no improvement ranged from 27.5% to 42.3%. Kappa values suggested poor agreement, indicating that each biological and patient-reported outcome provides different information than gleaned from the SRI. The richly detailed patient profiles needed to guide decision-making in clinical practice are sharply at odds with the limited information utilized in conventional randomized controlled trial analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital abnormalities in newborn infants and fetuses diagnosed prenatally during the second and third trimesters, and postnatally from birth to the age of one year. RESULTS: Of 38,151 controls, 29 (0.08%) were exposed to anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study the human teratogenic potential of isoniazid and other anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cases from a large population-based dataset at the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and controls from the National Birth...... Registry, between 1980 and 1996. Information on all oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatments during pregnancy was medically recorded. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities (case group), and women who had babies with no congenital abnormality (control group). MAIN...

  19. College-based case studies in using PowerPoint effectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Inoue-Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reexamined PowerPoint’s potential to enhance traditional pedagogical practices in higher education. The study addressed (1 the conditions under which PowerPoint meets students’ needs in typical lecture-based classrooms, (2 whether professors consider PowerPoint-based lectures more effective than lectures supported by material on chalkboards, and (3 whether PowerPoint is the best tool for what professors want to accomplish in the classroom. The study’s participants were seven faculty members at a four-year US Land Grant institution in the western Pacific serving both undergraduate and graduate students. The participants represented a variety of teaching disciplines from Psychology to English and from Art to Political Science. In the study, data were obtained through non-participant observations and follow-up questions. The findings of this study suggest the ways of using PowerPoint to meet students’ needs, as well as the professor’s needs, by shifting from a passive, teacher-centered (thus lecture-style classroom to an interactive, student-centered classroom.

  20. An investigation of Forex market efficiency based on detrended fluctuation analysis: A case study for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abounoori, Esmaiel; Shahrazi, Mahdi; Rasekhi, Saeed

    2012-06-01

    The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that asset prices fully reflect all available information. As a result, speculators cannot predict the future behavior of asset prices and earn excess profits at least after adjusting for risk. Although initial tests of the EMH were performed on stock market data, the EMH was soon applied to other markets including foreign exchange (FX). This study uses the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique to test 01:12:2005-18:04:2010 Iranian Rial/US Dollar exchange rate time series data to see if it can be explained by the weak form of the EMH. Moreover, to determine changes in the degree of inefficiency over time, the whole period has been divided into four subperiods. The study shows that the Iranian Forex market (the Rial/Dollar case) is weak-form inefficient over the whole period and in each of the subperiods. However, the degree of inefficiency is not constant over time. The findings suggest that profitable risk-adjusted trades could be made using past data.

  1. Integrative dynamic therapy for bulimia nervosa: An evidence-based case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; Shingleton, Rebecca M; Goldman, Rachel; Siegel, Deborah; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Both cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic psychotherapy are commonly used to treat eating disorders. To further investigate the effectiveness of integrative dynamic therapy (IDT) for bulimia nervosa (BN), our research group undertook a randomized, controlled pilot study comparing IDT with CBT for BN. The case described here was selected from a sample of N = 38 female patients with the symptoms of BN who enrolled in the study. IDT incorporated aspects of the first 4-week stage of CBT, including psychoeducation, self-monitoring, and regular eating. Subsequently, the treatment focused on emotional expression, emotion regulation (defenses), intrapsychic conflict, and interpersonal relationships. The objectives of the report are to demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrative approach to the treatment of eating disorders to address the symptoms of BN and personality issues using pre-, mid-, and posttreatment data, and to illustrate the patient and clinician reactions to each approach to treatment using excerpts from session transcripts and alliance data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Reliability-based load and resistance factor design for piping: an exploratory case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Abhinav; Choi, Byounghoan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory case study on the application of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach to the Section III of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code for piping design. The failure criterion for defining the performance function is considered as plastic instability. Presently used design equation is calibrated by evaluating the minimum reliability levels associated with it. If the target reliability in the LRFD approach is same as that evaluated for the presently used design equation, it is shown that the total safety factors for the two design equations are identical. It is observed that the load and resistance factors are not dependent upon the diameter to thickness ratio. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to study the variations in the load and resistance factors due to changes in (a) coefficients of variation for pressure, moment, and ultimate stress, (b) ratio of mean design pressure to mean design moment, (c) distribution types used for characterizing the random variables, and (d) statistical correlation between random variables. It is observed that characterization of random variables by log-normal distribution is reasonable. Consideration of statistical correlation between the ultimate stress and section modulus gives higher values of the load factor for pressure but lower value for the moment than the corresponding values obtained by considering the variables to be uncorrelated. Since the effect of statistical correlation on the load and resistance factors is relatively insignificant for target reliability values of practical interest, the effect of correlated variables may be neglected

  3. Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh; Kryzch, Valerie; Schnebert, Sylvianne

    2013-01-01

    in reducing the age-related accumulation of molecular damage. For example, repeated heat stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins has been shown to have a variety of anti-aging effects on growth and other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes...... and cosmeceuticals. Here we present the example of a skin care cosmetic as one of the first successful product developments incorporating the ideas of hormesis. This was based on the studies to analyse the molecular effects of active ingredients extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng...... and removal of abnormal proteins. Acceptance of such a hormesis-based product by the wider public could be instrumental in the social recognition of the concept of hormesis as the beneficial effects of mild stress of choice, and will encourage the development of novel health care products with physical...

  4. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression......Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially...

  5. Web-based classroom data collection in ADHD: a best practices case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Vinod; Vogt, H Bruce; Ellis, Roland; Alshari, Ghyath; Patrick, Sarah

    2003-09-01

    Best practices research identifies and disseminates effective clinical strategies developed and refined by clinicians for their practices. As opposed to the content of health care, medical students and residents are typically not trained in the process of its provision. This paper illustrates a best practices approach to development of a Web-based classroom data collection method to improve medication management in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 1) To increase Primary Care Physician (PCP) awareness of the process of best practices research, and; 2) to highlight the use of the World Wide Web as a tool for integration of care of children with ADHD. Based on the review of a large national study in ADHD, the key ingredients for the best pharmacotherapy practices were identified. The lessons from the literature were adapted for local practice using the framework and steps for best practices outlined by Mold and Gregory. A conceptual model of managing information provided by parents/caregivers and teachers to PCPs was developed. Several steps were identified, including Web-based classroom behavioral data collection by a care manager and feedback reports to PCPs from a child psychiatrist based on the data collected. This model is currently being tested. Our preliminary experience suggests that a best practices approach has potential applications to a variety of primary care settings in South Dakota. We encourage PCPs to consider best practice strategies for their own practices. The practice-based research network (Rush Net) being developed by the Center for Rural Health Improvement of the University of South Dakota School of Medicine's Department of Family Medicine can be helpful in this regard.

  6. A case study in the use of community-based participatory research in public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Christine L; Xu, Yin; Lee, Rebecca; Rose, Barbara L; Kappesser, Mary; Anthony, Jean Spann

    2006-01-01

    There is growing demand for research using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach. CBPR requires that the academic research team actively partner with community members and stakeholders in the entire research process. The community members are full partners with the researchers in relation to the development and implementation of the study, analysis of the data, and dissemination of the findings. The purpose of this article is to review four basic principles of CBPR and provide an example of how these CBPR principles were used in an ethnographic study related to the culture of African American infant health. In the pilot study, CBPR provided the framework for recruitment and retention of participants, ongoing data analysis, and dissemination of findings. Using CBPR provided the researchers an introduction into the selected community. Community members served as key informants about the culture of the community and provided access to potential participants. The community partners contributed to analysis of emerging themes and in the dissemination of findings to the community, stakeholders, and the scientific community. CBPR provides opportunities for community health nurse researchers to conduct research with vulnerable populations and sets the stage for implementing evidenced-based nursing interventions in the community.

  7. Two case study evaluations of an arts-based social skills intervention for adolescents with childhood brain disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Sabrina; Gray, Julia; Colantonio, Angela; Polatajko, Helene; Cameron, Debra; Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; Rumney, Peter; Keightley, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Arts-based programmes have been shown to be useful for individuals with disturbances in cognitive and behavioural functioning. The current case studies examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a theatre skills training programme to facilitate social skills and participation for adolescents with childhood brain disorder. A case study approach was used with two adolescent participants. Focus groups were conducted immediately post-intervention, while a battery of quantitative measures were administered pre- and post-treatment, as well as 8 months post-treatment. Perceived and documented improvements in social skills and participation were observed from pre- to post-intervention and at follow-up. Results support the use of an arts-based intervention for youth with brain injuries to facilitate social skills and participation. Findings also highlight the need for more sensitive measures of these skills for youth with childhood brain disorder, who may have impaired awareness of their abilities and/or impairments in memory and language comprehension.

  8. Epilepsy and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2007-01-01

    by sex, birth year, and calendar date, were assigned to each suicide case. FINDINGS: We identified 21 169 cases of suicide and 423 128 controls. 492 (2.32%) individuals who committed suicide had epilepsy compared with 3140 (0.74%) controls, corresponding to a three times higher risk (rate ratio [RR] 3...

  9. [Case and studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  10. A Moodle-based blended learning solution for physiology education in Montenegro: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Natasa; Popovic, Tomo; Rovcanin Dragovic, Isidora; Cmiljanic, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of web-based blended learning in the physiology course at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro. The two main goals of the study were: to determine the impact of e-learning on student success in mastering the course, and to assess user satisfaction after the introduction of e-learning. The study compared a group of students who attended the physiology course before, with a group of students who attended the physiology course after the Moodle platform was fully implemented as an educational tool. Formative and summative assessment scores were compared between these two groups. The impact of high vs. low Moodle use on the assessment scores was analyzed. The satisfaction among Moodle users was assessed by the survey. The study found that attendance of face-to-face lectures had a positive impact on academic performance. The introduction of Moodle in the presented model of teaching increased interest of students, attendance of face-to-face lectures, as well as formative and summative scores. High frequency of Moodle use was not always associated with better academic performance, suggesting that the introduction of a new method of teaching was most likely equally accepted by low- and high-achieving students. Most of the students agreed that Moodle was easy to use and it complemented traditional teaching very well, but it could not completely replace traditional face-to-face lectures. The study supports continuing the use of web-based learning in a form of blended learning for physiology, as well as for other courses in medical education.

  11. Does autonomy for public hospitals in developing countries increase performance? Evidence-based case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyndt, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Governments in middle and low income countries have sought ways for the past decades to make their public hospitals more performing. The objectives of this assessment are to: (a) synthesize the experience of eleven countries at granting autonomy to their public hospitals and the obstacles encountered; (b) deduce which autonomy policies have or have not been effective documenting successes and failures; and (c) propose evidence-based recommendations to policy makers. Data for five countries are derived from the author's participation in the autonomy process augmented by current updates provided by national colleagues. Data for the other six countries are derived from publications available in the literature. Policies granting autonomy to public hospitals have had limited success. In all cases Boards of Directors have been created. Governance of autonomized hospitals by Boards however is obstructed by the resistance of central level entities to have their authority diminished. The Ministry of Finance tends to maintain control over revenues and expenditures. The Public Service Commission resists abdicating its role to hire, promote, transfer and dismiss government employees. The Ministry of Health attempts to keep its authority to appoint hospital staff, procure medical supplies and equipment; it may do so directly or indirectly by selecting and appointing Board members. Management information systems continue to collect activity measures to be aggregated at the national level for statistical purposes and do not provide financial and clinical data useful for decision making by the Boards and by senior management. Decentralizing decision making to the operational level has had limited success. Stakeholders at the central level devise strategies to maintain their power. Two main obstacles are delegating authority over human resources and finances that are sine qua non conditions for governing and increasing the performance of public hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  12. The information system of pregnant womans' health nutritious based on android (Case study: Puskesmas Mopah Merauke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsoin, Sri Murniani Angelina; Kolyaan, Yuliana; Cahyadi, Dedy

    2017-02-01

    The cause of maternal mortality can be divided into two, the direct cause and indirect cause. One of the indirect causes is too difficult to reach health services and the lack of pregnancy knowledge. On the other hand, Android smartphone development of communications technology has increased compared to users of other devices, e.g. blackberry, which has dropped from 11.5% to 4.8% while the android market share has grown from 46.9% up to 68.1%. This increasing is being an opportunity for the software developers to design some software based on Android. The aim of this study was to facilitate the pregnant women to find out some information about the nutritional health, abstinence, calculate gestational age and nutrition based on the period of pregnancy. The information system was designed by using UML, the Eclipse IDE with the java programming language, MySQL as the database. The testing results showed that the nutrition information system based on android could help pregnant women to obtain health nutrition information such as nutrition, calories, dietary restrictions that should be avoided during the first month to the nine month of pregnancy, and the calculation of gestation.

  13. Video game-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for calf muscle training: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayenko, D G; Masani, K; Milosevic, M; Robinson, M F; Vette, A H; McConville, K M V; Popovic, M R

    2011-03-01

    A video game-based training system was designed to integrate neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and visual feedback as a means to improve strength and endurance of the lower leg muscles, and to increase the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joints. The system allowed the participants to perform isotonic concentric and isometric contractions in both the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using NMES. In the proposed system, the contractions were performed against exterior resistance, and the angle of the ankle joints was used as the control input to the video game. To test the practicality of the proposed system, an individual with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The system provided a progressive overload for the trained muscles, which is a prerequisite for successful muscle training. The participant indicated that he enjoyed the video game-based training and that he would like to continue the treatment. The results show that the training resulted in a significant improvement of the strength and endurance of the paralyzed lower leg muscles, and in an increased ROM of the ankle joints. Video game-based training programs might be effective in motivating participants to train more frequently and adhere to otherwise tedious training protocols. It is expected that such training will not only improve the properties of their muscles but also decrease the severity and frequency of secondary complications that result from SCI. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  14. Planning for Reform-Based Science: Case Studies of Two Urban Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2018-02-01

    The intent of national efforts to frame science education standards is to promote students' development of scientific practices and conceptual understanding for their future role as scientifically literate citizens (NRC 2012). A guiding principle of science education reform is that all students receive equitable opportunities to engage in rigorous science learning. Yet, implementation of science education reform depends on teachers' instructional decisions. In urban schools serving students primarily from poor, diverse communities, teachers typically face obstacles in providing reform-based science due to limited resources and accountability pressures, as well as a culture of teacher-directed pedagogy, and deficit views of students. The purpose of this qualitative research was to study two white, fourth grade teachers from high-poverty urban schools, who were identified as transforming their science teaching and to investigate how their beliefs, knowledge bases, and resources shaped their planning for reform-based science. Using the Shavelson and Stern's decision model for teacher planning to analyze evidence gathered from interviews, documents, planning meetings, and lesson observations, the findings indicated their planning for scientific practices was influenced by the type and extent of professional development each received, each teacher's beliefs about their students and their background, and the mission and learning environment each teacher envisioned for the reform to serve their students. The results provided specific insights into factors that impacted their planning in high-poverty urban schools and indicated considerations for those in similar contexts to promote teachers' planning for equitable science learning opportunities by all students.

  15. Case Study: Evidence-Based Interventions Enhancing Diabetic Foot Care Behaviors among Hospitalized DM Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Kurniawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving diabetic patients’ foot care behaviors is one of the most effective strategies in minimizing diabetic foot ulceration and its further negative impacts, either in diabetic hospitalized patients or outpatients.Purpose: To describe foot care knowledge and behaviors among hospitalized diabetic patients, to apply selected foot care knowledge and behaviors improvement evidence, and to evaluate its effectiveness.Method: Four diabetic patients who were under our care for at least three days and could communicate in Thai language were selected from a surgical ward in a university hospital. The authors applied educational program based on patients’ learning needs, provided diabetic foot care leaflet, and assisted patients to set their goal and action plans. In the third day of treatment, we evaluated patients’ foot care knowledge and their goal and action plan statements in improving foot care behaviors.Result: Based on the data collected among four hospitalized diabetic patients, it was shown that all patients needed foot care behaviors improvement and the educational program improved hospitalized patients’ foot care knowledge and their perceived foot care behaviors. The educational program that combined with goal setting and action plans method was easy, safe, and seemed feasibly applicable for diabetic hospitalized patients.Conclusion: The results of this study provide valuable information for improvement of hospitalized diabetic patients’ foot care knowledge and behaviors. The authors recommend nurses to use this evidence-based practice to contribute in improving the quality of diabetic care.Keywords: Intervention, diabetic foot care, hospitalized diabetic patients

  16. CSR as a Tool to Prevent Gender-Based Discrimination. A Case Study of the Textile Export Industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Svedevall, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the ability of CSR as a tool in the efforts to reduce gender based discrimination in the textile industry in the Delhi area in India. This research focuses on the CSR work programs undertaken by foreign entities using the case study of the company Lindex. Given that discrimination occurs daily facilitated by embedded cultural structures this research questions how, and if, CSR interventions can be successful in address these underlying issues. This research draws on exist...

  17. Desert plains classification based on Geomorphometrical parameters (Case study: Aghda, Yazd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazeh, mahdi; Kalantari, Saeideh

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on plains. There are several tremendous methods and classification which presented for plain classification. One of The natural resource based classification which is mostly using in Iran, classified plains into three types, Erosional Pediment, Denudation Pediment Aggradational Piedmont. The qualitative and quantitative factors to differentiate them from each other are also used appropriately. In this study effective Geomorphometrical parameters in differentiate landforms were applied for plain. Geomorphometrical parameters are calculable and can be extracted using mathematical equations and the corresponding relations on digital elevation model. Geomorphometrical parameters used in this study included Percent of Slope, Plan Curvature, Profile Curvature, Minimum Curvature, the Maximum Curvature, Cross sectional Curvature, Longitudinal Curvature and Gaussian Curvature. The results indicated that the most important affecting Geomorphometrical parameters for plain and desert classifications includes: Percent of Slope, Minimum Curvature, Profile Curvature, and Longitudinal Curvature. Key Words: Plain, Geomorphometry, Classification, Biophysical, Yazd Khezarabad.

  18. Oral clefts and life style factors - a case-cohort study based on prospective Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Vach, Werner

    2007-01-01

    supplementation with > or =400 mcg folic acid daily during the entire first trimester (OR: 0.75; CIs: 0.46, 1.22) suggested an inverse associated with oral clefts, similar to our results on coffee drinking. No effects were found for smaller doses of folic acid, vitamin A, B6 or B12 in this study. The present......This study examines the association between oral clefts and first trimester maternal lifestyle factors based on prospective data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort includes approximately 100,000 pregnancies. In total 192 mothers gave birth to child with an oral cleft during 1997......-2003. Information on risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, tea, coffee, cola, and food supplements was obtained during pregnancy for these and 828 randomly selected controls. We found that first trimester maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95...

  19. Postapproval Development Options in COPD: A Case Study in Value-Based Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael F; Antonini, Paola; Lai, Zhihong Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Research and development activities in an era of globalization encounter a mosaic of providers, products, services, and intermediaries; regulatory and other government institutions; and consumers. The introduction of novel therapeutics into this environment mandates research programs that are relevant to the registration process, payers and purchasers, transparent pricing, and rule-driven business practices, while providing data relevant to marketing initiatives internationally. To outline an example for clinical development programs that incorporate the perspective of multiple stakeholders into a portfolio of study designs to provide optimal data platforms that can resonate with diverse recipients. A contract research organization directly involved in the design, execution, and analysis of clinical trials for new drugs and devices across pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies provides a unique perspective regarding opportunities and challenges within the international clinical research environment. Drs Murphy, Antonini, and Lai, representing Worldwide Clinical Trials, utilize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a demonstration project exploiting its prevalence, direct and indirect costs, and the rapid infusion/diffusion of innovative therapy into practice as a rationale for focus, and illustrate methods of informing registration and technology assessments during a prototypical development process. By virtue of its chronicity, prevalence, and pattern of healthcare utilization, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provides an ideal case for illustrating the application of clinical trial methodology that can facilitate data evaluation through the prism of multiple stakeholders. Adding an international dimension exacerbates system complexity and serves to illustrate the breadth of issues that can be addressed within this therapeutic area.

  20. Addressing refugee health through evidence-based policies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Ingleby, J David; Pottie, Kevin; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Allen, Sophia I; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hidalgo, Bertha

    2017-05-12

    The cumulative total of persons forced to leave their country for fear of persecution or organized violence reached an unprecedented 24.5 million by the end of 2015. Providing equitable access to appropriate health services for these highly diverse newcomers poses challenges for receiving countries. In this case study, we illustrate the importance of translating epidemiology into policy to address the health needs of refugees by highlighting examples of what works as well as identifying important policy-relevant gaps in knowledge. First, we formed an international working group of epidemiologists and health services researchers to identify available literature on the intersection of epidemiology, policy, and refugee health. Second, we created a synopsis of findings to inform a recommendation for integration of policy and epidemiology to support refugee health in the United States and other high-income receiving countries. Third, we identified eight key areas to guide the involvement of epidemiologists in addressing refugee health concerns. The complexity and uniqueness of refugee health issues, and the need to develop sustainable management information systems, require epidemiologists to expand their repertoire of skills to identify health patterns among arriving refugees, monitor access to appropriately designed health services, address inequities, and communicate with policy makers and multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  2. Integrated Case Based and Rule Based Reasoning for Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Azeb Bekele

    2009-01-01

    This project is a continuation of my specialization project which was focused on studying theoretical concepts related to case based reasoning method, rule based reasoning method and integration of them. The integration of rule-based and case-based reasoning methods has shown a substantial improvement with regards to performance over the individual methods. Verdande Technology As wants to try integrating the rule based reasoning method with an existing case based system. This project focu...

  3. Marine litter from beach-based sources: Case study of an Eastern Mediterranean coastal town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E; Brennan, Ruth E

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter has been a serious and growing problem for some decades now. Yet, there is still much speculation among researchers, policy makers and planners about how to tackle marine litter from land-based sources. This paper provides insights into approaches for managing marine litter by reporting and analyzing survey results of litter dispersal and makeup from three areas along an Arab-Israeli coastal town in view of other recent studies conducted around the Mediterranean Sea. Based on our results and analysis, we posit that bathing beach activities should be a high priority for waste managers as a point of intervention and beach-goers must be encouraged to take a more active role in keeping beaches clean. Further, plastic fragments on the beach should be targeted as a first priority for prevention (and cleanup) of marine litter with plastic bottle caps being a high priority to be targeted among plastics. More survey research is needed on non-plastic litter composition for which amounts and geographic dispersal in the region vary greatly from place to place along Mediterranean shores. In general, findings of this study lead us to recommend exploring persuasive beach trash can design coupled with greater enforcement for short term waste management intervention while considering the local socio-economic and institutional context further for long-term efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspects and Intensity of Pediatric Palliative Case Management Provided by a Hospital-Based Case Management Team: A Comparative Study Between Children With Malignant and Nonmalignant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt-van Kampen, Charissa T; Colenbrander, Derk A; Bosman, Diederik K; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yn

    2018-01-01

    Anticipating case management is considered crucial in pediatric palliative care. In 2012, our children's university hospital initiated a specialized pediatric palliative care team (PPCT) to deliver inbound and outbound case management for children with life-shortening disease. The aim of this report is to gain insight in the first 9 months of this PPCT. Aspects of care during the first 9 months of the PPCT are presented, and comparison is made between patients with malignant disease (MD) and nonmalignant disease (NMD) in a retrospective study design. Insight in the aspects of care of all patients with a life-shortening disease was retrieved from web-based files and the hour registrations from the PPCT. Forty-three children were supported by the PPCT during the first 9 months: 22 with MD with a median of 50 (1-267) days and 29 minutes (4-615) of case management per patient per day and 21 patients with NMD with a median of 79.5 (5-211) days and 16 minutes of case management per day (6-64). Our data show significantly more interprofessional contacts for patients with MD and more in-hospital contacts for patients with NMD. The median number of admission days per patient was 11 (0-22) for MD (44% for anticancer therapy) and 44 (0-303) for NMD (36% for infectious diseases). This overview of aspects of pediatric palliative case management shows shorter but more intensive case management for MD in comparison with NMD. This insight in palliative case management guides the design of a PPCT.

  5. The evolution of network-based business models illustrated through the case study of an entrepreneurship project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    can gain insight into barriers and enablers relating to different types of loose organisations and how to best manage such relationships and interactions Originality/value: This study adds value to the existing literature by reflecting the dynamics created in the interactions between a business model......-based business model that generates additional value for the core business model and for both the partners and the customers. Research limitations/implications: The results should be taken with caution as they are based on the case study of a single network-based business model. Practical implications: Managers......Purpose: Existing frameworks for understanding and analyzing the value configuration and structuring of partnerships in relation such network-based business models are found to be inferior. The purpose of this paper is therefore to broaden our understanding of how business models may change over...

  6. Work-based learning experiences help students with disabilities transition to careers: a case study of University of Washington projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellman, Scott; Burgstahler, Sheryl; Ladner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes evidence-based practices employed by a collection of University of Washington projects that engage high school and postsecondary students with disabilities in work-based learning experiences such as industry and research internships, career development activities, job shadows, field trips, and mock interviews. The purpose of the article is two-fold. First, authors share best practices with others who wish to increase the participation of students with disabilities in work-based learning and thereby contribute to their academic and career success. The article discusses methods used to recruit students, employers and mentors, match students with specific opportunities, and prepare students for success. Second, authors share outcomes from studies regarding participation in these work-based learning opportunities, which include increased employment success, motivation to work toward a career, knowledge about careers and the workplace, job-related skills, ability to work with supervisors and coworkers, skills in self-advocating for accommodations, and perceived career options.

  7. Network-based regularization for high dimensional SNP data in the case-control study of Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; He, Tao; Li, Ye; Liu, Sai; Du, Yinhao; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Cen

    2017-05-16

    Over the past decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been steadily increasing around the world. Despite large efforts devoted to better understand the genetic basis of the disease, the identified susceptibility loci can only account for a small portion of the T2D heritability. Some of the existing approaches proposed for the high dimensional genetic data from the T2D case-control study are limited by analyzing a few number of SNPs at a time from a large pool of SNPs, by ignoring the correlations among SNPs and by adopting inefficient selection techniques. We propose a network constrained regularization method to select important SNPs by taking the linkage disequilibrium into account. To accomodate the case control study, an iteratively reweighted least square algorithm has been developed within the coordinate descent framework where optimization of the regularized logistic loss function is performed with respect to one parameter at a time and iteratively cycle through all the parameters until convergence. In this article, a novel approach is developed to identify important SNPs more effectively through incorporating the interconnections among them in the regularized selection. A coordinate descent based iteratively reweighed least squares (IRLS) algorithm has been proposed. Both the simulation study and the analysis of the Nurses's Health Study, a case-control study of type 2 diabetes data with high dimensional SNP measurements, demonstrate the advantage of the network based approach over the competing alternatives.

  8. Statins and the risk of acute pancreatitis: A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Henriette; Jacobsen, Jacob; Munk, Estrid Muff

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Case reports have suggested that statins may cause acute pancreatitis. AIM: To examine if statins are associated with risk of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We identified 2576 first-time admitted cases of acute pancreatitis from hospital discharge registers in three Danish counties, and......: Our findings speak against a strong causative effect of statins on the risk of acute pancreatitis, and may even indicate a mild protective effect....

  9. Documentation of Cultural Heritages Using a GIS Based Information and Management System; Case Study of Safranbolu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Alkan, M.; Kutoglu, S. S.; Akcin, H.

    2010-12-01

    Documentation of the cultural heritage sites is extremely important for monitoring and preserves them from natural disasters and human made activities. Due to its very rich historical background from the first human settlements in Catalhoyuk and Alacahoyuk and civilizations such as Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, there are lots of cultural heritage sites in Turkey. 3D modeling and recording of historical buildings using modern tools and techniques in several locations of Turkey have been conducted and still continuing. The nine cultural sites in Turkey are included in the protection list of UNESCO as cultural heritage and one of them is the township of Safranbolu, which is the one of the most outstanding example of the traditional Turkish Architecture and also unique itself in terms of conservation of the human settlement in their authentic environmental motif up till now. In this study outcomes and further studies of a research project related to study area which is supported by the Turkish National Research Center (TUBITAK) with the project number 106Y157, will be presented in details. The basic aim of the study is development a GIS based information and management system for the city of Safranbolu. All historical buildings which are registered are assigned with the database. 3D modeling some of the selected building among the buildings which are registered as historical monuments using different data comes from different sources similar to their original constructions were realized and then it will be distributed via internet by a web-based information system designed during the project. Also some of the buildings were evaluated using close range photogrammetric technique to obtain their façade reliefs, were also assigned with the database. Designed database consists of 3D models, locations, historical information, cadastral and land register data of the selected buildings together with the other data collected during the project related to buildings. Using this

  10. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wu

    Full Text Available Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9 within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%; and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2 nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9 of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%; 3 compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%; and 4 V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  11. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors. PMID:28393879

  12. The Research on Informal Learning Model of College Students Based on SNS and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Cong, Xiao; Bi, Fangyan; Zhou, Dongdai

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, informal learning based on online become the main way for college students to learn a variety of subject knowledge. The favor to the SNS community of students and the characteristics of SNS itself provide a good opportunity for the informal learning of college students. This research first analyzes the related research of the informal learning and SNS, next, discusses the characteristics of informal learning and theoretical basis. Then, it proposed an informal learning model of college students based on SNS according to the support role of SNS to the informal learning of students. Finally, according to the theoretical model and the principles proposed in this study, using the Elgg and related tools which is the open source SNS program to achieve the informal learning community. This research is trying to overcome issues such as the lack of social realism, interactivity, resource transfer mode in the current network informal learning communities, so as to provide a new way of informal learning for college students.

  13. Analysis of sea use landscape pattern based on GIS: a case study in Huludao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Anning; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse sea use landscape patterns on a regional scale based on methods of landscape ecology integrated with sea use spatial characteristics. Several landscape-level analysis indices, such as the dominance index, complex index, intensivity index, diversity index and sea congruency index, were established using Geographic Information System (GIS) and applied in Huludao, China. The results indicated that sea use landscape analysis indices, which were created based on the characteristics of sea use spatial patterns using GIS, are suitable to quantitatively describe the landscape patterns of sea use. They are operable tools for the landscape analysis of sea use. The sea use landscape in Huludao was dominated by fishing use with a landscape dominance index of 0.724. The sea use landscape is a complex mosaic with high diversity and plenty of fishing areas, as shown by the landscape complex index of 27.21 and the landscape diversity index of 1.25. Most sea use patches correspond to the marine functional zonation plan and the sea use congruency index is 0.89 in the fishing zone and 0.92 in the transportation zone.

  14. Daytime sea fog retrieval based on GOCI data: a case study over the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yibo; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Yue, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-25

    In this paper, a new daytime sea fog detection algorithm has been developed by using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data. Based on spectral analysis, differences in spectral characteristics were found over different underlying surfaces, which include land, sea, middle/high level clouds, stratus clouds and sea fog. Statistical analysis showed that the Rrc (412 nm) (Rayleigh Corrected Reflectance) of sea fog pixels is approximately 0.1-0.6. Similarly, various band combinations could be used to separate different surfaces. Therefore, three indices (SLDI, MCDI and BSI) were set to discern land/sea, middle/high level clouds and fog/stratus clouds, respectively, from which it was generally easy to extract fog pixels. The remote sensing algorithm was verified using coastal sounding data, which demonstrated that the algorithm had the ability to detect sea fog. The algorithm was then used to monitor an 8-hour sea fog event and the results were consistent with observational data from buoys data deployed near the Sheyang coast (121°E, 34°N). The goal of this study was to establish a daytime sea fog detection algorithm based on GOCI data, which shows promise for detecting fog separately from stratus.

  15. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. A blueprint-based case study analysis of nutrition services provided in a midterm care facility for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; St-Arnaud-Mckenzie, Danielle; Ferland, Guylaine; Dubé, Laurette

    2003-03-01

    Ensuring nutritionally adequate food intake in institutions is a complex and important challenge for dietitians. To tackle this problem, we argue that dietitians need to adopt a systematic, integrative, and patient-centered approach to identify and manage more effectively organizational determinants of the quality of food intake under their control. In this study, we introduce such an approach, the blueprint-based case study, that we applied in the context of a midterm care facility for elderly patients. Data gathered through interviews and field observations were used to develop, from the perspective of key patient encounters, detailed representations of the food, nutrition, and nursing activities necessary to ensure adequate food intake. These service "blueprints" were developed to illustrate all activities that might potentially impact on the nutritional, sensory, functional, and social quality of patients' meals. They were also used as roadmaps to develop a case study analysis in which critical areas were identified and opportunities for improvement put forth, while considering services' resources and priorities. By providing a precise, objective, yet comprehensive mapping of the service operations and management, the blueprint-based case study approach represents a valuable tool to determine the optimal allocation of resources to insure nutritionally adequate food intake to patients.

  17. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Souza Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.

  19. Professional development for design-based learning in engineering education: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; van Eijck, Michiel; Jochems, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Design-based learning (DBL) is an educational approach in which students gather and apply theoretical knowledge to solve design problems. In this study, we examined how critical DBL dimensions (project characteristics, design elements, the teacher's role, assessment, and social context) are applied by teachers in the redesign of DBL projects. We conducted an intervention for the professional development of the DBL teachers in the Mechanical Engineering and the Electrical Engineering departments. We used the Experiential Learning Cycle as an educational model for the professionalisation programme. The findings show that the programme encouraged teachers to apply the DBL theoretical framework. However, there are some limitations with regard to specific project characteristics. Further research into supporting teachers to develop open-ended and multidisciplinary activities in the projects that support learning is recommended.

  20. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Orriols, Ludivine; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Taillard, Jacques; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents. A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents. As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, ptraffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, ptraffic accidents. Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  1. Understanding the context of balanced scorecard implementation: a hospital-based case study in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Lalji, Sabrina Nh; Abbas, Farhat; Jafri, Sm Wasim; Razzak, Junaid A; Nabi, Naheed; Jahan, Firdous; Ajmal, Agha; Petzold, Max; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2011-03-31

    As a response to a changing operating environment, healthcare administrators are implementing modern management tools in their organizations. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is considered a viable tool in high-income countries to improve hospital performance. The BSC has not been applied to hospital settings in low-income countries nor has the context for implementation been examined. This study explored contextual perspectives in relation to BSC implementation in a Pakistani hospital. Four clinical units of this hospital were involved in the BSC implementation based on their willingness to participate. Implementation included sensitization of units towards the BSC, developing specialty specific BSCs and reporting of performance based on the BSC during administrative meetings. Pettigrew and Whipp's context (why), process (how) and content (what) framework of strategic change was used to guide data collection and analysis. Data collection methods included quantitative tools (a validated culture assessment questionnaire) and qualitative approaches including key informant interviews and participant observation. Method triangulation provided common and contrasting results between the four units. A participatory culture, supportive leadership, financial and non-financial incentives, the presentation of clear direction by integrating support for the BSC in policies, resources, and routine activities emerged as desirable attributes for BSC implementation. The two units that lagged behind were more involved in direct inpatient care and carried a considerable clinical workload. Role clarification and consensus about the purpose and benefits of the BSC were noted as key strategies for overcoming implementation challenges in two clinical units that were relatively ahead in BSC implementation. It was noted that, rather than seeking to replace existing information systems, initiatives such as the BSC could be readily adopted if they are built on existing infrastructures and data

  2. Problem-Based Learning and the Training of Secondary Social Studies Teachers: A Case Study of Candidate Perceptions during Their Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Charles T., Sr.; Okie, William

    2017-01-01

    We present results of a case study in which we analyzed the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) and cognitive scaffolding techniques introduced in our secondary social studies methods course on the perceptions and practices of 12 preservice teachers (PSTs) during their fall practicum and spring student teaching. Our PSTs reported teaching 54…

  3. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of ecosystem-based adaptation: Kamiesberg wetlands case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Black

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA is increasingly being promoted as a cost-effective means of adaptation to climate change. However, in spite of considerable international press, there is still little evidence to substantiate this claim. This study proposes a method through which the cost-effectiveness of EbA strategies can be evaluated against alternative adaptation options, and contributes to South African literature on the subject. The potential cost-effectiveness of wetland restoration is assessed as a means of securing the carrying capacity of land for pastoralist communities of the Kamiesberg communal area in South Africa under projected future climate conditions. The conventional alternatives would be to respond to increasingly dry conditions by drilling boreholes and using supplemental feed for livestock. It was assumed that the EbA interventions would occur upfront, whereas the alternatives are more likely to be implemented in reaction to droughts over a longer time period. The study found the implementation of conventional alternatives to be more cost-effective than EbA as a means to sustaining livestock stocking rates, with EbA being twice as costly. However, this is framed from the perspective of those directly affected (the landowners, and does not include the benefits to broader society.

  4. Feasibility and Sustainability of Community Based Health Insurance in Rural Areas Case Study of Musana, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus MUCHABAIWA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS 2010-11 showed that only 6 percent of the population is covered by health insurance in Zimbabwe. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability and sustainability of Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI as an alternative to pooling risk and financing social protection in Zimbabwe. Willingness to Pay (WTP for health insurance and socioeconomic data were collected through interviews with 121 household heads selected using a 2-stage sampling procedure on 14 villages in Musana and Domboshava rural areas, a population which is largely unemployed and reliant on subsistence agriculture. A CBHI scheme was established and followed up for 3 years documenting data on visits made, financial contributions from recruited households and their actual health expenditures. Findings indicate that CBHI is generally accepted as a means of health insurance in rural communities. The median willingness to pay for health insurance was $5.43 against monthly expenditures ranging of up to $180. The low WTP is attributable to low incomes as only 3.4 percent of the respondents relied on formal employment. Trust issues, adverse selection, moral hazard, and administration costs were challenges threatening sustainability of CBHI. A financial gap averaging 42% was generally on a downward trend and was closed by the end of the follow-up study as contributions were equivalent to medical expenses. We conclude that CBHI is feasible, has potential for sustainability and should be considered as a springboard for the planned Zimbabwean National Health Insurance.

  5. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  6. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  7. Apology in cases of medical error disclosure: Thoughts based on a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Sonia; Ducard, Dominique; Caeymaex, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Disclosing medical errors is considered necessary by patients, ethicists, and health care professionals. Literature insists on the framing of this disclosure and describes the apology as appropriate and necessary. However, this policy seems difficult to put into practice. Few works have explored the function and meaning of the apology. The aim of this study was to explore the role ascribed to apology in communication between healthcare professionals and patients when disclosing a medical error, and to discuss these findings using a linguistic and philosophical perspective. Qualitative exploratory study, based on face-to-face semi-structured interviews, with seven physicians in a neonatal unit in France. Discourse analysis. Four themes emerged. Difference between apology in everyday life and in the medical encounter; place of the apology in the process of disclosure together with explanations, regrets, empathy and ways to avoid repeating the error; effects of the apology were to allow the patient-physician relationship undermined by the error, to be maintained, responsibility to be accepted, the first steps towards forgiveness to be taken, and a less hierarchical doctor-patient relationship to be created; ways of expressing apology ("I am sorry") reflected regrets and empathy more than an explicit apology. This study highlights how the act of apology can be seen as a "language act" as described by philosophers Austin and Searle, and how it functions as a technique for making amends following a wrongdoing and as an action undertaken in order that neither party should lose face, thus echoing the sociologist Goffmann's interaction theory. This interpretation also accords with the views of Lazare, for whom the function of apology is a restoration of dignity after the humiliation of the error. This approach to the apology illustrates how meaning and impact of real-life language acts can be clarified by philosophical and sociological ideas.

  8. Association of atrial fibrillation and cancer: Analysis from two large population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Walid; Rennert, Hedy S; Gronich, Naomi; Gruber, Stephen B; Rennert, Gad

    2018-01-01

    An association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk of cancer has been suggested in several studies, including prospective cohort studies. However, the magnitude and the temporal nature of this association remain unclear. Data from two large prospective population-based case-control studies, the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC, n = 8,383) and the Breast Cancer in Northern Israel Study (BCINIS, n = 11,608), were used to better understand the nature and temporality of a possible association between cancer diagnosis and AF events before and after cancer diagnosis. A case-control study approach was employed to study prior AF as a risk factor for cancer, and a cohort study approach was employed to study incident cancer as a risk factor for AF. AF was associated with a significant reduced odds of cancer as reflected in the case-control approach, with an adjusted OR = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91), while cancer was not found to be significantly associated with elevated risk of AF in the cohort approach, with an adjusted HR = 1.10 (0.98-1.23). The immediate period (90 days) after an AF event was associated with a 1.85 times increased risk of cancer, and the immediate period after the diagnosis of cancer was associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of AF. These findings probably reflect both the effect of acute transient conditions associated with new cancer diagnosis and detection bias. Similar results were identified with colorectal and breast cancer cases. Atrial fibrillation of longer than 90 days duration is associated with reduced odds of new cancer diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that an association observed in prior research may be due to instances related to cancer diagnosis and detection bias rather than a causal relationship. However, there may be bias in the sampling and residual confounding that distort the associations.

  9. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    Full Text Available Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA, a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive

  10. Extending Halogen-based Medicinal Chemistry to Proteins: IODO-INSULIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, Krystel; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B; Smith, Brian J; Menting, John G; Whittaker, Jonathan; Lawrence, Michael C; Meuwly, Markus; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-12-30

    Insulin, a protein critical for metabolic homeostasis, provides a classical model for protein design with application to human health. Recent efforts to improve its pharmaceutical formulation demonstrated that iodination of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr B26 ) enhances key properties of a rapid-acting clinical analog. Moreover, the broad utility of halogens in medicinal chemistry has motivated the use of hybrid quantum- and molecular-mechanical methods to study proteins. Here, we (i) undertook quantitative atomistic simulations of 3-[iodo-Tyr B26 ]insulin to predict its structural features, and (ii) tested these predictions by X-ray crystallography. Using an electrostatic model of the modified aromatic ring based on quantum chemistry, the calculations suggested that the analog, as a dimer and hexamer, exhibits subtle differences in aromatic-aromatic interactions at the dimer interface. Aromatic rings (Tyr B16 , Phe B24 , Phe B25 , 3-I-Tyr B26 , and their symmetry-related mates) at this interface adjust to enable packing of the hydrophobic iodine atoms within the core of each monomer. Strikingly, these features were observed in the crystal structure of a 3-[iodo-Tyr B26 ]insulin analog (determined as an R 6 zinc hexamer). Given that residues B24-B30 detach from the core on receptor binding, the environment of 3-I-Tyr B26 in a receptor complex must differ from that in the free hormone. Based on the recent structure of a "micro-receptor" complex, we predict that 3-I-Tyr B26 engages the receptor via directional halogen bonding and halogen-directed hydrogen bonding as follows: favorable electrostatic interactions exploiting, respectively, the halogen's electron-deficient σ-hole and electronegative equatorial band. Inspired by quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics, such "halogen engineering" promises to extend principles of medicinal chemistry to proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. ASME stress linearization and classification - a discussion based on a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Faloppa, Altair A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Fainer, Gerson

    2011-01-01

    The ASME code, specially in its Nuclear Division (Subsection NB - Class I Components), gives some recommendations to the structural analyst on how to perform the verifications required to prove the design as good as the by-analysis prevented failures modes. Each of these failure modes has specific stress limits which are established based on simple but conservative hypothesis like the material perfectly plastic behavior and the shell theory with its typical membrane and bending stresses with linear distribution along the thickness. Other detail to keep in mind is the code distinction between primary and secondary stresses (respectively, stress that came due to equilibrium and due to displacement compatibility). In general, the numerical models used in the analyses are developed with plane or 3D solid elements and due this fact no direct comparison with the code limits can be done and, besides that, the programs do not distinguish between primary and secondary stresses. Mostly, the later are produced due to the temperature variation but they also appear near discontinuities. Sometimes, this classification is not so clear or direct. To perform the required ASME Code verifications the analyst should obtain the membrane and bending stresses from the plane or 3-D model which is called stress linearization and, also, should classify them as primary and secondary. (The excess between the maximum stress at a point and the sum of these linearized values is called peak stress and is included in the fatigue verification.) This task, most of the time is not a simple one due to the nature of the involved load and/or the complex geometry under analysis. In fact, there are several studies discussing on how to perform these stress classification and linearization. The present paper shows a discussion on how to perform these verifications based on a generic geometry found in many plants, from petrochemical to nuclear, which emphasizes some of theses issues. (author)

  12. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  13. ASME stress linearization and classification - a discussion based on a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Faloppa, Altair A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Fainer, Gerson, E-mail: cmiranda@ipen.b, E-mail: afaloppa@ipen.b, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.b, E-mail: gfainer@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ASME code, specially in its Nuclear Division (Subsection NB - Class I Components), gives some recommendations to the structural analyst on how to perform the verifications required to prove the design as good as the by-analysis prevented failures modes. Each of these failure modes has specific stress limits which are established based on simple but conservative hypothesis like the material perfectly plastic behavior and the shell theory with its typical membrane and bending stresses with linear distribution along the thickness. Other detail to keep in mind is the code distinction between primary and secondary stresses (respectively, stress that came due to equilibrium and due to displacement compatibility). In general, the numerical models used in the analyses are developed with plane or 3D solid elements and due this fact no direct comparison with the code limits can be done and, besides that, the programs do not distinguish between primary and secondary stresses. Mostly, the later are produced due to the temperature variation but they also appear near discontinuities. Sometimes, this classification is not so clear or direct. To perform the required ASME Code verifications the analyst should obtain the membrane and bending stresses from the plane or 3-D model which is called stress linearization and, also, should classify them as primary and secondary. (The excess between the maximum stress at a point and the sum of these linearized values is called peak stress and is included in the fatigue verification.) This task, most of the time is not a simple one due to the nature of the involved load and/or the complex geometry under analysis. In fact, there are several studies discussing on how to perform these stress classification and linearization. The present paper shows a discussion on how to perform these verifications based on a generic geometry found in many plants, from petrochemical to nuclear, which emphasizes some of theses issues. (author)

  14. Prediction of base flows from catchment characteristics: a case study from Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Meijerink, A.M.J.; Stein, A.

    2004-01-01

    Base flows make up the flows of most rivers in Zimbabwe during the dry season. Prediction of base flows from basin characteristics is necessary for water resources planning of ungauged basins. Linear regression and artificial neural networks were used to predict the base flow index (BFI) from basin

  15. Activity based costing of probation with and without substance abuse treatment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; Taxman, Faye; Doyon, Victoria; Thanner, Meridith; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2004-06-01

    Since many offenders have drug problems, investigators have proposed that drug testing and treatment should be an integral part of probation. In 1994, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) funded a demonstration project designed to integrate drug treatment with traditional supervision services. As part of this demonstration a new procedure called 'seamless' probation was set up in which treatment providers were co-located with probation officers and probation officers coordinated offenders' participation in treatment. This study examines the cost of providing substance abuse treatment coordination through probation agencies. We used Activity Based Costing (ABC) to examine the cost of probation with and without treatment coordination in one probation agency. Agency budget was analyzed and allocated to various programs. A questionnaire was developed to assess probation officer's activities. The cost of coordinating treatment for one offender was calculated by dividing the total cost of the program by units of various activities done by the probation officers. Preliminary test of reliability of the instrument showed that it was accurately portraying the probation officers time allocation. Probation officers spent 6.9% of their time in seamless supervision and 83.3% time in traditional supervision (83.83%). The seamless probation officers had more group meetings and more phone contact with their offenders than traditional probation officers. The average cost per offender per day was 12 dollars for seamless probation and 7 dollars for traditional probation. This study is limited because it focuses on one agency at one point in time. Results may not be relevant to other agencies or to the same agency as it makes its operation more efficient. This study provides a method of allocating budget cost to per client costs using survey of probation officer's activities -- a tool developed in this study. Comparison of seamless and traditional supervision activities

  16. Simplex-based optimization of numerical and categorical inputs in early bioprocess development: Case studies in HT chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Spyridon; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Velayudhan, Ajoy

    2017-08-01

    Bioprocess development studies often involve the investigation of numerical and categorical inputs via the adoption of Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques. An attractive alternative is the deployment of a grid compatible Simplex variant which has been shown to yield optima rapidly and consistently. In this work, the method is combined with dummy variables and it is deployed in three case studies wherein spaces are comprised of both categorical and numerical inputs, a situation intractable by traditional Simplex methods. The first study employs in silico data and lays out the dummy variable methodology. The latter two employ experimental data from chromatography based studies performed with the filter-plate and miniature column High Throughput (HT) techniques. The solute of interest in the former case study was a monoclonal antibody whereas the latter dealt with the separation of a binary system of model proteins. The implemented approach prevented the stranding of the Simplex method at local optima, due to the arbitrary handling of the categorical inputs, and allowed for the concurrent optimization of numerical and categorical, multilevel and/or dichotomous, inputs. The deployment of the Simplex method, combined with dummy variables, was therefore entirely successful in identifying and characterizing global optima in all three case studies. The Simplex-based method was further shown to be of equivalent efficiency to a DoE-based approach, represented here by D-Optimal designs. Such an approach failed, however, to both capture trends and identify optima, and led to poor operating conditions. It is suggested that the Simplex-variant is suited to development activities involving numerical and categorical inputs in early bioprocess development. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Leukaemia and occupation: a New Zealand Cancer Registry-based case-control Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLean, D.; 't Mannetje, A.; Dryson, E.; Walls, C.; McKenzie, F.; Maule, M.; Cheng, S.; Cunningham, C.; Kromhout, H.; Boffetta, P.; Blair, A.; Pearce, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between occupation and leukaemia. METHODS: We interviewed 225 cases (aged 20-75 years) notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2003-04, and 471 controls randomly selected from the Electoral Roll collecting demographic details, information on

  18. Establishment of Risk based microbiological criteria in the Nordic countries: A case study on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Microbiological criteria (MCs) offer a practical tool for food safety control and they are currently under discussion internationally. To meet the present scientific standards, there is an increasing demand for so- called “risk based” microbiological criteria that are based on risk assessment....... In this project we studied the potentials for setting risk based microbiological criteria on Campylobacter in chicken meat by studying the potential impact that specific microbiological criteria would have in different Nordic countries. This is done on the basis of different data sets that have been collected...... based microbiological criteria, the “case-by-case” risk assessment methodology is used (Christensen et al 2013) and its impact is analysed on the basis of the same data sets. In both approaches the same risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat is used. The difference between...

  19. Understanding the context of balanced scorecard implementation: a hospital-based case study in pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Agha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a response to a changing operating environment, healthcare administrators are implementing modern management tools in their organizations. The balanced scorecard (BSC is considered a viable tool in high-income countries to improve hospital performance. The BSC has not been applied to hospital settings in low-income countries nor has the context for implementation been examined. This study explored contextual perspectives in relation to BSC implementation in a Pakistani hospital. Methods Four clinical units of this hospital were involved in the BSC implementation based on their willingness to participate. Implementation included sensitization of units towards the BSC, developing specialty specific BSCs and reporting of performance based on the BSC during administrative meetings. Pettigrew and Whipp's context (why, process (how and content (what framework of strategic change was used to guide data collection and analysis. Data collection methods included quantitative tools (a validated culture assessment questionnaire and qualitative approaches including key informant interviews and participant observation. Results Method triangulation provided common and contrasting results between the four units. A participatory culture, supportive leadership, financial and non-financial incentives, the presentation of clear direction by integrating support for the BSC in policies, resources, and routine activities emerged as desirable attributes for BSC implementation. The two units that lagged behind were more involved in direct inpatient care and carried a considerable clinical workload. Role clarification and consensus about the purpose and benefits of the BSC were noted as key strategies for overcoming implementation challenges in two clinical units that were relatively ahead in BSC implementation. It was noted that, rather than seeking to replace existing information systems, initiatives such as the BSC could be readily adopted if

  20. A case series study on the effect of Ebola on facility-based deliveries in rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Rominski, Sarah Danielson; Perosky, Joseph E; Munro, Michelle L; Williams, Garfee; Bell, Sue Anne; Nyanplu, Aloysius B; Amarah, Patricia N M; Boyd, Carol J

    2015-10-12

    As communities' fears of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa exacerbate and their trust in healthcare providers diminishes, EVD has the potential to reverse the recent progress made in promoting facility-based delivery. Using retrospective data from a study focused on maternal and newborn health, this analysis examined the influence of EVD on the use of facility-based maternity care in Bong Country, Liberia, which shares a boarder with Sierra Leone - near the epicenter of the outbreak. Using a case series design, retrospective data from logbooks were collected at 12 study sites in one county. These data were then analyzed to determine women's use of facility-based maternity care between January 2012 and October 2014. The primary outcome was the number of facility-based deliveries over time. The first suspected case of EVD in Bong County was reported on June 30, 2014. Heat maps were generated and the number of deliveries was normalized to the average number of deliveries during the full 12 months before the EVD outbreak (March 2013 - February 2014). Prior to the EVD outbreak, facility-based deliveries steadily increased in Bong County reaching an all-time high of over 500 per month at study sites in the first half of 2014 - indicating Liberia was making inroads in normalizing institutional maternal healthcare. However, as reports of EVD escalated, facility-based deliveries decreased to a low of 113 in August 2014. Ebola virus disease has negatively impacted the use of facility-based maternity services, placing childbearing women at increased risk for morbidity and death.

  1. GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, Christopher L; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-01-17

    We describe a new methodology for performing regionalized life cycle assessment and systematically choosing the spatial scale of regionalized impact assessment methods. We extend standard matrix-based calculations to include matrices that describe the mapping from inventory to impact assessment spatial supports. Uncertainty in inventory spatial data is modeled using a discrete spatial distribution function, which in a case study is derived from empirical data. The minimization of global spatial autocorrelation is used to choose the optimal spatial scale of impact assessment methods. We demonstrate these techniques on electricity production in the United States, using regionalized impact assessment methods for air emissions and freshwater consumption. Case study results show important differences between site-generic and regionalized calculations, and provide specific guidance for future improvements of inventory data sets and impact assessment methods.

  2. Clinical Signs, Causes, and Risk Factors of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Diseases: a Hospital-based Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This retrospective study aimed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of chronic kidney diseases (CKD in patients < 18 years old at a single referral center. Materials and Methods In a hospital-based case control study, 66 CKD patients less than 18 years old were compared to 81 control patients (also under 18 without CKD. A patient was defined as a CKD case with renal injury and/or had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of Results Fever, chills, and urinary tract infections were the most common clinical signs in the referred patients. Urinary tract infection (39.5% and growth failure (12.9% were the most important causes in referred pediatric CKD. After controlling the effect of confounding variables, household income, using packed water for drinking, percentile of body mass index (BMI, and gestational age were the significant predictors of pediatric CKD (P

  3. Decision PBL: A 4-year retrospective case study of the use of virtual patients in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Poulton, Terry; Jivram, Trupti

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, St George's University of London (SGUL) replaced their paper-based problem-based learning (PBL) cases with virtual patients for intermediate-level undergraduate students. This involved the development of Decision-Problem-Based Learning (D-PBL), a variation on progressive-release PBL that uses virtual patients instead of paper cases, and focuses on patient management decisions and their consequences. Using a case study method, this paper describes four years of developing and running D-PBL at SGUL from individual activities up to the ways in which D-PBL functioned as an educational system. A number of broad issues were identified: the importance of debates and decision-making in making D-PBL activities engaging and rewarding; the complexities of managing small group dynamics; the time taken to complete D-PBL activities; the changing role of the facilitator; and the erosion of the D-PBL process over time. A key point in understanding this work is the construction and execution of the D-PBL activity, as much of the value of this approach arises from the actions and interactions of students, their facilitators and the virtual patients rather than from the design of the virtual patients alone. At a systems level D-PBL needs to be periodically refreshed to retain its effectiveness.

  4. Comparison of 2 resident learning tools-interactive screen-based simulated case scenarios versus problem-based learning discussions: a prospective quasi-crossover cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shobana; Khanna, Ashish; Argalious, Maged; Kimatian, Stephen J; Mascha, Edward J; Makarova, Natalya; Nada, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Firoozbakhsh, Farhad; Avitsian, Rafi

    2016-02-01

    Simulation-based learning is emerging as an alternative educational tool in this era of a relative shortfall of teaching anesthesiologists. The objective of the study is to assess whether screen-based (interactive computer simulated) case scenarios are more effective than problem-based learning discussions (PBLDs) in improving test scores 4 and 8 weeks after these interventions in anesthesia residents during their first neuroanesthesia rotation. Prospective, nonblinded quasi-crossover study. Cleveland Clinic. Anesthesiology residents. Two case scenarios were delivered from the Anesoft software as screen-based sessions, and parallel scripts were developed for 2 PBLDs. Each resident underwent both types of training sessions, starting with the PBLD session, and the 2 cases were alternated each month (ie, in 1 month, the screen-based intervention used case 1 and the PBLD used case 2, and vice versa for the next month). Test scores before the rotation (baseline), immediately after the rotation (4 weeks after the start of the rotation), and 8 weeks after the start of rotation were collected on each topic from each resident. The effect of training method on improvement in test scores was assessed using a linear mixed-effects model. Compared to the departmental standard of PBLD, the simulation method did not improve either the 4- or 8-week mean test scores (P = .41 and P = .40 for training method effect on 4- and 8-week scores, respectively). Resident satisfaction with the simulation module on a 5-point Likert scale showed subjective evidence of a positive impact on resident education. Screen-based simulators were not more effective than PBLD for education during the neuroanesthesia rotation in anesthesia residency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Getting water right: A case study in water yield modelling based on precipitation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessacg, Natalia; Flaherty, Silvia; Brandizi, Laura; Solman, Silvina; Pascual, Miguel

    2015-12-15

    Water yield is a key ecosystem service in river basins and especially in dry regions around the World. In this study we carry out a modelling analysis of water yields in the Chubut River basin, located in one of the driest districts of Patagonia, Argentina. We focus on the uncertainty around precipitation data, a driver of paramount importance for water yield. The objectives of this study are to: i) explore the spatial and numeric differences among six widely used global precipitation datasets for this region, ii) test them against data from independent ground stations, and iii) explore the effects of precipitation data uncertainty on simulations of water yield. The simulations were performed using the ecosystem services model InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) with each of the six different precipitation datasets as input. Our results show marked differences among datasets for the Chubut watershed region, both in the magnitude of precipitations and their spatial arrangement. Five of the precipitation databases overestimate the precipitation over the basin by 50% or more, particularly over the more humid western range. Meanwhile, the remaining dataset (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - TRMM), based on satellite measurements, adjusts well to the observed rainfall in different stations throughout the watershed and provides a better representation of the precipitation gradient characteristic of the rain shadow of the Andes. The observed differences among datasets in the representation of the rainfall gradient translate into large differences in water yield simulations. Errors in precipitation of +30% (-30%) amplify to water yield errors ranging from 50 to 150% (-45 to -60%) in some sub-basins. These results highlight the importance of assessing uncertainties in main input data when quantifying and mapping ecosystem services with biophysical models and cautions about the undisputed use of global environmental datasets. Copyright

  6. Predicting seizure by modeling synaptic plasticity based on EEG signals - a case study of inherited epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Su, Jianzhong; Wang, Qingyun; Liu, Yueming; Good, Levi; Pascual, Juan M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores the internal dynamical mechanisms of epileptic seizures through quantitative modeling based on full brain electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Our goal is to provide seizure prediction and facilitate treatment for epileptic patients. Motivated by an earlier mathematical model with incorporated synaptic plasticity, we studied the nonlinear dynamics of inherited seizures through a differential equation model. First, driven by a set of clinical inherited electroencephalogram data recorded from a patient with diagnosed Glucose Transporter Deficiency, we developed a dynamic seizure model on a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was reduced in complexity after considering and removing redundancy of each EEG channel. Then we verified that the proposed model produces qualitatively relevant behavior which matches the basic experimental observations of inherited seizure, including synchronization index and frequency. Meanwhile, the rationality of the connectivity structure hypothesis in the modeling process was verified. Further, through varying the threshold condition and excitation strength of synaptic plasticity, we elucidated the effect of synaptic plasticity to our seizure model. Results suggest that synaptic plasticity has great effect on the duration of seizure activities, which support the plausibility of therapeutic interventions for seizure control.

  7. a R-Shiny Based Phenology Analysis System and Case Study Using Digital Camera Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. K.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate extracting of the vegetation phenology information play an important role in exploring the effects of climate changes on vegetation. Repeated photos from digital camera is a useful and huge data source in phonological analysis. Data processing and mining on phenological data is still a big challenge. There is no single tool or a universal solution for big data processing and visualization in the field of phenology extraction. In this paper, we proposed a R-shiny based web application for vegetation phenological parameters extraction and analysis. Its main functions include phenological site distribution visualization, ROI (Region of Interest) selection, vegetation index calculation and visualization, data filtering, growth trajectory fitting, phenology parameters extraction, etc. the long-term observation photography data from Freemanwood site in 2013 is processed by this system as an example. The results show that: (1) this system is capable of analyzing large data using a distributed framework; (2) The combination of multiple parameter extraction and growth curve fitting methods could effectively extract the key phenology parameters. Moreover, there are discrepancies between different combination methods in unique study areas. Vegetation with single-growth peak is suitable for using the double logistic module to fit the growth trajectory, while vegetation with multi-growth peaks should better use spline method.

  8. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  9. Risk-based decision making: The East Fork Poplar Creek case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment revealed that methylmercury released from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 weapons facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, poses moderate risks to mink and kingfishers residing near the receiving waters of East Fork Poplar Creek. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from this facility pose severe risks to mink but little risk to kingfishers. The objective of this study was to use a risk-based decision-making approach to select remedial cleanup levels for each of these contaminants. The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate total daily intakes of each contaminant by mink (mercury and PCBs) and kingfishers (PCBs only) for a range of exposure-reduction scenarios. The resulting exposure distributions were then integrated with their respective dose-response curves to estimate postremediation risks. The results indicated that total mercury levels in surface water would need to be reduced from current levels (mean = 0.225 {micro}g/L) to 0.03 to 0.05 {micro}g/L to reduce risks to very low levels (<5% probability of {ge}20% mortality) for both mink and kingfishers. If interested parties define acceptable risk as, for example, a 20% probability of {gt} 10% mortality, then mercury levels would need to be reduced to 0.14 {micro}g/L. The PCBs analysis indicated that reducing water-borne exposures would produce only a modest reduction in risk to mink because much of the current exposure is through terrestrial exposure pathways.

  10. Estimating population size in wastewater-based epidemiology. Valencia metropolitan area as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, María; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-02-05

    Wastewater can provide a wealth of epidemiologic data on common drugs consumed and on health and nutritional problems based on the biomarkers excreted into community sewage systems. One of the biggest uncertainties of these studies is the estimation of the number of inhabitants served by the treatment plants. Twelve human urine biomarkers -5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), acesulfame, atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, creatinine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), naproxen, salicylic acid (SA) and hydroxycotinine (OHCOT)- were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to estimate population size. The results reveal that populations calculated from cotinine, 5-HIAA and caffeine are commonly in agreement with those calculated by the hydrochemical parameters. Creatinine is too unstable to be applicable. HCTZ, naproxen, codeine, OHCOT and carbamazepine, under or overestimate the population compared to the hydrochemical population estimates but showed constant results through the weekdays. The consumption of cannabis, cocaine, heroin and bufotenine in Valencia was estimated for a week using different population calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  12. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to operate electric bus as a replacement for the conventional bus operation (with natural gas buses for the study area in Putrajaya, Malaysia. In order to determine a proper-designed electric bus operating system in terms of electric bus route, service frequency and quantity, the proposed methodology is developed with the aid of a traffic modeling software to cater various scenarios. Based on the existing (conventional traffic and transit system in Putrajaya, the developed electric bus operating model is calibrated accordingly by considering various operational concerns including battery capacity and charging facility. The resultant findings revealed that the developed electric bus operating system in Putrajaya outperforms the conventional bus operation, not only in generating a higher profit margin for the bus operator, but also satisfying the passengers in a better manner (by carrying more passengers per unit of bus with a lower energy consumption.

  13. A Case Study on a Combination NDVI Forecasting Model Based on the Entropy Weight Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Ming, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei

    2017-05-05

    It is critically meaningful to accurately predict NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which helps guide regional ecological remediation and environmental managements. In this study, a combination forecasting model (CFM) was proposed to improve the performance of NDVI predictions in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) based on three individual forecasting models, i.e., the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) models. The entropy weight method was employed to determine the weight coefficient for each individual model depending on its predictive performance. Results showed that: (1) ANN exhibits the highest fitting capability among the four orecasting models in the calibration period, whilst its generalization ability becomes weak in the validation period; MLR has a poor performance in both calibration and validation periods; the predicted results of CFM in the calibration period have the highest stability; (2) CFM generally outperforms all individual models in the validation period, and can improve the reliability and stability of predicted results through combining the strengths while reducing the weaknesses of individual models; (3) the performances of all forecasting models are better in dense vegetation areas than in sparse vegetation areas.

  14. A Decision Support System Based on Genetic Algorithm (Case Study: Scheduling in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Beheheshtinia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the application of effective and efficient decisions on complex issues require the use of decision support systems. This Paper provided a decision support system based on the genetic algorithm for production and transportation scheduling problem in a supply chain. It is assumed that there are number of orders that should be produced by suppliers and should be transported to the plant by a transportation fleet. The aim is to assign orders to the suppliers, specify the order of their production, allocate processed orders to the vehicles for transport and to arrange them in a way that minimizes the total delivery time. It has been shown that the complexity of the problem was related to Np-hard and there was no possibility of using accurate methods to solve the problem in a reasonable time. So, the genetic algorithm was used in this paper to solve the problem. By using this decision support system, a new approach to supply chain management was proposed. The analysis of the approach proposed in this study compared to the conventional approaches by the decision support system indicated the preference of our proposed approach

  15. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: A case study in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Ma, W.C.; Chen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10 -4 , 10 -5 -10 -4 and 10 -6 -10 -5 per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10 -6 per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment.

  16. Evaluating Pillar Industry’s Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China’s steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities’ abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  17. An infrastructure for ontology-based information systems in biomedicine: RICORDO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Grenon, Pierre; Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V; de Bono, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    The article presents an infrastructure for supporting the semantic interoperability of biomedical resources based on the management (storing and inference-based querying) of their ontology-based annotations. This infrastructure consists of: (i) a repository to store and query ontology-based annotations; (ii) a knowledge base server with an inference engine to support the storage of and reasoning over ontologies used in the annotation of resources; (iii) a set of applications and services allowing interaction with the integrated repository and knowledge base. The infrastructure is being prototyped and developed and evaluated by the RICORDO project in support of the knowledge management of biomedical resources, including physiology and pharmacology models and associated clinical data. The RICORDO toolkit and its source code are freely available from http://ricordo.eu/relevant-resources. sarala@ebi.ac.uk.

  18. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy: a case-referent study based on patients' histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M; Veien, N; Avnstorp, C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1998-06-01

    Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients and two control groups, one consisting of 1,279 subjects selected as a random sample of the general population and the other consisting of 806 fragrance-mix-negative eczema patients. The identification of risk products was based on the patients' histories of rash to scented products. Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy in a comparison with both control groups. The risk (odds ratio) of being diagnosed as fragrance allergic was 2.3 to 2.9 greater in cases of a history of first-time rash to deodorant sprays and 3.3 to 3.4 greater in cases of a history of rash to perfumes than if no such history were present. First-time rash to cleansing agents, deodorant sticks, or hand lotions was also statistically significant but only in comparison with one of the control groups. Safety evaluation of fragrance materials used in perfumes and deodorant sprays should be performed with special attention.

  19. Development of System Based Code: Case Study of Life-Cycle Margin Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Asayama; Masaki Morishita; Masanori Tashimo

    2006-01-01

    For a leap of progress in structural deign of nuclear plant components, The late Professor Emeritus Yasuhide Asada proposed the System Based Code. The key concepts of the System Based Code are; (1) life-cycle margin optimization, (2) expansion of technical options as well as combinations of technical options beyond the current codes and standards, and (3) designing to clearly defined target reliabilities. Those concepts are very new to most of the nuclear power plant designers who are naturally obliged to design to current codes and standards; the application of the concepts of the System Based Code to design will lead to entire change of practices that designers have long been accustomed to. On the other hand, experienced designers are supposed to have expertise that can support and accelerate the development of the System Based Code. Therefore, interfacing with experienced designers is of crucial importance for the development of the System Based Code. The authors conducted a survey on the acceptability of the System Based Code concept. The results were analyzed from the possibility of improving structural design both in terms of reliability and cost effectiveness by the introduction of the System Based Code concept. It was concluded that the System Based Code is beneficial for those purposes. Also described is the expertise elicited from the results of the survey that can be reflected to the development of the System Based Code. (authors)

  20. Life cycle inventory for palm based plywood: A gate-to-gate case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamim; Sahid, Ismail; Subramaniam, Vijaya; Muhamad, Halimah; Mokhtar, Anis

    2013-11-01

    The oil palm industry heavily relies on the world market. It is essential to ensure that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the demands and expectation of these overseas customers on the environmental performance of the oil palm industry. Malaysia produces 13.9 million tons of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunk (OPT), frond and empty fruits bunches (EFB) annually. OPT felled in some oil palm plantations during replanting is transported to various industries and one such industry is the plywood factories. In order to gauge the environmental performance of the use of OPT as plywood a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted for palm based plywood. LCA is an important tool to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. Life cycle inventory (LCI) is the heart of a LCA study. This LCI study has a gate-to-gate system boundary and the functional unit is 1 m3 palm plywood produced and covers three types of plywood; Moisture Resistance Plywood (MR), Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 1 (WBP Grade 1) at Factory D and Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 2 (WBP Grade 2) at Factory E. Both factories use two different types of drying processes; conventional drying at Factory D and kiln drying at Factory E. This inventory data was collected from two factories (D and E) representing 40% of Malaysia palm plywood industry. The inputs are mainly the raw materials which are the oil palm trunks and tropical wood veneers and the energy from diesel and electricity from grid which is mainly used for the drying process. The other inputs include water, urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde, flour and melamine powder. The outputs are the biomass waste which consists of oil palm trunk off-cut and emission from boiler. Generally, all types of plywood production use almost same materials and processing methods in different quantities. Due to the different process efficiency, Factory D uses less input of raw materials and energy compared to Factory E.

  1. MINI REVIEW ARTICLE:Immunohistochemistry of Epithelioid Soft Tissue Sarcomas, Literature Review Based on Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Joshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms with epithelioid histology may be diagnostically challenging. Immunohisto chemistry (IHC can aid in confirming thedifferential diagnosis of mesotheliomas, melanomas, lymphomas, and soft tissue sarcomas, all tumors that can present with an epithelioid histology. Immunohistochemistry can also assist in confirming the type of sarcomas. Using cases diagnosed in acommunity hospital setting over a ten year period, the use of IHC in sarcomas will be illustrated.

  2. Risk factors and therapy for goat mastitis in a hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors for goat mastitis in a hospital-based matched case-control study in a teaching veterinary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh and to describe the range of antimicrobial treatments applied in this situation. Cases of mastitis and controls were drawn from the hospital patient recording system, along with their risk factor status. Multiple imputation was applied to deal with the missing values in the data analysis. Mastitis occurred somewhat more in the rainy season, and comprised about 3% of all goats admitted to the hospital during January 2011-June 2014. Free-ranging farming system, poor body condition score and non-native goat breeds were significantly associated with case status. Treatment of clinical mastitis was variable and unsystematic, but the use of gentamicin was commonly recorded. The need for more prudent and evidence-based antimicrobial therapies is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Septic Systems Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    man, and cancer fighter. This psychobiographical case study entailed a psychosocial-historical ... does not draw more attention as a research method, as this approach has .... of the applied Levinsonian theory to the life of Jobs against the ...

  6. Site-Based Management in Education: Rochester City School District Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan

    This paper describes outcomes of a partnership between the Rochester City School District (New York) and the Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge consulting program for improving school-based planning team (S-BPT) operations. The purpose of the school-based planning team is to involve the entire school community in improving school effectiveness.…

  7. Case Study of a Project-Based Learning Course in Civil Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of project-based learning to teach design skills to civil engineering students at University College Dublin (UCD). The paper first considers the development of problem-based leaning (PBL) as a tool in higher education. The general issues to be considered in the design of the curriculum for a PBL module are reviewed.…

  8. Balancing Identity and Diversity in Faith-Based Nursing Education: A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Bodil; Karvinen, Ikali; Damsma-Bakker, Alica; Ylönen, Merja; Oosterhoff-Zielman, Marjanne; Fanuelsen, Olav; van Leeuwen, Réné

    2015-01-01

    The role of faith-based nursing education is contested in today's Northern European societies, which are often described as postmodern, pluralist, or secular. Although faith-based institutions played pioneering roles in the early development of nursing education, many today downplay their religious roots and have transformed themselves into modern…

  9. Energy Sustainability Evaluation Model Based on the Matter-Element Extension Method: A Case Study of Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy sustainability is of vital importance to regional sustainability, because energy sustainability is closely related to both regional economic growth and social stability. The existing energy sustainability evaluation methods lack a unified system to determine the relevant influencing factors, are relatively weak in quantitative analysis, and do not fully describe the ‘paradoxical’ characteristics of energy sustainability. To solve those problems and to reasonably and objectively evaluate energy sustainability, we propose an energy sustainability evaluation model based on the matter-element extension method. We first select energy sustainability evaluation indexes based on previous research and experience. Then, a variation coefficient method is used to determine the weights of these indexes. Finally, the study establishes the classical domain, joint domain, and the matter-element relationship to evaluate energy sustainability through matter-element extension. Data from Shandong Province is used as a case study to evaluate the region’s energy sustainability. The case study shows that the proposed energy sustainability evaluation model, based on the matter-element extension method, can effectively evaluate regional energy sustainability.

  10. An Energy-Based Control Strategy for Battery Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study on Microgrid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs with proportional-integral (PI control methods have been widely studied in microgrids (MGs. However, the performance of PI control methods might be unsatisfactory for BESSs due to the nonlinear characteristics of the system. To overcome this problem, an energy-based (EB control method is applied to control the converter of a BESS in this study. The EB method is a robust nonlinear control method based on passivity theory with good performance in both transient and steady states. The detailed design process of the EB method in the BESS by adopting an interconnection and damping assignment (IDA strategy is described. The design process comprises three steps: the construction of the port-controlled Hamiltonian model, the determination of the equilibrium point and the solution of the undetermined matrix. In addition, integral action is combined to eliminate the steady state error generated by the model mismatch. To establish the correctness and validity of the proposed method, we implement several case simulation studies based on a test MG system and compare the control performance of the EB and PI methods carefully. The case simulation results demonstrate that the EB method has better tracking and anti-disturbance performance compared with the classic PI method. Moreover, the proposed EB method shows stronger robustness to the uncertainty of system parameters.

  11. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  12. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach are examined based on the pre- and post-proficiency test results, learners’ self-reported surveys on the themes and topics, and the reading strategies covered in the program. Qualitative analysis of learners’ self-reflections and program evaluations is also presented. Based on the evidence collected, this paper argues that the theme-based model has positive impacts on improving language proficiency, preparing for academic and professional language use, cultivating strategic language learners, and revitalizing Chinese teaching at the superior level.

  13. Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

    2012-12-01

    The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

  14. Electroencephalogram-Based Brain–Computer Interface and Lower-Limb Prosthesis Control: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Murphy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of manipulating a prosthetic knee directly by using a brain–computer interface (BCI system in a transfemoral amputee. Although the other forms of control could be more reliable and quick (e.g., electromyography control, the electroencephalography (EEG-based BCI may provide amputees an alternative way to control a prosthesis directly from brain.MethodsA transfemoral amputee subject was trained to activate a knee-unlocking switch through motor imagery of the movement of his lower extremity. Surface scalp electrodes transmitted brain wave data to a software program that was keyed to activate the switch when the event-related desynchronization in EEG reached a certain threshold. After achieving more than 90% reliability for switch activation by EEG rhythm-feedback training, the subject then progressed to activating the knee-unlocking switch on a prosthesis that turned on a motor and unlocked a prosthetic knee. The project took place in the prosthetic department of a Veterans Administration medical center. The subject walked back and forth in the parallel bars and unlocked the knee for swing phase and for sitting down. The success of knee unlocking through this system was measured. Additionally, the subject filled out a questionnaire on his experiences.ResultsThe success of unlocking the prosthetic knee mechanism ranged from 50 to 100% in eight test segments.ConclusionThe performance of the subject supports the feasibility for BCI control of a lower extremity prosthesis using surface scalp EEG electrodes. Investigating direct brain control in different types of patients is important to promote real-world BCI applications.

  15. Association of Barrett's esophagus with type II Diabetes Mellitus: results from a large population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Prasad G; Borah, Bijan J; Heien, Herbert C; Das, Ananya; Cooper, Gregory S; Chak, Amitabh

    2013-09-01

    Central obesity could increase the risk for Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma by mechanical and/or metabolic mechanisms, such as hyperinsulinemia. We performed an epidemiologic study to determine whether prior type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with BE. We performed a population-based case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, a UK primary care database that contains information on more than 8 million subjects, to identify cases of BE (using previously validated codes; n = 14,245) and matched controls without BE (by age, sex, enrollment date, duration of follow-up evaluation, and practice region by incidence density sampling; n = 70,361). We assessed the association of a prior diagnosis of DM2 with BE using conditional univariate and multivariable regression analysis. Confounders assessed included smoking, obesity measured by body mass index (BMI), and gastroesophageal reflux disease. BE cases were more likely than controls to have smoked (52.4% vs 49.9%), have a higher mean BMI (27.2 vs 26.9), and a higher prevalence of DM2 than controls (5.8% vs 5.3%). On multivariable analysis, DM2 was associated with a 49% increase in the risk of BE, independent of other known risk factors (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.91). This association was stronger in women than men. Results remained stable with sensitivity analyses. In a large population-based case-control study, DM2 was a risk factor for BE, independent of obesity (as measured by BMI) and other risk factors (smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease). These data suggest that metabolic pathways related to DM2 should be explored in BE pathogenesis and esophageal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Although human toxoplasmosis is a notifiable disease in Taiwan since 2007, little is known about its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control study. Cases of acute human toxoplasmosis notified to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control (Taipei, Taiwan during 2008-2013 were compared with controls that were randomly selected from healthy T. gondii-seronegative blood donors who participated in a nationwide T. gondii seroepidemiologic study during 2009-2010. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender and residency at an 1:8 ratio. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information regarding risk factors. A total of 30 laboratory-confirmed acute T. gondii disease cases and 224 controls were enrolled. The most common clinical manifestation of the cases was flu-like symptoms (n = 20, followed by central nervous system disease (n = 4, ocular diseases (n = 3, abortion (n = 2, and congenital infection (n = 1. Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that raw clam consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-9.9 and having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.9 were two independent risk factors for acute T. gondii disease. We conclude that raw shellfish consumption and domestic cat exposure were risk factors for acquiring acute T. gondii diseases in Taiwan. This finding may guide future research and control policies.

  17. A register-based case-control study of health care utilization and costs in binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Jangmo, Andreas; Smith, Tosha; Thornton, Laura M; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne; Madhoo, Manisha; Norring, Claes; Welch, Elisabeth; Wiklund, Camilla; Larsson, Henrik; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-05-01

    Capturing trends in healthcare utilization may help to improve efficiencies in the detection and diagnosis of illness, to plan service delivery, and to forecast future health expenditures. For binge-eating disorder (BED), issues include lengthy delays in detection and diagnosis, missed opportunities for recognition and treatment, and morbidity. The study objective was to compare healthcare utilization and expenditure in people with and without BED. A case-control design and nationwide registers were used. All individuals diagnosed with BED at eating disorder clinics in Sweden between 2005 and 2009 were included (N = 319, 97% female, M age = 22 years). Ten controls (N = 3190) were matched to each case on age-, sex-, and location of birth. Inpatient, hospital-based outpatient, and prescription medication utilization and expenditure were analyzed up to eight years before and four years after the index date (i.e., date of diagnosis of the BED case). Cases had significantly higher inpatient, hospital-based outpatient, and prescription medication utilization and expenditure compared with controls many years prior to and after diagnosis of BED. Utilization and expenditure for controls was relatively stable over time, but for cases followed an inverted U-shape and peaked at the index year. Care for somatic conditions normalized after the index year, but care for psychiatric conditions remained significantly higher. Individuals with BED had substantially higher healthcare utilization and costs in the years prior to and after diagnosis of BED. Since previous research shows a delay in diagnosis, findings indicate clear opportunities for earlier detection and clinical management. Training of providers in detection, diagnosis, and management may help curtail morbidity. A reduction in healthcare utilization was observed after BED diagnosis. This suggests that earlier diagnosis and treatment could improve long-term health outcomes and reduce the economic burden

  18. Mathematical modeling of human glioma growth based on brain topological structures: study of two clinical cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Suarez

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and yet almost incurable due mainly to their great invasion capability. This represents a challenge to present clinical oncology. Here, we introduce a mathematical model aiming to improve tumor spreading capability definition. The model consists in a time dependent reaction-diffusion equation in a three-dimensional spatial domain that distinguishes between different brain topological structures. The model uses a series of digitized images from brain slices covering the whole human brain. The Talairach atlas included in the model describes brain structures at different levels. Also, the inclusion of the Brodmann areas allows prediction of the brain functions affected during tumor evolution and the estimation of correlated symptoms. The model is solved numerically using patient-specific parametrization and finite differences. Simulations consider an initial state with cellular proliferation alone (benign tumor, and an advanced state when infiltration starts (malign tumor. Survival time is estimated on the basis of tumor size and location. The model is used to predict tumor evolution in two clinical cases. In the first case, predictions show that real infiltrative areas are underestimated by current diagnostic imaging. In the second case, tumor spreading predictions were shown to be more accurate than those derived from previous models in the literature. Our results suggest that the inclusion of differential migration in glioma growth models constitutes another step towards a better prediction of tumor infiltration at the moment of surgical or radiosurgical target definition. Also, the addition of physiological/psychological considerations to classical anatomical models will provide a better and integral understanding of the patient disease at the moment of deciding therapeutic options, taking into account not only survival but also life quality.

  19. Alternative Mechanisms for Compensatory Mitigation: Case Studies and Lessons About Fee-Based Compensatory Wetlands Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bacon, Elise

    1993-01-01

    ... out wetlands restoration, creation, and/or enhancement projects. In-lieu fees, fee-based compensation, and monetary compensation are other terms that have been used to describe this arrangement...

  20. Extending a DBMS to Support Content-Based Video Retrieval : A Formula 1 Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem; Mihajlovic, V.

    Content-based retrieval has been identified as one of the most challenging problems, requiring a multidisciplinary research among computer vision, information retrieval, artificial intelligence, database, and other fields. In this paper, we address the specific aspect of inferring semantics

  1. Appendectomy and Risk of Subsequent Diverticular Disease Requiring Hospitalization: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköldberg, Filip; Olén, Ola; Ekbom, Anders; Schmidt, Peter T

    2018-07-01

    Appendicitis and acute diverticulitis share clinical features and are both influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Appendectomy has been positively associated with diverticular disease in hospital-based case-control studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a population-based setting, whether appendectomy, with or without appendicitis, is associated with an altered risk of hospitalization with diverticular disease. This was a population-based case-control study. The study was based on national healthcare and population registers. We studied 41,988 individuals hospitalized between 2000 and 2010 with a first-time diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease and 413,115 matched control subjects. The association between appendectomy with or without appendicitis and diverticular disease was investigated by conditional logistic regression, including a model adjusting for hospital use. A total of 2813 cases (6.7%) and 19,037 controls (4.6%) had a previous record of appendectomy (appendectomy with acute appendicitis: adjusted OR = 1.31 (95% CI, 1.24-1.39); without appendicitis: adjusted OR = 1.30 (95% CI, 1.23-1.38)). Appendectomy was most strongly associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease within 1 year (with appendicitis: adjusted OR = 2.26 (95% CI, 1.61-3.16); without appendicitis: adjusted OR = 3.98 (95% CI, 2.71-5.83)), but the association was still present ≥20 years after appendectomy (with appendicitis: adjusted OR = 1.22 (95% CI, 1.12-1.32); without appendicitis: adjusted OR = 1.19 (95% CI, 1.10-1.28)). Detailed clinical information on the cases was not available. There were unmeasured potential confounders, such as smoking and dietary factors. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis of appendectomy causing an increased risk of diverticular disease, for example, by affecting the mucosal immune system or the gut microbiome. However, several other mechanisms may contribute to, or account for, the positive association

  2. Case mix adjustment of health outcomes, resource use and process indicators in childbirth care: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton, Johan; Lindgren, Peter; Ekenberg Abreu, Anna; Ladfors, Lars; Lilja, Monica; Saltvedt, Sissel; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis

    2016-05-31

    Unwarranted variation in care practice and outcomes has gained attention and inter-hospital comparisons are increasingly being used to highlight and understand differences between hospitals. Adjustment for case mix is a prerequisite for meaningful comparisons between hospitals with different patient populations. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify maternal characteristics that impact a set of important indicators of health outcomes, resource use and care process and which could be used for case mix adjustment of comparisons between hospitals. In this register-based study, 139 756 deliveries in 2011 and 2012 were identified in regional administrative systems from seven Swedish regions, which together cover 67 % of all deliveries in Sweden. Data were linked to the Medical birth register and Statistics Sweden's population data. A number of important indicators in childbirth care were studied: Caesarean section (CS), induction of labour, length of stay, perineal tears, haemorrhage > 1000 ml and post-partum infections. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics deemed relevant for case mix adjustment of outcomes and resource use were identified based on previous literature and based on clinical expertise. Adjustment using logistic and ordinary least squares regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of these characteristics on the studied indicators. Almost all case mix factors analysed had an impact on CS rate, induction rate and length of stay and the effect was highly statistically significant for most factors. Maternal age, parity, fetal presentation and multiple birth were strong predictors of all these indicators but a number of additional factors such as born outside the EU, body mass index (BMI) and several complications during pregnancy were also important risk factors. A number of maternal characteristics had a noticeable impact on risk of perineal tears, while the impact of case mix factors was less pronounced for

  3. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students…

  4. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Caitlin E; Main, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape. We

  5. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  6. A population-based case-control study of carotenoid and vitamin A intake and ovarian cancer (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, E R; Hankinson, S E; Newcomb, P A; Rosner, B; Willet, W C; Stampfer, M J; Egan, K M

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and the incidence of ovarian cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in Massachusetts and Wisconsin. Incident cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 were identified through statewide tumor registries. We selected community controls at random from lists of licensed drivers and Medicare recipients; 327 cases and 3129 controls were included in the analysis. Data were collected by telephone interview, which included an abbreviated food and supplement list to quantify typical consumption of carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene), retinol and total vitamin A at 5 years prior to diagnosis in cases, or to a comparable reference date in controls. Results were adjusted for age, state, and other risk factors. Participants with the highest dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin (> or =24,000 microg/week) experienced a 40% lower risk of ovarian cancer (95% CI = 0.36-0.99) compared to those with the lowest intake. Intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, retinol and total vitamin A was unrelated to risk. Among foods, we observed non-significantly lower risks with high consumption of spinach, carrots, skim/lowfat milk and liver. These results support previous findings suggesting an inverse relationship between carotenoid intake and ovarian cancer risk.

  7. Attitudes and Perception Towards Eye Donation in Patients with Corneal Disease: A Case-controlled Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noopur, Gupta; Praveen, Vashist; Radhika, Tandon; Sanjeev K, Gupta; Mani, Kalaivani; Deepak, Kumar

    2018-06-01

    To assess awareness, barriers, and misconceptions related to eye donation in people with corneal disease as compared to controls in a population setting. A population-based study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India, as part of the CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to ophthalmic examination, knowledge and perceptions regarding eye donation were assessed through a validated questionnaire. The questionnaire captured the sociodemographic factors influencing awareness regarding eye donation in participants with corneal disease and twice the number of age- and gender-matched controls recruited from the same study clusters. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for awareness of eye donation. In the CORE study, 452 participants had corneal opacities on ocular examination. Of these, 442 were assessed for eye donation awareness. Additionally, 884 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. The mean age of cases and controls was 60.9 ± 15.5 and 59.6 ± 14.3 years, respectively. Awareness of eye donation in cases and controls was 46.4% (n = 205 of 442) and 52.3% (n = 462 of 884), respectively (P = 0.044). Educational status was an important factor determining knowledge about eye donation in both cases and controls (P = donated before death or even after 24 h of death and that any type of blindness could be treated with corneal transplantation were prevalent. The study demonstrated that although there is substantial awareness about eye donation, there are numerous barriers in this population that need to be resolved to improve donation rates. Additional efforts are needed to translate this awareness into actual eye donation in both cases with corneal disease and controls.

  8. Twelve months of implementation of health care performance-based financing in Burkina Faso: A qualitative multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Zongo, Sylvie; Somé, Paul-André; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    To improve health services' quantity and quality, African countries are increasingly engaging in performance-based financing (PBF) interventions. Studies to understand their implementation in francophone West Africa are rare. This study analysed PBF implementation in Burkina Faso 12 months post-launch in late 2014. The design was a multiple and contrasted case study involving 18 cases (health centres). Empirical data were collected from observations, informal (n = 224) and formal (n = 459) interviews, and documents. Outside the circle of persons trained in PBF, few in the community had knowledge of it. In some health centres, the fact that staff were receiving bonuses was intentionally not announced to populations and community leaders. Most local actors thought PBF was just another project, but the majority appreciated it. There were significant delays in setting up agencies for performance monitoring, auditing, and contracting, as well as in the payment. The first audits led rapidly to coping strategies among health workers and occasionally to some staging beforehand. No community-based audits had yet been done. Distribution of bonuses varied from one centre to another. This study shows the importance of understanding the implementation of public health interventions in Africa and of uncovering coping strategies. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Potential Trade-Offs Between Nature-Based Tourism and Forestry, a Case Study in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Salminen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so in northern Finland. This paper focuses on assessing balanced local net impacts of three alternative land-use scenarios, in which the level of integration between nature-based tourism (NBT and traditional forestry is varied. The study is located in northern Finland in the area between two top-rated tourist resorts, Ylläs and Levi. The results of the case study support the idea of an eligible integration between NBT and forestry, which takes into account scenic qualities of forested landscapes by restricting traditional management practices. In our case, the increased number of tourists (due to a more attractive forest environment offset the losses accrued in forestry (due to restricted forest management.

  10. Predicting fundamental and realized distributions based on thermal niche: A case study of a freshwater turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco; Ribeiro, Bruno R.

    2018-04-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) have been broadly used in ecology to address theoretical and practical problems. Currently, there are two main approaches to generate SDMs: (i) correlative, which is based on species occurrences and environmental predictor layers and (ii) process-based models, which are constructed based on species' functional traits and physiological tolerances. The distributions estimated by each approach are based on different components of species niche. Predictions of correlative models approach species realized niches, while predictions of process-based are more akin to species fundamental niche. Here, we integrated the predictions of fundamental and realized distributions of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni. Fundamental distribution was estimated using data of T. dorbigni's egg incubation temperature, and realized distribution was estimated using species occurrence records. Both types of distributions were estimated using the same regression approaches (logistic regression and support vector machines), both considering macroclimatic and microclimatic temperatures. The realized distribution of T. dorbigni was generally nested in its fundamental distribution reinforcing theoretical assumptions that the species' realized niche is a subset of its fundamental niche. Both modelling algorithms produced similar results but microtemperature generated better results than macrotemperature for the incubation model. Finally, our results reinforce the conclusion that species realized distributions are constrained by other factors other than just thermal tolerances.

  11. The Evolution of Network-based Business Models Illustrated Through the Case Study of an Entrepreneurship Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Lund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Existing frameworks for understanding and analyzing the value configuration and structuring of partnerships in relation such network-based business models are found to be inferior. The purpose of this paper is therefore to broaden our understanding of how business models may change over time and how the role of strategic partners may differ over time too. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study spanning over years and mobilising multiple qualitative methods such as interviews, observation and participative observation forms the basis of the data collection. Findings: This paper illustrates how a network-based business model arises and evolves and how the forces of a network structure impact the development of its partner relationships. The contribution of this article is to understanding how partners positioned around a business model can be organized into a network-based business model that generates additional value for the core business model and for both the partners and the customers. Research limitations/implications: The results should be taken with caution as they are based on the case study of a single network-based business model. Practical implications: Managers can gain insight into barriers and enablers relating to different types of loose organisations and how to best manage such relationships and interactions Originality/value: This study adds value to the existing literature by reflecting the dynamics created in the interactions between a business model’s strategic partners and how a how a business model can evolve in a series of distinct phases

  12. Association of zolpidem use and subsequent increased risk of epilepsy: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of long-term zolpidem use on the subsequent risk of epilepsy. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to conduct a population-based case-control study. We identified 4,972 newly diagnosed epilepsy patients (ICD-9-CM code 345) for the period of 2005-2010 as cases. For each epilepsy case, 4 controls without a history of epilepsy were randomly selected from the rest of the population. Zolpidem was used as a predictor of epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy exhibited an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.70-2.03) and were, therefore, more strongly associated with zolpidem exposure than control patients were. The adjusted OR of epilepsy increased with the increase of mean zolpidem exposure (g/y). Compared with the OR of nonusers, the adjusted OR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.44-1.86) for those who had taken zolpidem and 2.38 (95% CI, 2.06-2.74) for those who had taken ≥ 20.0 g/y of zolpidem. An adjusted OR of 3.55 (95% CI, 2.94-4.28) was noted to be associated with epilepsy when users had stopped taking the drug less than 7 days earlier. The estimated risk declined to an OR of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.47-1.78) when users had stopped taking the drug more than 90 days earlier. This population-based, retrospective case-control study revealed a possible increase in epilepsy risk with zolpidem use, at either typical or supratherapeutic doses. These findings might stimulate public interest in safety issues regarding zolpidem use. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Risk of tinnitus in patients with sleep apnea: A nationwide, population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Malcolm; Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the risk of tinnitus in patients with sleep disturbance or sleep apnea. Case control study. We identified 21,798 middle-aged and elderly patients with otolaryngologist-diagnosed tinnitus between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012, from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 108,990 controls were also identified from the same database based on frequency-matching on 10-year age interval, sex, and year of index date of the cases. Diagnoses of sleep disturbance (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 780.50, 780.52, 307.4) and sleep apnea (ICD-9-CM codes 780.51, 780.53, 780.57) in the cases and controls prior to the index date were assessed. The risks of tinnitus in patients with sleep disturbance and sleep apnea were separately evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. The mean age of the total 130,788 patients was 59.8 years, and 47% of them were males. The risk of tinnitus was higher in patients with sleep disturbance compared to those without the condition (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] [95% CI] = 1.11-1.17), and the risk of tinnitus was higher in patients with sleep apnea compared to those without the condition (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.16-1.60). In this population-based, case-control study, the risk of tinnitus was found to be significantly higher among middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese patients with sleep disturbances, especially with sleep apnea. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2171-2175, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Qualitative Event-Based Diagnosis: Case Study on the Second International Diagnostic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    We describe a diagnosis algorithm entered into the Second International Diagnostic Competition. We focus on the first diagnostic problem of the industrial track of the competition in which a diagnosis algorithm must detect, isolate, and identify faults in an electrical power distribution testbed and provide corresponding recovery recommendations. The diagnosis algorithm embodies a model-based approach, centered around qualitative event-based fault isolation. Faults produce deviations in measured values from model-predicted values. The sequence of these deviations is matched to those predicted by the model in order to isolate faults. We augment this approach with model-based fault identification, which determines fault parameters and helps to further isolate faults. We describe the diagnosis approach, provide diagnosis results from running the algorithm on provided example scenarios, and discuss the issues faced, and lessons learned, from implementing the approach

  15. A population-based case-control study on statin exposure and risk of acute diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköldberg, Filip; Svensson, Tobias; Olén, Ola; Hjern, Fredrik; Schmidt, Peter T; Ljung, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    A reduced risk of perforated diverticular disease among individuals with current statin exposure has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether statins reduce the risk of acute diverticular disease. A nation-wide population-based case-control study was performed, including 13,127 cases hospitalised during 2006-2010 with a first-time diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease, and 128,442 control subjects (matched for sex, age, county of residence and calendar year). Emergency surgery, assumed to be a proxy for complicated diverticulitis, was performed on 906 of the cases during the index admission, with 8818 matched controls. Statin exposure was classified as "current" or "former" if a statin prescription was last dispensed ≤ 125 days or >125 days before index date, respectively. The association between statin exposure and acute diverticular disease was investigated by conditional logistic regression, including models adjusting for country of birth, educational level, marital status, comorbidities, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug/steroid exposure and healthcare utilisation. A total of 1959 cases (14.9%) and 16,456 controls (12.8%) were current statin users (crude OR 1.23 [95% CI 1.17-1.30]; fully adjusted OR 1.00 [0.94-1.06]). One hundred and thirty-two of the cases subjected to surgery (14.6%), and 1441 of the corresponding controls (16.3%) were current statin users (crude OR 0.89 [95% CI 0.73-1.08]; fully adjusted OR 0.70 [0.55-0.89]). The results do not indicate that statins affect the development of symptomatic diverticular disease in general. However, current statin use was associated with a reduced risk of emergency surgery for diverticular disease.

  16. Integrating Blended and Problem-Based Learning into an Architectural Housing Design Studio: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregger, Yasemin Alkiser

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents how a blended learning pedagogic model is integrated into an architectural design studio by adapting the problem-based learning process and housing issues in Istanbul Technical University (ITU), during fall 2015 and spring 2016 semesters for fourth and sixth level students. These studios collaborated with the "Introduction…

  17. Changes in ground-based solar ultraviolet radiation during fire episodes: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels are affected by airborne aerosols, such as particles and gases released during biomass burning events. Two large-scale fires in South Africa were identified and selected based on their proximity to solar UVR...

  18. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points."…

  19. A Bayesian belief nets based quantitative software reliability assessment for PSA: COTS case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2002-03-01

    Current reliability assessments of safety critical software embedded in the digital systems in nuclear power plants are based on the rule-based qualitative assessment methods. Then recently practical needs require the quantitative features of software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) that is one of important methods being used in assessing the whole safety of nuclear power plant. But conventional quantitative software reliability assessment methods are not enough to get the necessary results in assessing the safety critical software used in nuclear power plants. Thus, current reliability assessment methods for these digital systems exclude the software part or use arbitrary values for the software reliability in the assessment. This reports discusses a Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) based quantification method that models current qualitative software assessment in formal way and produces quantitative results required for PSA. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software dedication process that KAERI developed was applied to the discussed BBN based method for evaluating the plausibility of the proposed method in PSA

  20. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  1. A case study of an erosion control practice: the broad-based dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Bold; Pamela Edwards; Karl Williard

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, 19 gravel haul roads with broad-based dips within the Monongahela National Forest were examined to determine if those dips adhered to Forest specifications for cut depth and dip outslope. Data on the azimuth, contributing road lengths, slopes of the contributing lengths, landscape position of the dip, and soil texture of the road bed materials also were...

  2. International Community-Based Service Learning: Two Comparative Case Studies of Benefits and Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The drives to internationalise the UK curriculum and psychology students' desires to work in communities are brought together in this paper. International community-based learning (ICBL) links with many psychology students' motivations to make contributions to others; with the potential to enhance students' learning and cultural sensitivities. The…

  3. A research approach for quality based design of healthy foods: Dried broccoli as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    An approach for process design based on optimization of product quality attributes is presented. Adsorption drying of broccoli with retention of its health benefits is taken as an example to illustrate the approach. Related to its content of glucosinolates, broccoli has a high potential to reduce

  4. Demonstrating the Potential for Web-Based Survey Methodology with a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertler, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Describes personal experience with using the Internet to administer a teacher-motivation and job-satisfaction survey to elementary and secondary teachers. Concludes that advantages of Web-base surveys, such as cost savings and efficiency of data collection, outweigh disadvantages, such as the limitations of listservs. (Contains 10 references.)…

  5. A Transformational Approach to VHDL and CDFG Based High-Level Synthesis: a Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoek, Peter F.A.; Middelhoek, P.F.A.; Mekenkamp, G.E.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Krol, Th.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-target design methodology based on the concepts of transformational design, and its application to the interlaced-to-progressive scan conversion (IPSC) problem, are discussed. Starting from a single high-level behavioral specification in VHDL a direction detector used in

  6. An Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approach to Social Phobia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…

  7. Reliability analysis of idealized tunnel support system using probability-based methods with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharouni-Nik, M.; Naeimi, M.; Ahadi, S.; Alimoradi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the overall safety of a tunnel support lining, a reliability-based approach is presented in this paper. Support elements in jointed rock tunnels are provided to control the ground movement caused by stress redistribution during the tunnel drive. Main support elements contribute

  8. Expanding Omani Learners' Horizons through Project-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauletova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    As a relatively innovative teaching/learning approach in the Arabian Gulf region, in general, and in Oman, in particular, project-based learning requires progressive amendments and adaptations to the national culture of the learner. This article offers analysis of the current state of the approach in the local educational environment. Furthermore,…

  9. Marketing Need-Based Financial Aid Programs: An Institutional Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities represent one of the most utilized sources of need-based financial aid information for students and families, and yet most research in access marketing is focused at the national and state levels. There is sparse published information about the effects of financial aid marketing observed through quantitative analysis, in…

  10. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Applied to Binge Eating: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sarah; Huss, Debra B.

    2005-01-01

    Binge eating is a common problem associated with distress and dysfunction. Mindfulness-based interventions are attracting increasing attention, and the recent empirical literature suggests that they may be effective for a variety of disorders. Current theories about the etiology and maintenance of binge eating suggest that mindfulness training may…

  11. Innovation in project-based companies - A case study in different approaches to organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grex, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This paper asks how project-based organizations can be developed in order to establish and sustain innovation. The question is being explored by examining and comparing two approaches to organizational change. One approach emphasizes planning, regulation and control and creation of changes through...

  12. Radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced myelodysplasia syndrome: a nationwide population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This study explored which kinds of cancer are related to a higher incidence of subsequent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT).We performed a nested case-control study by using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) system. The case group included cancer patients who developed MDS. For the control group, 4 cancer patients without MDS were frequency-matched with each MDS case by age, sex, year of cancer diagnosis, and MDS index year. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated.Overall, cancer patients who received RT or CT exhibited secondary MDS more frequently than did those who did not (RT: OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.33-1.77; CT: OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.25-1.82). Analysis by cancer site showed that RT increased the risk of MDS for patients with stomach, colorectal, liver, breast, endometrial, prostate, and kidney cancers. By contrast, CT was more likely to increase the risk of MDS for patients with lung, endometrial, and cervical cancers. Further analysis revealed that RT and CT seemed to have a positive interaction. The major limitation of this study was the lack of certain essential data in the NHI Research Database, such as data regarding cancer stage and treatment dose details.This population-based nested case-control study determined that RT and CT predisposed patients in Taiwan to the development of MDS. This effect was more prominent when both modalities were used.

  13. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves and offshore wind. Due to the visual impact of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental impact) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental impact issues. The wave energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the wave climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the wave energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like Wave Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present

  14. Achieving Research Impact Through Co-creation in Community-Based Health Services: Literature Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Jackson, Claire; Shaw, Sara; Janamian, Tina

    2016-06-01

    Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development. It has potential for "moving beyond the ivory towers" to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community-academic partnerships. Principles of successful co-creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process. If these principles are not followed, co-creation efforts may fail. Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-reflects a "Mode 2" relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co-creation is widely believed to increase research impact. We undertook a narrative review of different models of co-creation relevant to community-based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community-based research-service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary-Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Co-creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies ("value co-creation"), design science ("experience-based co-design"), computer science ("technology co-design"), and community development ("participatory research"). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human experience at its core; and (3) an emphasis on process (the framing of the program, the nature of

  15. Employee Self Service-based Human Resources Information System Development and Implementation. Case Study: BCP Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Margatama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources Information System is a Decision Support System that provides necessary information regarding human resources in an organization. Web-based e-HR is one of the best practical solution in human resources management that allows employees to focus more on their job instead of HR administration procedures. By implementing Employee Self Service (ESS it is expected that worker satisfaction can be improved and in turn will also improve employees’ performance. The web-based ESS is characterized by personalized information approach which offers personal and management services on information access and structured workflow process. The object covered in this research is HR administration of PT. BCP to create and implement ESS with system prototype development and UML modeling tool. The resulting system is designed to quickly access the information and company procedures to shorten the time for BCP’s employee administration and documentation

  16. Using Knowledge-Based Systems to Support Learning of Organizational Knowledge: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.

  17. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  18. Semantics-based compiling: A case study in type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  19. Impacts of social media in restaurant businesses : A case study of restaurants based on Oulu region

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Social media’s acceptance rate has been increasing day by day. All kinds of business are adopting social media as crucial tool for implementing business and marketing strategies. This research is done to highlight the impacts of social media in restaurants of Oulu based restaurants. The main objective of this thesis is to examine the impacts social media has in business and how social media is influencing business activities. Furthermore, this research provides a brief information of soci...

  20. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  1. Implementing a low-cost web-based clinical trial management system for community studies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, John; Myers, Kathleen; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn; Palmer, Nancy; DeSalvo, Amy

    2011-10-01

    Clinical trials with multiple intervention locations and a single research coordinating center can be logistically difficult to implement. Increasingly, web-based systems are used to provide clinical trial support with many commercial, open source, and proprietary systems in use. New web-based tools are available which can be customized without programming expertise to deliver web-based clinical trial management and data collection functions. To demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing low-cost configurable applications to create a customized web-based data collection and study management system for a five intervention site randomized clinical trial establishing the efficacy of providing evidence-based treatment via teleconferencing to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The sites are small communities that would not usually be included in traditional randomized trials. A major goal was to develop database that participants could access from computers in their home communities for direct data entry. Discussed is the selection process leading to the identification and utilization of a cost-effective and user-friendly set of tools capable of customization for data collection and study management tasks. An online assessment collection application, template-based web portal creation application, and web-accessible Access 2007 database were selected and customized to provide the following features: schedule appointments, administer and monitor online secure assessments, issue subject incentives, and securely transmit electronic documents between sites. Each tool was configured by users with limited programming expertise. As of June 2011, the system has successfully been used with 125 participants in 5 communities, who have completed 536 sets of assessment questionnaires, 8 community therapists, and 11 research staff at the research coordinating center. Total automation of processes is not possible with the current set of tools as each is loosely

  2. A Case Study for Student Performance Analysis based on Educational Data Mining (EDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Daxa Kundariya; Prof. Vaseem Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Educational Data Mining (EDM) is a study methodology and an application of data mining techniques related to student’s data from academic database. Like other domain, educational domain also produce vast amount of studying data. To enhance the quality of education system student performance analysis plays an important role for decision support. This paper elaborates a study on various Educational data mining technique and how they could be used to educational system to analysis student perfor...

  3. Association between cervical screening and prevention of invasive cervical cancer in Ontario: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicus, Danielle; Sutradhar, Rinku; Lu, Yan; Kupets, Rachel; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cervical screening in the prevention of invasive cervical cancer among age groups, using a population-based case-control study in the province of Ontario, Canada. Exposure was defined as cervical cytology history greater than 3 months before the diagnosis date of cervical cancer (index date). Cases were women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2008. Controls were women without a diagnosis of cervical cancer on, or before, December 31, 2008. Two controls were matched to each case on year of birth and income quintile, as of the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for having been screened among those with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening performed between 3 and 36 months before the index date was protective against invasive cervical cancer in women aged 40 through 69 years. In women younger than 40 years, cervical cancer screening performed 3 to 36 months before the index date was not protective. Cervical screening is associated with a reduced risk for invasive cervical cancer among women older than 40 years. Cervical cancer resources should be focused on maximizing the risk reduction.

  4. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shurong; Qian, Yun; Huang, Xingyu; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie; Han, Renqiang; Su, Jian; Du, Wencong; Zhou, Jinyi; Dong, Meihua; Yu, Xiaojin; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B van; Kampman, Ellen; Wu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the general population, were frequency matched to cases. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis and multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Four dietary patterns were identified: salty, vegetarian, sweet and traditional Chinese. The traditional Chinese pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among both pre- and post-menopausal women (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively). Women with high factor scores of the sweet pattern also showed a decreased risk of breast cancer (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively). No marked association was observed between a vegetarian pattern or a salty pattern and breast cancer. These findings indicate that dietary patterns of the traditional Chinese and the sweet may favorably associate with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.

  5. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818. Controls (n = 935, selected from the general population, were frequency matched to cases. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis and multivariable odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated. Four dietary patterns were identified: salty, vegetarian, sweet and traditional Chinese. The traditional Chinese pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among both pre- and post-menopausal women (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively. Women with high factor scores of the sweet pattern also showed a decreased risk of breast cancer (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for pre- and post-menopausal women was 0.47 and 0.68, respectively. No marked association was observed between a vegetarian pattern or a salty pattern and breast cancer. These findings indicate that dietary patterns of the traditional Chinese and the sweet may favorably associate with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.

  6. Shifting Patterns of the HIV Epidemic in Southwest China: A Case Study Based on Sentinel Surveillance, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Gao, Liangmin; Chen, Liang; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The HIV epidemic is experiencing a rapid shift in transmission profile in China. This study aims to examine the changes in magnitude, transmission pattern, and trend of the HIV epidemic in a typical Southwest Chinese prefecture over the period of 1995-2012. HIV surveillance data from the web-based reporting system were analyzed during this period. We investigated the temporal trends in the changing characteristics of HIV transmission, the HIV disease burden in key affected populations, and assessed the impacts on HIV disease progression due to scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. A total of 3556 HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Yuxi prefecture, Yunnan, over the study period. The number of HIV tests conducted has dramatically increased from 1041 in 1995 to 247,859 in 2012, resulting in a substantial increase in HIV diagnoses from 11 cases to 327 cases over the same period. Since 2005, cumulatively 1250 eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) have received combination antiretroviral therapy which reduced AIDS disease progression from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.7-11.4%) in 1995 to 0.1% (0-0.3%) in 2012 (ptrend=0.0002). The primary mode of HIV transmission has been shifted from injection sharing (71.9% diagnoses in 1995-2004) to unsafe sexual contacts (82.6% diagnoses in 2012). Yuxi prefecture is experiencing a concentrated but shifting HIV epidemic. Scale-up of HIV testing is essential to effective sentinel surveillance and enhancing early diagnosis and treatment in PLHIV.

  7. Impact of Competency-Based and Target-Oriented Training on Employee Performance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Uzaslan, N. Tufan

    2017-01-01

    Some firms have applied different in-house training models to keep up with new technological innovations in their specific fields. This study investigated how a target-oriented in-house training programme should be developed and how it should be evaluated for effectiveness. The aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate a…

  8. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A McElroy

    Full Text Available Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years. We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44. Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  9. Risk of Psoriasis Following Terbinafine or Itraconazole Treatment for Onychomycosis: A Population-Based Case-Control Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Shiu, Ming-Neng

    2018-03-01

    Several case studies have reported an association between antifungal drug use and psoriasis risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between terbinafine/itraconazole exposure and psoriasis incidence. Among patients with onychomycosis in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 3831 incident psoriasis cases were identified during 2004-2010 and compared with 3831 age- and sex-matched controls with the same look-back period. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis. The psoriasis cases were significantly more likely than matched controls to have used terbinafine or itraconazole (59.85 vs. 42.70%, respectively; p terbinafine/itraconazole use was associated with an increased psoriasis risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.54). The association was stronger for more recent drug exposure (adjusted odds ratio 2.96, 95% confidence interval 2.25-3.90 for ≤ 90 days before the sampling date; adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.22 for > 360 days). In a comparison of patients receiving terbinafine or itraconazole only, psoriasis risk was higher for itraconazole (adjusted odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.40). This large population-based case-control analysis showed that exposure to terbinafine or itraconazole is associated with an increased risk of incident psoriasis. The finding of an increased psoriasis risk for antifungal drug users, particularly for itraconazole, deserves attention in clinical practice although further prospective studies are necessary to confirm our findings and clarify the biological mechanisms that underlie these associations.

  10. Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melony G; Olson, Sara H; Paddock, Lisa; Chandran, Urmila; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Parekh, Niyati; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-02-27

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the US. The consumption of refined sugars has increased dramatically over the past few decades, accounting for almost 15% of total energy intake. Yet, there is limited evidence on how sugar consumption affects ovarian cancer risk. We evaluated ovarian cancer risk in relation to sugary foods and beverages, and total and added sugar intakes in a population-based case-control study. Cases were women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer, older than 21 years, able to speak English or Spanish, and residents of six counties in New Jersey. Controls met same criteria as cases, but were ineligible if they had both ovaries removed. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed a phone interview, food frequency questionnaire, and self-recorded waist and hip measurements. Based on dietary data, we computed the number of servings of dessert foods, non-dessert foods, sugary drinks and total sugary foods and drinks for each participant. Total and added sugar intakes (grams/day) were also calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for food and drink groups and total and added sugar intakes, while adjusting for major risk factors. We did not find evidence of an association between consumption of sugary foods and beverages and risk, although there was a suggestion of increased risk associated with sugary drink intake (servings per 1,000 kcal; OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.83). Overall, we found little indication that sugar intake played a major role on ovarian cancer development.

  11. Critical analysis of eukaryotic phylogeny: a case study based on the HSP70 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germot, A; Philippe, H

    1999-01-01

    Trichomonads, together with diplomonads and microsporidia, emerge at the base of the eukaryotic tree, on the basis of the small subunit rRNA phylogeny. However, phylogenies based on protein sequences such as tubulin are markedly different with these protists emerging much later. We have investigated 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70), which could be a reliable phylogenetic marker. In eukaryotes, HSP70s are found in cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts). In Trichomonas vaginalis we identified nine different HSP70-encoding genes and sequenced three nearly complete cDNAs corresponding to cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial-type HSP70. Phylogenies of eukaryotes were reconstructed using the classical methods while varying the number of species and characters considered. Almost all the undoubtedly monophyletic groups, defined by ultrastructural characters, were recovered. However, due to the long branch attraction phenomenon, the evolutionary rates were the main factor determining the position of species, even with the use of a close outgroup, which is an important advantage of HSP70 with respect to many other markers. Numerous variable sites are peculiar to Trichomonas and probably generated the artefactual placement of this species at the base of the eukaryotes or as the sister group of fast-evolving species. The inter-phyla relationships were not well supported and were sensitive to the reconstruction method, the number of species; and the quantity of information used. This lack of resolution could be explained by the very rapid diversification of eukaryotes, likely after the mitochondrial endosymbiosis.

  12. Costs of performance based maintenance for local roads: Case study Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Igor; Grujić, Bojana; Zeljić, Dragana; Grujić, Žarko; Svilar, Mila

    2017-12-01

    The provision and maintenance of road infrastructure is a major global business, consequently it is essential that road maintenance services are provided in the most cost effective manner. Without regular maintenance, roads can rapidly fall into disrepair, preventing realization of the longer term impacts of road improvements on development, such as increased agricultural production and growth in school enrollment, which is of particular importance for a network of local (access) roads. Inadequate local roads maintenance in Albania is proposed to be solved by implementing performance based maintenance approach for which the costing exercise is presented within the paper.

  13. Geomorphodiversity derived by a GIS-based geomorphological map: case study the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demek, J.; Kirchner, Karel; Mackovčin, P.; Slavík, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2011), s. 415-436 ISSN 0372-8854 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : geomorphodiversity * GIS geomorphological data base * GIS-geomorphological map * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.642, year: 2011 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/zfg/2011/00000055/00000004/art00001?token=004d10697e442f2067217d763b442c233e46533f34687627504541676249266d656cbe1a808f2

  14. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems:a danisk case study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.; Neve, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promis...

  15. Optimization of biodiesel supply chains based on small farmers: A case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Raphael; Hamacher, Silvio

    2010-09-15

    The strategy adopted by the Brazilian Biodiesel Program is to base its fuel production on oilseeds acquired from small, family-owned farms in the poorest regions of the country, thereby fostering social inclusion and transfer of income. The success of the program depends on the development of a robust supply chain logistic structure, appropriate distribution of crop production, and investments in new oilseed crushing units. This article presents the development of a mathematical model for optimizing the production arrangements for the supply of a biodiesel plant sourced from family farms, taking into account agricultural, logistic, industrial and social aspects.

  16. Mobile Health Based System for Managing and Maintaining Health Data in Classroom: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Serafimovski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary for young people to get appropriate medical education so that they can learn how to properly take care of their health from an early age. In this paper we are presenting a study that enables practical implementation of a mobile system for monitoring students’ health using mobile devices and managing medical data in the classroom. About 600 students were engaged for the purpose of this study. The study results suggest that the application of these technologies leads to an increased concern about students’ health and their proper medical education.

  17. Driving following Kava Use and Road Traffic Injuries: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Fiji (TRIP 14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Robinson, Elizabeth; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between kava use and the risk of four-wheeled motor vehicle crashes in Fiji. Kava is a traditional beverage commonly consumed in many Pacific Island Countries. Herbal anxiolytics containing smaller doses of kava are more widely available. Data for this population-based case-control study were collected from drivers of 'case' vehicles involved in serious injury-involved crashes (where at least one road user was killed or admitted to hospital for 12 hours or more) and 'control' vehicles representative of 'driving time' in the study base. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires collected self-reported participant data on demographic characteristics and a range of risk factors including kava use and potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios relating to the association between kava use and injury-involved crash risk. Overall, 23% and 4% of drivers of case and control vehicles, respectively, reported consuming kava in the 12 hours prior to the crash or road survey. After controlling for assessed confounders, driving following kava use was associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of crash involvement (Odds ratio: 4.70; 95% CI: 1.90-11.63). The related population attributable risk was 18.37% (95% CI: 13.77-22.72). Acknowledging limited statistical power, we did not find a significant interaction in this association with concurrent alcohol use. In this study conducted in a setting where recreational kava consumption is common, driving following the use of kava was associated with a significant excess of serious-injury involved road crashes. The precautionary principle would suggest road safety strategies should explicitly recommend avoiding driving following kava use, particularly in communities where recreational use is common.

  18. Driving following Kava Use and Road Traffic Injuries: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Fiji (TRIP 14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Wainiqolo

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between kava use and the risk of four-wheeled motor vehicle crashes in Fiji. Kava is a traditional beverage commonly consumed in many Pacific Island Countries. Herbal anxiolytics containing smaller doses of kava are more widely available.Data for this population-based case-control study were collected from drivers of 'case' vehicles involved in serious injury-involved crashes (where at least one road user was killed or admitted to hospital for 12 hours or more and 'control' vehicles representative of 'driving time' in the study base. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires collected self-reported participant data on demographic characteristics and a range of risk factors including kava use and potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios relating to the association between kava use and injury-involved crash risk.Overall, 23% and 4% of drivers of case and control vehicles, respectively, reported consuming kava in the 12 hours prior to the crash or road survey. After controlling for assessed confounders, driving following kava use was associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of crash involvement (Odds ratio: 4.70; 95% CI: 1.90-11.63. The related population attributable risk was 18.37% (95% CI: 13.77-22.72. Acknowledging limited statistical power, we did not find a significant interaction in this association with concurrent alcohol use.In this study conducted in a setting where recreational kava consumption is common, driving following the use of kava was associated with a significant excess of serious-injury involved road crashes. The precautionary principle would suggest road safety strategies should explicitly recommend avoiding driving following kava use, particularly in communities where recreational use is common.

  19. Topic Detection Based on Weak Tie Analysis: A Case Study of LIS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Based on the weak tie theory, this paper proposes a series of connection indicators of weak tie subnets and weak tie nodes to detect research topics, recognize their connections, and understand their evolution. Design/methodology/approach: First, keywords are extracted from article titles and preprocessed. Second, high-frequency keywords are selected to generate weak tie co-occurrence networks. By removing the internal lines of clustered sub-topic networks, we focus on the analysis of weak tie subnets' composition and functions and the weak tie nodes' roles. Findings: The research topics' clusters and themes changed yearly; the subnets clustered with technique-related and methodology-related topics have been the core, important subnets for years; while close subnets are highly independent, research topics are generally concentrated and most topics are application-related; the roles and functions of nodes and weak ties are diversified. Research limitations: The parameter values are somewhat inconsistent; the weak tie subnets and nodes are classified based on empirical observations, and the conclusions are not verified or compared to other methods. Practical implications: The research is valuable for detecting important research topics as well as their roles, interrelations, and evolution trends. Originality/value: To contribute to the strength of weak tie theory, the research translates weak and strong ties concepts to co-occurrence strength, and analyzes weak ties' functions. Also, the research proposes a quantitative method to classify and measure the topics' clusters and nodes.

  20. Are individual based models a suitable approach to estimate population vulnerability? - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available European populations of the Large Blue Butterfly Maculinea arion have experienced severe declines in the last decades, especially in the northern part of the species range. This endangered lycaenid butterfly needs two resources for development: flower buds of specific plants (Thymus spp., Origanum vulgare, on which young caterpillars briefly feed, and red ants of the genus Myrmica, whose nests support caterpillars during a prolonged final instar. I present an analytically solvable deterministic model to estimate the vulnerability of populations of M. arion. Results obtained from the sensitivity analysis of this mathematical model (MM are contrasted to the respective results that had been derived from a spatially explicit individual based model (IBM for this butterfly. I demonstrate that details in landscape configuration which are neglected by the MM but are easily taken into consideration by the IBM result in a different degree of intraspecific competition of caterpillars on flower buds and within host ant nests. The resulting differences in mortalities of caterpillars lead to erroneous estimates of the extinction risk of a butterfly population living in habitat with low food plant coverage and low abundance in host ant nests. This observation favors the use of an individual based modeling approach over the deterministic approach at least for the management of this threatened butterfly.

  1. Research on time series data prediction based on clustering algorithm - A case study of Yuebao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Zhao, Tianzhong

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting is the prerequisite for making scientific decisions, it is based on the past information of the research on the phenomenon, and combined with some of the factors affecting this phenomenon, then using scientific methods to forecast the development trend of the future, it is an important way for people to know the world. This is particularly important in the prediction of financial data, because proper financial data forecasts can provide a great deal of help to financial institutions in their strategic implementation, strategic alignment and risk control. However, the current forecasts of financial data generally use the method of forecast of overall data, which lack of consideration of customer behavior and other factors in the financial data forecasting process, and they are important factors influencing the change of financial data. Based on this situation, this paper analyzed the data of Yuebao, and according to the user's attributes and the operating characteristics, this paper classified 567 users of Yuebao, and made further predicted the data of Yuebao for every class of users, the results showed that the forecasting model in this paper can meet the demand of forecasting.

  2. Case study of a problem-based learning course of physics in a telecommunications engineering degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, Erica; Jesús Elejalde-García, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Active learning methods can be appropriate in engineering, as their methodology promotes meta-cognition, independent learning and problem-solving skills. Problem-based learning is the educational process by which problem-solving activities and instructor's guidance facilitate learning. Its key characteristic involves posing a 'concrete problem' to initiate the learning process, generally implemented by small groups of students. Many universities have developed and used active methodologies successfully in the teaching-learning process. During the past few years, the University of the Basque Country has promoted the use of active methodologies through several teacher training programmes. In this paper, we describe and analyse the results of the educational experience using the problem-based learning (PBL) method in a physics course for undergraduates enrolled in the technical telecommunications engineering degree programme. From an instructors' perspective, PBL strengths include better student attitude in class and increased instructor-student and student-student interactions. The students emphasised developing teamwork and communication skills in a good learning atmosphere as positive aspects.

  3. GIS-based modelling of odour emitted from the waste processing plant: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of odours into the atmospheric air from the municipal economy and industrial plants, especially in urbanized areas, causes a serious problem, which the mankind has been struggling with for years. The excessive exposure of people to odours may result in many negative health effects, including, for example, headaches and vomiting. There are many different methods that are used in order to evaluate the odour nuisance. The results obtained through those methods can then be used to carry out a visualization and an analysis of a distribution of the odour concentrations in a given area by using the GIS (Geographic Information System. By their application to the spatial analysis of the impact of odours, we can enable the assessment of the magnitude and likelihood of the occurrence of odour nuisance. Modelling using GIS tools and spatial interpolation like IDW method and kriging can provide an alternative to the standard modelling tools, which generally use the emission values from sources that are identified as major emitters of odours. The work presents the result, based on the odour measurements data from waste processing plant, of the attempt to connect two different tools – the reference model OPERAT FB and GIS-based dispersion modelling performed using IDW method and ordinary kriging to analyse their behaviour in terms of limited observation values.

  4. Time-based analysis of total cost of patient episodes: a case study of hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Kujala, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare in the public and private sectors is facing increasing pressure to become more cost-effective. Time-based competition and work-in-progress have been used successfully to measure and improve the efficiency of industrial manufacturing. Seeks to address this issue. Presents a framework for time based management of the total cost of a patient episode and apply it to the six sigma DMAIC-process development approach. The framework is used to analyse hip replacement patient episodes in Päijät-Häme Hospital District in Finland, which has a catchment area of 210,000 inhabitants and performs an average of 230 hip replacements per year. The work-in-progress concept is applicable to healthcare--notably that the DMAIC-process development approach can be used to analyse the total cost of patient episodes. Concludes that a framework, which combines the patient-in-process and the DMAIC development approach, can be used not only to analyse the total cost of patient episode but also to improve patient process efficiency. Presents a framework that combines patient-in-process and DMAIC-process development approaches, which can be used to analyse the total cost of a patient episode in order to improve patient process efficiency.

  5. Uses of Agent-Based Modeling for Health Communication: the TELL ME Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbrook-Johnson, Peter; Badham, Jennifer; Gilbert, Nigel

    2017-08-01

    Government communication is an important management tool during a public health crisis, but understanding its impact is difficult. Strategies may be adjusted in reaction to developments on the ground and it is challenging to evaluate the impact of communication separately from other crisis management activities. Agent-based modeling is a well-established research tool in social science to respond to similar challenges. However, there have been few such models in public health. We use the example of the TELL ME agent-based model to consider ways in which a non-predictive policy model can assist policy makers. This model concerns individuals' protective behaviors in response to an epidemic, and the communication that influences such behavior. Drawing on findings from stakeholder workshops and the results of the model itself, we suggest such a model can be useful: (i) as a teaching tool, (ii) to test theory, and (iii) to inform data collection. We also plot a path for development of similar models that could assist with communication planning for epidemics.

  6. Measuring Surface Deformation in Glacier Retreated Areas Based on Ps-Insar - Geladandong Glacier as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, B.; Balz, T.

    2018-04-01

    Glaciers are retreating in many parts of the world as a result of global warming. Many researchers consider Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as a reference for climate change by measuring glaciers retreat on the plateau. This retreat resulted in some topographic changes in retreated areas, and in some cases can lead to geohazards as landslides, and rock avalanches, which is known in glacier retreated areas as paraglacial slope failure (PSF). In this study, Geladandong biggest and main glacier mass was selected to estimate surface deformation on its glacier retreated areas and define potential future PSF based on PS-InSAR technique. 56 ascending and 49 descending images were used to fulfill this aim. Geladandong glacier retreated areas were defined based on the maximum extent of the glacier in the little ice age. Results revealed a general uplift in the glacier retreated areas with velocity less than 5mm/year. Obvious surface motion was revealed in seven parts surround glacier retreated areas with high relative velocity reached ±60mm/year in some parts. Four parts were considered as PSF potential motion, and two of them showed potential damage for the main road in the study area in case of rock avalanche into recent glacier lakes that could result in glacier lake outburst flooding heading directly to the road. Finally, further analysis and field investigations are needed to define the main reasons for different types of deformation and estimate future risks of these types of surface motion in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Houses Based on Wood as an Ecological and Sustainable Housing Alternative—Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Švajlenka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities is currently a much-debated topic. The trend in Central Europe we witness nowadays is that people are going back from the impersonal and restrictive conditions of tower blocks to the more natural and relaxed conditions of family houses. New approaches to urbanization in the context of the sustainability of cities can be characterized by their use of innovative technologies and energetically efficient and ecologically acceptable construction materials. Companies have substantially responded to this trend, meeting the demand by offering a wide range of solutions. Alongside the traditional and long-established construction materials (brick, concrete, including wood, companies are introducing modern, innovative, and viable construction alternatives. Modern methods of construction (MMC, to which modern houses based on wood belong, promote the idea and application of environmentally and energetically efficient constructions. Just as the construction process itself significantly contributes to the depletion of natural resources, the production of construction materials contributes to significant environmental pollution and greenhouse emissions (particularly CO2. Sustainability assessments of construction projects increasingly involve the use of methodologies which assess sustainability criteria throughout a product’s Life-cycle. For our analysis of suburban housing clusters designed to serve as family houses, we chose an actual family house construction completed using a modern construction system based on wood. For the sake of comparing the modern construction method, we created an alternative model of a construction based on a traditional masonry construction system. The main objective of this contribution is to analyze selected variants of constructions in terms of environmental and economic sustainability characteristics, as part of a broader assessment of permanent sustainability, by applying the life-cycle assessment

  8. Occupational exposures to engine exhausts and other PAHs and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajni; Glass, Deborah C; Heyworth, Jane S; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that exposure to engine exhausts may increase risk of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Western Australia we assessed occupational exposure to engine exhausts using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.81-1.41), gasoline exhaust (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74-1.28), or other exhausts (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 0.29-4.08). There were also no significant dose- or duration-response relationships. This study did not find evidence supporting the association between occupational exposures to engine exhausts and breast cancer risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:437-444, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Local Value Chain of Hunted Red Deer Meat: A Scenario Analysis Based on a Northern Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gaviglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although in recent decades, meat from hunted wild ungulates has shown interesting results in terms of market opportunities, the scientific literature is still lacking in economic studies concerning the estimation of the meat’s value for involved stakeholders. We present an analysis of the evolution of price in the local red deer meat supply chain. This analysis has been conducted through a survey based on in-depth interviews with the stakeholders involved in an Italian local supply chain. Findings derived from this study describe a case study, however, they also represent the potential dynamics of the value of Italian game meat, highlighting that the development of a sustainable local supply chain of this product may represent an economic resource for involved stakeholders.

  10. Case study method and problem-based learning: utilizing the pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Michelle A; Christopher, Kimberly A

    2011-08-19

    As the complexity of health care delivery continues to increase, educators are challenged to determine educational best practices to prepare BSN students for the ambiguous clinical practice setting. Integrative, active, and student-centered curricular methods are encouraged to foster student ability to use clinical judgment for problem solving and informed clinical decision making. The proposed pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education suggests gradually introducing students to complex and multi-contextual clinical scenarios through the utilization of case studies and problem-based learning activities, with the intention to transition nursing students into autonomous learners and well-prepared practitioners at the culmination of a nursing program. Exemplar curricular activities are suggested to potentiate student development of a transferable problem solving skill set and a flexible knowledge base to better prepare students for practice in future novel clinical experiences, which is a mutual goal for both educators and students.

  11. The role of taxation policy and incentives in wind-based distributed generation projects viability. Ontario case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albadi, M.H.; El-Saadany, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Taxation policy and incentives play a vital role in wind-based distributed generation projects viability. In this paper, a thorough techno-economical evaluation of wind-based distributed generation projects is conducted to investigate the effect of taxes and incentives in the economic viability of investments in this sector. This paper considers the effects of Provincial income taxes, capital cost allowance (CCA), property taxes, and wind power production Federal incentives. The case study is conducted for different wind turbines and wind speed scenarios. Given turbine and wind speed data, the Capacity Factor (CF) of each turbine and wind speed scenario was calculated. Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for different scenarios were then used to assess the project's viability considering Ontario Standard Offer Program (SOP) for wind power. (author)

  12. A Case Study of MasterMind Chess: Comparing Mouse/Keyboard Interaction with Kinect-Based Gestural Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alves Mendes Vasiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As gestural interfaces emerged as a new type of user interface, their use has been vastly explored by the entertainment industry to better immerse the player in games. Despite being mainly used in dance and sports games, little use was made of gestural interaction in more slow-paced genres, such as board games. In this work, we present a Kinect-based gestural interface for an online and multiplayer chess game and describe a case study with users with different playing skill levels. Comparing the mouse/keyboard interaction with the gesture-based interaction, the results of the activity were synthesized into lessons learned regarding general usability and design of game control mechanisms. These results could be applied to slow-paced board games like chess. Our findings indicate that gestural interfaces may not be suitable for competitive chess matches, yet it can be fun to play while using them in casual matches.

  13. Leukaemia and occupation: a New Zealand Cancer Registry-based case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, David; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Dryson, Evan; Walls, Chris; McKenzie, Fiona; Maule, Milena; Cheng, Soo; Cunningham, Chris; Kromhout, Hans; Boffetta, Paolo; Blair, Aaron; Pearce, Neil

    2009-04-01

    To examine the association between occupation and leukaemia. We interviewed 225 cases (aged 20-75 years) notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2003-04, and 471 controls randomly selected from the Electoral Roll collecting demographic details, information on potential confounders and a comprehensive employment history. Associations between occupation and leukaemia were analysed using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and smoking. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed in agricultural sectors including horticulture/fruit growing (OR: 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51, 4.55), plant nurseries (OR: 7.51, 95% CI: 1.85, 30.38) and vegetable growing (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.18, 8.40); and appeared greater in women (ORs: 4.71, 7.75 and 7.98, respectively). Elevated ORs were also observed in market farmers/crop growers (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.02), field crop/vegetable growers (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.46, 10.85), market gardeners (OR: 5.50, 95% CI: 1.59, 19.02), and nursery growers/workers (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.34, 13.35); also greater in women (ORs: 3.48, 7.62, 15.74 and 11.70, respectively). These elevated ORs were predominantly for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Several associations persisted after semi-Bayes adjustment. Elevated ORs were observed in rubber/plastics products machine operators (OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.08, 13.08), predominantly in plastic product manufacturing. CLL was also elevated in tailors and dressmakers (OR: 7.01, 95% CI: 1.78, 27.68), cleaners (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 4.14) and builder's labourers (OR: 4.03, 95% CI: 1.30, 12.53). These findings suggest increased leukaemia risks associated with certain agricultural, manufacturing, construction and service occupations in New Zealand.

  14. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    : Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1......, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent...

  15. A Hydrological Sensor Web Ontology Based on the SSN Ontology: A Case Study for a Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accompanying the continuous development of sensor network technology, sensors worldwide are constantly producing observation data. However, the sensors and their data from different observation platforms are sometimes difficult to use collaboratively in response to natural disasters such as floods for the lack of semantics. In this paper, a hydrological sensor web ontology based on SSN ontology is proposed to describe the heterogeneous hydrological sensor web resources by importing the time and space ontology, instantiating the hydrological classes, and establishing reasoning rules. This work has been validated by semantic querying and knowledge acquiring experiments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed ontology and its potential to grow into a more comprehensive ontology for hydrological monitoring collaboratively. In addition, this method of ontology modeling is generally applicable to other applications and domains.

  16. Patent pool analysis based on technical standards: A case study of indigenous alliances in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Yuzhen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China has set up only two sorts of patent pools (PLs with technical standards, namely, the AVS alliance and IGRS alliance. Both PLs are applied in the IT industry. Statistics of patent alliances with global technical standards show that Chinese enterprises cannot easily form and develop an international PL. This study analyzes the formation process of the AVS and IGRS patent alliance, and points out the challenges in building and developing Chinese PL. The study offers suggestions on alliance management, government guidance, and international cooperation.

  17. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  18. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a

  19. Exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction and risk of digoxin toxicity: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Li, I-Hsun; Lee, Wan-Ju; Huang, Tien-Yu; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chan, Agnes L F

    2011-11-01

    Digoxin is an important medication for heart failure (HF) patients and sennosides are widely used to treat constipation. Recently, safety concerns have been raised about a possible interaction between sennosides and digoxin, an issue that has not been studied empirically. This study therefore aimed to evaluate whether exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction is associated with an increased risk of digoxin toxicity. This was a population-based nested case-control study that analysed data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2004. All HF patients treated with digoxin for the first time were included as the study cohort. Of these, cases were identified as subjects hospitalized for digoxin toxicity (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, ICD-9-CM 972.1), and matched to randomly selected controls. Use of sennosides was compared between the two groups. Odds ratios (ORs) were employed to quantify the risk associated with exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction by conditional logistic regression. The study cohort comprised 222,527 HF patients, of whom 524 were identified as cases and 2,502 as matched controls. Use of sennosides during the 14 days preceding the index date was found to be associated with a 1.61-fold increased risk of digoxin toxicity [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 2.25]. Additionally, a greater risk was observed for sennosides prescribed at an average daily dose ≥ 24 mg (adjusted OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.94). The combined use of sennosides and digoxin was found to be associated with a modest increased risk of digoxin toxicity in HF patients.

  20. Distribution of retired civil servants: a case study of forest – based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at examining occupational distribution of retired civil servants with particular reference to forestbased enterprises in Ibadan, Oyo State. Primary data was collected from 100 retired civil servants using structured questionnaires. The proportion of retired self employed workers in various sectors of the ...

  1. Blended Learning from Design to Evaluation: International Case Studies of Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Norman; Reali, Aline; Stenbom, Stefan; Van Vuuren, Marieta Jansen; MacDonald, David

    2017-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts four international faculty development programs for blended learning in order to understand the benefits, challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations from such initiatives. The benefits identified for faculty members, who participated in these programs, were that they became more reflective of their teaching…

  2. Expectation-Based Efficiency and Quality Improvements in Research Administration: Multi-Institutional Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dhanonjoy C.; Ahmed, Abrar; Hanumandla, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom may support the presumed notion that higher expectations increase efficiency and improve quality. However, this claim may only be validated when workers are equipped with appropriate tools, training, and a conducive work environment. This study implements various interventions, observes outcomes, and analyzes data collected in…

  3. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppelt, R.; Fath, B.; Burkhard, B.; Fisher, J.L.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lautenbach, S.; Pert, P.; Hotes, S.; Spangenberg, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments (ESA) hold the promise of supporting the quantification and valuation of human appropriation of nature and its goods and services. The concept has taken flight with the number of studies published on the topic increasing rapidly. This development, and the variation of

  4. Field-Based Radiographic Imaging of Marine Megafauna: Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Lewbart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of marine megafauna requires a thorough understanding of the ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and health of vulnerable species. Assessing the health of large, mobile marine animals poses particular challenges, in part because the subjects are difficult to capture and restrain, and in part because standard laboratory and diagnostic tools are difficult to apply in a field setting. Radiography is a critically important diagnostic tool used routinely by veterinarians, but it has seldom been possible to image live marine vertebrates in the field. As a first step toward assessing the feasibility of incorporating radiography into studies of vulnerable species in remote locations, we used portable radiographic equipment to acquire the first digital internal images of living marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, an iconic lizard endemic only to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. The radiographic machinery was powered by batteries and performed well on a rocky beach environment of an uninhabited island, despite high heat and humidity. The accuracy of radiographic measurements was validated by computing a snout-vent length (SVL using bone dimensions and comparing this to standard measurements of SVL made externally with a tape measure. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using radiography to study animals in remote sites, a technique that may prove useful for a variety of physiological, ecological, and biomechanical studies in which reliable measurements of skeletal and soft-tissue dimensions must be acquired under challenging field conditions. Refinements are discussed that will help the technology reach its full potential in field studies.

  5. HIV testing in community based research: a case study of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female genital schistosomiasis prevalence found was 10.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 2.1%, Candida albicans, 9.6%, Gardnerella vaginalis, 11.8% and HIV 6.6%. The study also showed that, the location of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) services in rural communities in the Volta Basin were unavailable. The use ...

  6. Exploring motivation for leisure-based physical activity: a case study of college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin Hung Chih Yu

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity have been well documented in recent years. Physical activity may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, assist in weight management, improve personal mood, and promote physiological health. In light of this increased activity, it is important to understand the reasons for it. This exploratory study attempted to identify college...

  7. A Process-Based Knowledge Management System for Schools: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Lung; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Yang, Chyan; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge management systems, or KMSs, have been widely adopted in business organizations, yet little research exists on the actual integration of the knowledge management model and the application of KMSs in secondary schools. In the present study, the common difficulties and limitations regarding the implementation of knowledge management into…

  8. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  9. Problem-Based Educational Environments: A Case Study in e-Commerce and Business Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalakaki, Olga; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Savas, Stavros; Manoussakis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to explore the educational and cognitive aspects of an innovative approach to Internet use within an interdisciplinary, integrated framework for activities set up to enable students to acquire knowledge informally. These activities had the potential to provide real-world results through a model…

  10. Implementing Electronic Conferencing within a Distance-Based University: University of South Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzinger, E.; Padayachee, K.; Tolmay, M.

    2010-01-01

    The outcome of this paper is primarily to survey and analyse student interactions with electronic conferencing systems and to reflect on the impact of such a system on the students' learning within an open distance learning context. This pilot study is articulated within action research methodology to generate critical reflection on collaborative,…

  11. A Case Study of Array-based Early Warning System for Tsunami Offshore Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Meng, L.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme scenarios of M 7.5+ earthquakes on the Red Mountain and Pitas Point faults can potentially generate significant local tsunamis in southern California. The maximum water elevation could be as large as 10 m in the nearshore region of Oxnard and Santa Barbara. Recent development in seismic array processing enables rapid tsunami prediction and early warning based on the back-projection approach (BP). The idea is to estimate the rupture size by back-tracing the seismic body waves recorded by stations at local and regional distances. A simplified source model of uniform slip is constructed and used as an input for tsunami simulations that predict the tsunami wave height and arrival time. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in southern California by implementing it in a simulated real-time environment and applying to a hypothetical M 7.7 Dip-slip earthquake scenario on the Pitas Point fault. Synthetic seismograms are produced using the SCEC broadband platform based on the 3D SoCal community velocity model. We use S-wave instead of P-wave to avoid S-minus-P travel times shorter than rupture duration. Two clusters of strong-motion stations near Bakersfield and Palmdale are selected to determine the back-azimuth of the strongest high-frequency radiations (0.5-1 Hz). The back-azimuths of the two clusters are then intersected to locate the source positions. The rupture area is then approximated by enclosing these BP radiators with an ellipse or a polygon. Our preliminary results show that the extent of 1294 square kilometers rupture area and magnitude of 7.6 obtained by this approach is reasonably close to the 1849 square kilometers and 7.7 of the input model. The average slip of 7.3 m is then estimated according to the scaling relation between slip and rupture area, which is close to the actual average dislocation amount, 8.3 m. Finally, a tsunami simulation is conducted to assess the wave height and arrival time. The errors of -3 to +9 s in arrival time

  12. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for an Adolescent Presenting with ADHD and Explosive Anger: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janise; Zaboski, Brian; Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This case demonstrates the efficacy of utilizing an intensive, multi-faceted behavioral intervention paradigm. A comprehensive, integrative, school-based service model was applied to address attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptomology, oppositional behaviors, and explosive anger at the secondary level. The case reviews a multi-modal…

  13. Semantics-Based Intelligent Indexing and Retrieval of Digital Images - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Taha; Thakker, Dhavalkumar; Schaefer, Gerald

    The proliferation of digital media has led to a huge interest in classifying and indexing media objects for generic search and usage. In particular, we are witnessing colossal growth in digital image repositories that are difficult to navigate using free-text search mechanisms, which often return inaccurate matches as they typically rely on statistical analysis of query keyword recurrence in the image annotation or surrounding text. In this chapter we present a semantically enabled image annotation and retrieval engine that is designed to satisfy the requirements of commercial image collections market in terms of both accuracy and efficiency of the retrieval process. Our search engine relies on methodically structured ontologies for image annotation, thus allowing for more intelligent reasoning about the image content and subsequently obtaining a more accurate set of results and a richer set of alternatives matchmaking the original query. We also show how our well-analysed and designed domain ontology contributes to the implicit expansion of user queries as well as presenting our initial thoughts on exploiting lexical databases for explicit semantic-based query expansion.

  14. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  15. Audit of IT Governance Based on COBIT 5 Assessments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Fernandes Andry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Training Center in Jakarta offers a certification program for the individuals and companies who wish to search for or complement international scale IT certifications. The certification program consists of training certification exam preparation and certification exams. The purpose of this research is to get an overview of the performance of information technology governance in order to determine the extent of the capabilities of information technology governance in the Training Center which is currently running, with a few aspects to consider such as effectiveness, efficiency, functional unit of information technology within an organization. Implementing IT governance, however, is a challenge to organizations. To ensure IT alignment with business goals use standard COBIT. COBIT 5 Framework is a service for auditing IS/IT are the most commonly used to audit information systems in a rapid, accurate, and interactive. The result of this audit training center is business and IT management are aware of the impact of not managing performance and capacity. Performance needs are generally met based on assessments of individual systems and the knowledge of support and project teams. In this paper the method to be used is COBIT 5 is focused on the domain of DSS (Deliver, Service, and Support.

  16. Monte-Carlo-based uncertainty propagation with hierarchical models—a case study in dynamic torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Leonard; Eichstädt, Sascha

    2018-04-01

    For a dynamic calibration, a torque transducer is described by a mechanical model, and the corresponding model parameters are to be identified from measurement data. A measuring device for the primary calibration of dynamic torque, and a corresponding model-based calibration approach, have recently been developed at PTB. The complete mechanical model of the calibration set-up is very complex, and involves several calibration steps—making a straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo uncertainty evaluation tedious. With this in mind, we here propose to separate the complete model into sub-models, with each sub-model being treated with individual experiments and analysis. The uncertainty evaluation for the overall model then has to combine the information from the sub-models in line with Supplement 2 of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. In this contribution, we demonstrate how to carry this out using the Monte Carlo method. The uncertainty evaluation involves various input quantities of different origin and the solution of a numerical optimisation problem.

  17. Risk-based modelling of surface water quality: a case study of the Charles River, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Neil R.; Wagener, Thorsten; Wheater, Howard S.; Chapra, Steven C.

    2003-04-01

    A model of phytoplankton, dissolved oxygen and nutrients is presented and applied to the Charles River, Massachusetts within a framework of Monte Carlo simulation. The model parameters are conditioned using data from eight sampling stations along a 40 km stretch of the Charles River, during a (supposed) steady-state period in the summer of 1996, and the conditioned model is evaluated using data from later in the same year. Regional multi-objective sensitivity analysis is used to identify the parameters and pollution sources most affecting the various model outputs under the conditions observed during that summer. The effects of Monte Carlo sampling error are included in this analysis, and the observations which have least contributed to model conditioning are indicated. It is shown that the sensitivity analysis can be used to speculate about the factors responsible for undesirable levels of eutrophication, and to speculate about the risk of failure of nutrient reduction interventions at a number of strategic control sections. The analysis indicates that phosphorus stripping at the CRPCD wastewater treatment plant on the Charles River would be a high-risk intervention, especially for controlling eutrophication at the control sections further downstream. However, as the risk reflects the perceived scope for model error, it can only be recommended that more resources are invested in data collection and model evaluation. Furthermore, as the risk is based solely on water quality criteria, rather than broader environmental and economic objectives, the results need to be supported by detailed and extensive knowledge of the Charles River problem.

  18. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case study: planning a statewide information resource for health professionals: an evidence-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Katherine; Watson, Linda; Parker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Question: What is the best approach for implementing a statewide electronic health library (eHL) to serve all health professionals in Minnesota? Setting: The research took place at the University of Minnesota Health Sciences Libraries. Methods: In January 2008, the authors began planning a statewide eHL for health professionals following the five-step process for evidence-based librarianship: formulating the question, finding the best evidence, appraising the evidence, assessing costs and benefits, and evaluating the effectiveness of resulting actions. Main Results: The authors identified best practices for developing a statewide eHL for health professionals relating to audience or population served, information resources, technology and access, funding model, and implementation and sustainability. They were compared to the mission of the eHL project to drive strategic directions by developing recommendations. Conclusion: EBL can guide the planning process for a statewide eHL, but findings must be tailored to the local environment to address information needs and ensure long-term sustainability. PMID:19851487

  20. Integrating interprofessional education in community-based learning activities: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Somaya; Kamel, Mohamed H; El-Wazir, Yasser; Gilbert, John

    2013-01-01

    Faculty of Medicine/Suez Canal University (FOM/SCU) students are exposed to clinical practice in primary care settings within the community, in which they encounter patients and begin to work within interprofessional health teams. However, there is no planned curricular interaction with learners from other professions at the learning sites. As in other schools, FOM/SCU faces major challenges with the coordination of community-based education (CBE) program, which include the complexity of the design required for Interprofessional Education (IPE) as well as the attitudinal barriers between professions. The aim of the present review is to: (i) describe how far CBE activities match the requirements of IPE, (ii) explore opinions of graduates about the effectiveness of IPE activities, and (iii) present recommendations for improvement. Graduates find the overall outcome of their IPE satisfactory and believe that it produces physicians who are familiar with the roles of other professions and can work in synergy for the sake of better patient care. However, either a specific IPE complete module needs to be developed or more IPE specific objectives need to be added to current modules. Moreover, coordination with stakeholders from other health profession education institutes needs to be maximized to achieve more effective IPE.