WorldWideScience

Sample records for case study based

  1. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  2. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  3. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper assesses the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in articles published during the past 13 years, based on a synthesis of indicators for the quality criteria truth-value, transferability, and traceability. Design/methodology/approach – Content...

  4. A Specification—Based Case Study from Test Class Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULing; MIAOHuai-kou

    2001-01-01

    Testing is a standard method for verification of software performance.Producing efficinet and appropriate test case is an important aspect in testing.Specification-based testing presents a method to derive test data from software specification.Because of the precision and concision of specification.the test data derived from specification can test the software efficiently and entirely.This paper demonstrates a test class framework(TCF) on a file reading case study,specifiec using Z notation,This class framework defines test case sets,providing structure to the testing process.Flexbility is preserved so that many testing strategies can be used.

  5. Project-Based Learning in Electronic Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    A case study of project-based learning (PBL) implemented in Tianjin University of Technology and Education is presented. This multidiscipline project is innovated to meet the novel requirements of industry while keeping its traditional effectiveness in driving students to apply knowledge to practice and problem-solving. The implementation of PBL…

  6. Evidence-based practice: reflections from five European case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Juan I; Fraser, Alec; Boaz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the accepted orthodoxy in clinical practice and developed from evidence-based medicine. EBP is based on a specific type of evidence that is derived from studies based on randomised controlled trials (RCT). This type of evidence is suited to acute medical care and is more problematic for other clinicians such as nurses and therapists, particularly when they are situated within community or primary care settings. Setting Five stroke care services in England (2), Sweden (2) and Poland (1). Aims To reflect on the evidence gained from these case studies to shed light on various aspects of EBP. This paper focuses on three key issues: (1) the importance of context for evidence, (2) the nature of knowledge, and (3) professional hierarchies. Methods Five qualitative case studies into stroke care were carried out in England, Sweden and Poland. One hundred and twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of healthcare staff who provided specialised and non-specialised stroke care in acute, community and primary care between October 2010 and September 2011. Medical doctors, nurses and different therapists were included in the samples in all five case studies. For this paper, we reflect on some aspects of this work to illuminate the different interprofessional perspectives relating to EBP in stroke care. Results The lack of RCT-based evidence in the community and primary care sectors can lead to the clinicians working in these sectors being perceived as having a lower status. Clinicians use both tacit and encoded knowledge to guide their practice and there existed both intraand interprofessional tensions in these two types of knowledge. The professional hierarchy of stroke teams varies with national context and the role of the non-specialists is less valued in stroke care.

  7. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  8. An Evaluation of Web-Based Case Studies in Microscopy

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    Susan M. Merkel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult to provide students in introductory science courses with opportunities that mimic the investigative learning experience of doing research. This is particularly true in microbiology courses where advanced microscopy techniques are expensive and difficult to do. To that end, we developed three computer-based case studies around real-life scenarios. Our goals were to: (i improve students’ understanding of advanced microscopic techniques, (ii give students practice analyzing and interpreting data, and (iii model a scientific approach to how these techniques are applied to current issues in microbiology. Each case requires students to use references and interpret actual microscopic images, thus giving them a more realistic experience than we could previously provide. We analyzed student learning and perceptions to these case studies. After doing the case studies, students were more able to apply microscopic methods to a realistic problem, thus demonstrating an understanding of how the methods are used. Students appreciated the intellectual challenges presented by having to interpret and analyze actual microscopic images. This approach has allowed us to introduce new areas of content to our course and to stimulate critical thinking skills, a difficult task in a large introductory microbiology course.

  9. Case Studies in Agnotology-Based Learning (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Bedford, D. P.; Mandia, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Agnotology is the study of how and why ignorance or misconceptions exist. While misconceptions are a challenge for educators, they also present an opportunity to improve climate literacy through agnotology-based learning. This involves refutational lessons that challenge misconceptions while teaching scientific concepts. I will summarize two decades of research that find refutational texts are among the most effective forms of reducing misconceptions. I will present case studies in improving climate literacy through agnotology-based learning, both in the college classroom and in public outreach promoted through mainstream and social media. I will also explore how content from the SkepticalScience.com website is being used by educators as a teaching resource. These real-world examples demonstrate effective ways to reduce misperceptions and improve climate literacy.

  10. Game Mechanic based E-Learning: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a case study of Game Mechanic based E-Learning. This is put forward as a new approach to E-Learning that tries to mimic games to harness some of their motivational properties. A prototype system was developed as a web application, using an Agile and Lean development approach.The system was evaluated with a class at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.This was done to give an indication of the system's ability to make work with exercises more engaging a...

  11. Discrete Surface Modeling Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong

    2012-01-01

    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological, geophysical and geographical modeling; yet GE can be accepted to acquire elevation data of terrain. In this paper, we present a real study case of building the discrete surface model (DSM) at Haut-Barr Castle in France based on the elevation data of terrain points extracted from GE using the COM API. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr Castle and determine the region of the study area, then extract elevation data of terrain at Haut-Barr, and thirdly create a planar triangular mesh that covers the study area and finally generate the desired DSM by calculating the elevation of vertices in the planar mesh via interpolating with Universal Kriging (UK) and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW). The generated DSM can reflect the features of the ground surface at Haut-Barr well, and can be used for constructingthe Sealed Engineering Geological Model (SEGM) in further step.

  12. Construction Material-Based Methodology for Military Contingency Base Construction: Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Nigerians believe that the initial feasibility work was improperly conducted. One of the main feasibility studies was conducted with the in- tent to import...Military Contingency Base Construction Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry...Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Patrick J. Guertin, George W. Calfas, Michael K. Valentino, and Ghassan K. Al-Chaar Construction Engineering

  13. Clinicians adopting evidence based guidelines: a case study with thromboprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints.

  14. Learning based on patient case reviews: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søndergaard Jens

    2008-09-01

    the transition from individual competence to personal capability. According to the physicians, they were not only able to identify needed changes, some reported that they were able to transform these ideas into action and do things more effectively. According to our data this transition takes place, because the learning processes initiated were based on real life experiences which equally initiated reflections on what to improve, as well as how to improve their work. Conclusion Patient case reviews initiate reflective processes providing feedback about performance in real life situations. Family physicians are in favour of patient case reviews as a learning method, because it embraces the complexities they encounter in their daily practice and is based on personal experiences.

  15. Success Factors in Offset Deals: A Case Study Based Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Kirchwehm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The requests for offset obligations occurs primarily in the area of arms imports and covers the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that companies provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services. Increasingly, all major contracts ask for offset obligations. They are now key differentiators in major contracts and it is a fast growing market. For the suppliers, offsets are a key differentiator in earning new business and therefore should be accepted that much accurateness is put on the successful execution of the offset projects. Nevertheless, it comes to problems during the project phase and sometimes we’ve the situation that a offset project failed. The aim of this paper is to exam which success- giving factors are exists in the offset related interaction between buyer, seller and participating industry. The data for this investigation were obtained from secondary sources which were mainly accessible via internet. After data collection, an analysis was performed which was based on the context of this paper and also in connection with the chosen case study: Saudi Arabia. As a result of this analysis can be derived several success factors, which could be also seen as the foundation for an optimized execution of offset obligations. The paper concludes with a reflection of the investigation approach and as well with a classification of the subject offset. Furthermore the results of the analyzes are summarized and an outlook for further researches is given.

  16. Post stroke rehabilitation based on SMART goals: a case study

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    Amir-ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post stroke rehabilitation has been consistently reported in physiotherapy as being difficult to manage and limiting to rehabilitation outcome. It is reported that the first few months post stroke are crucial for rehabilitation to reach a maximum potential. However, after this period further recovery is unlikely. Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-framed (SMART goals are used for goal setting for rehabilitation. They can provide coordination between a multidisciplinary team to develop a plan for the individual needs of patients. This case study explored the use of SMART goals, which are often not used in a rehabilitation setting due to being time-consuming and difficult to create. This case report provides the first evidence that SMART goals may serve as a powerful tool for rehabilitation following stroke. The case study illustrates the clinical role of physiotherapists in the management of a patient with stroke. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 71-73

  17. Gravity wave reflection: Case study based on rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Since gravity waves significantly influence the atmosphere by transporting energy and momentum, it is important to study their wave spectrum and their energy dissipation rates. Besides that, knowledge about gravity wave sources and the propagation of the generated waves is essential. Originating in the lower atmosphere, gravity waves can move upwards; when the background wind field is equal to their phase speed a so-called critical layer is reached. Their breakdown and deposition of energy and momentum is possible. Another mechanism which can take place at critical layers is gravity wave reflection. In this paper, gravity waves which were observed by foil chaff measurements during the DYANA (DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) campaign in 1990 in Biscarrosse (44°N, 1°W)--as reported by Wüst and Bittner [2006. Non-linear wave-wave interaction: case studies based on rocket data and first application to satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68, 959-976]--are investigated to look for gravity wave reflection processes. Following nonlinear theory, energy dissipation rates according to Weinstock [1980. Energy dissipation rates of turbulence in the stable free atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38, 880-883] are calculated from foil chaff cloud and falling sphere data and compared with the critical layer heights. Enhanced energy dissipation rates are found at those altitudes where the waves' phase speed matches the zonal background wind speeds. Indication of gravity wave trapping is found between two altitudes of around 95 and 86 km.

  18. Exploring Student Preconceptions of Readiness for Remote-Online Case-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Case-based learning (CBL) is an educational approach where students work in small, collaborative groups to solve problems. Web-conferencing software provides a platform to present information and share concepts that are vital to CBL. Previous studies have found that participants were resistant to change associated with implementing e-learning; however, strategies to reduce this resistance have not been explored. Objective This study was designed to explore student preconceptions and understanding of remote-online case-based learning (RO-CBL). Methods The study took place during the Bachelor of Physiotherapy program at Monash University, Victoria, Australia, in 2013. The entire third-year cohort (n=73) was invited to participate. The primary outcome of interest was students’ preconceptions of RO-CBL, collected via pre- and posttraining surveys. Results Of the 73 students, 66 completed both surveys (attrition rate 9.6%). Three key themes relevant to student preconceptions of RO-CBL emerged: flexibility in time and location of CBL, readiness or hesitation to change to a Web-based format, and the value of training in RO-CBL that included a demonstration and trial run. Thirty-four percent of the participants were hesitant to move to an online format. Conclusions This study explored students’ preconceptions of Web-based learning and evaluated the change in students’ attitudes after training. The results suggest that educational designers should not assume that students are confident and competent in applying these technologies to professional educational activities. By identifying students’ needs before implementation, training sessions can be designed to target these needs, and improve the understanding of RO-CBL and how it works in practice. This may reduce resistance to change, enhance students’ satisfaction, and ultimately improve the learning experience. PMID:27731854

  19. Exploring Global Change In Place-Based Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of global climate change makes the subject challenging for the average student, particularly given the nuanced feedbacks and exceptions to the general "warming" or "drying" trend that may be experienced at the local and regional level at which most people experience geologic processes. Geoscience educators can reduce these barriers and draw in student learners by adopting a place-based approach to teaching and researching geologic principles that relate to global change. Assisting students in recognizing and understanding the geologic environment in which they live and study has the side benefit of making the potential effect of climate change tangible. This presentation will review several approaches for using place-based case studies to explore global climate change issues in large lecture, small seminar, field research and service learning environments. The special place project used in large introductory physical geology courses requires each student to select a place familiar and unique to them for an in depth study of the common course content as the semester progresses. Students are specifically tasked with identifying how their site came to be, the geologic processes that act upon it today, how the site may have been different during the last glacial advance and how global climate change (specifically warming of 3OC over 50 years) might impact the site. The concept that change has occurred at the student's site in the past, even far from glacial environments, opens students to the scale of potential anthropogenic climate change. A freshman seminar Global Warming & Climate Change - Service in Preparation for Climate Change: The Second Battle of New Orleans focused on the environmental threats to New Orleans and southeastern Louisiana resulting from regional land use decisions in the centuries before Hurricane Katrina, and the threat that global change relating to sea level rise, acceleration of the hydrologic cycle and intensification of

  20. Content-based versus semantic-based retrieval: an LIDC case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabon, Sarah A.; Raicu, Daniela S.; Furst, Jacob D.

    2009-02-01

    Content based image retrieval is an active area of medical imaging research. One use of content based image retrieval (CBIR) is presentation of known, reference images similar to an unknown case. These comparison images may reduce the radiologist's uncertainty in interpreting that case. It is, therefore, important to present radiologists with systems whose computed-similarity results correspond to human perceived-similarity. In our previous work, we developed an open-source CBIR system that inputs a computed tomography (CT) image of a lung nodule as a query and retrieves similar lung nodule images based on content-based image features. In this paper, we extend our previous work by studying the relationships between the two types of retrieval, content-based and semantic-based, with the final goal of integrating them into a system that will take advantage of both retrieval approaches. Our preliminary results on the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset using four types of image features, seven radiologists' rated semantic characteristics and two simple similarity measures show that a substantial number of nodules identified as similar based on image features are also identified as similar based on semantic characteristics. Furthermore, by integrating the two types of features, the similarity retrieval improves with respect to certain nodule characteristics.

  1. Study on Measuring System of Casing Machine Based on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the technology requirements of measurement for animal casing, in this paper, we use PLC and touch screen as the control core, the electromechanical integration design ideas to research the methods and principles for casing measure, and analyze the mechanical structures and mechanical characteristics of casing machine. As the control core, the programmable logic controller (PLC ensures that the whole control system has high precision, high stability, high reliability during the operation time. Through PLC and touch screen well match with PLC which make the casing machine more convenient to operate the whole system. The configuration software form has a brief and intuitive interface on touch screen which makes it easy to use. The mechanical structure and control system of this casing machine are more stable, more reliable and with high anti-interference ability, and satisfies various requirements for animal casings, easy and convenient to operate.

  2. Dynamics of IGBT based PWM Converter A Case Study

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    Vijay Shukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the efficiency and dynamics of power converters is a critical tradeoff in power electronics. The increase of switching frequency can improve the dynamics of power converters, but theefficiency may be degraded as well as the switching losses. As power semiconductor devices like diodes, MOSFETS, IGBTs, Thyristors, BJTs have their own characterstics and dynamic responses. It is desired toanalyze and observe the dynamics of different semiconductor devices before they actually employed in the model. Inclusion of different PWM techniques help in the removal of power line interferences like harmonic losses, unwanted ripples, chopped frequencies, spikes. In this paper, we have studied and analyzed the dynamics of IGBT based PWM converter with subjected to different conditions like transient state, steady state feeding the RLC load. Snubber circuits are used to reduce the switching losses. The IGBT based PWM converter reflects the better dynamics with improved efficiency and reduced harmonics as compared to some other power semiconductor devices when FFT is performed and subjected to standard parameterized RLC load understeady state and transient analysis.

  3. A case study of the residual-based cointegration procedure

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    Riccardo Biondini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of long-run equilibrium processes is a significant component of economic and finance theory. The Johansen technique for identifying the existence of such long-run stationary equilibrium conditions among financial time series allows the identification of all potential linearly independent cointegrating vectors within a given system of eligible financial time series. The practical application of the technique may be restricted, however, by the pre-condition that the underlying data generating process fits a finite-order vector autoregression (VAR model with white noise. This paper studies an alternative method for determining cointegrating relationships without such a pre-condition. The method is simple to implement through commonly available statistical packages. This ‘residual-based cointegration’ (RBC technique uses the relationship between cointegration and univariate Box-Jenkins ARIMA models to identify cointegrating vectors through the rank of the covariance matrix of the residual processes which result from the fitting of univariate ARIMA models. The RBC approach for identifying multivariate cointegrating vectors is explained and then demonstrated through simulated examples. The RBC and Johansen techniques are then both implemented using several real-life financial time series.

  4. Gathering practice-based knowledge in educational contexts – some case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Verjans, S. (2016, 20 September). Gathering practice-based knowledge in educational contexts – some case studies. Presentation at Welten Conference ‘Practice-based research methods to guide desining for networked learning’, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  5. Specification based formal testing: the EasyLink case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belinfante, Axel; Feenstra, Jan; Heerink, Lex; Vries, de René G.; Veen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Testing is, in most cases, a manual activity that is time consuming and error prone. Automation, however, can severely reduce the associated costs. In the project Cote de Resyste (COnformance TEsting of REactive SYSTEms) theory is being developed and a protoype tool is being built to support the aut

  6. An evidence-based practice case study: white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mary Ellis

    2015-01-01

    White coat hypertension, also referred to as isolated clinical hypertension, is a condition in which blood pressure rises in the medical setting due to anxiety. White coat hypertension causes no more than 15 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure or 7 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure in normotensive patients, and these increases in blood pressures should return to baseline within 3 visits to the medical provider. In this case, a 77-year-old white man presented to preoperative testing, with a blood pressure of 265/101 mmHg, claiming to have white coat hypertension. This case discusses the interventions implemented for this particular patient and the misdiagnosis and misperceptions of white coat hypertension by both clinicians and patients. This article also addresses recommendations for diagnosis, treatment options, and follow-up for patients with true white coat hypertension.

  7. Dichotomous decisions based on dichotomously scored items: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Koppelaar, H.; Linden, van der W.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a course in elementary statistics for psychology students using criterion-referenced achievement tests, the total test score, based on dichotomously scored items, was used for classifying students into those who passed and those who failed. The score on a test is considered as depending on a late

  8. Evaluation of Inventory Reduction Strategies: Balad Air Base Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the USAF supply system amounts to basic ABC inventory management methods in that backorders are managed in a fashion where certain parts are given...M., & North, M. J. (2008). Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation: ABMS Examples. Proceedings of the 2008 Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 101-112

  9. Simulation Based Performance Assessment : Methodology and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Noordkamp, H.W.; Fitski, H.J.; Barros, A.I

    2009-01-01

    During the various phases of the Defense acquisition process, and in the early design phases, many decisions must be made concerning the performance and cost of the new equipment. Often many of these decisions are made while having only a limited view of their consequences or based on subjective inf

  10. Test Prioritization based on Change Sensitivity: an Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Cu; Tonella, Paolo; Vos, Tanja; Condori, Nelly; Mendelson, Bilha; Citron, Daniel; Shehory, Onn

    2014-01-01

    In the context of service-based systems, applications access software services, either home-built or third-party, to orchestrate their functionality. Since such services evolve independently from the applications, the latter need to be tested to make sure that they work properly with the updated or

  11. Teaching Representations of Competency-Based Education. A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Papahiu, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know how the Competency-Based Education (CBE) approach is represented by professors who are part of the professional education of psychologists, and the challenges and implications of, in their opinion, incorporating it in the classroom practice. Therefore, a research was conducted to know the type of…

  12. Finite Countermodel Based Verification for Program Transformation (A Case Study

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    Alexei P. Lisitsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Both automatic program verification and program transformation are based on program analysis. In the past decade a number of approaches using various automatic general-purpose program transformation techniques (partial deduction, specialization, supercompilation for verification of unreachability properties of computing systems were introduced and demonstrated. On the other hand, the semantics based unfold-fold program transformation methods pose themselves diverse kinds of reachability tasks and try to solve them, aiming at improving the semantics tree of the program being transformed. That means some general-purpose verification methods may be used for strengthening program transformation techniques. This paper considers the question how finite countermodels for safety verification method might be used in Turchin's supercompilation method. We extract a number of supercompilation sub-algorithms trying to solve reachability problems and demonstrate use of an external countermodel finder for solving some of the problems.

  13. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

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    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  14. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  15. Alkali based slagging: a case study from Leigh Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Creelman; J. Bamberry; L.A. Juniper; C. Ward [University of Western Sydney, Penrith South, NSW (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    A systematic study was undertaken at NRG Port Augusta Power station in South Australia to determine the cause of ash deposition (slagging) in the boilers. Conventional wisdom suggests that iron in the ash is generally a major player in furnace ash deposition; however, mineralogical and chemical analyses of the deposits showed that the binding phase was plagioclase feldspar, dominated by the sodic feldspar albite. The study resulted in recognition that the cause of the formation of ash deposits in the North Flinders furnaces was the result of the ingestion of sodium and calcium into the melt that bound the deposits. This finding was a breakthrough in understanding the deposition process within these furnaces, and emphasises that not all slagging is iron related and that systematic studies of deposits, coal and ash make fundamental contributions to understanding the ash deposition mechanisms. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Evaluation Model for Experts Social Networks (Based on Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saghafi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Every Social network is considered as a structured Society constitute of individual or organizational group which are associated together within different type of dependency. The most important elements influence the success of such social network is the level of interest for sharing the information. This article addresses the important factors on assessment of Intellectual National Internet Network(ININ. For assessment we propose Enhanced technology acceptance model which we deployed by extending Davis TAM(technology acceptance model.ININ is a web base sites for think thanking of researchers which is acting within a four month at RICT(Research institute of ICT and the number of 214 ICT researchers distribute and delivered their experience. The result shows that in intellectual society, Intelligence has higher values to be disseminated and higher inspiration is needed for its successful sharing in new generation of Information technology.

  17. Problem-based case study to enhance critical thinking in student nurses

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    NM Mogale

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional teaching methods, for example the lecture method, does not stimulate critical thinking in student nurses. This problem can be solved by the utilisation of problem-based case study in the classroom/clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study in a clinical setting among first year, comprehensive course students at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus. The research design of this study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual and was conducted in the following phases: Phase 1: The development and implementation of a program for problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase II: The experiences of student nurses who were exposed to problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase III: The perceptions of tutors regarding the implementation of problem-based case study in the clinical setting (focus group, and; ase IV: Guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The data from Phases I, II and III were used to formulate guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The sample group consisted of all 69 first year student nurses at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus and ten tutors teaching clinical courses at the same campus. The Tesch (1990 approach is used for data analysis. Nine guidelines for the implementation of a problem-based case study approach were formulated and recommendations for development of an instrument to measure critical thinking in nursing were recommended.

  18. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the databa

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Multi-Institutional Case Studies-Based Course in Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Chapin, Travis K.; Hammons, Susan R.; Stelten, Anna Van; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Wiedmann, Martin; Johnston, Lynette M.; Oliver, Haley F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel, engaging courses in food safety is necessary to train professionals in this discipline. Courses that are interactive and case-based encourage development of critical thinking skills necessary for identifying and preventing foodborne disease outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a case study…

  20. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    of several DHSs. Furthermore ?Udspil? was chosen for being a non-formal learning activity based on individual participation, even though linked to institutionalized learning practices, which were carried out in cooperation between several local institutions.Last but not least, the project represents...... that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day......Learning for democratic citizenship is embedded in the general popular education ideal(folkeoplysning), which is the primary source of inspiration for the Day High Schools (DHSs). DHSs are private institutions supported by local authorities, that host primarily low educated and unemployed young...

  1. A comparative study on lecture based versus case based education on teaching general surgery to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazeni Bistegani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : various methods of teaching have different learning outcomes. Using a combination of teaching and training methods of training may boost education. This study compared lecture based and case based teaching as a combined approach in learning general surgery by medical students. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental performed on two consecutive groups of 33 and 36 students who were studying general surgery course. The two styles of teaching were lecture-based and real case teaching methods. The final exam included twenty multiple choice questions. The mean scores of each group of students were collected and analyzed accordingly with descriptive tests, Fisher’s test and T-test. Results: The mean final mark of students' who received real case based education was 16.8/20 ± 1.8 and for the lecture group was 12.7± 1.7. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P <0.0001. In both groups, there were significant differences in the mean scores of questions with taxonomy two and three, but not in the questions with taxonomy one. Students' evaluation score of the teacher of the real case group increased by 1.7/20 (8.7% in the case based group compared to the lecture group. Conclusions: Case based teaching of general surgery led to a better outcome and students were more satisfied. It is recommended that case based education of surgery be encouraged.

  2. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs, instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available.

  3. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena-Humanes, Jose-Luis; Gómez-Hoyo, Pedro-José; Jarabo-Amores, Maria-Pilar; Mata-Moya, David; Del-Rey-Maestre, Nerea

    2015-11-17

    Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs), instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR) systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available.

  4. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena-Humanes, Jose-Luis; Gómez-Hoyo, Pedro-José; Jarabo-Amores, Maria-Pilar; Mata-Moya, David; De-Rey-Maestre, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs), instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR) systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available. PMID:26593921

  5. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  6. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities in the children of women treated with sulfasalazine during pregnancy. However, the amount of information is limited and additional data are needed to rule out a teratogenic effect....

  7. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penalvo, Francicso Jose

    2013-01-01

    Our differences in language, cultures, and history around the world play a vital role in the way we learn. As technology-based education continues to be used worldwide, there is an ever growing interest in how multiculturalism comes into effect. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches explores the…

  8. Integrating Web-Based Applications into Aged Care: Two Case Studies and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Imogen C; Musić, Selma; Carlsson, Anthony; Scanlan, Faye; Silver, Mark; Bhar, Sunil S

    2016-09-01

    In anticipation of the growing need for adequate mental health care for older adults in residential aged care facilities, psychologists are challenged to overcome several barriers that impede the uptake and delivery of their services in such settings. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have strong potential to overcome some of these barriers by supporting the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for common psychogeriatric issues. This paper presents two case studies that illustrate when and how psychologists can use various ICT applications (e.g., tablet devices, web-based applications) integrated with cognitive behavioural and reminiscence-based therapies. Both case studies demonstrate that ICT can effectively support the therapeutic alliance, enhance therapeutic engagement, and individualize treatment delivery to accommodate the needs of elderly patients. It is hoped that these case studies will encourage clinicians to consider using ICT to augment therapy with their elderly patients.

  9. The MORPG-Based Learning System for Multiple Courses: A Case Study on Computer Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game-based (MORPG) Learning system which enabled instructors to construct a game scenario and manage sharable and reusable learning content for multiple courses. It used the curriculum of "Introduction to Computer Science" as a study case to assess students' learning…

  10. Alternative Mechanisms for Compensatory Mitigation: Case Studies and Lessons About Fee-Based Compensatory Wetlands Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Grove West Vineyard Urban Study Area, Placer County, California . Key Features of Fee-Based Compensation as Represented by the Case Study Programs Fee...supports a wide variety of wildflower and other plant species. Scientists maintain that these forests are among the most floristically diverse in the

  11. Cultural Exchange and the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Landsverk, John; Weisz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The dynamics of interactions between evidence-based intervention (EBI) developers and trainers and organizations and providers that deliver the EBI was examined in two case studies, a statewide randomized effectiveness trial of an EBI to reduce child neglect and a randomized trial of EBIs for depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in…

  12. Using Problem-Based Learning Software with At-Risk Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, Pavel; Pedersen, Susan; Hill, Christine L.

    2006-01-01

    In an extension of research examining student-centered pedagogy, the present case study examined how at-risk students used Alien Rescue, a problem-based learning (PBL) software program for middle school science. Twenty-nine participants were observed and interviewed over the twelve class days in which they were engaged in Alien Rescue. Students'…

  13. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  14. Using Problem-Based Case Studies to Learn about Knowledge Translation Interventions: An Inside Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Sanjit K.; Murray, Mary Ann; McLeod, Katherine M.; Bergen, Anne; Bath, Brenna; Menon, Anita; Kho, Michelle E.; Stacey, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) interventions can facilitate the successful implementation of best practices by engaging and actively involving various stakeholders in the change process. However, for novices, the design of KT interventions can be overwhelming. In this article, we describe our experience as participants in a problem-based case study on…

  15. Project-Based Learning Communities in Developmental Education: A Case Study of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alison; Christofili, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This case study tracks the application of project-based learning (PBL) during four separate college terms at Portland Community College in Portland, Oregon. Each term follows a different learning community of first-term college students enrolled in a program of developmental education (DE), reading, writing, math, and college survival and success…

  16. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  17. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Paper presented at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  18. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Presentation at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  19. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  20. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  1. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM.

  2. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  3. Study designs may influence results: the problems with questionnaire-based case-control studies on the epidemiology of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-03-07

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed results. When reviewing the association between three exposures, medical radiation, exogenous hormone use and allergy, we critically appraised the evidence from both case-control and cohort studies. For medical radiation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), questionnaire-based case-control studies appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise, such studies cannot be regarded as 'hypothesis testing' but only 'hypothesis generating'. We consider that this holds true for all questionnaire-based case-control studies on cancer and other chronic diseases, although perhaps not to the same extent for each exposure-outcome combination.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 March 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.46 www.bjcancer.com.

  4. A Corpus-based Study of English Synonym Differentiation:A Case Study of Announce, Declare, Proclaim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦弦

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the differentiation in English synonym and a corpus-based case study of colligation, collocation and semantic prosody on announce, declare and proclaim is conducted. It is hoped that this study could give some hints on the pedagogical practice and more attention can be paid to this area so more teacher and learners can benefit from the various corpora.

  5. Using Web-Based, Group Communication Systems to Support Case Study Learning at a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Rourke

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the capacity of Web-based, group communication systems to support case-based teaching and learning. Eleven graduate students studying at a distance were divided into three groups to collaborate on a case study using either a synchronous voice, an asynchronous voice, or a synchronous text communication system. Participants kept a detailed log of the time they spent on various activities, wrote a 1,500-word reflection on their experience, and participated in a group interview. Analysis of these data reveals that each group supplemented the system that had been assigned to them with additional communication systems in order to complete the project. Each of these systems were used strategically: email was used to share files and arrange meetings, and synchronous voice systems were used to brainstorm and make decisions. Learning achievement was high across groups and students enjoyed collaborating with others on a concrete task.

  6. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  7. Student-centered Role-based Case Study Model to Improve Learning in Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Nadeem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important learning objectives of our bachelor course on "Techniques in Decision Support Systems" is to develop understanding of core decision making process in real-life business situations. The conventional teaching methods are unable to explain complexities of real-life business. Although the classroom discussions can be effective to understand general factors, such as opportunity cost, return on investment, etc. affecting business decisions, the effects of factors like dynamic business environment, incomplete information, time pressure etc. can not be truly explained through such simple discussions. In this paper, we describe our experience of adopting student-centered, role-based, case study to deal with this situation. The interactive case-based study not only provided students with experiential learning, but also gave them liberty to test their thoughts. As a result, we observed improved students' learning as well as improved grades. In addition, this approach made classes more dynamic and interesting.

  8. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  9. Service Quality of Online Shopping Platforms: A Case-Based Empirical and Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsan-Ming Choi; Pui-Sze Chow; Bowood Kwok; Shuk-Ching Liu; Bin Shen

    2013-01-01

    Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs) such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and...

  10. Community-based case-control study of childhood stroke risk associated with congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CK; Sidney, S.; Fullerton, HJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : A better understanding of the stroke risk factors in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) could inform stroke prevention strategies. We analyzed pediatric stroke associated with CHD in a large community-based case-control study. METHODS - : From 2.5 million children (aged 30-fold (odds ratio, 31; confidence interval 4-241) increased risk of stroke in children with CHD when compared with controls. After excluding periop...

  11. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  12. How substance-based ontologies for gravity can be productive: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew; Conlin, Luke D.

    2014-06-01

    Many science education researchers have argued that learners' commitment to a substance (matter-based) ontology impedes the learning of scientific concepts that scientists typically conceptualize as processes or interactions, such as force, electric current, and heat. By this account, students' tendency to classify these entities as substances or properties of substances leads to robust misconceptions, and instruction should steer novices away from substance-based reasoning. We argue that substance-based reasoning can contribute to the learning and understanding of these very same physics concepts. Our case study focuses on a group of elementary school science teachers in our professional development program. Starting from substance-based metaphors for gravity, the teachers build a sophisticated explanation for why objects of different masses fall with the same acceleration. We argue that, for conceptual, epistemological, and affective reasons, instructional interventions should focus on tapping these productive substance-based resources when they arise rather than attempting to suppress them.

  13. Urban Metabolism Based on Emergy and Slack Based Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; CAI Jianming; XU Hui; DENG Yu; NIU Fangqu; YANG Zhenshan; DU Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The key to studying urban sustainable development depends on quantifying stores,efficiencies of urban metabolisms and capturing urban metabolisms' mechanisms.This paper builds up the metabolic emergy account and quantifies some important concepts of emergy stores.Emphasis is placed on the urban metabolic model based on the slack based model (SBM) method to measure urban metabolic efficiencies.Urban metabolic mechanisms are discussed by using the regression method.By integrating these models,this paper analyzes the urban metabolic development in Beijing from 2001 to 2010.We conclude that the metabolic emergy stores of Beijing increased significantly from 2001 to 2010,with the emergy imported accotmting for most of the increase.The metabolic efficiencies in Beijing have improved since the 2008 Olympic Games.The population,economic growth,industrial structures,and environmental governance positively affect the overall urban metabolism,while the land expansion,urbanization and environmentally technical levels hinder the improving of urban metabolic efficiencies.The SBM metabolic method and the regression model based on the emergy analysis provide insights into the urban metabolic efficiencies and the mechanism.They can promote to integrate such concepts into their sustainability analyses and policy decisions.

  14. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: An increasing research literature has identified a statistical association between trauma exposure and psychosis. Methodological limitations, primarily relating to failures to establish the temporal ordering of events and relying on retrospective self-reports, have made the argument...... for a causal association difficult to establish. Method: A case-control study was conducted based on data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. All female visitors to a rape center during the index year (2003) were matched with controls based on age and area...

  15. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

  16. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-03-02

    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group.

  17. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk. Future retrospective cohort studies by using existing biological and epidemiological databases may provide a clue to MS etiology.

  18. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Golpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45% were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (<0.05. Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

  19. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  20. Web-based Peer Assessment: A Case Study with Civil Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Cruz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer-assessed online collaborative writing is of growing importance for higher education. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of collected data, this work presents the results of a case study in a graduate civil engineering course at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. After an overall presentation of the learning activity, it examines students’ attitudes towards web-based peer assessment and identifies which factors are related to students’ use and appreciation of feedback. In addition, an analysis of the type of feedback is presented in an attempt to evaluate students’  written communication skills. The results of this study provide indications on how to improve the design and implementation of future web-based peer assessment tasks and raise questions on the effectiveness of peer/teacher grading in the use of feedback.

  1. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.H.; U. Soergel; Lanaras, Ch.; E. Baltsavias; Cho, K.; F. Remondino; Wakabayashi, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two a...

  2. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper; Thygesen, Lau C; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within ever-users (≥one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis and the corresponding date for controls were disregarded. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer associated with long-term (≥500 daily defined doses) versus one-time (one prescription) use of disulfiram. Among 53 856 disulfiram users, we identified 166, 644, and 464 cases, respectively, of melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer. Adjusted odds ratios for melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer associated with long-term disulfiram use were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.60-1.78), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.70-1.22), and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56-1.06), respectively. For prostate cancer, dose-response analyses showed a further risk reduction with the highest cumulative dose level of disulfiram; however, the test for trend did not reach statistical significance. Our study provides some epidemiological support for a protective effect of disulfiram against prostate and breast cancer.

  3. Information Issues and Contexts that Impair Team Based Communication Workflow: A Palliative Sedation Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Alex; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Implementing team based workflows can be complex because of the scope of providers involved and the extent of information exchange and communication that needs to occur. While a workflow may represent the ideal structure of communication that needs to occur, information issues and contextual factors may impact how the workflow is implemented in practice. Understanding these issues will help us better design systems to support team based workflows. In this paper we use a case study of palliative sedation therapy (PST) to model a PST workflow and then use it to identify purposes of communication, information issues and contextual factors that impact them. We then suggest how our findings could inform health information technology (HIT) design to support team based communication workflows.

  4. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially....... Thus, several CPT-based methods have been proposed for the design of offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil such as the UWA-05, ICP-05, and NGI-99 methods. This article treats a case study where the API-method as well as the UWA-05 and NGI-99 methods are compared using CPT-data from an offshore...... location with dense to very dense sand. The design of the piles in the jacket foundation shows that API-00 for both the tension and the compression loads predicted much longer piles than the CPT-based methods. Variation of the pile length and pile diameter shows that NGI-99 and UWA-05 predicts almost...

  5. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  6. Developing a Satellite Based Automatic System for Crop Monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift Valley, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucciani, Roberto; Laneve, Giovanni; Jahjah, Munzer; Mito, Collins

    2016-08-01

    The crop growth stage represents essential information for agricultural areas management. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a tool based on remotely sensed satellite (Landsat 8) imagery, capable of automatically classify crop fields and how much resolution enhancement based on pan-sharpening techniques and phenological information extraction, useful to create decision rules that allow to identify semantic class to assign to an object, can effectively support the classification process. Moreover we investigate the opportunity to extract vegetation health status information from remotely sensed assessment of the equivalent water thickness (EWT). Our case study is the Kenya's Great Rift valley, in this area a ground truth campaign was conducted during August 2015 in order to collect crop fields GPS measurements, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll samples.

  7. Contaminant dispersion with personal displacement ventilation, Part I: Base case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yue [Department of Civil, Architectural, Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables (United States); Yang, Xudong; Yang, Caiqing [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, School of Architecture, Beijing 100084 (China); Srebric, Jelena [Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Personal displacement ventilation (PDV) is a new ventilation concept that combines the positive features of displacement ventilation with those of task conditioning or personalized ventilation. PDV is expected to create a micro-environment around an occupant to control the environment individually. In this study, a base PDV case with a contaminant source at different locations was modeled for contaminant dispersion in a full-scale chamber. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the indoor airflow and pollutant transport, and the simulation results were validated against the experimental data. The contaminant concentration field for three different contaminant source locations was analyzed. Based on our results, it seems that this kind of PDV system cannot create the expected ''micro-environment'' to avoid the disturbance of the outside airflow. Further studies on how to improve the PDV performance are given in the companion paper. (author)

  8. Image enhancement based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaozhou; Han, Zhimin; Yao, Liqing; Zhong, Yunshi; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Xiguang; Xie, Tianyu

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been recognized as a powerful tool for noninvasive disease detection in the gastrointestinal field. However, most of the studies on HSI in this field have involved ex vivo biopsies or resected tissues. We proposed an image enhancement method based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images. First, we developed a flexible gastroscopy system capable of obtaining in vivo hyperspectral images of different types of stomach disease mucosa. Then, depending on a specific object, an appropriate band selection algorithm based on dependence of information was employed to determine a subset of spectral bands that would yield useful spatial information. Finally, these bands were assigned to be the color components of an enhanced image of the object. A gastric ulcer case study demonstrated that our method yields higher color tone contrast, which enhanced the displays of the gastric ulcer regions, and that it will be valuable in clinical applications.

  9. Connecting teens to caring adults in a school-based health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksin, Beth A; Kelly, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    The traditional medical care system is generally unable to provide the broad health and wellness services needed by many adolescents, especially those from low-income and racial/ethnic minority communities. Using a theoretical framework adapted from Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of multiple influencers, this case study examined how a school-based health center was able to provide a network of connections for adolescents to caring adults within the school and the local community. Contributors to this network were the creation of a student-centered community with access to adolescent-friendly services, providers acting as connectors, and care of the whole adolescent.

  10. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  11. Case Studies of Attacks over Adaptive Modulation Based Tactical Software Defined Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fernandes Cruz Moura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents case studies of attacks aimed at tactical software defined radios based on a classification with the most common sources of vulnerabilities, classes of attacks, and types of intrusions that military radio sets may suffer. Besides that, we also describe how attack mitigation strategies can impact the development of SDR infrastructures. By using such approach, we identify several possible sources of vulnerabilities, attacks, intrusions, and mitigation strategies, illustrating them onto typical tactical radio network deployment scenarios, as an initial and necessary step for the definition of realistic and relevant security requirements for military software defined radio applications.

  12. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  13. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin

    2014-05-01

    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  14. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  15. Socio-Demographic and Environmental Correlates of Leprosy: A hospital based cases control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang A Jariwala, Bharat H Patel, Naresh R Godara, S L Kantharia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, India alone contributes approximately 50% of Leprosy cases. The Natural history of Leprosy has still many gaps about causation of Leprosy. There are very few studies focusing on all possible factors that might be associated with Leprosy. Materials and Methodology: Hospital based case-control study was carried out in Outpatient department. Interviews of 76 cases of Leprosy and 152 Age and Sex matched Non-Leprosy Controls were taken exploring Demographic, Socio-Economic, Environmental and Behavioural factors to elucidate association with Le-prosy. Results: In Univariate analysis, Residing in Rural and Urban-slum area, lower education, low per capita monthly income, Ex-tended family, unsafe water for domestic purpose, presence of animals in house/yard, unhygienic habit of sewage disposal, frequent bathing in open water bodies, working barefooted were associated with Leprosy. Presence of BCG scar was found to reduce the risk of Leprosy. In the final model of Binary Logistic Regression analysis, presence of BCG scar and higher per capita monthly income were found to be protective for Leprosy whereas family history of Leprosy and frequent bathing in open water bodies were found to be risk factors for Leprosy. Conclusion: BCG vaccine might provide some degree of protec-tion against Leprosy. Protective effect of higher per capita income emphasizes that economic development itself will help us to reduce the burden of Leprosy. Association of Frequent bathing in open water bodies with Leprosy might indicate the role of environmental factors in transmission of Leprosy.

  16. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  17. A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

  18. Air quality assessment based on road traffic pollutants dispersion modelling: Giurgiu – Ruse Bridge Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos MIHAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study related to air quality assessment along an important high traffic bridge (Giurgiu - Ruse, by dispersion modelling of the main pollutants. In order to estimate the level of pollution caused by bridge road traffic in the closest urban areas, Giurgiu and Ruse and based on the traffic data, four scenarios for the air quality assessment have been carried out according to different meteorological conditions. The dispersion modeling was realized on specialized environmental pollution software, which features a fully operational Gauss model in its base module. There are presented dispersion maps for the main road traffic pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2, THC, aiming to evaluate their impact on the urban areas vicinity, in four different wind directions scenarios, at a constant temperature. Conclusions are presented according to available European Legislation and future scenarios are proposed, for other different meteorological conditions.

  19. Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, B. [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.

  20. ASSOCIATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS WITH STROKE: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of death above the age of 60 years and the fifth leading cause of death in people aged 15-59 years old. In addition to specific complications of diabetes mellitus like nephropathy, retinopathy, etc., some other non-specific complications, notably coronary artery disease and stroke are also increasing in frequency in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a case-control study conducted from Feb-2016 to Apr-2016 (3 months. Study was done among stroke patients aged 20 years and above hospitalized in TMMC and RC, Moradabad, UP, Age and gender matched control subjects were selected among neurologically healthy people who were admitted for other ailments in this hospital. Sample size was 312 people containing 156 cases and 156 controls. Statistical analysis was done using Med Calc Version 12.7.5.0 software. Chi-square test was used as test of significance and p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. OBSERVATION Male:Female ratio among the cases and control was 1.51:1. Mean age of cases and controls were 51.30±11.13 and 51.93±14.60. Out of 156 cases, 77 (49.36% were suffering from Diabetes mellitus, while only 46 (29.48% controls were having diabetes mellitus. P value was 0.0003, which is highly significant. CONCLUSION In the present hospital-based case-control study, diabetes mellitus was found to be a significant risk factor in patients with stroke. Risk factor assessment is an important step towards better understanding of pathogenesis, prevention and control of stroke. RECOMMENDATIONS Physicians caring for patients at risk for stroke should be vigilant for diabetes as well as other concurrent stroke risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidaemia, heart diseases, etc., that tend to cluster with diabetes. Lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions for the modifiable risk

  1. When to be skeptical of negative studies: pitfalls in evaluating occupational risks using population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S W; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Siemiatycki, J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated arsenic and lung cancer incidence in a community setting in the Montreal area. Job histories and sociodemographic factors were collected by interview from 857 lung cancer cases, 533 general population controls, and 1,360 controls with other cancers. Chemist-hygienists assessed each subject's life-time occupational exposure to 294 substances. Logistic regressions yielded arsenic/lung cancer odds ratios of 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.7) based on cancer controls, and 0.82 (95% confidence interval = 0.41, 1.6) based on population controls. Risk did not rise with increasing level or probability of exposure. Worksite studies consistently show lung carcinogenicity from arsenic. Since confounding from other chemicals was well controlled, the most likely explanation is substantially lower exposures than in previous studies. The lack of association in this study demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting negative findings from population-based case-control studies, particularly when exposures are low or rare, as well as the difficulty in generating hypotheses from such studies.

  2. A Case Study of the Feedback Design in a Game-Based Learning for Low Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Ling; Lin, Hsiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the effects of text-based and non-text-based feedback in a game-based learning system. The pilot study is a case study to find low-achieving math students' comprehension and motivation in using the game-based systems. Four low-achieving students from a suburban middle school participated in the study. Data…

  3. Effective Application of Knowledge Management in Evidence-based Chinese Medicine: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Garry; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2009-01-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) practice, as a knowledge-based industry, has not embraced knowledge management (KM) techniques widely. However, KM may facilitate the adaptation and promotion of evidence-based CM. A KM framework was introduced to its activities in evidence-based CM through the development of a CM portal. A codification strategy was used to codify and store knowledge systematically in a database. Several approaches were developed and implemented to address specific needs for CM such as centralizing the information, encouraging collective efforts, promoting integration of explicit and tacit knowledge, and developing a flexible technology and support system. Following the established KM framework, the RMIT Chinese Medicine Portal (www.chinese-medicine.com.au) was built up with four major components: organizational knowledge, knowledge workers, KM processes and information technology. Knowledge on Chinese herbs was classified into core, advanced and innovative categories, which involved the development of the monograph template. A working group was organized including CM, pharmacology and information technology professionals to implement this proposal with following sequential development stages: knowledge creation/acquisition, storage/organization, distribution and application. User interface and web language were also defined and accomplished. This case study demonstrates the applicability of KM in evidence-based CM through a multidisciplinary collaboration, such as, an effective collaboration between CM and information technology. The study also shows the potential of KM application in other disciplines of complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:18955285

  4. Lung cancer and occupation in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002-2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence.

  5. Case based reasoning applied to medical diagnosis using multi-class classifier: A preliminary study

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    D. Viveros-Melo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case-based reasoning (CBR is a process used for computer processing that tries to mimic the behavior of a human expert in making decisions regarding a subject and learn from the experience of past cases. CBR has demonstrated to be appropriate for working with unstructured domains data or difficult knowledge acquisition situations, such as medical diagnosis, where it is possible to identify diseases such as: cancer diagnosis, epilepsy prediction and appendicitis diagnosis. Some of the trends that may be developed for CBR in the health science are oriented to reduce the number of features in highly dimensional data. An important contribution may be the estimation of probabilities of belonging to each class for new cases. In this paper, in order to adequately represent the database and to avoid the inconveniences caused by the high dimensionality, noise and redundancy, a number of algorithms are used in the preprocessing stage for performing both variable selection and dimension reduction procedures. Also, a comparison of the performance of some representative multi-class classifiers is carried out to identify the most effective one to include within a CBR scheme. Particularly, four classification techniques and two reduction techniques are employed to make a comparative study of multiclass classifiers on CBR

  6. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  7. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  8. First-Trimester Use of Paroxetine and Congenital Heart Defects : A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marian K.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for case-control studies of the effect of paroxetine on the occurrence of specific heart defects. METHODS: We performed a case-control study with data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands. All the children born between 1997 and 2006 were selec

  9. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Trichotillomania: A Bayesian Case-Control Study

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    Alexandre Heeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, mindfulness-based interventions combined with habit reversal training have been demonstrated to be particularly suitable for addressing trichotillomania. However, because these studies always combined mindfulness training to habit reversal without including either a mindfulness or habit reversal condition alone, it is still unclear whether clinical benefits are the consequences of mindfulness or merely result from habit reversal training. The primary purpose of the present study was thus to examine whether a mindfulness training procedure without habit reversal could alleviate trichotillomania. Using a Bayesian probabilistic approach for single-case design, client’s hair loss severity and level of mindfulness were compared to a normative sample (n = 15 before treatment, after treatment, and at six-month follow-up. Improvement in mindfulness first occurred, and that beneficial effect then transferred to hair-pulling. Indeed, as compared to the normative sample, the client exhibited, from baseline to post-treatment, an improvement in mindfulness. Although a marginal trend to improvement was already evidenced at post-treatment, the mindfulness program only had a significant beneficial effect transferred to hair-loss severity at six-month follow-up. Although it remains particularly difficult to infer generalization from one client, the data from the present case study are the first to suggest that mindfulness training per se might be a suitable clinical intervention for trichotillomania.

  10. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  11. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

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    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  12. Holistic stakeholder-oriented and case study-based risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    Case studies of storm events in the Berlin conurbation demonstrate the chance of a holistic approach and its potential data sources. Data sets of population, but also data provided by insurance and transport companies, and operating data provided by fire brigades, are used. Various indicators for risk analysis are constructed to identify hot spots. These hot spots can be shortcomings or critical aspects in structure, communication, the warning chain, or even in the structure of potentially affected stakeholders or in the civil protection system itself. Due to increasing complexity of interactions and interdependencies in or between societies and nature, it is important to choose a holistic approach. For risk analyses like the storms in Berlin, it captures many important factors with their effects. For risk analyses, it is important to take potential users into concern: The analysis gets important due to its use later on. In addition to a theoretical background, a focus on the application should be set from the beginning on. To get usable results, it is helpful to complement the theoretical meta-level by a stakeholder-oriented level. An iterative investigation and combination of different layers for the risk analysis explores important influencing factors and allows a tailoring of results to different stakeholder groups. Layers are indicators, gained from data sets like losses from insurance data. Tailoring is important, because of different requirements e.g. by technical or medical assistance. Stakeholders' feedback in the iterative investigation also shows structural limitations for later applications, like special laws the fire brigades have to deal with. Additionally, using actors' perspectives offers the chance to convince practitioners of taking part in the analysis. Their participation is an essential component in applied science. They are important data suppliers, whose goodwill is needed to ensure good results. Based on their experience, they can also help

  13. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk.

  14. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  15. TRUTH OR DARE: ONLINE DELIBERATION. A CASE STUDY OF TWO INTERNET BASED DELIBERATIVE PLATFORMS

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    Luana Maria BIDAȘCĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I attempt to discuss how the internet can be used to stimulate an effective communication between citizens and decision-makers. In particular, I will aim to see if it can facilitate a greater degree of deliberation among citizens, if it can make democracy more inclusive and if it can make decision makers more responsible. I will first look at the definition and characteristics of deliberative democracy. Then after looking at what has been written so far about the effect of online discussions on democracy, I shall analyze the role the internet played in two case studies: web based participatory budgeting (PB and domnuleprimar.ro (DearMrMayor.ro. Both of these platforms were designed to create a closer bond between decisionmakers and citizens and will thus prove relevant to the discussion. Finally, I conclude that while the two case studies seem to favor increased inclusiveness, it only partially increases accountability and does not register any significant progress with regard to deliberation. Still, I argue that reasons for optimism exist even with regard to the deliberative aspect. Since the debate regarding the value of online deliberation is far from over, more research is needed in order to perhaps design a framework which will allow us to exploit the democratic value of the internet to its full potential.

  16. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  17. Case Based Reasoning: Case Representation Methodologies

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    Shaker H. El-Sappagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case Based Reasoning (CBR is an important technique in artificial intelligence, which has been applied to various kinds of problems in a wide range of domains. Selecting case representation formalism is critical for the proper operation of the overall CBR system. In this paper, we survey and evaluate all of the existing case representation methodologies. Moreover, the case retrieval and future challenges for effective CBR are explained. Case representation methods are grouped in to knowledge-intensive approaches and traditional approaches. The first group overweight the second one. The first methods depend on ontology and enhance all CBR processes including case representation, retrieval, storage, and adaptation. By using a proposed set of qualitative metrics, the existing methods based on ontology for case representation are studied and evaluated in details. All these systems have limitations. No approach exceeds 53% of the specified metrics. The results of the survey explain the current limitations of CBR systems. It shows that ontology usage in case representation needs improvements to achieve semantic representation and semantic retrieval in CBR system.

  18. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

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    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  19. Disaster Research Team Building: A Case Study of a Web-based Disaster Research Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Randal D; Johnson, L Clark; Maida, Carl A; Houston, J Brian; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2012-11-19

    This case study describes the process and outcomes of the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice Child and Family Disaster Research Training (UWDRT) Program housed at the University of Washington, which used web-based distance learning technology. The purposes of this program were to provide training and to establish a regional cadre of researchers and clinicians; to increase disaster mental health research capacity and collaboration; and to improve the scientific rigor of research investigations of disaster mental health in children and families. Despite a number of obstacles encountered in development and implementation, outcomes of this program included increased team member awareness and knowledge of child and family disaster mental health issues; improved disaster and public health instruction and training independent of the UWDRT program; informed local and state disaster response preparedness and response; and contributions to the child and family disaster mental health research literature.

  20. Instant tsunami early warning based on real-time GPS – Tohoku 2011 case study

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    A. Hoechner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as an example, we demonstrate the ability of real-time GPS to provide qualified tsunami early warning within minutes. While in earlier studies we demonstrated the power of the so-called GPS shield concept based on synthetic data, we here present a complete processing chain starting from actual GPS raw data and fully simulate the situation as it would be in a warning center. The procedure includes processing of GPS observations with predicted high precision orbits, inversion for slip and computation of the tsunami propagation and coastal warning levels. We show that in case of the Tohoku earthquake, it would be feasible to provide accurate tsunami warning as soon as 3 min after the beginning of the earthquake.

  1. Agent-based simulation of pedestrian behaviour in closed spaces: a museum case study

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    Pluchino, Alessandro; Inturri, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Andrea; Ignaccolo, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians at the very fine scale, while moving along the streets, in open spaces or inside a building, simulation modelling becomes an essential tool. In these spatial environments, in the presence of unusual demand flows, simulation requires the ability to model the local dynamics of individual decision making and behaviour, which is strongly affected by the geometry, randomness, social preferences, local and collective behaviour of other individuals. The dynamics of people visiting and evacuating a museum offers an excellent case study along this line. In this paper we realize an agent-based simulation of the Castello Ursino museum in Catania (Italy), evaluating its carrying capacity in terms of both satisfaction of the visitors in regime of normal fruition and their safety under alarm conditions.

  2. A Process Re-engineering Framework for Reverse Logistics based on a Case Study

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    Hing Kai Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years as a channel for companies to achieve operational excellence. The process involves manipulation of returned materials, or even products, which forms a pivotal role in sustainable development throughout the whole supply chains. To make reverse logistics possible, process re-engineering may need to be carried out. However, the processes involved in reengineering are practically complicated. Objectives, benefits, and applicability of any process re-engineering require a careful and detailed strategic planning. This paper aims to propose an easy-to-follow step-by-step framework for practitioners to perform process re-engineering, to learn and identify the critical issues in each step, and to be successful in applying process re-engineering in order to enhance reverse logistics performance. A learner-centred approach is adopted based on a case study of process re-engineering, which is demonstrated in the paper for explanation.

  3. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

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    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  4. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Planning and Designing Web- Based Electronic Commerce: a case study in the insurance industry

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    Rolf Teubner

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce (EC comprises new ways of doing business with customers, suppliers and other business partners. EC is enabled by information and communication technology, in particular the World Wide Web (in short, the Web. While numerous organisations have started to use the Web as an interface to clients and business partners, many have been disappointed by lower than expected response rates and higher than expected costs. One reason for non profitable Web based EC applications is that they do not reflect the strategic preconditions of EC. This lack may be due to deficits in the process of developing an EC-strategy for their Web application. Furthermore, there is a void of instruments and tools to support this process. In order to fill this void, this paper proposes two basic frameworks for planning a Web based EC application. The application of these frameworks is illustrated by the example of a medium seized insurance company. Based on experiences drawn from the case study, the proposed frameworks will be evaluated.

  6. Prediction of quantitative phenotypes based on genetic networks: a case study in yeast sporulation

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    Shen Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exciting application of genetic network is to predict phenotypic consequences for environmental cues or genetic perturbations. However, de novo prediction for quantitative phenotypes based on network topology is always a challenging task. Results Using yeast sporulation as a model system, we have assembled a genetic network from literature and exploited Boolean network to predict sporulation efficiency change upon deleting individual genes. We observe that predictions based on the curated network correlate well with the experimentally measured values. In addition, computational analysis reveals the robustness and hysteresis of the yeast sporulation network and uncovers several patterns of sporulation efficiency change caused by double gene deletion. These discoveries may guide future investigation of underlying mechanisms. We have also shown that a hybridized genetic network reconstructed from both temporal microarray data and literature is able to achieve a satisfactory prediction accuracy of the same quantitative phenotypes. Conclusions This case study illustrates the value of predicting quantitative phenotypes based on genetic network and provides a generic approach.

  7. Emergy-based urban ecosystem health assessment: A case study of Baotou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L. X.; Zhao, Y. W.; Jiang, M. M.

    2009-03-01

    Ecosystem health has been a hot topic of ecosystem management research for years. Considering the urban area as a complex ecosystem consisted of natural, societal and economic entities, urban ecosystem health assessment is necessary to be conducted for the scientific management and proper ecological restoration. Combining with the ecosystem service function of the urban ecosystem, theoretical framework and methodology of the urban ecosystem health assessment based on emergy are proposed and the temporal variation of the health level of the city are also outlined in this paper. Following the principle of ecosystem health assessment, four major factors, including vigor (V), organizational structure (O), resilience (R) and function maintenance (F), are integrated to construct a novel emergy-based urban ecosystem health index (EUEHI). Based on the EUEHI and comparing with those of five other typical Chinese cities, the case study of Baotou city shows that its urban ecosystem health level is steadily arising despite the year 2001 as a turning point. Due to the emphasis on the resource structure adjustment and utilization efficiency, Baotou has obtained a better organizational structure and service function for the total urban ecosystem.

  8. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  9. Using case studies based on a nursing conceptual model to teach medical-surgical nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSanto-Madeya, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Nurse educators are continually challenged to develop teaching strategies that enhance students' critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Case studies are a creative learning strategy that fosters these skills through the use of in-depth descriptions of realistic clinical situations. Conceptual models of nursing provide a unique body of knowledge that can be used to guide construction of case studies and enhance application of didactic course content to nursing practice. In this column, the author discusses the use of case studies constructed within the context of the Roy adaptation model for a senior level medical-surgical nursing course.

  10. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  11. An evolution-based approach to De Novo protein design and case study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pralay; Shultis, David; Brender, Jeffrey R; Czajka, Jeff; Marsh, David; Gray, Felicia; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Zhang, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Computational protein design is a reverse procedure of protein folding and structure prediction, where constructing structures from evolutionarily related proteins has been demonstrated to be the most reliable method for protein 3-dimensional structure prediction. Following this spirit, we developed a novel method to design new protein sequences based on evolutionarily related protein families. For a given target structure, a set of proteins having similar fold are identified from the PDB library by structural alignments. A structural profile is then constructed from the protein templates and used to guide the conformational search of amino acid sequence space, where physicochemical packing is accommodated by single-sequence based solvation, torsion angle, and secondary structure predictions. The method was tested on a computational folding experiment based on a large set of 87 protein structures covering different fold classes, which showed that the evolution-based design significantly enhances the foldability and biological functionality of the designed sequences compared to the traditional physics-based force field methods. Without using homologous proteins, the designed sequences can be folded with an average root-mean-square-deviation of 2.1 Å to the target. As a case study, the method is extended to redesign all 243 structurally resolved proteins in the pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease. On a smaller scale, five sequences were randomly selected from the design pool and subjected to experimental validation. The results showed that all the designed proteins are soluble with distinct secondary structure and three have well ordered tertiary structure, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Together, these results demonstrate a new avenue in computational protein design that uses knowledge of evolutionary conservation from protein structural families to engineer

  12. Insulin versus oral agents in the management of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes: a case based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon Leora J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin is the recommend therapeutic agent of choice for the management of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD, despite only sub-optimal reductions in glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality reported by centers using this agent. The newer insulin sensitizing agents demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory mechanisms may provide an alternative management option for CFRD. Methods A prospective case based therapeutic comparison between insulin, sulfonylurea, metformin and thiazolidinedione was observed over one decade with 20 CFRD patients diagnosed using American Diabetes Association guideline standards. Patients entering the study elected treatment based on risk and benefit information provided for treatment options. Patients receiving organ transplant or requiring combination diabetic medications were excluded from the study. Results No statistical advantage was achieved regarding overall glycemic control for oral agents over insulin. Additional outcome measures including changes in weight, liver function testing and FEV1 were not statistically significant. Conclusion Insulin alone may not be the only therapeutic option in managing CFRD. Oral hypoglycemic agents were equally effective in treating CFRD and may provide an alternative class of agents for patients reluctant in using insulin.

  13. Dredging for dilution: A simulation based case study in a Tidal River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Ata; Proehl, Jeffrey A; Swift, M Robinson

    2016-02-01

    A 2-D hydrodynamic finite element model with a Lagrangian particle module is used to investigate the effects of dredging on the hydrodynamics and the horizontal dilution of pollutant particles originating from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) in tidal Oyster River in New Hampshire, USA. The model is driven by the semi-diurnal (M2) tidal component and includes the effect of flooding and drying of riverine mud flats. The particle tracking method consists of tidal advection plus a horizontal random walk model of sub-grid scale turbulent processes. Our approach is to perform continuous pollutant particle releases from the outfall, simulating three different scenarios: a base-case representing the present conditions and two different dredged channel/outfall location configurations. Hydrodynamics are investigated in an Eulerian framework and Lagrangian particle dilution improvement ratios are calculated for all cases. Results show that the simulated hydrodynamics are consistent with observed conditions. Eulerian and Lagrangian residuals predict an outward path suggesting flushing of pollutants on longer (>M2) time scales. Simulated dilution maps show that, in addition to dredging, the relocation of the WWTF outfall into the dredged main channel is required for increased dilution performance. The methodology presented here can be applied to similar managerial problems in all similar systems worldwide with relatively little effort, with the combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian methods working together towards a better solution. The statistical significance brought into methodology, by using a large number of particles (16000 in this case), is to be emphasized, especially with the growing number of networked parallel computer clusters worldwide. This paper improves on the study presented in Bilgili et al., 2006b, by adding an Eulerian analysis.

  14. Determinants of skilled attendance for delivery in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Zelalem Birhanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal calls for a reduction of maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. A key indicator to measure this goal is the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel. The maternal mortality ratio of Ethiopia is 676 deaths per 100,000 live births. Skilled birth attendance is correlated with lower maternal mortality rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proportion of births with a skilled attendant is only 10% in Ethiopia. Therefore identifying the determinants of skilled attendance for delivery is a priority area to give policy recommendations. Methods A community based nested case control study was conducted from October 2009 – August 2011 at the University of Gondar health and demographic surveillance systems site located at Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the infant mortality prospective follow up study conducted to identify the determinants of infant survival. A pretested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data on the different variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of skilled birth attendance. Strength of the association was assessed using odds ratio with 95% CI. Results A total of 1065 mothers (213 cases and 852 controls were included in the analysis. Among the cases, 166 (77.9% were from urban areas. More than half (54% of the cases have secondary and above level of education. Secondary and above level of education [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.29, 3.68] and urban residence [AOR (95%CI = 8.8 (5.32, 14.46] were associated with skilled attendance for delivery. Similarly, women who had ANC during their pregnancy four or more times [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.56, 4.98] and who own TV [AOR (95%CI = 2.5 (1.32, 4.76] were more likely to deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Conclusions Women’s education, place of residence, frequency of antenatal

  15. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; Preptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  16. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children.

  17. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  18. Fetal growth and risk of stillbirth: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is strongly related to impaired fetal growth. However, the relationship between fetal growth and stillbirth is difficult to determine because of uncertainty in the timing of death and confounding characteristics affecting normal fetal growth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small for gestational age (SGA (90th percentile at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using population, ultrasound, and individualized norms. Gestational age at death was determined using an algorithm that considered the time-of-death interval, postmortem examination, and reliability of the gestational age estimate. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design and differential participation rates in various subgroups. Among 527 singleton stillbirths and 1,821 singleton live births studied, stillbirth was associated with SGA based on population, ultrasound, and individualized norms (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.0 [2.2 to 4.0]; 4.7 [3.7 to 5.9]; 4.6 [3.6 to 5.9], respectively. LGA was also associated with increased risk of stillbirth using ultrasound and individualized norms (OR [95% CI]: 3.5 [2.4 to 5.0]; 2.3 [1.7 to 3.1], respectively, but not population norms (OR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4 to 1.0]. The associations were stronger with more severe SGA and LGA (95th percentile. Analyses adjusted for stillbirth risk factors, subset analyses excluding potential confounders, and analyses in preterm and term pregnancies showed similar patterns of association. In this study 70% of cases and 63% of controls agreed to participate. Analysis weights accounted for differences between consenting and non-consenting women. Some of the characteristics used for individualized fetal growth estimates were missing and were replaced with reference values. However, a

  19. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  20. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  1. Case study on the maintenance of a construction monitoring using USN-based data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technologies for instrumentation within a variety of sustainability systems. USN is emerging as a sensing paradigm that is being newly considered by the sustainability management field as an alternative to traditional tethered monitoring systems. Researchers have been discovering that USN is an exciting technology that should not be viewed simply as a substitute for traditional tethered monitoring systems. In this study, we investigate how a movement monitoring measurement system of a complex building is developed as a research environment for USN and related decision-supportive technologies. To address the apparent danger of building movement, agent-mediated communication concepts have been designed to autonomously manage large volumes of exchanged information. In this study, we additionally detail the design of the proposed system, including its principles, data processing algorithms, system architecture, and user interface specifics. Results of the test and case study demonstrate the effectiveness of the USN-based data acquisition system for real-time monitoring of movement operations.

  2. Case Study on the Maintenance of a Construction Monitoring Using USN-Based Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging ubiquitous sensor network (USN technologies for instrumentation within a variety of sustainability systems. USN is emerging as a sensing paradigm that is being newly considered by the sustainability management field as an alternative to traditional tethered monitoring systems. Researchers have been discovering that USN is an exciting technology that should not be viewed simply as a substitute for traditional tethered monitoring systems. In this study, we investigate how a movement monitoring measurement system of a complex building is developed as a research environment for USN and related decision-supportive technologies. To address the apparent danger of building movement, agent-mediated communication concepts have been designed to autonomously manage large volumes of exchanged information. In this study, we additionally detail the design of the proposed system, including its principles, data processing algorithms, system architecture, and user interface specifics. Results of the test and case study demonstrate the effectiveness of the USN-based data acquisition system for real-time monitoring of movement operations.

  3. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction? A case-crossover analysis nested in a population-based case-referent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; de Faire, U

    2000-03-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were carried out with 699 myocardial infarction patients after onset of the disease. These cases represented 47 percent of all cases in the study base, and 70 percent of all nonfatal cases. The relative risk from vigorous exertion was 6.1 (95% confidence interval: 4.2, 9.0). The rate difference was 1.5 per million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified by socioeconomic status. Premonitory symptoms were common, and this implies risks of reverse causation bias and misclassification of case exposure information that require methodological consideration. Different techniques (the use of the usual-frequency type of control information, a pair-matched analysis, and a standard case-referent analysis) were applied to overcome the threat of misclassification of control exposure information. A case-crossover analysis in a random sample of healthy subjects resulted in a relative risk close to unity, as expected.

  4. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  5. Strategic approaches to simulation-based education: A case study from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Nestel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses some of the challenges met when developing widely distributed, broad spectrum, simulation-based education (SBE for health professionals, such as resource duplication, inconsistent facilities utilization, discipline-specific silos, and the intersection of academic institutions and health services sectors. We examine three primary contributors to successful simulation-based practices - strategic planning, program development, and professional networks. Further, we provide examples of how each of these contributors function at different levels to assure comprehensive, yet sustainable approaches to implementing SBE for greatest impact at national, state, regional, and institutional levels. We draw on the example of Australia and its state and regional government structures, including the challenges in providing health services across a widely variable geography and population distribution. The types of health services and issues relating to health provision and management reflect those found in many western countries. Our hope is that the experiences gained at each level of governance within Australia may inform similar, successful development in other countries. We emphasize the importance of leadership and investment at the national level that serves to inform state, regional, and institutional efforts through a "trickle down" effect. Although evaluation of the strategic planning, program development, and professional networks described in this case study is still ongoing, their preliminary coordination has resulted in significant investment and support at all levels.

  6. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in patie

  7. The Change towards a Teaching Methodology Based on Competences: A Case Study in a Spanish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Maria G.; Arquero Montaño, Jose Luis; Hassall, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) has promoted the implementation of a teaching methodology based on competences. Drawing on New Institutional Sociology, the present work aims to identify and improve knowledge concerning the factors which are hindering that change in the Spanish university system. This is investigated using a case study…

  8. Serum Fatty Acids and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vinceti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some observational studies have suggested that excess dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid increases cutaneous melanoma risk. We aimed at examining the association between serum fatty acids and melanoma risk by conducting a population-based case-control study in a northern Italy community. Methods. The percentage composition of 12 fatty acids was determined in 51 newly diagnosed melanoma patients and 51 age- and sex-matched population controls by extracting total lipids from serum samples using thin layer and gas chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of melanoma associated with tertiles of percentage composition of each fatty acid as well as groupings including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results. We found a slightly increased melanoma risk for stearic and arachidic acids proportion, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. For an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid, we found a male-specific direct association with melanoma risk. No other associations emerged for the other saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, individually or grouped by type. Conclusions. These findings do not suggest a major role of fatty acids, including linoleic acid, on risk of cutaneous melanoma, though their evaluation is limited by the small sample size.

  9. 3D Geological Modeling and Visualization of Rock Masses Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong

    2013-01-01

    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological modeling and visualization. An interesting and useful feature of GE, Google Street View, can allow the GE users to view geological structure such as layers of rock masses at a field site. In this paper, we introduce a practical solution for building 3D geological models for rock masses based on the data acquired by use with GE. A real study case at Haut-Barr, France is presented to demonstrate our solution. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr in GE, and then determine the shape and scale of the rock masses in the study area, and thirdly acquire the layout of layers of rock masses in the Google Street View, and finally create the approximate 3D geological models by extruding and intersecting. The generated 3D geological models can simply reflect the basic structure of the rock masses at Haut-Barr, and can be used for visualizing the rock bodies interactively.

  10. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  11. Service Quality of Online Shopping Platforms: A Case-Based Empirical and Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ming Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function is significantly related to the customer loyalty. Further analytical study is conducted to reveal that the optimal service level on the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function for the risk averse OSP uniquely exists. Moreover, the analytical results prove that (i if the customer loyalty is more positively correlated to the service level, it will lead to a larger optimal service level, and (ii the optimal service level is independent of the profit target, the source of uncertainty, and the risk preference of the OSP.

  12. Epilepsy and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have linked epilepsy with an increased suicide risk, but the association might be modified by psychiatric, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Suicide cases were identified in the Cause of Death Register in Denmark from 1981 to 1997. Up to 20 controls, matched...... by sex, birth year, and calendar date, were assigned to each suicide case. FINDINGS: We identified 21 169 cases of suicide and 423 128 controls. 492 (2.32%) individuals who committed suicide had epilepsy compared with 3140 (0.74%) controls, corresponding to a three times higher risk (rate ratio [RR] 3.......17 [95% CI 2.88-3.50]; pepilepsy and comorbid psychiatric disease, even after...

  13. Environmental, occupational and familial risks for testicular cancer: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walschaerts, Marie; Muller, Audrey; Auger, Jacques; Bujan, Louis; Guérin, Jean-François; Le Lannou, Dominique; Clavert, André; Spira, Alfred; Jouannet, Pierre; Thonneau, Patrick

    2007-08-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) risk factors remain largely unknown, except for personal history of cryptorchidism and familial history of TC. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study on familial, environmental and occupational conditions in which we compared 229 cases and 800 controls. TC was correlated with cryptorchidism (OR = 3.02; CI: 1.90-4.79), a history of cryptorchidism in relatives (OR = 2.85; CI: 1.70-4.79), and TC (OR = 9.58; CI: 4.01-22.88], prostate cancer (OR = 1.80; CI: 1.08-3.02) and breast cancer (OR = 1.77; CI: 1.20-2.60) in relatives. Living in a rural area or having regular gardening activity (growing fruit or vegetables) was associated with an increased risk of TC (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.16-2.29; OR = 1.84; CI: 1.23-2.75). Regarding occupation, we found a relationship with employment in metal trimming (OR = 1.96; CI: 1.00-3.86), chemical manufacture (OR = 1.88; CI: 1.14-3.10), industrial production of glue (OR = 2.21; CI: 1.15-4.25), and welding (OR = 2.84; CI: 1.51-5.35). In a multivariate model, only a history of cryptorchidism in the men, cryptorchidism in relatives, TC, and breast cancer remained significant. Our findings contribute further evidence to a pattern of TC risk factors, which include the significant weight of personal reproductive history and also of testicular and breast cancer in relatives. By including in a multivariate model variables linked to environmental and occupational exposure and related to familial cancer history, neither living in a rural area nor any occupational exposure appeared to be a potential environmental TC risk factor.

  14. Sustainability based on LCM of residential dwellings: A case study in Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Oscar [Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pamplona, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona N. de S. (Colombia); Bonnet, Cecile; Bruno, Joan Carles [Group of Applied Thermal Engineering (CREVER), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rovira I Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Castells, Francesc [Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Life cycle management (LCM) can be applied to the whole construction process, thus making it possible to improve sustainability indicators and also minimize the environmental loads of the full building life cycle. To illustrate this, a case study has been carried out based on the application of the LCM approach to a typical Spanish Mediterranean house located in Barcelona with a total area of 160 m{sup 2} and a projected 50-year life span, which has been modeled according to the Spanish building technical code (CTE). The aim of this research is to use sustainability indicators in the pre-construction and operation (use and maintenance) phases and also to promote and support the adoption of the LCM within the construction industry. This paper concludes that regarding the significant environmental issue of climate change, there was a total emission of 2.34E03 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq/m{sup 2} per 50 years, of which about 90.5% was during the operation phase (use 88.9% and maintenance 1.7%) and the pre-construction phase account for a total of 9.5%. In terms of this dwelling's environmental loads, the operation phase is the most critical because of the high environmental loads from energy consumption for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical appliances and cooking. Additionally, the findings of this study state that the appropriate combination of building materials, improvement in behaviors and patterns of cultural consumption, and the application of government codes would enhance decision-making in the construction industry. Therefore, there is no doubt that applying LCM to the full building life cycle is very important for reducing environmental loads and thereby improving sustainability indicators. Finally, this research will help develop guidelines based on LCM for the construction industry to assist stakeholders in improving customer patterns during the dwelling life cycle. (author)

  15. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems as a tool for landscape design research - investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions (architectonic plan analysis. The concept ‘composition’ refers to a conceivable arrangement, an architectural expression of a mental construct that is legible and open to interpretation. Landscape architectonic compositions and their representations embody a great wealth of design knowledge as objects of our material culture and reflect the possible treatment of the ground, space, image and program as a characteristic coherence. By exploring landscape architectonic compositions with GIS, design researchers can acquire design knowledge that can be used in the creation and refinement of a design. The research aims to identify and illustrate the potential role of GIS as a tool in landscape design research, so as to provide insight into the possibilities and limitations of using GIS in this capacity. The critical, information-oriented case of Stourhead landscape garden (Wiltshire, UK, an example of a designed landscape that covers the scope and remit of landscape architecture design, forms the heart of the study. The exploration of Stourhead by means of GIS can be understood as a plausibility probe. Here the case study is considered a form of ‘quasi-experiment’, testing the hypothesis and generating a learning process that constitutes a prerequisite for advanced understanding, while using an adjusted version of the framework for landscape design analysis by Steenbergen and Reh (2003. This is a theoretically informed analytical method based on the formal interpretation of the landscape architectonic composition addressing four landscape architectonic categories: the basic, the spatial, the symbolic and the programmatic form. This study includes new aspects to be

  16. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical

  17. A Case Study Analysing the Process of Analogy-Based Learning in a Teaching Unit about Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatz, Roland; Ryder, James; Schwedes, Hannelore; Scott, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to analyse the learning processes of a 16-year-old student as she learns about simple electric circuits in response to an analogy-based teaching sequence. Analogical thinking processes are modelled by a sequence of four steps according to Gentner's structure mapping theory (activate base domain, postulate local…

  18. Project-based learning in a high school engineering program: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Todd

    Generating greater student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been a major topic of discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers in recent years, as increasing the number of graduates in these fields is widely considered a necessary step for sustaining the progress of today's society. Fostering this interest must occur before students reach college, and substantial efforts have been made to engage students at K-12 levels in STEM-focused learning. Attempts to involve students in engineering, a vital and growing profession, yet one in which students often have little experience, have frequently emphasized the design and construction of physical products, a practice supported by project-based learning. This thesis examines the environment of an engineering high school course that employed the project-based model. The course is part of a dedicated curricular program which aims to provide students with positive experiences in engineering-related activities while also preparing them for the rigors of college. A case study was conducted to provide insight into the benefits and drawbacks of the learning model. The study's outcomes are intended to provide guidance to educators participating in the design and/or facilitation of project-based activities, particularly those involved with engineering education. The research was performed using a qualitative approach. Long-term engagement with course participants was deemed critical to gaining a comprehensive understanding of the interactions and events that transpired on a daily basis. Nine educators involved with the program were interviewed, as were nineteen of the course's thirty-nine students. A wealth of other relevant data -- including surveys, field notes, and evaluations of student work -- was compiled for analysis as well. The study findings suggest that experiences in problem solving and teamwork were the central benefits of the course. Limitations existed due to a

  19. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  20. Leveraging Lean in construction: A case study of a BIM-based HVAC manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Conway

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impetus towards efficiency in the AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction & Operations sector is driving the implementation of Lean practices. BIM technologies and BIM processes provide methods by which this can be achieved. Major clients of building services contractors have begun to mandate the use of BIM and some are using BIM preparedness/experience as pre-tender qualification criteria. In this case study, an initial review has been conducted of the achievements of a major Irish M&E contractor in implementing BIM. The firm purpose-built a facility for the off-site manufacture of building services components. The operations of the plant are efficient and quality assured through the use of an appropriately skilled workforce at all stages of manufacture, and tracking software that has developed as the knowledge of the contractor grew. Standardised processes have been developed which have resulted in greater efficiencies and lower costs for the contractor as a result of fewer requirements for onsite modifications (such as those caused by clashes, less waste, and greater flexibility. Despite some initial objections, the employees of the company are now more satisfied with their working conditions and are, as a result, more productive. Through investment in BIM-based, Lean processes, the contractor can now better compete when tendering for large-scale projects in Ireland and worldwide, including the rapidly-increasing number where BIM experience and preparedness is mandated.

  1. VOICES AGAINST EXTREMISM: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED CVE COUNTER-NARRATIVE CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Macnair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.

  2. Communicating Archaeological Risk with Web-Based Virtual Reality: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Landeschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade 3D technologies have become very effective and are widely used for managing and interpreting archaeological data. A better way to perceive, understand and communicate Cultural Heritage has been achieved through VR applications, which have enabled archaeologists to make both reconstructions of original landscapes and to put artefacts in their original context. Furthermore, the exponential growth of the Web has led to a massive availability of digital content, even in the field of Cultural Heritage, that can be accessed in an easier and more intuitive manner by a broader audience. The case study presented here is designed to demonstrate the potential importance of Web3D technologies for communicating specific research aspects, such as the ones connected to the GIS-based spatial analysis applied to the archaeological landscape. To this end, a research project was undertaken in order to get a final predictive model for detecting archaeological presence in an area of the Pisa coastal plain, implemented in a Web-orientated Virtual Reality system. The end-user is able to navigate the model in real-time and observe different thematic layers, such as the distribution of the archaeological sites, maps of lithology, land use and, finally, the assessment of the archaeological risk.

  3. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  4. Medicanes: A prognostic analysis of November 7, 2014, case study based on ECMWF medium range products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Pytharouris, Ioannis; Kamperakis, Nicolaos

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean basin is a well-known European region for cyclone formation. The so-called medicanes (MEDIterranean hurriCANES) are cyclones that develop over the Mediterranean basin and exhibit some similarities to tropical cyclones. These rare meteorological phenomena are rare warm-core cyclones that may cause significant impact at coastal regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of prognostic products derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) investigating the development of a medicane case study. All forecast products are based on the 12:00 UTC ECMWF run. On November 7, 2014, a medicane developed over central Mediterranean, first hitting Lampedusa on the island of Linosa, then Malta (at around 16.30 UTC), and finally the eastern coast of Sicily. The analysis revealed that ECMWF 240 forecast products highlighted the central Mediterranean basin as an area of deep cyclonic circulation. In addition, results from 240 to 24 forecast analysis, demonstrated that this cyclonic signature became more constant.

  5. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation. Methods Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls. Results In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001). After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27–2.47). This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39–2.26). Conclusions Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should

  6. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pu Chang

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation.Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls.In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001. After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47. This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26.Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a

  7. A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the human teratogenic potential of isoniazid and other anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cases from a large population-based dataset at the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and controls from the National Birth...... Registry, between 1980 and 1996. Information on all oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatments during pregnancy was medically recorded. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities (case group), and women who had babies with no congenital abnormality (control group). MAIN...

  8. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  9. Habitat-Lite: A GSC case study based on free text terms for environmental metadata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Hirschman, Lynette; Clark, Cheryl; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Mardis, Scott; Luciano, Joanne; Kottmann, Renzo; Cole, James; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Field, Dawn

    2008-04-01

    There is an urgent need to capture metadata on the rapidly growing number of genomic, metagenomic and related sequences, such as 16S ribosomal genes. This need is a major focus within the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and Habitat is a key metadata descriptor in the proposed 'Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence' (MIGS) specification. The goal of the work described here is to provide a light-weight, easy-to-use (small) set of terms ('Habitat-Lite') that captures high-level information about habitat while preserving a mapping to the recently launched Environment Ontology (EnvO). Our motivation for building Habitat-Lite is to meet the needs of multiple users, such as annotators curating these data, database providers hosting the data, and biologists and bioinformaticians alike who need to search and employ such data in comparative analyses. Here, we report a case study based on semi-automated identification of terms from GenBank and GOLD. We estimate that the terms in the initial version of Habitat-Lite would provide useful labels for over 60% of the kinds of information found in the GenBank isolation-source field, and around 85% of the terms in the GOLD habitat field. We present a revised version of Habitat-Lite and invite the community's feedback on its further development in order to provide a minimum list of terms to capture high-level habitat information and to provide classification bins needed for future studies.

  10. A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, George, Jr.

    Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

  11. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Richard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. Methods We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. Conclusion In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  12. Academic English Teaching for Postgraduates Based on Self-Regulated Learning Environment: A Case Study of Academic Reading Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…

  13. Anorectal malformations and pregnancy-related disorders : a registry-based case-control study in 17 European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C. H. W.; van Rooij, I. A. L. M.; Bakker, M. K.; Marcelis, C. L. M.; Addor, M. C.; Barisic, I.; Beres, J.; Bianca, S.; Bianchi, F.; Calzolari, E.; Greenlees, R.; Lelong, N.; Latos-Bielenska, A.; Dias, C. M.; McDonnell, R.; Mullaney, C.; Nelen, V.; O'Mahony, M.; Queisser-Luft, A.; Rankin, J.; Zymak-Zakutnia, N.; de Blaauw, I.; Roeleveld, N.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). Design A population-based case-control study. Setting Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. Population The study populati

  14. Anorectal malformations and pregnancy-related disorders: a registry-based case-control study in 17 European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.H.W.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Bakker, M.K.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Addor, M.C.; Barisic, I.; Beres, J.; Bianca, S.; Bianchi, F.; Calzolari, E.; Greenlees, R.; Lelong, N.; Latos-Bielenska, A.; Dias, C.M.; McDonnell, R.; Mullaney, C.; Nelen, V.; O'Mahony, M.; Queisser-Luft, A.; Rankin, J.; Zymak-Zakutnia, N.; Blaauw, I. de; Roeleveld, N.; Walle, H.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). DESIGN: A population-based case-control study. SETTING: Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. POPULATION: The study popu

  15. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  16. Multi-case Study of Entrepreneurial Path Choice:Based on the Job Embeddedness of Tech-entrepreneur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-juan; JIN Ya-juan; REN Miao; AN Pei; HE Xue-xue; WANG Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes opportunity recognition and development from the perspective of job embeddedness based on entrepreneurial action of tech⁃entrepreneur. The impact of job embeddedness to entrepreneurial path choice of tech⁃entrepreneur is tested by multi⁃case study. This paper also provides theoretic evidence to enhance the possibility of success of start⁃ups for entrepreneurs.

  17. Evidence Based Assessment of Public Health Planning: A Case Study of the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Assessment of Public Health Planning: A Case Study of the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...armed conflict. As a result of the crisis , health care infrastructure was destroyed, health care workers fled, migrating patterns of vulnerable

  18. Mind the Gap: A Case Study of Values-Based Decision Making in a Nonprofit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jana L.

    2013-01-01

    Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…

  19. The Crisis Response to a School-Based Hostage Event: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Summers, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been increased public, professional, and legislative interest in school crisis prevention and intervention. It is recommended that comprehensive crisis teams be established at the school, district, and community levels. A case study was conducted in which interviews were utilized to facilitate an increased…

  20. Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

  1. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  2. EXPLAINING THE AUDIT RISK AND ITS COMPONENTS: A COMPARATIVE CASE-STUDY BASED ON AUDIT REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VOICULESCU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The players activating in the post-recession business environment have to and begin to be more and more prudent and attentive to any sign of human errors, uncertainty, lack of objectivity, attempt of fraud which may occur when financial statements are prepared, in their own case or in the case of their trade clients/suppliers, debtors, business partners, in general. Auditors thus became the mediators between the producers and the users of accountant information, using their high theoretical training, authority, competence and independence as pledge for the fairness of the financial statements and for the compliance with the Law. But even their reports are subject to uncertainty, therefore the author considered useful to approach in the current paper the issue of risk in financial audit, by use of a study-case of several audit reports, in order to explain and exemplify it and to highlight the difference between its components’ evaluation.

  3. Are The Profit Rates of the Islamic Investment Deposit Accounts Truly Performance Based? A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study we were motivated to ascertain whether the profit rates of the investment deposit accounts based on the profit and loss sharing contracts offered by the Islamic banks are truly based on the performance of the underlying assets or otherwise, by taking Malaysia as our case study. Given the facts that Islamic investment deposits are interest free in nature and that they are supposedly used in real economic activities, one would naturally expect that their returns are directly relat...

  4. The student tutor experience in a problem-based learning course: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tricia Susan

    This case study, conducted from an interpretive paradigm, illuminates contextual factors related to the tutor experience when senior undergraduate dental hygiene students served as tutors for beginning undergraduate dental hygiene students, or sophomores, in a 1-semester, 2-hour long problem-based learning (PBL) course in a Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene (BDH) curriculum during the spring semester of 2008. Data were collected using various sources and methods. Six tutors and three administrators were interviewed, tutees completed an anonymous questionnaire, the tutorial process and tutor training sessions were observed, and related documents were examined. Data analysis included open and axial coding, creation of tutor profiles, and identification of patterns. Tutor behaviors varied with respect to the nature of intervention (e.g., telling, asking, clarifying, acknowledging), emphasis (process, content, social), and facilitation style (directive, suggestive, empowering). Patterns in tutor behavior and attitudes emerged related to comfort and growth, persistence and lenience, and compliance, resistance, and innovation. Differences in tutor understanding and perception of their role and the purpose of PBL influenced the role the tutor assumed. Other factors that influenced tutor behavior included tutor intentions, tutor training, and environmental factors such as the nature of problems, allotted time, and tutorial group characteristics. The influence of these factors can be understood by applying Fishbein's integrated model of behavior prediction (Fishbein, 2008). Tutor training included experiencing the PBL student role, attending class, and sharing experiences with other tutors in weekly seminar sessions facilitated by a tutor supervisor. Tutor's gained confidence, knowledge, skills, and friendship. They also had the opportunity to see things from a new perspective, that of a teacher encouraging self-direction rather than a student depending on others for direction

  5. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  6. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE AND ROLE OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: RISK BASED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.

  7. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  8. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  10. Can Interactive Web-Based CAD Tools Improve the Learning of Engineering Drawing? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Cerra, Pablo; Suárez González, Jesús M.; Busto Parra, Bernardo; Rodríguez Ortiz, Diana; Álvarez Peñín, Pedro I.

    2014-01-01

    Many current Web-based learning environments facilitate the theoretical teaching of a subject but this may not be sufficient for those disciplines that require a significant use of graphic mechanisms to resolve problems. This research study looks at the use of an environment that can help students learn engineering drawing with Web-based CAD…

  11. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  12. Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boblin, Sheryl L; Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Robertson, Kim

    2013-09-01

    Although the use of qualitative case study research has increased during the past decade, researchers have primarily reported on their findings, with less attention given to methods. When methods were described, they followed the principles of Yin; researchers paid less attention to the equally important work of Stake. When Stake's methods were acknowledged, researchers frequently used them along with Yin's. Concurrent application of their methods did not take into account differences in the philosophies of these two case study researchers. Yin's research is postpositivist whereas Stake's is constructivist. Thus, the philosophical assumptions they used to guide their work were different. In this article we describe how we used Stake's approach to explore the implementation of a falls-prevention best-practice guideline. We focus on our decisions and their congruence with Stake's recommendations, embed our decisions within the context of researching this phenomenon, describe rationale for our decisions, and present lessons learned.

  13. Vehicle management based on GPS/GIS:A case study on bulk concrete trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Yong-gui; CHENG Ke-fei; ZHANG Cong

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle management is a very important application area of GPS/GIS. Each customer has its special requirements on GIS system when he installs it. We discuss a common structure of our GPS/GIS implementation, and present a case study on bulk concrete trucks management for bulk concrete producers. With GPS/GIS system, bulk concrete producers can improve their performance in scheduling and management.

  14. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  15. The benefit of assessment-based language and reading instruction: perspectives from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran Nielsen, Diane; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    We present a case study of the language and literacy development of a deaf child, Marcy, from preschool through sixth grade. The purpose of the project was to examine the connection between language and reading and to provide insight into the relationships between them. To compile the case study, we analyzed data from nine years of follow-up, including listening, speech articulation, semantic, syntactic, reading, and writing information drawn from a number of informal and formal assessments. Annual evaluation of language and literacy skills was used to select educational placements, as well as instructional methods, strategies, and materials. Given that Marcy began school at 4 years of age, mute and without expressive language of any form (oral or sign), it may at first appear remarkable that she read narrative and expository text as did her hearing peers by sixth grade, because a substantial body of research shows that most deaf students read at the fourth-grade level by high school graduation (review by Paul, 1998). However, those responsible for Marcy's education prevented reading failure by carefully planning, instituting, and monitoring elements of language and literacy instruction. We present Marcy's progress and instruction by grade level and discuss it within the framework of phases/stages of reading development. We hope that the resulting case study may serve as an example of the language-reading connection, an awareness important not only for the literacy instruction of deaf and language-challenged children but for hearing students as well.

  16. Validation of PV performance models using satellite-based irradiance measurements : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Parkins, Andrew (Clean Power Research); Perez, Richard (University at Albany)

    2010-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance models are relied upon to provide accurate predictions of energy production for proposed and existing PV systems under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Ground based meteorological measurements are only available from a relatively small number of locations. In contrast, satellite-based radiation and weather data (e.g., SUNY database) are becoming increasingly available for most locations in North America, Europe, and Asia on a 10 x 10 km grid or better. This paper presents a study of how PV performance model results are affected when satellite-based weather data is used in place of ground-based measurements.

  17. A MCDM-based model for vendor selection: a case study in the particleboard industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Zanjirani Farahani; Moslem Fadaei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated procurement of raw materials for particleboard to minimize costs and develop an efficient optimization model for product mix.In a multiple-vendor market,vendors must be evaluated based on specified criteria.Assuming sourcing from the highest-scoring vendors,annual purchase quantities are then planned.To meet procurement needs,we first propose a model to describe the problem.Then,an appropriate multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique is selected to solve it.We ran the model using commercial software such as LINGO(R) and then compared the model results to a real case involving one of the largest particleboard manufacturers in the region.The model mn based real data yielded a procurement program that is more efficient and lower in cost than the program currently in use.Use of this procurement modelling approach would yield considerable financial returns.

  18. Weaving Intergenerational Engagement into ESL Instruction: Case Study of a University-Based Program in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alan; Kaplan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to address the practical question of whether there is educational value to embedding second-language (L2) learning experiences in intergenerational contexts. In particular, a case study was conducted of a novel, university-based ESL program in Hong Kong in which a group of older adult volunteers with a high level of English…

  19. Effects of an Incentive Based Budgeting System on Institutional Performance Indicators: An Exploratory Longitudinal Case Study of a Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory longitudinal case study was to examine how the implementation of an Incentive Based Budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., Responsibility-Centered Management [RCM]) affected selected institutional performance indicators at the campus level and two comparable schools at a large Mid-Western public University. The value of…

  20. Case Studies of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs. II. Constituency-Based School Renewal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Vernay

    As part of a research project on "Patterns of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs," this paper presents a case study of an assister's work in the Constituency-Based School Renewal Program (CSR), implemented in an elementary school in Brooklyn, New York. CSR is a program aiming to institute a process by which a school will…

  1. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  2. Does Online Game-Based Learning Work in Formal Education at School? A Case Study of VISOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Environment) is a teacher-facilitated pedagogical approach to integrating constructivist online game-based learning into formal curriculum teaching in school education. This paper reports a case study on the implementation of VISOLE in secondary Geography education. We compared the pedagogical…

  3. The Art of Empathy: A Mixed Methods Case Study of a Critical Place-Based Art Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertling, Joy Gaulden

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined middle school students' empathy with the environment within a critical place-based art classroom. The curriculum was informed by the ecological imagination, which calls for a new mode of education: education that embraces the arts as a way to conceive of pro-ecological perspectives, other ways of being…

  4. A Case Study on Collective Cognition and Operation in Team-Based Computer Game Design by Middle-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined team-based computer-game design efforts by children with diverse abilities to explore the nature of their collective design actions and cognitive processes. Ten teams of middle-school children, with a high percentage of minority students, participated in a 6-weeks, computer-assisted math-game-design program. Essential…

  5. Learning to Use Statistics in Research: A Case Study of Learning in a University-Based Statistical Consulting Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Michelle K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative case study of statistical practice in a university-based statistical consulting centre. Naturally occurring conversations and activities in the consulting sessions provided opportunities to observe questions, problems, and decisions related to selecting, using, and reporting statistics and statistical techniques…

  6. Nursing students' experiences with and strategic approaches to case-based instruction: a replication and comparison study between two disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Rosanna; Hayward, Lorna; Lynch, Marcia

    2002-04-01

    In the classroom and in clinical areas, knowing how to learn, reason, reflect, think creatively, generate and evaluate ideas, make decisions, and solve problems have been identified as key elements of critical thinking. However, to be successful in the current health care arena, caregivers cannot be satisfied with possessing the ability to solve problems and simply meet preestablished "outcomes" (Alfaro-LeFevre, 1998). It is necessary to improve knowledge and practice applications and to explore the best ways to do things within a work group. This qualitative study evaluated the experiences of senior-level nursing students using case-based instruction in a course titled, Leading and Managing in Nursing. It is a replication and extension (Phase II) of an original case-based instruction study, completed with senior physical therapy students (Phase I). Phase III of this study trajectory is the creation of an interdisciplinary case-based course that addresses either or both clinical collaborative care issues or leadership and management issues for health care profession students. From this Phase II study, six thematic groupings emerged as distinct student experiences in case-based instruction-motivation, real world, learning, knowledge development, emerging from within, and group dynamic issues.

  7. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  8. BladeRunners and Picasso Cafe: A Case Study Evaluation of Two Work-Based Training Programs for Disadvantaged Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Sheila; Foley, Kelly; Schwartz, Saul; Taylor-Lewis, Musu

    In 1998, Canada's Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) conducted case studies of two work-based training and skill development programs for street youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. The BladeRunners program places youth on construction sites while encouraging them to work toward an apprenticeship in the building trades. The…

  9. A gene-based information gain method for detecting gene-gene interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Huang, Dongli; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Limei

    2015-11-01

    Currently, most methods for detecting gene-gene interactions (GGIs) in genome-wide association studies are divided into SNP-based methods and gene-based methods. Generally, the gene-based methods can be more powerful than SNP-based methods. Some gene-based entropy methods can only capture the linear relationship between genes. We therefore proposed a nonparametric gene-based information gain method (GBIGM) that can capture both linear relationship and nonlinear correlation between genes. Through simulation with different odds ratio, sample size and prevalence rate, GBIGM was shown to be valid and more powerful than classic KCCU method and SNP-based entropy method. In the analysis of data from 17 genes on rheumatoid arthritis, GBIGM was more effective than the other two methods as it obtains fewer significant results, which was important for biological verification. Therefore, GBIGM is a suitable and powerful tool for detecting GGIs in case-control studies.

  10. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D; Martens, Patricia J; Enns, Murray W; Roos, Leslie L; Katz, Laurence Y; Wilcox, Holly C; Erlangsen, Annette; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Spiwak, Rae; Seguin, Monique; Shear, Katherine; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2 years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2 years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.45), and low income (ARR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51) before their offspring's death. CONCLUSIONS Suicide bereavement is associated with adverse mental health and social outcomes

  11. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  12. Biopharmaceutics classification system-based biowaivers for generic oncology drug products: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampal, Nilufer; Mandula, Haritha; Zhang, Hongling; Li, Bing V; Nguyen, Hoainhon; Conner, Dale P

    2015-02-01

    Establishing bioequivalence (BE) of drugs indicated to treat cancer poses special challenges. For ethical reasons, often, the studies need to be conducted in cancer patients rather than in healthy volunteers, especially when the drug is cytotoxic. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) introduced by Amidon (1) and adopted by the FDA, presents opportunities to avoid conducting the bioequivalence studies in humans. This paper analyzes the application of the BCS approach by the generic pharmaceutical industry and the FDA to oncology drug products. To date, the FDA has granted BCS-based biowaivers for several drug products involving at least four different drug substances, used to treat cancer. Compared to in vivo BE studies, development of data to justify BCS waivers is considered somewhat easier, faster, and more cost effective. However, the FDA experience shows that the approval times for applications containing in vitro studies to support the BCS-based biowaivers are often as long as the applications containing in vivo BE studies, primarily because of inadequate information in the submissions. This paper deliberates some common causes for the delays in the approval of applications requesting BCS-based biowaivers for oncology drug products. Scientific considerations of conducting a non-BCS-based in vivo BE study for generic oncology drug products are also discussed. It is hoped that the information provided in our study would help the applicants to improve the quality of ANDA submissions in the future.

  13. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  14. Towards fully automated structure-based function prediction in structural genomics: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James D; Sanderson, Steve; Ezersky, Alexandra; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Orengo, Christine; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M

    2007-04-13

    As the global Structural Genomics projects have picked up pace, the number of structures annotated in the Protein Data Bank as hypothetical protein or unknown function has grown significantly. A major challenge now involves the development of computational methods to assign functions to these proteins accurately and automatically. As part of the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) we have developed a fully automated functional analysis server, ProFunc, which performs a battery of analyses on a submitted structure. The analyses combine a number of sequence-based and structure-based methods to identify functional clues. After the first stage of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI), we review the success of the pipeline and the importance of structure-based function prediction. As a dataset, we have chosen all structures solved by the MCSG during the 5 years of the first PSI. Our analysis suggests that two of the structure-based methods are particularly successful and provide examples of local similarity that is difficult to identify using current sequence-based methods. No one method is successful in all cases, so, through the use of a number of complementary sequence and structural approaches, the ProFunc server increases the chances that at least one method will find a significant hit that can help elucidate function. Manual assessment of the results is a time-consuming process and subject to individual interpretation and human error. We present a method based on the Gene Ontology (GO) schema using GO-slims that can allow the automated assessment of hits with a success rate approaching that of expert manual assessment.

  15. Development of a Rubber-Based Product Using a Mixture Experiment: A Challenging Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Yahya; Piepel, Gregory F.; Caniyilmaz, Erdal

    2013-07-01

    Many products used in daily life are made by blending two or more components. The properties of such products typically depend on the relative proportions of the components. Experimental design, modeling, and data analysis methods for mixture experiments provide for efficiently determining the component proportions that will yield a product with desired properties. This article presents a case study of the work performed to develop a new rubber formulation for an o-ring (a circular gasket) with requirements specified on 10 product properties. Each step of the study is discussed, including: 1) identifying the objective of the study and requirements for properties of the o-ring, 2) selecting the components to vary and specifying the component constraints, 3) constructing a mixture experiment design, 4) measuring the responses and assessing the data, 5) developing property-composition models, 6) selecting the new product formulation, and 7) confirming the selected formulation in manufacturing. The case study includes some challenging and new aspects, which are discussed in the article.

  16. Enhanced Web-Based Otitis Study Case vs. Simple Paper-Case: Impact on Medical Student Objective Structured Clinical Exam Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Malloy, M.D., M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distance education methods have taken on greater importance as medical student education has moved off campus into the community. What the best methods are for conveying information to students at distant sites has not been determined. Objective: To determine if students at distant community sites who received an otitis media study case by e-mail that was enhanced with a referral to a web-based otitis study case, performed better on otitis OSCE stations than students who received the same case not enhanced with visuals or referrals to a web-based otitis case. Design/Methods: Students were randomized by community site to receive either the enhanced (E or simple otitis study case (S. Students were e-mailed an otitis media study case during the 5th week of the rotation. Those randomized to the E-case received a case that started with a case scenario followed by a "Task" that instructed them to go to this web address: http://www.aap.org/otitismedia/www/vc/ear/index.cfm (American Academy of Pediatrics Otitis Web Site. They were then to select "Case 1" which was a continuation of the case scenario present on their e-mail. A list of learning objectives was also printed on the e-mail. Students receiving the S-case viewed the same case scenario and objectives, but were not instructed to go to the web page. All students rotated through two OSCE otitis stations. In the first station they interviewed a simulated patient(OSCE-SP and counseled her on the management of her 12 month old with otitis. Within that station they viewed a video of a pneumoscopic exam of two ears, one ear with otitis and the other ear normal. At the 2nd otitis station the student presented the case to a faculty and was asked a series of questions about otitis media(OSCE-PR. Scores on the two stations were compared by group. Results: There were 198 students who took the OSCE. 178 (90% responded to a survey that indicated they had opened and read the e-mailed case. There

  17. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nourian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the developments to the desired areas. Several models have been developed and evaluated for simulating urban land-use expansions. Despite the variety of the models, most of them have focused on simulating urban land-use expansions just around a city. Thus, the regional models that consider wider area are of primary importance.2- Theoretical basesIn this study a new agent-based model has been developed and implemented to simulate urban land-use expansion in Qazvin and Alborz regions of Qazvin state which have an area of 1620 square kilometers. In this model, land-use developers have been treated as agents that move in the landscape explicitly and assess the state of parcels for development. So, the environment of the model is raster. The agents are developed into five groups which have different aims. The agents may fall in competition to develop the same parcels. Moreover, due to the spatial essence of the problem, GIS were used to prepare the environment of agents’ movement and search and to aggregate and analyze the results.Two main steps can be recognized in this model: the Searching step and the Development step:Searching step: The agents are created and distributed in the districts. The selection of districts is probabilistic and is based on the primary probability of selection, assumed for districts. When agents go to the districts, at first they move randomly to the neighborhood of pre-developed areas. Wherever the agent starts its activities, it

  18. Association between chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rosamma; Rajappan, Sreeraj; Nath, Sameera G; Paul, Binoy J

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities. A lot of similarities exist between RA and periodontitis at cellular and molecular levels. The relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is still unclear. This case-control study was undertaken to determine the possible association between chronic inflammatory diseases like RA and periodontitis. The case group consisted of 100 patients attending the Rheumatology clinic who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA group). Age- and gender-matched 112 patients without RA attending the Outpatient wing of Department of General Medicine formed the control group (NRA group). The number of missing teeth, gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were evaluated in both the groups. Rheumatoid disease activity was assessed by DAS-28 score system. Systemic markers of inflammation like erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in GI, OHI-S, PPD, CAL, ESR and CRP levels between cases (RA group) and controls (NRA group) (P < 0.05). Among subjects with RA, there was no association between the rheumatoid disease activity and the severity of periodontal disease. The occurrence and severity of periodontitis was found to be higher in RA subjects as compared to subjects without RA, suggesting a positive relation between these two chronic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Use of cephalosporins during pregnancy and in the presence of congenital abnormalities: a population-based, case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to study the human teratogenic potential of cephalosporin treatment during pregnancy. Study Design: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched controls without congenital abnormalities was performed. The population-based data set of the Hungarian...... delivered of babies affected with Down syndrome (patient controls). Results: In the case group, 308 (1.35%) pregnant women were treated with cephalosporin. In the population and patient control groups, 440 (1.15%) and 16 (1.97%) pregnant women had similar treatments. The somewhat higher use...

  20. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    -based systems, an air heating and cooling system, and a radiant floor heating and cooling system were chosen, respectively. A single-family house was used as a case study assuming that different space heating and cooling systems were used to condition the indoor space of this house. In addition to the thermal...... energy and exergy inputs to the system, energy and exergy inputs to the auxiliary components were also studied. Both heating and cooling cases were considered and three climatic zones were studied; Copenhagen (Denmark), Yokohama (Japan), and Ankara (Turkey). The analysis showed that the water......-based radiant heating and cooling system performed better than the air-based system both in terms of energy and exergy input to the heating/cooling plant. The relative benefits of the water-based system over the air-based system vary depending on the climatic zone. The air-based system also requires higher...

  1. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  2. Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenis, Jan

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation.

  3. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk.

  4. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  5. Core-firm Based View on the Mechanism of Constructing a Corporate Innovation Ecosystem: A Case Study of Haier Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Shimei; Wang, Ziyuan; Hu, Yimei

    2016-01-01

    The fierce transformation of the competitive status of business world in the 21st century has urged the innovation activities turned from mechanistic and deterministic to ecological and organic. The study firstly defines the concept of core firm based on reviewing existing corporate innovation...... ecosystem literature, and then adopts a multi-embedded case study method on Haier Group’s corporate innovation ecosystem, focusing on six exploratory sub-cases. Based on qualitative coding and analysis on the value realization of six new product/technology of the Haier Group, we investigate how a core firm...... constructing a corporate innovation ecosystem through building up an innovation platform that include multi-level collaborative relationships based on different technologies; while at the same time integrating non-technological issues such as strategy, culture, management, organization, institution and market...

  6. Estimation of net greenhouse gas balance using crop- and soil-based approaches: Two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianxiong, E-mail: lmc172@163.com; Chen, Yuanquan, E-mail: rardc@163.com; Sui, Peng, E-mail: suipeng@cau.edu.cn; Gao, Wansheng, E-mail: wshgao@cau.edu.cn

    2013-07-01

    The net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB), estimated by combining direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can reveal whether an agricultural system is a sink or source of GHGs. Currently, two types of methods, referred to here as crop-based and soil-based approaches, are widely used to estimate the NGHGB of agricultural systems on annual and seasonal crop timescales. However, the two approaches may produce contradictory results, and few studies have tested which approach is more reliable. In this study, we examined the two approaches using experimental data from an intercropping trial with straw removal and a tillage trial with straw return. The results of the two approaches provided different views of the two trials. In the intercropping trial, NGHGB estimated by the crop-based approach indicated that monocultured maize (M) was a source of GHGs (− 1315 kg CO{sub 2}{sup −eq} ha{sup −1}), whereas maize–soybean intercropping (MS) was a sink (107 kg CO{sub 2}{sup −eq} ha{sup −1}). When estimated by the soil-based approach, both cropping systems were sources (− 3410 for M and − 2638 kg CO{sub 2}{sup −eq} ha{sup −1} for MS). In the tillage trial, mouldboard ploughing (MP) and rotary tillage (RT) mitigated GHG emissions by 22,451 and 21,500 kg CO{sub 2}{sup −eq} ha{sup −1}, respectively, as estimated by the crop-based approach. However, by the soil-based approach, both tillage methods were sources of GHGs: − 3533 for MP and − 2241 kg CO{sub 2}{sup −eq} ha{sup −1} for RT. The crop-based approach calculates a GHG sink on the basis of the returned crop biomass (and other organic matter input) and estimates considerably more GHG mitigation potential than that calculated from the variations in soil organic carbon storage by the soil-based approach. These results indicate that the crop-based approach estimates higher GHG mitigation benefits compared to the soil-based approach and may overestimate the potential of GHG mitigation in

  7. Can Interactive Web-based CAD Tools Improve the Learning of Engineering Drawing? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Cerra, Pablo; Suárez González, Jesús M.; Busto Parra, Bernardo; Rodríguez Ortiz, Diana; Álvarez Peñín, Pedro I.

    2014-06-01

    Many current Web-based learning environments facilitate the theoretical teaching of a subject but this may not be sufficient for those disciplines that require a significant use of graphic mechanisms to resolve problems. This research study looks at the use of an environment that can help students learn engineering drawing with Web-based CAD tools, including a self-correction component. A comparative study of 121 students was carried out. The students were divided into two experimental groups using Web-based interactive CAD tools and into two control groups using traditional learning tools. A statistical analysis of all the samples was carried out in order to study student behavior during the research and the effectiveness of these self-study tools in the learning process. The results showed that a greater number of students in the experimental groups passed the test and improved their test scores. Therefore, the use Web-based graphic interactive tools to learn engineering drawing can be considered a significant improvement in the teaching of this kind of academic discipline.

  8. Fostering Teacher Learning Communities: A Case Study of a School-Based Leadership Team's Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth Brian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how a school-based leadership team identifies and alters school conditions to foster the development of TLCs. Many educators, school leaders, and politicians have embraced teacher learning communities (TLCs) as a vehicle for school reform. Despite the considerable documentation of the capability for TLCs to…

  9. Managing School-Based Curriculum Innovations: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Edmond H. F.; Wan, Sally W. Y.; Galton, Maurice; Lee, John C. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study was originally designed to explore the impact of a distributed approach to developing curriculum leadership among schoolteachers. Previous papers have focused on reporting evidence of teacher learning in the process of engaging teachers in various types of curriculum decision-making in an innovation project based on interview data. This…

  10. Case Study: Use of Problem-Based Learning to Develop Students' Technical and Professional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…

  11. A Case Study in Project-Based Learning: An International Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Korfhage

    2010-01-01

    As our world becomes more integrated, international business students should develop skills that match corporations' needs. Moreover, students need hands-on, problem-solving, team-based, critical-thinking skills that companies demand. Students need international business experience but many of them lack the funds or support to study or intern…

  12. Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh; Kryzch, Valerie; Schnebert, Sylvianne

    2013-01-01

    and cosmeceuticals. Here we present the example of a skin care cosmetic as one of the first successful product developments incorporating the ideas of hormesis. This was based on the studies to analyse the molecular effects of active ingredients extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng......, nutritional and mental hormetins...

  13. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  14. Content-Based Instruction in Primary and Secondary School Settings. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Dorit, Ed.; Crandall, JoAnn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) challenges English language educators to teach English using materials that learners encounter in their regular subject-area classes. This volume helps ESL and EFL teachers meet that challenge by providing them with creative ways to integrate English language learning with the content that students study at primary…

  15. From functional programming to multicore parallelism: A case study based on Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this work is studying parallelization of functional programs with the specific case study of decision procedures for Presburger Arithmetic (PA). PA is a first order theory of integers accepting addition as its only operation. Whereas it has wide applications in different areas......, we are interested in using PA in connection with the Duration Calculus Model Checker (DCMC) [5]. There are effective decision procedures for PA including Cooper’s algorithm and the Omega Test; however, their complexity is extremely high with doubly exponential lower bound and triply exponential upper...... in the SMT-solver Z3 [8] which has the capability of solving Presburger formulas. Functional programming is well-suited for the domain of decision procedures, and its immutability feature helps to reduce parallelization effort. While Haskell has progressed with a lot of parallelismrelated research [6], we...

  16. ASSOCIATION OF HYPERTENSION AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE WITH STROKE: A HOSPITAL BASED CASE CONTROL STUDY FROM KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and commonly occurs amongst elderly. Every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer from stroke. Hypertension is the most powerful and important modifiable risk factor for all stroke subtypes. Approximately 30-40% stroke risk reduction can be achieved with lowering of blood pressure only. Heart disease is also a strong risk factor for stroke, although only for one type of stroke, ischemic strokes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study conducted from Jan-2015 to March-2015 (3 months. Study was done among stroke patients aged 20 years and above, hospitalized in M.G.M Medical College and L.S.K Hospital, Kishanganj. Age and gender matched control subjects were selected among neurologically healthy people who were admitted for other ailments in this hospital. Sample size was 312 people, containing 156 cases and 156 controls. Statistical analysis was done using Med Calc Version 12.7.5.0 software. Chi-square test was used as test of significance and p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. OBSERVATION Male:Female ratio among the cases and control was 1.51:1. Mean age of cases and controls were 51.30±11.13 and 51.93±14.60. Out of 156 cases, 97 (62.18 % cases were having history of hypertension, while only 33 (21.15% controls had hypertension. P value was 0.0001, which is significant. Coronary heart disease was present in 21 (13.46% of cases and 6 (3.85% of controls. P value was significant. CONCLUSION To conclude in the present hospital-based case control study, systemic hypertension (p<0.001 and coronary heart diseases were significant risk factors in patients with stroke. Thus, our present study is a step towards determination of risk factors of stroke.

  17. Combining Model-Based and Feature-Driven Diagnosis Approaches - A Case Study on Electromechanical Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Balaban, Edward; Saxena, Abhinav

    2010-01-01

    Model-based diagnosis typically uses analytical redundancy to compare predictions from a model against observations from the system being diagnosed. However this approach does not work very well when it is not feasible to create analytic relations describing all the observed data, e.g., for vibration data which is usually sampled at very high rates and requires very detailed finite element models to describe its behavior. In such cases, features (in time and frequency domains) that contain diagnostic information are extracted from the data. Since this is a computationally intensive process, it is not efficient to extract all the features all the time. In this paper we present an approach that combines the analytic model-based and feature-driven diagnosis approaches. The analytic approach is used to reduce the set of possible faults and then features are chosen to best distinguish among the remaining faults. We describe an implementation of this approach on the Flyable Electro-mechanical Actuator (FLEA) test bed.

  18. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, D.J.; Debeij, J.; Zaane, B. van; Dekkers, O.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Buller, H.R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Gerdes, V.E.; Cannegieter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin level

  19. Ambient Vibration Based Damage Diagnosis Using Statistical Modal Filtering and Genetic Algorithm: A Bridge Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. El-Ouafi Bahlous

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors recently developed a damage identification method which combines ambient vibration measurements and a Statistical Modal Filtering approach to predict the location and degree of damage. The method was then validated experimentally via ambient vibration tests conducted on full-scale reinforced concrete laboratory specimens. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of the identification method for a real bridge. An important challenge in this case is to overcome the absence of vibration measurements for the structure in its undamaged state which corresponds ideally to the reference state of the structure. The damage identification method is, therefore, modified to adapt it to the present situation where the intact state was not subjected to measurements. An additional refinement of the method consists of using a genetic algorithm to improve the computational efficiency of the damage localization method. This is particularly suited for a real case study where the number of damage parameters becomes significant. The damage diagnosis predictions suggest that the diagnosed bridge is damaged in four elements among a total of 168 elements with degrees of damage varying from 6% to 18%.

  20. Case studies of a COED-based coal-conversion process. Final report, August 1, 1979-July 15, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to investigate the process section models developed under a previous DOE contract into a single modified COED coal-conversion process model; to conduct case studies with selected process section models; and to supplement these studies by developing several additional models. A cyclone coal/char combustor model was developed, implemented and documented. A major program of case studies involving three alternative coal-conversion-process configurations (modified COED, COGAS, and COED) was executed. The COGAS configuration proved superior to the modified COED but was shown to be quite limited in the range of feasible operating conditions. Based on a second-law analysis the COED configuration was the most energy efficient of the three. An oil-vapor-quench-process section model was developed. The key element was a three phase stage-wise absorber with external heat removal and side streams. The model was validated against literature performance data. Comparison of the two quench systems showed them to be comparable in capital cost. Finally, flowsheet models were created of three bulk methanation systems. Suitable base cases were identified for each flowsheet. Extensive experimentation was carried out to speed up integration and to improve recycle convergence calculations. Because of excessive computer charges further case studies were terminated.

  1. The State of Using SMS-Based e-Government Services: Case Study in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-ma'aitah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has wide spread of information technology and communications. In addition, it has improved the infrastructure of mobile phone networks. This encourage government to take advantage of this development and trying to provide SMS-Based e-Government Services through their e-government program. This paper tries to evaluate the state of using SMS-Based e-Government Service in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and study the factors that affect on citizen adoption of this service. This study investigated a sample formed of (600 individuals distributed on three categorize were university students and Employees, public sector employees, private sector employees. The study presented statistical information explained the state of using SMS-based e-government service by Jordanian citizens. In addition the study showed that individual’s beliefs have positive effect on use SMSbased e-government services. Furthermore it orders these factors ascending depending on importance, from Jordanian citizens' perspective. The top three factors were Perceived ease of use, perceived efficiency in time and distance, perceived value for money.

  2. Factors influencing a problem-based learning implementation: A case study of IT courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Norida Muhd; Mohd, Haslina; Baharom, Fauziah; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Puteh, Nurnasran; Marzuki @ Matt, Zaharin; Husain, Mohd Zabidin; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    IT students must be trained to work efficiently as teamwork. One of the techniques that can be used to train them is through Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The PBL implementation can be influenced by various factors depending on the ultimate goal of the study. This study is focusing on the IT students' perception of the PBL implementation. The student's perception is important to ensure the successfulness of the PBL implementation. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that might influence the implementation of PBL of IT courses. This study aims to identify some catalyst factors that may influence the PBL implementation of IT courses. The study involved three (3) main phases: identifying PBL implementation factors, constructing a PBL model, and PBL model validation using statistical analysis. Four main factors are identified: PBL Characteristics, PBL Course Assessment, PBL Practices, and PBL Perception. Based on these four factors, a PBL model is constructed. Then, based on the proposed PBL model, four hypotheses are formulated and analyzed to validate the model. All hypotheses are significantly acceptable. The result shows that the PBL Characteristics and PBL Course Assessment factors are significantly influenced the PBL Practices and indirectly influenced the Students' Perception of the PBL Implementation for IT courses. This PBL model can assist decision makers in enhancing the PBL teaching and learning strategy for IT courses. It is also can be tested to other courses in the future.

  3. An approach to multicore parallelism using functional programming: A case study based on Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2015-01-01

    platform executing on an 8-core machine. A speedup of approximately 4 was obtained for Cooper’s algorithm and a speedup of approximately 6 was obtained for the exact-shadow part of the Omega Test. The considered procedures are complex, memory-intense algorithms on huge formula trees and the case study...... reveals more general applicable techniques and guideline for deriving parallel algorithms from sequential ones in the context of data-intensive tree algorithms. The obtained insights should apply for any strict and impure functional programming language. Furthermore, the results obtained for the exact......-shadow elimination procedure have a wider applicability because they can directly be transferred to the Fourier–Motzkinelimination method....

  4. The Environmental Impact of Base Closure: A Case Study of Laredo, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    S--~~ ’P€ 3! qgP o~~ ~ ~~~ ooTHE N V IR CNM EN TAL I~iPACT OF 3ASE - ~~~ CLOSURE : A CASE STUDY OF ~~.REDO...quantitative m eO T-ods i~ was s~ le 00 ~e a o h cb~~e - o t i - -e c o n c l u s i o n - s - c o n c e r n i n g t he ;‘ua li tv of l i f e...f a c tor so c r e s w i t h the p redicted sc—c r-e s as a pr-el-u-fe to su:~~ eo tive analysis. The fir-st :teo , eterm inin~ the o:tim-u~ -i

  5. Permanent health education based on research with professionals of a multidisciplinary residency program: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the perception of professional members of a multi-professional residency program on Permanent Health Education. It is a case study research using a qualitative approach, with sixteen members of a multi-professional residency program. The data were collected from January to May 2012, through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and systematic observation, and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis. Two categories were identified: Permanent Health Education establishing collective spaces of reflection of practices and Permanent Health Education that promotes integration between disciplines. The members of the multiprofessional residency team were found to be aware that permanent education permeates their training and enables reflection on their clinical practices and multidisciplinary action as producers of health actions.

  6. Semantic Mining based on graph theory and ontologies. Case Study: Cell Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use concepts from graph theory and cellular biology represented as ontologies, to carry out semantic mining tasks on signaling pathway networks. Specifically, the paper describes the semantic enrichment of signaling pathway networks. A cell signaling network describes the basic cellular activities and their interactions. The main contribution of this paper is in the signaling pathway research area, it proposes a new technique to analyze and understand how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information, which produce diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Our approach is based on three concepts from graph theory (modularity, clustering and centrality frequently used on social networks analysis. Our approach consists into two phases: the first uses the graph theory concepts to determine the cellular groups in the network, which we will call them communities; the second uses ontologies for the semantic enrichment of the cellular communities. The measures used from the graph theory allow us to determine the set of cells that are close (for example, in a disease, and the main cells in each community. We analyze our approach in two cases: TGF-ß and the Alzheimer Disease.

  7. [Jealousy between siblings in early childhood. Nursing assessment based on a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Plana, María Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Childhood jealousy, when a little brother or sister is born, has always been a subject treated within the family environment. Parent's attitude in their interaction with their offspring may increase the response of the jealous child. The emotional expressions of the jealous child may lead to behaviour changes, that may occasionally put the physical integrity of the newborn at risk, since it is the most vulnerable in the family group. In view of the above mentioned, a case of a three-year-old child living with his parents and his nine-month-old sister, is presented. The child shows characteristic behaviour changes of jealousy, such as, rebelliousness, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. The brother's psychomotor discomfort leads to a proneness to accidents for the baby girl and the obvious parental concern. For these reasons nursing intervention in the family group was proposed, based on the theoretical Virginia Henderson Needs Model. The actions will come from the older brother and parents. The aim of the nursing intervention is to lead the behaviour changes in order to re-establish a safe and healthy family environment.

  8. The growth of a culture of evidence-based obstetrics in South Africa: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the past two decades have seen a shift towards evidence-based obstetrics and midwifery, the process through which a culture of evidence-based practice develops and is sustained within particular fields of clinical practice has not been well documented, particularly in LMICs (low- and middle-income countries. Forming part of a broader qualitative study of evidence-based policy making, this paper describes the development of a culture of evidence-based practice amongst maternal health policy makers and senior academic obstetricians in South Africa Methods A qualitative case-study approach was used. This included a literature review, a policy document review, a timeline of key events and the collection and analysis of 15 interviews with policy makers and academic clinicians involved in these policy processes and sampled using a purposive approach. The data was analysed thematically. Results The concept of evidence-based medicine became embedded in South African academic obstetrics at a very early stage in relation to the development of the concept internationally. The diffusion of this concept into local academic obstetrics was facilitated by contact and exchange between local academic obstetricians, opinion leaders in international research and structures promoting evidence-based practice. Furthermore the growing acceptance of the concept was stimulated locally through the use of existing professional networks and meetings to share ideas and the contribution of local researchers to building the evidence base for obstetrics both locally and internationally. As a testimony to the extent of the diffusion of evidence-based medicine, South Africa has strongly evidence-based policies for maternal health. Conclusion This case study shows that the combined efforts of local and international researchers can create a culture of evidence-based medicine within one country. It also shows that doing so required time and perseverance

  9. The Emerging Microbe Project: Developing Clinical Care Plans Based on Pathogen Identification and Clinical Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Perry, Michael W; Doup, Dane't R

    2015-12-01

    For many students in the health sciences, including doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, basic and clinical sciences often appear detached from each other. In the infectious disease field, PharmD students additionally struggle with mastering the diversity of microorganisms and the corresponding therapies. The objective of this study was to design an interdisciplinary project that integrates fundamental microbiology with clinical research and decision-making skills. The Emerging Microbe Project guided students through the identification of a microorganism via genetic sequence analysis. The unknown microbe provided the basis for a patient case that asked the student to design a therapeutic treatment strategy for an infected patient. Outside of lecture, students had two weeks to identify the pathogen using nucleotide sequences, compose a microbiology report on the pathogen, and recommend an appropriate therapeutic treatment plan for the corresponding clinical case. We hypothesized that the students would develop a better understanding of the interplay between basic microbiology and infectious disease clinical practice, and that they would gain confidence and skill in independently selecting appropriate antimicrobial therapies for a new disease state. The exercise was conducted with PharmD students in their second professional year of pharmacy school in a required infectious disease course. Here, we demonstrate that the Emerging Microbe Project significantly improved student learning through two assessment strategies (assignment grades and exam questions), and increased student confidence in clinical infectious disease practice. This exercise could be modified for other health sciences students or undergraduates depending upon the level of clinical focus required of the course.

  10. The Emerging Microbe Project: Developing Clinical Care Plans Based on Pathogen Identification and Clinical Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. O'Donnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For many students in the health sciences, including doctor of pharmacy (PharmD students, basic and clinical sciences often appear detached from each other. In the infectious disease field, PharmD students additionally struggle with mastering the diversity of microorganisms and the corresponding therapies. The objective of this study was to design an interdisciplinary project that integrates fundamental microbiology with clinical research and decision-making skills. The Emerging Microbe Project guided students through the identification of a microorganism via genetic sequence analysis. The unknown microbe provided the basis for a patient case that asked the student to design a therapeutic treatment strategy for an infected patient. Outside of lecture, students had two weeks to identify the pathogen using nucleotide sequences, compose a microbiology report on the pathogen, and recommend an appropriate therapeutic treatment plan for the corresponding clinical case. We hypothesized that the students would develop a better understanding of the interplay between basic microbiology and infectious disease clinical practice, and that they would gain confidence and skill in independently selecting appropriate antimicrobial therapies for a new disease state. The exercise was conducted with PharmD students in their second professional year of pharmacy school in a required infectious disease course. Here, we demonstrate that the Emerging Microbe Project significantly improved student learning through two assessment strategies (assignment grades and exam questions, and increased student confidence in clinical infectious disease practice. This exercise could be modified for other health sciences students or undergraduates depending upon the level of clinical focus required of the course.

  11. SOFTWARE BASED APPROACH FOR CLASSROOM TEACHING OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COURSES: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Mehar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical engineering concepts are abstract in nature and difficult to explain using conventional teaching tools. The use of software in teaching holds the potential in providing better learning support as these tools can provide visual representations of complex circuits operation and waveforms for enhanced concept and procedural learning in power electronics. The software packages available for simulation of power electronic circuits include MATLAB, PSPICE and PSIM. In this study the author takes an example of an AC voltage controller to explain the software based teaching approach. The author used two software based simulation tools to explain the AC voltage controller concept and compare the software based approach with the blackboard and power point presentation based technique. Results of different approaches are compared in the last session of this paper, so it is helpful for the faculty of electrical engineering to find the various applications of MATLAB, SIMULINK and PSIM in teaching. Overall students find the simulation approach is helpful for their learning.

  12. SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring: a case study for normal strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stress history of concrete structures that have survived an earthquake can serve as a critical index to evaluate the health of the structure. There are currently few reliable monitoring methods to assess concrete stress after a seismic event. Piezoelectric-based smart aggregate (SA) provides an innovative experimental approach to monitor stress on concrete. The principle of SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring is based on the assumption that concrete stress can be reliably predicted by the average output voltages of limited SAs with an acceptable margin of error. In this study, the meso-scale randomness of concrete was evaluated throughout the overall stress range of concrete and the influence of different load paths was considered. Four cylindrical specimens of normal strength concrete were embedded with a total of 24 SAs. The SA output sensitivity curve in the paths of loading-unloading with different amplitudes and monotonic loading up to failure was obtained. Monitoring errors were analyzed during pre- and post-peak stages from the experimental results. This research suggests that SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring for normal strength concrete is reliable.

  13. Surface Response-based Behavioral Modeling of Accurate Digitizers a Case Study on a Fast Digital Integrator at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G; Tiso, S

    2007-01-01

    A statistical approach to behavioral modeling for assessing dynamic metrological performance during the concept design of accurate digitizers is proposed. A surface-response approach based on statistical experiment design is exploited for avoiding unrealistic hypothesis of linearity, optimizing simulation, exploring operating conditions systematically, as well as verifying identification and validation uncertainty. An actual case study on the dynamic metrological characterization of a Fast Digital Integrator for high-performance magnetic measurements at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presented.

  14. An investigation of Forex market efficiency based on detrended fluctuation analysis: A case study for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abounoori, Esmaiel; Shahrazi, Mahdi; Rasekhi, Saeed

    2012-06-01

    The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that asset prices fully reflect all available information. As a result, speculators cannot predict the future behavior of asset prices and earn excess profits at least after adjusting for risk. Although initial tests of the EMH were performed on stock market data, the EMH was soon applied to other markets including foreign exchange (FX). This study uses the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique to test 01:12:2005-18:04:2010 Iranian Rial/US Dollar exchange rate time series data to see if it can be explained by the weak form of the EMH. Moreover, to determine changes in the degree of inefficiency over time, the whole period has been divided into four subperiods. The study shows that the Iranian Forex market (the Rial/Dollar case) is weak-form inefficient over the whole period and in each of the subperiods. However, the degree of inefficiency is not constant over time. The findings suggest that profitable risk-adjusted trades could be made using past data.

  15. Swarm-Optimization-Based Affective Product Design Illustrated by a Mobile Phone Case-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffka Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach of user-oriented design for transforming users’ perception into product elements design. An experimental study on mobile phones is conducted to examine how product form and product design parameters affect consumer’s perception of a product. The concept of Kansei Engineering is used to extract the experimental samples as a data base for neural networks (NNs with particle swarm optimization (PSO analysis. The result of numerical analysis suggests that mobile phone makers need to focus on particular design parameters to attract specific target user groups, in addition to product forms. This paper demonstrates the advantage of using KE-PSO for determining the optimal combination of product design parameters. Based on the analysis, we can use KE-PSO to suggest customers’ preferences for mobile phone design attributes that would be considered optimal by various user groups of all surveyed. They can be used for improvement and development of new future products.

  16. Combining an expert-based medical entity recognizer to a machine-learning system: methods and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Lavergne, Thomas; Grabar, Natalia; Hamon, Thierry; Rosset, Sophie; Grouin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Medical entity recognition is currently generally performed by data-driven methods based on supervised machine learning. Expert-based systems, where linguistic and domain expertise are directly provided to the system are often combined with data-driven systems. We present here a case study where an existing expert-based medical entity recognition system, Ogmios, is combined with a data-driven system, Caramba, based on a linear-chain Conditional Random Field (CRF) classifier. Our case study specifically highlights the risk of overfitting incurred by an expert-based system. We observe that it prevents the combination of the 2 systems from obtaining improvements in precision, recall, or F-measure, and analyze the underlying mechanisms through a post-hoc feature-level analysis. Wrapping the expert-based system alone as attributes input to a CRF classifier does boost its F-measure from 0.603 to 0.710, bringing it on par with the data-driven system. The generalization of this method remains to be further investigated.

  17. A Case Study of Environmental Benefits of Sensor-Based Nitrogen Application in Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Duval, Benjamin D; Anex, Robert; Scharf, Peter; Ashtekar, Jenette M; Owens, Phillip R; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Crop canopy reflectance sensors make it possible to estimate crop N demand and apply appropriate N fertilizer rates at different locations in a field, reducing fertilizer input and associated environmental impacts while maintaining crop yield. Environmental benefits, however, have not been quantified previously. The objective of this study was to estimate the environmental impact of sensor-based N fertilization of corn using model-based environmental Life Cycle Assessment. Nitrogen rate and corn grain yield were measured during a sensor-based, variable N-rate experiment in Lincoln County, MO. Spatially explicit soil properties were derived using a predictive modeling technique based on in-field soil sampling. Soil NO emissions, volatilized NH loss, and soil NO leaching were predicted at 60 discrete field locations using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model. Life cycle cumulative energy consumption, global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential, and eutrophication potential were estimated using model predictions, experimental data, and life cycle data. In this experiment, variable-rate N management reduced total N fertilizer use by 11% without decreasing grain yield. Precision application of N is predicted to have reduced soil NO emissions by 10%, volatilized NH loss by 23%, and NO leaching by 16%, which in turn reduced life cycle nonrenewable energy consumption, GWP, acidification potential, and eutrophication potential by 7, 10, 22, and 16%, respectively. Although mean N losses were reduced, the variations in N losses were increased compared with conventional, uniform N application. Crop canopy sensor-based, variable-rate N fertilization was predicted to increase corn grain N use efficiency while simultaneously reducing total life-cycle energy use, GWP, acidification, and eutrophication.

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and

  19. Web-based ERP systems: the new generation : case study: mySAP ERP

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis, Marie-Joseph

    2007-01-01

    With the proliferation of Internet, ERP systems like all the domains of Information Technology have known an important evolution. This final thesis project is a study about the evolution of ERP systems, more precisely about their migration to the Web giving birth to a new generation of systems: the Web-Based or Web-enabled ERP systems. This migration to the Web is justified by the difficulty of making possible the communication between partner’s legacy systems and the organizations’ ERP syste...

  20. Oral clefts and life style factors - a case-cohort study based on prospective Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Vach, Werner

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between oral clefts and first trimester maternal lifestyle factors based on prospective data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort includes approximately 100,000 pregnancies. In total 192 mothers gave birth to child with an oral cleft during 1997......-2003. Information on risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, tea, coffee, cola, and food supplements was obtained during pregnancy for these and 828 randomly selected controls. We found that first trimester maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95...

  1. Recognizing rheumatoid arthritis: oncoprotein survivin opens new possibilities: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Lai, Too; Murad, Shahnaz; Erlandsson, Malin C; Hussein, Heselynn; Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Dhaliwal, Jasbir S; Bokarewa, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Survivin is a biomarker of cancer known for its anti-apoptotic and cell-cycle regulating properties. In the context of non-cancer pathology, high levels of survivin may be measured in blood and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and associate with early joint damage and poor therapy response. The aim of the study was to investigate the value of survivin measurements in blood for diagnosis of RA in the frame of the Malaysian epidemiological investigation of rheumatoid arthritis (MyEIRA) study. The study enrolled RA patients from eight rheumatology centres in Peninsular Malaysia. The healthy controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity were recruited on the community basis from the residential area of the patients. Levels of survivin were measured in blood of RA patients (n = 1233) and controls (n = 1566) by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The risk for RA was calculated as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in the individuals with high levels of survivin. The risk was calculated in relation to antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPA), detected by ELISA and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, identified by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific oligonucleotide method. High levels of survivin were detected in 625 of 1233 (50.7%) RA cases and in 85 of 1566 (5.4%) controls, indicating its high specificity for RA. Survivin was association with an increase in RA risk in the patients having neither SE-alleles nor ACPA (OR = 5.40, 95% CI 3.81-7.66). For the patients combining survivin, SE, and ACPA, the estimated risk for RA was 16-folds higher compared to the survivin negative patients with SE and ACPA(OR = 16.21, 95% CI 5.70-46.18). To conclude, detection of survivin in blood provides a simple test to improve diagnostic and to increase predictability for RA.

  2. 55 cases of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2002-01-01

    for angio-oedema. The 55 cases comprised a total of 75 visits to the health service and 5 admissions to hospital. 18 persons had sick leave, which supports the impression of very severe dermatitis reactions. 60% were treated with antihistamine, while 52% were treated with corticosteroids. 29% of the cases...

  3. The information system of pregnant womans' health nutritious based on android (Case study: Puskesmas Mopah Merauke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsoin, Sri Murniani Angelina; Kolyaan, Yuliana; Cahyadi, Dedy

    2017-02-01

    The cause of maternal mortality can be divided into two, the direct cause and indirect cause. One of the indirect causes is too difficult to reach health services and the lack of pregnancy knowledge. On the other hand, Android smartphone development of communications technology has increased compared to users of other devices, e.g. blackberry, which has dropped from 11.5% to 4.8% while the android market share has grown from 46.9% up to 68.1%. This increasing is being an opportunity for the software developers to design some software based on Android. The aim of this study was to facilitate the pregnant women to find out some information about the nutritional health, abstinence, calculate gestational age and nutrition based on the period of pregnancy. The information system was designed by using UML, the Eclipse IDE with the java programming language, MySQL as the database. The testing results showed that the nutrition information system based on android could help pregnant women to obtain health nutrition information such as nutrition, calories, dietary restrictions that should be avoided during the first month to the nine month of pregnancy, and the calculation of gestation.

  4. Learning to Mean in Spanish Writing: A Case Study of a Genre-Based Pedagogy for Standards-Based Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    This case study reports the results of a genre-based approach, which was used to explicitly teach the touristic landmark description to fourth-grade students of Spanish as a foreign language. The instructional model and unit of instruction were informed by the pedagogies of the Sydney School of Linguistics and an instructional model for…

  5. Design of maneuvers based on new normal form approximations: The case study of the CPRTBP

    CERN Document Server

    Paez, Rocio Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the motions in the region around the equilateral Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5, in the framework of the Circular Planar Restricted Three-Body Problem (hereafter, CPRTBP). We design a semi-analytic approach based on some ideas by Garfinkel in [4]: the Hamiltonian is expanded in Poincar\\'e-Delaunay coordinates and a suitable average is performed. This allows us to construct (quasi) invariant tori that are moderately far from the Lagrangian points L4-L5 and approximate wide tadpole orbits. This construction provides the tools for studying optimal transfers in the neighborhood of the equilateral points, when instantaneous impulses are considered. We show some applications of the new averaged Hamiltonian for the Earth-Moon system, applied to the setting-up of some transfers which allow to enter in the stability region filled by tadpole orbits.

  6. Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Tina Malene; Bomme, Maria; Hveem, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    on the third Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT3), a population-based study of all adult residents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, performed in 2006-2009. The association between self-reported severe heartburn/regurgitation and snus use was assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to never snus...... between 50-60 and 60-70 years had a reduced risk (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93 and OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.94, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS. However, previous snus users and subgroups of snus users had an increased risk of GERS indicating reverse causality...

  7. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  8. Contracting and Procurement for Evidence-Based Interventions in Public-Sector Human Services: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Aarons, Gregory A; Trott, Elise M; Green, Amy E; Finn, Natalie; Ehrhart, Mark G; Hecht, Debra B

    2016-09-01

    Sustainment of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in human services depends on the inner context of community-based organizations (CBOs) that provide services and the outer context of their broader environment. Increasingly, public officials are experimenting with contracting models from for-profit industries to procure human services. In this case study, we conducted qualitative interviews with key government and CBO stakeholders to examine implementation of the Best Value-Performance Information Procurement System to contract for EBIs in a child welfare system. Findings suggest that stakeholder relationships may be compromised when procurement disregards local knowledge, communication, collaboration, and other factors supporting EBIs and public health initiatives.

  9. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  10. Exploring users’ within-site navigation behavior:A case study based on clickstream data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting; JIANG; Yu; CHI; Wenrui; JIA

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:The goal of our research is to suggest specific Web metrics that are useful for evaluating and improving user navigation experience on informational websites.Design/methodology/approach:We revised metrics in a Web forensic framework proposed in the literature and defined the metrics of footprint,track and movement.Data were obtained from user clickstreams provided by a real estate site’s administrators.There were two phases of data analysis with the first phase on navigation behavior based on user footprints and tracks,and the second phase on navigational transition patterns based on user movements.Findings:Preliminary results suggest that the apartment pages were heavily-trafficked while the agent pages and related information pages were underused to a great extent.Navigation within the same category of pages was prevalent,especially when users navigated among the regional apartment listings.However,navigation of these pages was found to be inefficient.Research limitations:The suggestions for navigation design optimization provided in the paper are specific to this website,and their applicability to other online environments needs to be verified.Preference predications or personal recommendations are not made during the current stage of research.Practical implications:Our clickstream data analysis results offer a base for future research.Meanwhile,website administrators and managers can make better use of the readily available clickstream data to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of their site navigation design.Originality/value:Our empirical study is valuable to those seeking analysis metrics for evaluating and improving user navigation experience on informational websites based on clickstream data.Our attempts to analyze the log file in terms of footprint,track and movement will enrich the utilization of such trace data to engender a deeper understanding of users’within-site navigation behavior.

  11. Guidance Provided by Teacher and Simulation for Inquiry-Based Learning: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2016-12-01

    Current research indicates that inquiry-based learning should be guided in order to achieve optimal learning outcomes. The need for guidance is even greater when simulations are used because of their high information content and the difficulty of extracting information from them. Previous research on guidance for learning with simulations has concentrated on guidance provided by the simulation. Little research has been done on the role of the teacher in guiding learners with inquiry-based activities using simulations. This descriptive study focuses on guidance provided during small group investigations; pre-service teachers (n = 8) guided third and fifth graders using a particular simulation. Data was collected using screen capture videos. The data was analyzed using a combination of theory- and data-driven analysis. Forms of guidance provided by the simulation and by the teachers were divided into the same categories. The distribution of the guidance between the teacher and the simulation was also analyzed. The categories for forms of guidance provided by simulations proved to be applicable to guidance provided by the teachers as well. Teachers offered more various forms of guidance than the simulation. The teachers adapted their guidance and used different patterns to complement the guidance provided by the simulation. The results of the study show that guidance provided by teachers and simulations have different affordances, and both should be present in the classroom for optimal support of learning. This has implications for both teaching with simulations and development of new simulations.

  12. ANFIS-based modelling for coagulant dosage in drinking water treatment plant: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim; Bermad, Abdelmalek; Dechemi, Noureddine

    2012-04-01

    Coagulation is the most important stage in drinking water treatment processes for the maintenance of acceptable treated water quality and economic plant operation, which involves many complex physical and chemical phenomena. Moreover, coagulant dosing rate is non-linearly correlated to raw water characteristics such as turbidity, conductivity, pH, temperature, etc. As such, coagulation reaction is hard or even impossible to control satisfactorily by conventional methods. Traditionally, jar tests are used to determine the optimum coagulant dosage. However, this is expensive and time-consuming and does not enable responses to changes in raw water quality in real time. Modelling can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used for modelling of coagulant dosage in drinking water treatment plant of Boudouaou, Algeria. Six on-line variables of raw water quality including turbidity, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultraviolet absorbance, and the pH of water, and alum dosage were used to build the coagulant dosage model. Two ANFIS-based Neuro-fuzzy systems are presented. The two Neuro-fuzzy systems are: (1) grid partition-based fuzzy inference system (FIS), named ANFIS-GRID, and (2) subtractive clustering based (FIS), named ANFIS-SUB. The low root mean square error and high correlation coefficient values were obtained with ANFIS-SUB method of a first-order Sugeno type inference. This study demonstrates that ANFIS-SUB outperforms ANFIS-GRID due to its simplicity in parameter selection and its fitness in the target problem.

  13. PROMOTING STUDENTS’ AUTONOMOUS LEARNING THROUGH ICT BASED LEARNING IN ICP: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Budianto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting Information and Communication Technology (ICT into teaching and learning is a growing area that has attracted many educators’ efforts in recent years. Based on the scope of content covered, ICT integration can happen in three different areas: curriculum, topic, and lesson. The evolution of the ICT has changed the way student or individual learns and communicates. It has created a global social network, where everyone is connected, either directly or indirectly, to each other, especially in exchanging, sharing and learning autonomously. This study attemptted to delineate how the students of International Class Program (ICP at the Faculty of Islamic Education, handle the use of online sources. The students of ICP were selected as the informant. For eliciting information; observation and interview are used in this study. Data are collected by mean of interview guide and field notes. There are 18 students in ICP class. However for the purpose of the study, the researcher selected only three students to participate in the study. The results indicated that three respondents felt positive about using internet to perform task learning experience compared to their experiences in the regular class.

  14. Documentation of Cultural Heritages Using a GIS Based Information and Management System; Case Study of Safranbolu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Alkan, M.; Kutoglu, S. S.; Akcin, H.

    2010-12-01

    Documentation of the cultural heritage sites is extremely important for monitoring and preserves them from natural disasters and human made activities. Due to its very rich historical background from the first human settlements in Catalhoyuk and Alacahoyuk and civilizations such as Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, there are lots of cultural heritage sites in Turkey. 3D modeling and recording of historical buildings using modern tools and techniques in several locations of Turkey have been conducted and still continuing. The nine cultural sites in Turkey are included in the protection list of UNESCO as cultural heritage and one of them is the township of Safranbolu, which is the one of the most outstanding example of the traditional Turkish Architecture and also unique itself in terms of conservation of the human settlement in their authentic environmental motif up till now. In this study outcomes and further studies of a research project related to study area which is supported by the Turkish National Research Center (TUBITAK) with the project number 106Y157, will be presented in details. The basic aim of the study is development a GIS based information and management system for the city of Safranbolu. All historical buildings which are registered are assigned with the database. 3D modeling some of the selected building among the buildings which are registered as historical monuments using different data comes from different sources similar to their original constructions were realized and then it will be distributed via internet by a web-based information system designed during the project. Also some of the buildings were evaluated using close range photogrammetric technique to obtain their façade reliefs, were also assigned with the database. Designed database consists of 3D models, locations, historical information, cadastral and land register data of the selected buildings together with the other data collected during the project related to buildings. Using this

  15. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wu

    Full Text Available Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9 within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%; and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2 nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9 of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%; 3 compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%; and 4 V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  16. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  17. Statins and the risk of acute pancreatitis: A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Henriette; Jacobsen, Jacob; Munk, Estrid Muff;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Case reports have suggested that statins may cause acute pancreatitis. AIM: To examine if statins are associated with risk of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We identified 2576 first-time admitted cases of acute pancreatitis from hospital discharge registers in three Danish counties, and......: Our findings speak against a strong causative effect of statins on the risk of acute pancreatitis, and may even indicate a mild protective effect....

  18. Field Based Learning About Butterfly Diversity in School Garden-A Case Study From Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalsomy Poyyamoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are essential components for well functioning of ecosystems due to their key roles as pollinators and as indicators of ecosystem health. Butterflies are also beloved by public as well as young students and children, who are largely unaware that many species are threatened or endangered. The main objectives of field based education for butterfly conservation were to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to investigate and, identify the butterfly species and conserve its diversity in school gardens. For butterfly survey the census technique method was taught to the students to investigate the diversity of butterflies during the field trips. During the field trip a total of 34 butterfly species, belonging to 4 families, were recorded with standard literature and colour photographs. The Nymphalidae family was the dominant species found in school gardens. The study concluded that the young students must be given the chance to investigate, engage with and experience nature in order to appreciate and be motivated to conserve and protect these fascinating insects at local level. The conservation of our natural biological resources will be dependent upon future generations. This field based learning program inspired to identify and conserve the butterfly diversity within the school gardens.

  19. Choosing a Career Based Personality Matching: A Case Study of King Abdulaziz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Aljojo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, selecting a career involves matching the specific aptitudes and characteristics of an individual with a career which requires or involves such factors. This particular approach has as its foundation the fact that certain careers have need of individuals with certain skills and attitudes, that is to say the individual is a ‘fit’ for that particular career based on their knowledge, skill and disposition. Many students have problems determining their college majors and a suitable career. This paper shows how to find a career that fits one’s personality, and aims to help students analyse their personalities based on the Holland personality test. This paper will identify the most suitable career for students by using a validated Arabic version of the Holland survey, which is one of the most popular models used for career personality tests. This study implements a new set of tasks, testing 117 students from King Abdulaziz University with the Arabic version of the Holland test. The test was applied to female students from three majors, computer science, information systems, and preparatory year distance learning students. The implications of the test results will help students to understand their personality types and determine a suitable career, as the results of the test suggest suitable careers for students which match their personalities. Ultimately, the results show a difference between computer science, information systems and preparatory year distance learning students with regard to personality types and suitable careers.

  20. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors. PMID:28393879

  1. Analysis of sea use landscape pattern based on GIS: a case study in Huludao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Anning; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse sea use landscape patterns on a regional scale based on methods of landscape ecology integrated with sea use spatial characteristics. Several landscape-level analysis indices, such as the dominance index, complex index, intensivity index, diversity index and sea congruency index, were established using Geographic Information System (GIS) and applied in Huludao, China. The results indicated that sea use landscape analysis indices, which were created based on the characteristics of sea use spatial patterns using GIS, are suitable to quantitatively describe the landscape patterns of sea use. They are operable tools for the landscape analysis of sea use. The sea use landscape in Huludao was dominated by fishing use with a landscape dominance index of 0.724. The sea use landscape is a complex mosaic with high diversity and plenty of fishing areas, as shown by the landscape complex index of 27.21 and the landscape diversity index of 1.25. Most sea use patches correspond to the marine functional zonation plan and the sea use congruency index is 0.89 in the fishing zone and 0.92 in the transportation zone.

  2. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention.

  3. Organic agriculture in the municipality of Alta Floresta-MT: case study on family based properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Caroline de Lima Proença

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Family farming has distinct characteristics in their organization and reproduction, such as the use of labor, family labor, the smallest territorial dimension of the plant and crop diversity. Organic agriculture has great potential for family farms, establishing more harmonious relationships between natural ecosystems and agricultural activities. In this context, this paper aims to study five units of organic farming family based in the municipality of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, making the general characterization of it and trying to identify the reality and the difficulties faced by these farmers. Data were made from semi-structured interviews and observation. It was found that the lack of technical assistance, the lack of access to rural credit facilities and lack of family labor are limiting factors that directly interfere with the management of agroecosystems. Furthermore, the great diversity of species managed is a key success factor in seeking and maintaining the stability of agroecosystems.

  4. Subtle trap recognition based on seismic sedimentology-A case study from Shengli Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Handong; Zhang Ruwei; Luo Qun; Zhao Di; Peng Yongmin

    2009-01-01

    Seismic sedimentology is the study of sedimentary rocks and facies using seismic data. However, often the sedimentary body features can't be described quantitatively due to the limit of seismic resolution. High resolution inversion offsets this limitation and is applied to seismic sedimentology to identify subtle traps under complex geologic conditions, thereby widening the applicable range of seismic sedimentology. In this paper, based on seismic sedimentology, seismic phase-controlled nonlinear random inversion is used to predict the sandy conglomerate reservoir of Es3 in the Chezhen depression in Shengli Oilfield. Thickness and sedimentary microfacies maps of sandy conglomerate bodies in several stages are presented and several subtle traps were predicted and verified by drilling.

  5. The evolution of network-based business models illustrated through the case study of an entrepreneurship project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    : This paper illustrates how a network-based business model arises and evolves and how the forces of a network structure impact the development of its partner relationships. The contribution of this article is to understanding how partners positioned around a business model can be organized into a network......-based business model that generates additional value for the core business model and for both the partners and the customers. Research limitations/implications: The results should be taken with caution as they are based on the case study of a single network-based business model. Practical implications: Managers......’s strategic partners and how a how a business model can evolve in a series of distinct phases...

  6. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses.

  7. A geomorphology-based approach for digital elevation model fusion - case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. A.; Raghavan, V.; Masumoto, S.; Vinayaraj, P.; Yonezawa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Global digital elevation models (DEM) are considered a source of vital spatial information and find wide use in several applications. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM (GDEM) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM offer almost global coverage and provide elevation data for geospatial analysis. However, GDEM and SRTM still contain some height errors that affect the quality of elevation data significantly. This study aims to examine methods to improve the resolution as well as accuracy of available free DEMs by data fusion techniques and evaluating the results with a high-quality reference DEM. The DEM fusion method is based on the accuracy assessment of each global DEM and geomorphological characteristics of the study area. Land cover units were also considered to correct the elevation of GDEM and SRTM with respect to the bare-earth surface. The weighted averaging method was used to fuse the input DEMs based on a landform classification map. According to the landform types, the different weights were used for GDEM and SRTM. Finally, a denoising algorithm (Sun et al., 2007) was applied to filter the output-fused DEM. This fused DEM shows excellent correlation to the reference DEM, having a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9986, and the accuracy was also improved from a root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.9 m in GDEM and 14.8 m in SRTM to 11.6 m in the fused DEM. The results of terrain-related parameters extracted from this fused DEM such as slope, curvature, terrain roughness index and normal vector of topographic surface are also very comparable to reference data.

  8. GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, Christopher L; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-01-17

    We describe a new methodology for performing regionalized life cycle assessment and systematically choosing the spatial scale of regionalized impact assessment methods. We extend standard matrix-based calculations to include matrices that describe the mapping from inventory to impact assessment spatial supports. Uncertainty in inventory spatial data is modeled using a discrete spatial distribution function, which in a case study is derived from empirical data. The minimization of global spatial autocorrelation is used to choose the optimal spatial scale of impact assessment methods. We demonstrate these techniques on electricity production in the United States, using regionalized impact assessment methods for air emissions and freshwater consumption. Case study results show important differences between site-generic and regionalized calculations, and provide specific guidance for future improvements of inventory data sets and impact assessment methods.

  9. Clinical Signs, Causes, and Risk Factors of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Diseases: a Hospital-based Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This retrospective study aimed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of chronic kidney diseases (CKD in patients < 18 years old at a single referral center. Materials and Methods In a hospital-based case control study, 66 CKD patients less than 18 years old were compared to 81 control patients (also under 18 without CKD. A patient was defined as a CKD case with renal injury and/or had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of Results Fever, chills, and urinary tract infections were the most common clinical signs in the referred patients. Urinary tract infection (39.5% and growth failure (12.9% were the most important causes in referred pediatric CKD. After controlling the effect of confounding variables, household income, using packed water for drinking, percentile of body mass index (BMI, and gestational age were the significant predictors of pediatric CKD (P

  10. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil......Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil...

  11. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2013-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil......Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  12. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  13. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  14. Optimization of a forest harvesting set based on the Queueing Theory: Case study from Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shegelman Ilya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern technological process of timber harvesting is a complex system both technically and organizationally. Nowadays, the study of such systems and improvement of their efficiency is impossible without the use of mathematical modeling methods. The paper presents the methodology for the optimization of logging operations based on the queueing theory. We show the adapted queueing model, which characterizes the process of logging with the use of a harvesting set consisting of harvesters and forwarders. We also present the experimental verification of the designated model that confirmed mode’s adequacy. The analysis of the effectiveness of the investigated harvesting set was conducted and the recommendations for its optimization were drawn. The research was conducted in the Pryazhinsky District in the Republic of Karelia. We showed that significant improvement of operational efficiency of the investigated harvesting set in the study area cannot be done by adjusting separate machine operations (i.e. by reducing the time of operations execution and their steadiness. However, a change in the number of machines allowed significant improvement in the operational efficiency. The most optimal harvesting set design for the experimental area consisted of two harvesters and two forwarders.

  15. Socio-demographic profile and suicidal intent of attempted suicide cases: A hospital based study in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Bharati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is one of the ten major causes of death in India. Suicidal intent score has been found to be a good predictor of a subsequent completed suicide. The present study was conducted to find out the socio-demographic profile and the suicidal intent score of the cases of attempted suicide as well as to determine the association of suicidal intent score with various factors. Methodology: We conducted the present hospital based observational cross sectional study at a rural hospital of Eastern India. 156 admitted cases with history of self-poisoning were interviewed after obtaining the informed consent. Socio-demographic information and suicidal intent score were recorded and analyzed. Results: 55.1% patients were in the age group of below 20 years, 69.2% were females, 58.3% belonged to socioeconomic class V and 17.3% patients were illiterate. 43.6% were students and 28.8% housewives. 17.3% patients had history of suicidal attempts in the past and in 23.1 % cases stress factor was present in the family. Suicidal intent score was medium in 63.5% patients, 10.3% patients had low score and 26.2% had high score. Different factors like age of 20 years and above, male sex, married people, people having addiction habit, previous suicidal attempt, positive family history and stress factors in family increased the suicidal intent score whereas aged less than 20 years, female sex, unmarried people, people having no previous attempt of suicide, negative family history and absence of stress factor in the family decreased the suicidal intent score. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the influencing factors of suicidal intent score based on a hospital set up. A larger community based study with follow up of study subjects is required to get a detailed idea about the influencing factors of suicidal intent score. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 122-125

  16. Risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis associated with conventional and atypical antipsychotics: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasse, Christiane; Jacobsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atypical and conventional antipsychotics with the risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study. DATA SOURCE: Health care databases of Northern Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 3083 adults hospitalized...... with acute pancreatitis (case patients) and 30,830 control subjects. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Controls were selected from the general population by using risk-set sampling and were matched to case patients by age and sex. The date of the case patients' admission for acute pancreatitis was used.......2 (95% CI 0.7-2.0) for high-potency, 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2) for intermediate-potency, and 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.8) for low-potency conventional antipsychotics, which was largely age-modified with an adjusted RR of 5.2 (95% CI 3.2-8.5) in patients younger than 60 years, compared with an adjusted RR of 1.5 (95...

  17. Validation of a GPU-based Monte Carlo code (gPMC) for proton radiation therapy: clinical cases study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Schuemann, Jan; Jia, Xun; Dowdell, Stephen; Jiang, Steve; Paganetti, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are recognized as the gold-standard for dose calculation, however they have not replaced analytical methods up to now due to their lengthy calculation times. GPU-based applications allow MC dose calculations to be performed on time scales comparable to conventional analytical algorithms. This study focuses on validating our GPU-based MC code for proton dose calculation (gPMC) using an experimentally validated multi-purpose MC code (TOPAS) and compare their performance for clinical patient cases. Clinical cases from five treatment sites were selected covering the full range from very homogeneous patient geometries (liver) to patients with high geometrical complexity (air cavities and density heterogeneities in head-and-neck and lung patients) and from short beam range (breast) to large beam range (prostate). Both gPMC and TOPAS were used to calculate 3D dose distributions for all patients. Comparisons were performed based on target coverage indices (mean dose, V95, D98, D50, D02) and gamma index distributions. Dosimetric indices differed less than 2% between TOPAS and gPMC dose distributions for most cases. Gamma index analysis with 1%/1 mm criterion resulted in a passing rate of more than 94% of all patient voxels receiving more than 10% of the mean target dose, for all patients except for prostate cases. Although clinically insignificant, gPMC resulted in systematic underestimation of target dose for prostate cases by 1-2% compared to TOPAS. Correspondingly the gamma index analysis with 1%/1 mm criterion failed for most beams for this site, while for 2%/1 mm criterion passing rates of more than 94.6% of all patient voxels were observed. For the same initial number of simulated particles, calculation time for a single beam for a typical head and neck patient plan decreased from 4 CPU hours per million particles (2.8-2.9 GHz Intel X5600) for TOPAS to 2.4 s per million particles (NVIDIA TESLA C2075) for gPMC. Excellent agreement was

  18. Diabetes, glycemic control and risk of medical glaucoma treatment: A population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte G Welinder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lotte G Welinder1, Anders H Riis2, Lars L Knudsen1, Reimar W Thomsen21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aalborg hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkPurpose: To examine the association between diabetes and risk of medical glaucoma treatment and to assess the role of long-term glycemic control in the putative association. Design: Population-based case-control study.Methods: Cases of treated glaucoma were all persons filling at least three prescriptions for glaucoma medication for the first time within one year between 2001 and 2006 in Northern Jutland, Denmark. We used risk set sampling to select 10 gender- and age-matched general population controls per case using the Danish Civil Registration System. Data on diabetes, comorbidities, and laboratory tests, including glycosylated hemoglobin (as a measure of glycemic control were obtained from population-based medical registries. We calculated odds ratio (OR as an estimate of relative risk for treated glaucoma comparing patients with and without diabetes, adjusted for comorbid conditions and medication use.Results: We included 5,991 persons with incident medical glaucoma treatment and 59,910 population controls. The adjusted OR for treated glaucoma for patients with diabetes was 1.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.65–1.98. The strength of the association between diabetes and glaucoma risk did not vary by diabetes duration or by the level of glycemic control. Conclusions: Regardless of glycemic control, diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk for medical glaucoma treatment.Keywords: diabetes, glaucoma, glycemic control, prescriptions, population-based case-control study

  19. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    Full Text Available Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA, a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive

  20. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  1. Strategic Planning Model Formulation Based on Balanced Score Card: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Enteshari Najaf Abadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available At the present age, strategic planning is considered as an important and vital matter for organizations and formulating and implementing strategic plans and accurate parameters may result in organizations long-term superiority in competitive field. But, regarding that competitive factors of all organizations are not the same, formulating the strategy with a similar trend is unlikely to be effective and the prerequisite for success of any organization is to focus and pay attention to its own capacities and unique competitive advantages and to formulate strategies based on those capacities along with focusing on the weakness and threats points. This article presents a model integrated of the strategic planning process and balanced score card and considering four dimensions of the Balanced Score Card (BSC, it accomplishes the process of strategic planning in the fields of financial, customer, internal processes and growth and learning separately and then determines the position of an organization in each dimension. Therefore, the strength and weakness points of the organization are identified and the type of strategies needed for any dimension determined separately. With the aid of this model, top managers are able to determine the organization expects and goals of different sectors clearly and in line with the vision and strategy of organization and deliver to the managers and authorities of different sectors. The results of this model are the analysis of factors influencing on the strategy formulation, extraction of key dimensions, provision of the SWOT matrix for four-folds dimensions of BSC and the identification of organization situation in each dimension such that through basing it on, integrated strategies and operational plans will be formulated for the organization. In this survey, Isfahan Company of tile industry has been studied as a sample and the results of the model implementation for this company described in the text.

  2. Extending Halogen-based Medicinal Chemistry to Proteins: IODO-INSULIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, Krystel; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B; Smith, Brian J; Menting, John G; Whittaker, Jonathan; Lawrence, Michael C; Meuwly, Markus; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-12-30

    Insulin, a protein critical for metabolic homeostasis, provides a classical model for protein design with application to human health. Recent efforts to improve its pharmaceutical formulation demonstrated that iodination of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr(B26)) enhances key properties of a rapid-acting clinical analog. Moreover, the broad utility of halogens in medicinal chemistry has motivated the use of hybrid quantum- and molecular-mechanical methods to study proteins. Here, we (i) undertook quantitative atomistic simulations of 3-[iodo-Tyr(B26)]insulin to predict its structural features, and (ii) tested these predictions by X-ray crystallography. Using an electrostatic model of the modified aromatic ring based on quantum chemistry, the calculations suggested that the analog, as a dimer and hexamer, exhibits subtle differences in aromatic-aromatic interactions at the dimer interface. Aromatic rings (Tyr(B16), Phe(B24), Phe(B25), 3-I-Tyr(B26), and their symmetry-related mates) at this interface adjust to enable packing of the hydrophobic iodine atoms within the core of each monomer. Strikingly, these features were observed in the crystal structure of a 3-[iodo-Tyr(B26)]insulin analog (determined as an R6 zinc hexamer). Given that residues B24-B30 detach from the core on receptor binding, the environment of 3-I-Tyr(B26) in a receptor complex must differ from that in the free hormone. Based on the recent structure of a "micro-receptor" complex, we predict that 3-I-Tyr(B26) engages the receptor via directional halogen bonding and halogen-directed hydrogen bonding as follows: favorable electrostatic interactions exploiting, respectively, the halogen's electron-deficient σ-hole and electronegative equatorial band. Inspired by quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics, such "halogen engineering" promises to extend principles of medicinal chemistry to proteins.

  3. Risk factors and therapy for goat mastitis in a hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors for goat mastitis in a hospital-based matched case-control study in a teaching veterinary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh and to describe the range of antimicrobial treatments applied in this situation. Cases of mastitis and controls were drawn from the hospital patient recording system, along with their risk factor status. Multiple imputation was applied to deal with the missing values in the data analysis. Mastitis occurred somewhat more in the rainy season, and comprised about 3% of all goats admitted to the hospital during January 2011-June 2014. Free-ranging farming system, poor body condition score and non-native goat breeds were significantly associated with case status. Treatment of clinical mastitis was variable and unsystematic, but the use of gentamicin was commonly recorded. The need for more prudent and evidence-based antimicrobial therapies is discussed.

  4. An Energy-Based Control Strategy for Battery Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study on Microgrid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs with proportional-integral (PI control methods have been widely studied in microgrids (MGs. However, the performance of PI control methods might be unsatisfactory for BESSs due to the nonlinear characteristics of the system. To overcome this problem, an energy-based (EB control method is applied to control the converter of a BESS in this study. The EB method is a robust nonlinear control method based on passivity theory with good performance in both transient and steady states. The detailed design process of the EB method in the BESS by adopting an interconnection and damping assignment (IDA strategy is described. The design process comprises three steps: the construction of the port-controlled Hamiltonian model, the determination of the equilibrium point and the solution of the undetermined matrix. In addition, integral action is combined to eliminate the steady state error generated by the model mismatch. To establish the correctness and validity of the proposed method, we implement several case simulation studies based on a test MG system and compare the control performance of the EB and PI methods carefully. The case simulation results demonstrate that the EB method has better tracking and anti-disturbance performance compared with the classic PI method. Moreover, the proposed EB method shows stronger robustness to the uncertainty of system parameters.

  5. Understanding the context of balanced scorecard implementation: a hospital-based case study in pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Agha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a response to a changing operating environment, healthcare administrators are implementing modern management tools in their organizations. The balanced scorecard (BSC is considered a viable tool in high-income countries to improve hospital performance. The BSC has not been applied to hospital settings in low-income countries nor has the context for implementation been examined. This study explored contextual perspectives in relation to BSC implementation in a Pakistani hospital. Methods Four clinical units of this hospital were involved in the BSC implementation based on their willingness to participate. Implementation included sensitization of units towards the BSC, developing specialty specific BSCs and reporting of performance based on the BSC during administrative meetings. Pettigrew and Whipp's context (why, process (how and content (what framework of strategic change was used to guide data collection and analysis. Data collection methods included quantitative tools (a validated culture assessment questionnaire and qualitative approaches including key informant interviews and participant observation. Results Method triangulation provided common and contrasting results between the four units. A participatory culture, supportive leadership, financial and non-financial incentives, the presentation of clear direction by integrating support for the BSC in policies, resources, and routine activities emerged as desirable attributes for BSC implementation. The two units that lagged behind were more involved in direct inpatient care and carried a considerable clinical workload. Role clarification and consensus about the purpose and benefits of the BSC were noted as key strategies for overcoming implementation challenges in two clinical units that were relatively ahead in BSC implementation. It was noted that, rather than seeking to replace existing information systems, initiatives such as the BSC could be readily adopted if

  6. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  7. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...

  8. Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Impact Biopharmaceutics and Formulation Strategies in Drug Development-Industry Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Chung, John; van Asperen, Judith; Heimbach, Tycho

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in drug development and regulatory applications. Although most of the published examples have focused on aspects such as first-in-human (FIH) dose predictions or drug-drug interactions, several publications have highlighted the application of these models in the biopharmaceutics field and their use to inform formulation development. In this report, we present 5 case studies of use of such models in this biopharmaceutics/formulation space across different pharmaceutical companies. The case studies cover different aspects of biopharmaceutics or formulation questions including (1) prediction of absorption prior to FIH studies; (2) optimization of formulation and dissolution method post-FIH data; (3) early exploration of a modified-release formulation; (4) addressing bridging questions for late-stage formulation changes; and (5) prediction of pharmacokinetics in the fed state for a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class I drug with fasted state data. The discussion of the case studies focuses on how such models can facilitate decisions and biopharmaceutic understanding of drug candidates and the opportunities for increased use and acceptance of such models in drug development and regulatory interactions.

  9. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed system integrates three modules for data collection, storage and information dissemination. The modules works together to enable real-time traffic control. Disseminated information from the system, enables road users to adjust their travelling habit, also it allows the traffic lights to control the traffic in relation to the real-time situation occurring on the road. In this paper the system implementation and testing was performed. The results indicated that there is a possibility to track traffic data using Global Positioning System enabled mobile phones, and after processing the collected data, real-time traffic status was displayed on web interface. This enabled road users to know in advance the situation occurring on the roads and hence make proper travelling decision. Further research should consider adjusting the traffic lights control system to understand the disseminated real-time traffic information.

  10. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  11. Results based management in Albanian local governments. Case study municipality of Korca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dhimitri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public Management has been a constant concern for all politicians and public administrators at all levels of governance in Albania. Increase of public demand for higher accountability, efficiency in the administration of public goods and services is now challenging the traditional means of governance by so aiming tangible results in the public management. Results Based Management (RBM is a new approach in the public management, a practice already developed in the western countries. RBM is defined as an approach that integrates in one whole instrument the strategies, human resources, processes and their evaluation, with the aim of improving decision-making, transparency, and accountability of public institutions. This study makes an effort to approximate and clarify as simply as possible such a management scheme which remains a relatively new approach for Albania and especially for local governance stakeholders. RBM is not only a planning-monitoring -evaluation tool but also a model that can facilitate the activity and development of Local Government Units in order for them to improve their “product/services”. From empirical data deriving from this prior assessment it results that municipality of Korca in Albania have the willingness and the institutional and technical capacities, though very fragmented and not integrated in one whole clear model, to embrace the RBM as a new approach in their institution’s management.

  12. [Regional ecosecurity pattern in urban area based on land use analysis: a case study in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Xiao, Dunin; An, Shuqing

    2005-12-01

    Mid-scale regional ecosecurity, which takes practical ecosecurity issues as its priority, should be viewed as the core of the multi-scale concept of ecosecurity. For urban area, a special region taking ecological infrastructure as its core mission, the construction of regional ecosecurity pattern may provide a good chance to realize its sustainable development. Based on land use analysis, a qualitative and quantitative research on the landscape pattern, ecovalue evaluation, and driving force analysis of social economy could provide an effective approach to construct the ecosecurity pattern in urban area. This study showed that in Lanzhou, the ecosecurity pattern consisted of three parts, i.e., eco-safeguarding system, eco-buffering system and eco-percolating system, among which, eco-buffering system was the decisive part determining ecosecurity pattern construction. The quantitative analysis of urban spatial expansion pattern was taken as the decisive function to determine the security level of the ecosecurity pattern, which was divided into low, middle and high levels.

  13. Mapping Model of Groundwater Catchment Area based on Geological Fault : Case Study in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudus, N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a naturally renewable resource because groundwater is an integral part of hydrological cycle. However, in reality, there are many limiting factors which influence its usage, in both quality and quantity, the provision ability of groundwater will decrease if its availability is exceeded. The problems of ground water potential in both quantity and quality are always related to its constituents' characteristics or its geological element where the groundwater resides. This present study aims at determining the groundwater catchment area based on the geological condition of an area so that groundwater recharge can be accomplished. In addition, it is necessary for groundwater catchment area to comply with the geological condition. The geologically unfit area will only result in land movement or landslide if it is used as groundwater catchment area. The results of geo-electricity analysis which was conducted in Semarang city showed that there are 3 faults; Sukorejo fault, Tinjomoyo fault and Jangli fault which will be explained in detail in the paper. Those faults intersect the underground water stream in Semarang from south to north towards the Java Sea. The majority of underground water stream in Semarang flows from south to north. In contrary, the results of the analysis showed that there are some points that become local basins such as in the south area and southwest of Semarang where flow direction is on the opposite direction. In addition, the results of the analysis showed that some coastal areas in Semarang have experienced salt water intrusion.

  14. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

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    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  15. Measuring sustainability based upon various perspectives: a case study of a hill station in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    A hill station is a town or city situated in mountain regions in the tropics founded during the western colonization in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hill stations have moderate temperatures, and are known for their relatively good natural environments, which generate valuable ecosystem services that benefit the local population. However, rapid urbanization threatens the sustainability of these areas. This study evaluates the sustainability of the urbanization process of Baguio City, a hill station city in Southeast Asia and the summer capital of the Philippines, by determining the relationship between its velocity of urbanization and velocity of urban sustainability based upon various perspectives. From an equal weight perspective (of the triple bottom line of sustainability components, namely environmental, social, and economic) and a pro-economic perspective, the results revealed that the urbanization of Baguio City has been moving toward a "sustainable urbanization." However, from the environmental and eco-sustainable human development perspectives, the results indicated that it has been moving toward an "unsustainable urbanization." The paper discusses the implications of the findings for the planning of sustainable development for Baguio City, including some critical challenges in sustainability assessment and the applicability of the framework used for future sustainability assessments of the other hill stations in Southeast Asia.

  16. Risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Although human toxoplasmosis is a notifiable disease in Taiwan since 2007, little is known about its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control study. Cases of acute human toxoplasmosis notified to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control (Taipei, Taiwan during 2008-2013 were compared with controls that were randomly selected from healthy T. gondii-seronegative blood donors who participated in a nationwide T. gondii seroepidemiologic study during 2009-2010. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender and residency at an 1:8 ratio. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information regarding risk factors. A total of 30 laboratory-confirmed acute T. gondii disease cases and 224 controls were enrolled. The most common clinical manifestation of the cases was flu-like symptoms (n = 20, followed by central nervous system disease (n = 4, ocular diseases (n = 3, abortion (n = 2, and congenital infection (n = 1. Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that raw clam consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-9.9 and having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.9 were two independent risk factors for acute T. gondii disease. We conclude that raw shellfish consumption and domestic cat exposure were risk factors for acquiring acute T. gondii diseases in Taiwan. This finding may guide future research and control policies.

  17. Life cycle inventory for palm based plywood: A gate-to-gate case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamim; Sahid, Ismail; Subramaniam, Vijaya; Muhamad, Halimah; Mokhtar, Anis

    2013-11-01

    The oil palm industry heavily relies on the world market. It is essential to ensure that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the demands and expectation of these overseas customers on the environmental performance of the oil palm industry. Malaysia produces 13.9 million tons of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunk (OPT), frond and empty fruits bunches (EFB) annually. OPT felled in some oil palm plantations during replanting is transported to various industries and one such industry is the plywood factories. In order to gauge the environmental performance of the use of OPT as plywood a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted for palm based plywood. LCA is an important tool to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. Life cycle inventory (LCI) is the heart of a LCA study. This LCI study has a gate-to-gate system boundary and the functional unit is 1 m3 palm plywood produced and covers three types of plywood; Moisture Resistance Plywood (MR), Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 1 (WBP Grade 1) at Factory D and Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 2 (WBP Grade 2) at Factory E. Both factories use two different types of drying processes; conventional drying at Factory D and kiln drying at Factory E. This inventory data was collected from two factories (D and E) representing 40% of Malaysia palm plywood industry. The inputs are mainly the raw materials which are the oil palm trunks and tropical wood veneers and the energy from diesel and electricity from grid which is mainly used for the drying process. The other inputs include water, urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde, flour and melamine powder. The outputs are the biomass waste which consists of oil palm trunk off-cut and emission from boiler. Generally, all types of plywood production use almost same materials and processing methods in different quantities. Due to the different process efficiency, Factory D uses less input of raw materials and energy compared to Factory E.

  18. Nursing Students' Experiences with and Strategic Approaches to Case-Based Instruction: A Replication and Comparison Study between Two Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Rosanna; Hayward, Lorna; Lynch, Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of nursing student experiences in a case-based course yielded six themes: motivation, real world, learning, knowledge development, emergence from within, and group dynamics. Nursing students' experience was similar to that of physical therapy students, supporting development of an interdisciplinary, case-based course addressing…

  19. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students…

  20. Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S; Kryzch, Valérie; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Application of hormesis in aging research and interventions is becoming increasingly attractive and successful. The reason for this is the realization that mild stress-induced activation of one or more stress response (SR) pathways, and its consequent stimulation of repair mechanisms, is effective in reducing the age-related accumulation of molecular damage. For example, repeated heat stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins has been shown to have a variety of anti-aging effects on growth and other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial cells undergoing aging in vitro. Therefore, searching for potential hormetins - conditions and compounds eliciting SR-mediated hormesis - is drawing attention of not only the researchers but also the industry involved in developing healthcare products, including nutriceuticals, functional foods and cosmeceuticals. Here we present the example of a skin care cosmetic as one of the first successful product developments incorporating the ideas of hormesis. This was based on the studies to analyse the molecular effects of active ingredients extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng) on gene expression at the level of mRNAs and proteins in human skin cells. The results showed that the ginsenosides extracted from Sanchi induced the transcription of stress genes and increased the synthesis of stress proteins, especially the heat shock protein HSP1A1 or Hsp70, in normal human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this extract also has significant positive effects against facial wrinkles and other symptoms of facial skin aging as tested clinically, which may be due to its hormetic mode of action by stress-induced synthesis of chaperones involved in protein repair and removal of abnormal proteins. Acceptance of such a hormesis-based product by the wider public could be instrumental in the social recognition of the concept of

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  2. The Evolution of Network-based Business Models Illustrated Through the Case Study of an Entrepreneurship Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Lund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Existing frameworks for understanding and analyzing the value configuration and structuring of partnerships in relation such network-based business models are found to be inferior. The purpose of this paper is therefore to broaden our understanding of how business models may change over time and how the role of strategic partners may differ over time too. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study spanning over years and mobilising multiple qualitative methods such as interviews, observation and participative observation forms the basis of the data collection. Findings: This paper illustrates how a network-based business model arises and evolves and how the forces of a network structure impact the development of its partner relationships. The contribution of this article is to understanding how partners positioned around a business model can be organized into a network-based business model that generates additional value for the core business model and for both the partners and the customers. Research limitations/implications: The results should be taken with caution as they are based on the case study of a single network-based business model. Practical implications: Managers can gain insight into barriers and enablers relating to different types of loose organisations and how to best manage such relationships and interactions Originality/value: This study adds value to the existing literature by reflecting the dynamics created in the interactions between a business model’s strategic partners and how a how a business model can evolve in a series of distinct phases

  3. Total ankle replacement: a population-based study of 515 cases from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivu, Helka; Eskelinen, Antti; Ikävalko, Mikko; Paavolainen, Pekka; Remes, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Although total ankle replacement (TAR) is a recognized procedure for treatment of the painful arthritic ankle, the best choice of implant and the long-term results are still unknown. We evaluated the survival of two TAR designs and factors associated with survival using data from the nationwide arthroplasty registry in Finland. Methods 573 primary TARs were performed during the period 1982–2006 because of rheumatic, arthritic, or posttraumatic ankle degeneration. We selected contemporary TAR designs that were each used in more than 40 operations, including the S.T.A.R. (n = 217) and AES (n = 298), to assess their respective survival rates. The mean age of the patients was 55 (17–86) years and 63% of operations were performed in women. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. The effects of age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume were also studied. Results The annual incidence of TAR was 1.5 per 105 inhabitants. The 5-year overall survivorship for the whole TAR cohort was 83% (95% CI: 81–86), which agrees with earlier reports. The most frequent reasons for revision were aseptic loosening of one or both of the prosthesis components (39%) and instability (39%). We found no difference in survival rate between the S.T.A.R. and AES designs. Furthermore, age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume ( 100 replacements in each of 17 hospitals) did not affect the TAR survival. Interpretation Based on our findings, we cannot conclude that any prosthesis was superior to any other. A high number of technical errors in primary TARs suggests that this low-volume field of implant arthroplasty should be centralized to fewer units. PMID:20180720

  4. Increasing Teachers' Use of Evidence-Based Classroom Management Strategies through Consultation: Overview and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSuga, Ashley S.; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Many classroom teachers are faced with challenging student behaviors that impact their ability to facilitate learning in productive, safe environments. At the same time, high-stakes testing, increased emphasis on evidence-based instruction, data-based decision making, and response-to-intervention models have put heavy demands on teacher time and…

  5. Using E-Exercise Bases in Mathematics: Case Studies at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazes, Claire; Gueudet, Ghislaine; Hersant, Magali; Vandebrouck, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    E-Exercise Bases (EEB) are now used in the teaching of mathematics, especially at university. We discuss here the consequences of their use on the students' activity during computer lab sessions. Results stem from observations of several teaching designs organised in different French universities with three e-exercise bases. The analysis focuses…

  6. Understanding Place-Value: A Case Study of the Base Ten Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author reports findings from a project designed to explore approaches for improving students' mathematical learning outcomes in relation to the base ten number system. The project explored the role of a commonly used teaching activity, referred to in the project as the "base ten game," in developing children's…

  7. Balancing Identity and Diversity in Faith-Based Nursing Education: A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Bodil; Karvinen, Ikali; Damsma-Bakker, Alica; Ylönen, Merja; Oosterhoff-Zielman, Marjanne; Fanuelsen, Olav; van Leeuwen, Réné

    2015-01-01

    The role of faith-based nursing education is contested in today's Northern European societies, which are often described as postmodern, pluralist, or secular. Although faith-based institutions played pioneering roles in the early development of nursing education, many today downplay their religious roots and have transformed themselves into modern…

  8. Case Study of a Project-Based Learning Course in Civil Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of project-based learning to teach design skills to civil engineering students at University College Dublin (UCD). The paper first considers the development of problem-based leaning (PBL) as a tool in higher education. The general issues to be considered in the design of the curriculum for a PBL module are reviewed.…

  9. Computer versus Paper-Based Reading: A Case Study in English Language Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to determine the preference of prospective English teachers in performing computer and paper-based reading tasks and to what extent computer and paper-based reading influence their reading speed, accuracy and comprehension. The research was conducted at a State run University, English Language Teaching Department in Turkey. The…

  10. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  11. Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions.

  12. Collaborative Model-based Systems Engineering for Cyber-Physical Systems, with a Building Automation Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, John; Gamble, Carl; Payne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    cooperation between disciplines within a systems engineering process before the expensive commitment is made to integration in physical prototypes. We identify areas for future advances in foundations, methods and tools to realise the potential of a co-modelling approach within established systems engineering......We describe an approach to the model-based engineering of cyber-physical systems that permits the coupling of diverse discrete-event and continuous-time models and their simulators. A case study in the building automation domain demonstrates how such co-models and co-simulation can promote early...

  13. Data Mining for Web-Based Support Systems: A Case Study in e-Custom Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    This chapter provides an example of a Web-based support system (WSS) used to streamline trade procedures, prevent potential security threats, and reduce tax-related fraud in cross-border trade. The architecture is based on a service-oriented architecture that includes smart seals and Web services. We discuss the implications and suggest further enhancements to demonstrate how such systems can move toward a Web-based decision support system with the support of data mining methods. We provide a concrete example of how data mining can help to analyze the vast amount of data collected while monitoring the container movements along its supply chain.

  14. Paediatric leptospirosis: A population based case-control study from Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, R; Sumathi, G; Prabhakaran, S G; Shanmughapriya, S; Natarajaseenivasan, K

    2016-01-01

    The surveillance in Chennai identified 134 children and 443 adults clinically suspected for leptospirosis. Of these, 35 (26.1%) children and 118 (26.6%) adults had laboratory confirmed diagnosis for leptospirosis. The paediatric leptospirosis exhibited a higher frequency of classic features of Weil's disease. The prevalent serovar encountered was Icterohaemorrhagiae with no difference in the pattern of infecting serovars between the two groups. Further, confirmation of diagnosis was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a positivity of 28.4% (specificity 96%). Univariate analysis showed significant association of paediatric leptospirosis with rat infestation (odds ratio 87.4). Thus, PCR facilitates early diagnosis of febrile illness among paediatric cases.

  15. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  16. District heating and gas engine heat pump: Economic analysis based on a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Noro, M. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella, S. Nicola, 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    'S. Nicola' HVAC plant in Vicenza features innovative and significant energy savings characteristics. It has been set up by a gas engine heat pump (coupled to two condensing boilers) whose performances are here evaluated during three years of operation. Due to a grid expansion, the University received the offer of being connected to the district heating grid. This possibility that is often considered advantageous was economically evaluated. As a result of this, a significant increasing of the building annual energy bill was demonstrated in case of acceptance. (author)

  17. Synchronous Control of Reconfiguration in Fractal Component-based Systems -- a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhadiba, Tayeb; Delaval, Gwenaël; Rutten, Éric

    2011-01-01

    In the context of component-based embedded systems, the management of dynamic reconfiguration in adaptive systems is an increasingly important feature. The Fractal component-based framework, and its industrial instantiation MIND, provide for support for control operations in the lifecycle of components. Nevertheless, the use of complex and integrated architectures make the management of this reconfiguration operations difficult to handle by programmers. To address this issue, we propose to use Synchronous languages, which are a complete approach to the design of reactive systems, based on behavior models in the form of transition systems. Furthermore, the design of closed-loop reactive managers of reconfigurations can benefit from formal tools like Discrete Controller Synthesis. In this paper we describe an approach to concretely integrate synchronous reconfiguration managers in Fractal component-based systems. We describe how to model the state space of the control problem, and how to specify the control obj...

  18. Qualitative Event-based Diagnosis with Possible Conflicts: Case Study on the Third International Diagnostic Competition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We describe two model-based diagnosis algo- rithms entered into the Third International Diag- nostic Competition. We focus on the first diag- nostic problem of the...

  19. Dissemination of acrylamide monomer from polyacrylamide-based flocculant use--sand and gravel quarry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzé, Solene; Guerin, Valérie; Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; Binet, Stéphane; Togola, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Aggregate quarries play a major role in land settlement. However, like all industrial operations, they can have impacts on the environment, notably due to the use of polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculants, which contain residual acrylamide (AMD), a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic monomer. In this study, the dissemination of AMD throughout the environment has been investigated in a French quarry. The presence of AMD has been determined in the process water and in the sludge, as well as in the surrounding surface water and groundwater. From the results of several sampling campaigns carried out on this case study, we can (a) confirm that the AMD contained in the commercial product is found in the quarry's water circuit (0.41 to 5.66 μg/l); (b) show that AMD is transported to the surrounding environment, as confirmed by the contamination of a pond near the installation (0.07 to 0.08 μg/l) and the presence of AMD in groundwater (0.01 to 0.02 μg/l); and (c) show that the sludge in both the current and former settling basins contains AMD (between 4 and 26 μg/kg of dry sludge). Therefore, we demonstrated in this case study that using PAM-based flocculants leads to the release of AMD to the environment beyond the treatment plant and creates a reserve of AMD in sludge basins.

  20. An Application of an IDEFO Model to Improve the Process of Base Closure: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average I hour per respse., including the...34 since the facilities will be turned over to another government organizacion , NASA.(Henderson, 1992) Evaluating the process as a closure is still valid...over the base and used it for an Air Corps training facility for seven years. In 1942 the Navy regained control of the base as the west coast

  1. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  2. Risk of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chi Lu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation and could potentially trigger the progression of other, more prominent inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the risk of incident RA in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes using a population-based health claims database. METHODS: This nationwide, population-based, case-control study used administrative data to identify 1,416 patients with RA (age ≥20 years as cases and 7,080 controls that were frequency-matched for sex, 10-year age group, and year of catastrophic illness certificate application date (index year. All subjects were retrospectively traced back, up to 13 years prior to the index year, for their first diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to quantify the association between incident RA and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: The odds of developing RA were significantly higher in female (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.24-1.72 but not in male (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.72-1.37 patients who had previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Subgroup analysis indicated that the odds of developing RA were more prominent in younger females (20 to 44 years of age with type 2 diabetes. In addition, the odds of developing RA in female patients with type 2 diabetes were higher in those with a shorter time interval between the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and RA. CONCLUSIONS: This large nationwide, population-based, case-control study showed an elevated risk of RA in female Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that chronic low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes may elicit the development of RA in genetically susceptible individuals.

  3. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddock Lisa E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls were included in analyses. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations with total phytoestrogens, as well as isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and glycitein, lignans (matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and coumestrol. Results No statistically significant associations were found with any of the phytoestrogens under evaluation. However, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with total phytoestrogen consumption (from foods and supplements, with an odds ratio (OR of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-1.00; p for trend: 0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of consumption, after adjusting for reproductive covariates, age, race, education, BMI, and total energy. Further adjustment for smoking and physical activity attenuated risk estimates (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.41-1.08. There was little evidence of an inverse association for isoflavones, lignans, or coumestrol. Conclusions This study provided some suggestion that phytoestrogen consumption may decrease ovarian cancer risk, although results did not reach statistical significance.

  4. Study on wave energy resource assessing method based on altimeter data—A case study in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing; DAI Yongshou

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy resource is a very important ocean renewable energy. A reliable assessment of wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. Compared with wave model, altimeter can provide more accuratein situ observations for ocean wave which can be as a novel method for wave energy assessment. The advantage of altimeter data is to provide accurate significant wave height observations for wave. In order to develop characteristic and advantage of altimeter data and apply altimeter data to wave energy assessment, in this study, we established an assessing method for wave energy in local sea area which is dedicated to altimeter data. This method includes three parts including data selection and processing, establishment of evaluation indexes system and criterion of regional division. Then a case study of Northwest Pacific was performed to discuss specific application for this method. The results show that assessing method in this paper can assess reserves and temporal and spatial distribution effectively and provide scientific references for the siting of wave power plants and the design of wave energy convertors.

  5. Family-based case-control study of homotopic connectivity in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Li, Lehua; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhao, Jingping

    2017-01-01

    Family-based case-control design is rarely used but powerful to reduce the confounding effects of environmental factors on schizophrenia. Twenty-eight first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia, 28 family-based controls (FBC), and 40 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state functional MRI. Voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and support vector machine (SVM) were used to process the data. Compared with the FBC, the patients showed lower VMHC in the precuneus, fusiform gyrus/cerebellum lobule VI, and lingual gyrus/cerebellum lobule VI. The patients exhibited lower VMHC in the precuneus relative to the HC. ROC analysis exhibited that the VMHC values in these brain regions might not be ideal biomarkers to distinguish the patients from the FBC/HC. However, SVM analysis indicated that a combination of VMHC values in the precuneus and lingual gyrus/cerebellum lobule VI might be used as a potential biomarker to distinguish the patients from the FBC with a sensitivity of 96.43%, a specificity of 89.29%, and an accuracy of 92.86%. Results suggested that patients with schizophrenia have decreased homotopic connectivity in the motor and low level sensory processing regions. Neuroimaging studies can adopt family-based case-control design as a viable option to reduce the confounding effects of environmental factors on schizophrenia. PMID:28256527

  6. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    : Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related.......3 to 4.6). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that being a new case of tennis elbow is associated with non-neutral postures of hands and arms, use of heavy hand held tools, and high physical strain measured as a combination of forceful work, non-neutral posture of hands and arms, and repetition. Furthermore......, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent...

  7. Optimization on Emergency Resources Transportation Network Based on Bayes Risk Function: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfeng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to coordinate the complex relationship between supplies distribution and path selection, some influential factors must be taken into account such as the insufficient remaining capacity of the road and uncertainty of travel time during supplies distribution and transportation. After the structure of emergency logistics network is analyzed, the travel time Bayes risk function of path and the total loss Bayes risk function of the disaster area are proposed. With the emergency supplies total transportation unit loss as the goal, an emergency logistics network optimization model under crowded conditions is established by the Bayes decision theory and solved by the improved ant colony algorithm. Then, a case of the model is validated to prove that the emergency logistics network optimization model is effective in congested conditions.

  8. A population-based case-crossover study of polyethylene glycol use and acute renal failure risk in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam-Kyong Choi; Yoosoo Chang; Sun-Young Jung; Yu-Kyong Choi; Joongyub Lee; Jin-Ho Lee; Ju-Young Kim; Byung-Joo Park

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the possibility of an association between polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly patients using a health insurance claims database.METHODS: We conducted a population-based casecrossover study using information obtained from Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)claims from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005(Seoul, Korea). The study population consisted of elderly patients who received PEG prior to experiencing their first ARF-related hospitalization from April 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. For each patient, one case and two control periods were matched. PEG use in a 2- or 4-wk window period prior to hospitalization for ARF was compared with PEG use in two earlier 2- or 4-wk control window periods. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI, adjusting for concomitant uses of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, and contrast media.RESULTS: Within the HIRA database which contained 1 093 262 elderly patients, 1156 hospitalized ARF cases were identified. Among these cases, PEG was prescribed to 17 (1.5%) patients before hospitalization. The adjusted ORs when applying the 2- and 4-wk window periods were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.03-5.24) and 2.1 (95% CI:0.16-27.78), respectively.CONCLUSION: No increased risk of ARF was found in elderly PEG users. However, based on the limited number of study subjects, further analysis should be performed to confirm these results.

  9. Estimating risks and relative risks in case-base studies under the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Tina Tsz-Ting; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Many diseases result from the interactions between genes and the environment. An efficient method has been proposed for a case-control study to estimate the genetic and environmental main effects and their interactions, which exploits the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To estimate the absolute and relative risks, one needs to resort to an alternative design: the case-base study. In this paper, the authors show how to analyze a case-base study under the above dual assumptions. This approach is based on a conditional logistic regression of case-counterfactual controls matched data. It can be easily fitted with readily available statistical packages. When the dual assumptions are met, the method is approximately unbiased and has adequate coverage probabilities for confidence intervals. It also results in smaller variances and shorter confidence intervals as compared with a previous method for a case-base study which imposes neither assumption.

  10. Hypotension in pregnant women: a population-based case-control study of pregnancy complications and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-01-01

    Hypotension is frequent in pregnant women; nevertheless, its association with pregnancy complications and birth outcomes has not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of hypotension in pregnant women with pregnancy complications and with the risk for preterm birth, low birthweight and different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in the children of these mothers in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of CAs, 1980-1996. Prospectively and medically recorded hypotension was evaluated in 537 pregnant women who later had offspring with CAs (case group) and 1268 pregnant women with hypotension who later delivered newborn infants without CAs (control group); controls were matched to sex and birth week of cases (in the year when cases were born), in addition to residence of mothers. Over half of the pregnant women who had chronic hypotension were treated with pholedrine or ephedrine. Maternal hypotension is protective against preeclampsia; however, hypotensive pregnant women were at higher risk for severe nausea or vomiting, threatened abortion (hemorrhage in early pregnancy) and for anemia. There was no clinically important difference in the rate of preterm births and low birthweight newborns in pregnant women with or without hypotension. The comparison of the rate of maternal hypotension in cases with 23 different CAs and their matched controls did not show a higher risk for CAs (adjusted OR with 95% confidence intervals: 0.66, 0.49-0.84). In conclusion, a higher risk for CAs and other adverse birth outcomes was not found in the offspring of pregnant women with hypotension, but maternal hypotension was associated with a higher risk of some pregnancy complications.

  11. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves and offshore wind. Due to the visual impact of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental impact) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental impact issues. The wave energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the wave climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the wave energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like Wave Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present

  12. A case study of primary teachers' personal theories and understandings of standards-based science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseman, Katherine Claire

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand

  13. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  14. Evaluating Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Language Learning Systems: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doremalen, Joost; Boves, Lou; Colpaert, Jozef; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a prototype of an automatic speech recognition (ASR)-based language learning system that provides feedback on different aspects of speaking performance (pronunciation, morphology and syntax) to students of Dutch as a second language. We carried out usability reviews, expert reviews and user tests to…

  15. Marketing Need-Based Financial Aid Programs: An Institutional Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities represent one of the most utilized sources of need-based financial aid information for students and families, and yet most research in access marketing is focused at the national and state levels. There is sparse published information about the effects of financial aid marketing observed through quantitative analysis, in…

  16. Team-Based Learning in the Humanities Classroom: "Women's Environmental Writing" as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Roxanne

    2015-01-01

    This essay presents the adaptation of Team-Based Learning (TBL) for a course that uses ecofeminist approaches to environmental literature. Developed originally for use in professional programs, TBL's cornerstones are permanent learning teams, preparation, application, and timely assessment (Michaelsen, Knight, & Fink, 2002). I wanted my…

  17. An Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approach to Social Phobia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…

  18. Reliability analysis of idealized tunnel support system using probability-based methods with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharouni-Nik, M.; Naeimi, M.; Ahadi, S.; Alimoradi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the overall safety of a tunnel support lining, a reliability-based approach is presented in this paper. Support elements in jointed rock tunnels are provided to control the ground movement caused by stress redistribution during the tunnel drive. Main support elements contribute

  19. A Transformational Approach to VHDL and CDFG Based High-Level Synthesis: a Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoek, Peter F.A.; Mekenkamp, Gerhard E.; Molenkamp, Bert E.; Krol, Thijs

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-target design methodology based on the concepts of transformational design, and its application to the interlaced-to-progressive scan conversion (IPSC) problem, are discussed. Starting from a single high-level behavioral specification in VHDL a direction detector used in

  20. Using Meta-Abilities and Tacit Knowledge for Developing Learning Based Systems: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Mohamad Hisyam; Choudrie, Jyoti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research has found that the implementation of learning-based systems development is a complex issue since it requires the input of employees at all levels of an organization. Successful implementation is a challenge for organizations as the basic training and education offered by them and the particular experiences of the individuals on…

  1. Online Resource-Based Learning Environment: Case Studies in Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Winnie Wing Mui; Ching, Fiona Ngai Ying

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the creation of learning environments with online resources by three primary school teachers for pupil's learning of science-related topics with reference to the resource-based e-learning environments (RBeLEs) framework. Teachers' choice of contexts, resources, tools, and scaffolds in designing the learning environments are…

  2. The Strategic Development of Learner Autonomy through Enquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhall, Mike D.; Lewis, Justin; Norcliffe, Allan; Radley, Keith; Waldock, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on strategic developments to enhance student learner autonomy skills through the use of enquiry-based learning (EBL) in the design of higher education programmes. The UK's Sheffield Hallam University is a recognized Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) in the field of developing learner autonomy. Central to the…

  3. Mandated Change Gone Wrong? A Case Study of Law-Based School Reform in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore and describe the limits of recent law-based school reform in South Africa from an education management perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The research design consists of a qualitative, investigative, descriptive and contextual design which Merriam would classify as a basic or generic design type.…

  4. A research approach for quality based design of healthy foods: Dried broccoli as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    An approach for process design based on optimization of product quality attributes is presented. Adsorption drying of broccoli with retention of its health benefits is taken as an example to illustrate the approach. Related to its content of glucosinolates, broccoli has a high potential to reduce th

  5. Inquiry-Based Learning Case Studies for Computing and Computing Forensic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the use of specifically-developed, inquiry-based learning materials for Computing and Forensic Computing students. Small applications have been developed which require investigation in order to de-bug code, analyse data issues and discover "illegal" behaviour. The applications…

  6. Evaluating Web-Based Learning and Instruction (WBLI): A Case Study and Framework for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg V.

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an alternative approach to perform relevant and useful evaluations of Web-based learning and instruction (WBLI) that will accommodate performance and keep pace with the growing capabilities of the Internet. Discussion includes the advantages of WBLI, multimedia and streaming use in WBLI, building the…

  7. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Applied to Binge Eating: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sarah; Huss, Debra B.

    2005-01-01

    Binge eating is a common problem associated with distress and dysfunction. Mindfulness-based interventions are attracting increasing attention, and the recent empirical literature suggests that they may be effective for a variety of disorders. Current theories about the etiology and maintenance of binge eating suggest that mindfulness training may…

  8. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  9. Folklore-Based Learning on the Web--Pedagogy, Case Study, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimmy Ho-Man; Lee, Fong-Lok; Lau, Tai-Shing

    2006-01-01

    Folklore-based learning is a kind of situated learning paradigm in which students learn by solving problems embedded in a near-real situation. The proposed learning approach employs further interesting story plots from folklores as the background situation to motivate students to participate in learning activities. It is believed that such a…

  10. Deliberation and School-Based Curriculum Development--A Hong Kong Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tak Shing John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deliberative mode of curriculum development has been hailed as one effective way of developing school-based curriculum. Its participatory, egalitarian and discursive characteristics have helped to generate the much-needed synergy and ownership feeling among the curriculum team members that lead to curriculum success. Nevertheless there…

  11. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  12. A Case Study of MasterMind Chess: Comparing Mouse/Keyboard Interaction with Kinect-Based Gestural Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alves Mendes Vasiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As gestural interfaces emerged as a new type of user interface, their use has been vastly explored by the entertainment industry to better immerse the player in games. Despite being mainly used in dance and sports games, little use was made of gestural interaction in more slow-paced genres, such as board games. In this work, we present a Kinect-based gestural interface for an online and multiplayer chess game and describe a case study with users with different playing skill levels. Comparing the mouse/keyboard interaction with the gesture-based interaction, the results of the activity were synthesized into lessons learned regarding general usability and design of game control mechanisms. These results could be applied to slow-paced board games like chess. Our findings indicate that gestural interfaces may not be suitable for competitive chess matches, yet it can be fun to play while using them in casual matches.

  13. Implementing condition-based maintenance using modeling and simulation: a case study of a permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabid Quiroga Méndez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  This paper introduces condition-based maintenance (CBM architecture regarding an electrical application. Appropriate and efficient fault detection constitutes one of the major challenges associated with CBM and a model-based approach constitutes the way to achieve it. A case study using a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is presented to illustrate implementing CBM using a neural network motor model. CBM may be implemented in real time using Matlab and dSpace. The difference between line currents' negative sequence components, predicted by a multilayer neural network, and the current values acquired from the motor is used as fault indicator. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the proposed model in detecting several stator winding short faults in differing load conditions and fault severity, obtaining up to 95% reliability. 

  14. Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: a case study from Skid Row, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth.

  15. Estimation of the probability of exposure to machining fluids in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Armenti, Karla R; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (0.1->0.9%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and U.S. production levels found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a list of keywords in the occupational histories that were used to link study subjects to the metalworking fluids (MWFs) modules; recommendations from the literature on selection of MWFs based on type of machining operation, the metal being machined and decade; popular additives to MWFs; the number and proportion of controls who

  16. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyong Yang; Wenjie Dong; Jinfeng Xiu; Rufeng Dai; Jieming Chou

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial rou...

  17. Improving water management efficiency by using optimization-based control strategies: the Barcelona case study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the application of model-based predictive control (MPC) techniques to the flow management in large-scale drinking water networks including a telemetry/telecontrol system. MPC technique is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands, optimizing performance indexes associated to operational goals such as economic cost, network safety volumes and flow control stability. The designed management strategies are...

  18. Mapping green infrastructure based on ecosystem services and ecological networks. A Pan-European case study

    OpenAIRE

    LIQUETE GARCIA MARIA DEL CAMINO; KLEESCHULTE Stefan; DIGE Gorm; MAES JOACHIM; Grizzetti, Bruna; Olah, Branislav; ZULIAN GRAZIA

    2014-01-01

    Identifying, promoting and preserving a strategically planned green infrastructure (GI) network can provide ecological, economic and social benefits. It has also become a priority for the planning and decision-making process in sectors such as conservation, (land) resource efficiency, agriculture, forestry or urban development. In this paper we propose a methodology that can be used to identify and map GI elements at landscape level based on the notions of ecological connectivity, multi-fu...

  19. On the usage of knowledge based techniques in configuring computer systems: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jerker; Andersson, Per

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the thesis has been to define the domains of control structure specification and process station configuration in order to find a general approach applicable to problems concerning the configuration of a process control system or any similar system. These findings are then used as the foundation for constructing a knowledge based system capable of realizing a problem solving method pertaining to the domain of configuring a specific computer system.

  20. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  1. A Case Study of Blog-Based Learning in Korea: Technology becomes Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inae; Bonk, Curtis J.; Kim, Myung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The unique technological functions of a weblog have earned it a growing reputation as a pedagogical tool for educators across fields of study. While using the blog as a communicative and pedagogical platform in two different graduate classes in Korea, this study explored the premise of a weblog as a place for networked individuality. The classes…

  2. Assessment challenges in competency-based education: A case study in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, James T; Burkhardt, John C; Kasten, Steven J; Mullan, Patricia B; Santen, Sally A; Sheets, Kent J; Tsai, Antonius; Vasquez, John A; Gruppen, Larry D

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing demand for health sciences faculty with formal training in education. Addressing this need, the University of Michigan Medical School created a Master in Health Professions Education (UM-MHPE). The UM-MHPE is a competency-based education (CBE) program targeting professionals. The program is individualized and adaptive to the learner's situation using personal mentoring. Critical to CBE is an assessment process that accurately and reliably determines a learner's competence in educational domains. The program's assessment method has two principal components: an independent assessment committee and a learner repository. Learners submit evidence of competence that is evaluated by three independent assessors. The assessments are presented to an Assessment Committee who determines whether the submission provides evidence of competence. The learner receives feedback on the submission and, if needed, the actions needed to reach competency. During the program's first year, six learners presented 10 submissions for review. Assessing learners in a competency-based program has created challenges; setting standards that are not readily quantifiable is difficult. However, we argue it is a more genuine form of assessment and that this process could be adapted for use within most competency-based formats. While our approach is demanding, we document practical learning outcomes that assess competence.

  3. A study of urban traffic based on the temporal maps: the case of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenling; Li Yawen; Li Shangzhi; Tang Yuanfang

    2008-01-01

    Temporal map is an isoehronal map taking time as a measuring unit. It traces out the isochrones according to the discrepancy of the time distance between the different sites from the outside of the city and the down town. It can be clear and intuitional to show the different temporal relationships between the outside of the city and the city centre with the temporal map. The problem of traffic congestion, with its potential for urban chaos, has increased dramatically with a growing number of vehicles and the continuing aerial expansion of Guangzhou. Both transit rid-ers and drivers find it is a great difficulty to try to acquire the necessary information.from urban spatial movements.Valuable time is lost due to the absence of good transportation information. So, the paper analyzes a case in Guang-zhou communication with Geographic Information System (GIS), and uses the most popular vehicles, including buses and taxis that are used to measure the temporal distance in the city, and then proposes the design of a new map that better reflects the status of urban communication, and attempts to change the relationship between one point and another point of travel. Reducing the amount of time allocated to such, often complex, movements. This paper also points out the obstacles associated with Guangzhou's existing traffic congestion, and puts forward a strategy aimed at better defining the need of linking the temporal map to spatial map of Guangzhou.

  4. Statin use and the risk of colorectal cancer:A population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shu-Chen Ho; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Toinvestigatewhethertheuseo.. Statinsisassoci-o investigate wwhether the use ofstatins is associated wwith colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Taiwwan. Data wwere retrospectively collected f..rom the Taiwwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Cases consisted of.. All patients wwho were aged 50 years and older and had a first-time diagnosis of.. Colorectal cancer betwween the period 2005 and 2008. The controls matched to cases by age, sex, and index date. Adjusted odds ratios (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We examined 1156 colorectal cancer cases and 4624 controls. The unadjusted Ors .or any statin prescription wwas 1.10 (95% CI=0.94-1.30)andthead- andthead-=1.330) and the adjusted OR 1.09 (95% CI=0.91-1.30).Whenstatin Whenstatin=Whenstatin0.91-1.330). When statin use categorized by cumulative dose, the adjusted Ors wwere 0.99 (95% CI=0.78-1.27).orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-1.277) or the group wwith cumulative statin use beloww 105 def..ined daily doses (DDDs); 1.077 (95% CI=0.78-1.49) .orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-or the group cumulative statin use betwween 106 and 298.66 DDDs; and 1.330 (95% CI=0.96-1.75).orthegroupwithcu- ithcu-=1.775) or the group wwith cumulative statin use of. 298.66 DDDs or more compared with nonusers. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide support for a protective effect of statins against colorectal cancer.

  5. Senna treatment in pregnant women and congenital abnormalities in their offspring--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2009-07-01

    Previously, the possible teratogenic effect of frequently used laxative drug, senna has not been checked in case-control epidemiological study. Objective of the study was the comparison of cases with congenital abnormalities (CAs) and their matched controls without CAs in the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. Of 22,843 cases with CA, 506 (2.2%) had mothers with senna treatment, while of 38,151 control newborn infants without CA, 937 (2.5%) were born to mothers with senna treatment (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 1.0, 0.9-1.1), and of 834 malformed controls with Down syndrome, 26 (3.1%) had mothers with the use of senna (OR with 95% CI: 0.7, 0.5-1.1). The range of senna doses was between 10mg and 30 mg, but most pregnant women used 20mg daily. The mothers with senna treatment showed the characteristics of pregnant women with constipation (elder with larger proportion of primiparae). There was no higher risk for 23 different CA groups after the senna treatment during the second and/or third gestational month of 260 mothers, i.e. in the critical period of most major CAs, compared with their 500 matched controls. Gestational age at delivery was somewhat longer (0.2 week) and the rate of preterm birth was lower (6.6% vs. 9.2%) in newborn infants without CA born to mothers with senna treatment compared with babies born to mothers without senna treatment. In conclusion, senna treatment did not associate with a higher risk of CAs in the offspring of pregnant women with constipation.

  6. Travel-related venous thrombosis: results from a large population-based case control study (MEGA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C Cannegieter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population (MEGA study. We also assessed the combined effect of travel and prothrombotic mutations, body mass index, height, and oral contraceptive use. Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 y with a first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis. Of 1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 h in the 8 wk preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis 2-fold (odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of traveling by car, bus, or train. The risk was highest in the first week after traveling. Travel by car, bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in individuals with factor V Leiden (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.7-24.7, in those who had a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m(2 (OR 9.9; 95% CI 3.6-27.6, in those who were more than 1.90 m tall (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.4-15.4, and in those who used oral contraceptives (estimated OR > 20. For air travel these synergistic findings were more apparent, while people shorter than 1.60 m had an increased risk of thrombosis after air travel (OR 4.9; 95% CI 0.9-25.6 as well. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.

  7. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  8. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris; Curtin, Chris; Conn, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  9. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community–Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. Objective In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Methods Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. Results On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system–based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm’s performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Conclusions Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites. PMID:27485666

  10. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  11. SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING BASED ON ECOLOGICAL HEALTH --Case Study of Beiwenquan Town, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jin-gan; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti

    2005-01-01

    This paper, taking Beiwenquan Town of Beibei, Chongqing as an example, assessed the impacts of land use on ecological health by comprehensive index method, and discussed methodological system of sustainable land use planning based on ecological health. Results indicated that: 1) From 1992 to 2002, land use changes focused on 12 patterns with the total conversion area of 92.11%, which were related to cultivated land, residential and industrial-mining area, and orchard land. Urbanization and economic reconstruction were the leading driving forces. 2) There was obvious difference of the areas ofecotypes driven by land use change in wide valley and mild slope between 1992 and 2002,while there were little or no difference in steep slope and very steep slope. 3) Both of the conditions of ecological health in 1992 and 2002 were sound, and the ecotypes focused on the types of health and sub-health. But, health ecosystem in 1992, with an area of 764.64ha, accounting for 38.51% of the total evaluation area, was better than that in 2002, with an area of 636.10ha, accounting for 34.19% of the total evaluation area. 4) The ecotypes involved into different ranges have already degenerated, due to humankind's disturbance, while the conditions of ecological health in the same ranges in 1992, regardless of stability and reconstruction, were better than that in 2002.5) The planning scenario based on ecological health was accorded with the practice condition of Beiwenquan Town: 388.29ha of cultivated land could meet the Beiwenquan demand of food and byproduct; 1045.26ha of forest land area, the Beiwenquan demand of ecological health; and 1004.73ha of the residential and industrial-mining area, the Beiwenquan building demand. 6) Sustainable land use planning based on ecological health had higher useful value, because it not only stood to ecological theory, but also satisfied the developmental demand of society and economy.

  12. Data-based robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes: energy efficiency case study in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Puya; Brown, Martin; Maciejowski, Jan; Wang, Hong

    2011-12-01

    Reducing energy consumption is a major challenge for "energy-intensive" industries such as papermaking. A commercially viable energy saving solution is to employ data-based optimization techniques to obtain a set of "optimized" operational settings that satisfy certain performance indices. The difficulties of this are: 1) the problems of this type are inherently multicriteria in the sense that improving one performance index might result in compromising the other important measures; 2) practical systems often exhibit unknown complex dynamics and several interconnections which make the modeling task difficult; and 3) as the models are acquired from the existing historical data, they are valid only locally and extrapolations incorporate risk of increasing process variability. To overcome these difficulties, this paper presents a new decision support system for robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes. The plant is first divided into serially connected units to model the process, product quality, energy consumption, and corresponding uncertainty measures. Then multiobjective gradient descent algorithm is used to solve the problem in line with user's preference information. Finally, the optimization results are visualized for analysis and decision making. In practice, if further iterations of the optimization algorithm are considered, validity of the local models must be checked prior to proceeding to further iterations. The method is implemented by a MATLAB-based interactive tool DataExplorer supporting a range of data analysis, modeling, and multiobjective optimization techniques. The proposed approach was tested in two U.K.-based commercial paper mills where the aim was reducing steam consumption and increasing productivity while maintaining the product quality by optimization of vacuum pressures in forming and press sections. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Optimization of biodiesel supply chains based on small farmers: A case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Raphael; Hamacher, Silvio

    2010-09-15

    The strategy adopted by the Brazilian Biodiesel Program is to base its fuel production on oilseeds acquired from small, family-owned farms in the poorest regions of the country, thereby fostering social inclusion and transfer of income. The success of the program depends on the development of a robust supply chain logistic structure, appropriate distribution of crop production, and investments in new oilseed crushing units. This article presents the development of a mathematical model for optimizing the production arrangements for the supply of a biodiesel plant sourced from family farms, taking into account agricultural, logistic, industrial and social aspects.

  14. Innovation in project-based companies - A case study in different approaches to organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grex, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This paper asks how project-based organizations can be developed in order to establish and sustain innovation. The question is being explored by examining and comparing two approaches to organizational change. One approach emphasizes planning, regulation and control and creation of changes through...... new structures and procedures whereas the other approach emphasizes the organizational history, knowledge and experience of the members of the organization and the creation of changes through dialogue, role-shift and interactive theatre playing. The present paper does not suggest choosing between...

  15. A case study of a distance-based public health nursing/community health nursing practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine; Block, Derryl

    2005-01-01

    Facilitating a distance-based public health/community health nursing practicum for RN to BSN students posed challenges and opportunities. Challenges included time involved in arranging the practicum, relationship building with agencies and staff, communicating with students, and the need for flexible practicum scheduling. Exposure to practice models from across the nation allowed students to compare and contrast these public health nursing models. Programs planning to offer this type of course should consider faculty workload particularly during the semester prior to teaching the practicum.

  16. Are individual based models a suitable approach to estimate population vulnerability? - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available European populations of the Large Blue Butterfly Maculinea arion have experienced severe declines in the last decades, especially in the northern part of the species range. This endangered lycaenid butterfly needs two resources for development: flower buds of specific plants (Thymus spp., Origanum vulgare, on which young caterpillars briefly feed, and red ants of the genus Myrmica, whose nests support caterpillars during a prolonged final instar. I present an analytically solvable deterministic model to estimate the vulnerability of populations of M. arion. Results obtained from the sensitivity analysis of this mathematical model (MM are contrasted to the respective results that had been derived from a spatially explicit individual based model (IBM for this butterfly. I demonstrate that details in landscape configuration which are neglected by the MM but are easily taken into consideration by the IBM result in a different degree of intraspecific competition of caterpillars on flower buds and within host ant nests. The resulting differences in mortalities of caterpillars lead to erroneous estimates of the extinction risk of a butterfly population living in habitat with low food plant coverage and low abundance in host ant nests. This observation favors the use of an individual based modeling approach over the deterministic approach at least for the management of this threatened butterfly.

  17. Development of configurations for lookup table–based Embryonics using graphic mapping: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqi Zhuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of configurations for bio-inspired self-healing cellular arrays known as Embryonics (embryonic electronics. In the Embryonics design, the configurations are employed to define the functionality and connections of each cell. However, developing configurations of the Embryonics is a time-consuming and challenging work due to lack of effective tools. In this article, an approach is proposed to develop configurations using graphic mapping, which also optimizes the length of configurations for the Embryonics. Using metric embedding, the problem of configurations is exactly formulated to binary quadratic assignment problem and routing problem with constraint of the Embryonics architecture. Since binary quadratic assignment problem is nondeterministic polynomial-time hard, a genetic algorithm is used to tackle this problem for achieving high-quality placement. Due to the limitation of communication bandwidth, how to resolve congestion is also an important issue. An improved ant colony algorithm is presented to realize routing of the Embryonics based on the result of placement. Configurations of the Embryonics are formed according to the result of placement and routing. Experimental result on a 4 × 4 multiplier demonstrates that developing configurations for lookup table–based Embryonics using graphic mapping can lower the difficulty of the Embryonics design and optimize placement and routing of Embryonics.

  18. Holder and Topic Based Analysis of Emotions on Blog Texts: A Case Study for Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sivaji

    The paper presents an extended approach of analyzing emotions of the blog users on different topics. The rule based techniques to identify emotion holders and topics with respect to their corresponding emotional expressions helps to develop the baseline system. On the other hand, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based supervised framework identifies the holders, topics and emotional expressions from the blog sentences by outperforming the baseline system. The existence of many to many relations between the holders and the topics with respect to Ekman's six different emotion classes has been examined using two way evaluation techniques, one is with respect to holder and other is from the perspective of topic. The results of the system were found satisfactory in comparison with the agreement of the subjective annotation. The error analysis shows that the topic of a blog at document level is not always conveyed at the sentence level. Moreover, the difficulty in identifying topic from a blog document is due to the problem of identifying some features like bigrams, Named Entities and sentiment. Thus, we employed a semantic clustering approach along with these features to identify the similarity between document level topic and sentential topic as well as to improve the results of identifying the document level topic.

  19. A Groupware-based Peer Review Process: An Exploratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget N. O'Connor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Lewin’s planned change theory and Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory as lenses through which to describe what occurred in an organizationally flat, team-based organization when it rolled out a groupware-based peer review process. The Information Systems Department wanted to implement a high-level groupware product. The Human Resource Department wanted to enable team members to rate each other on their teambuilding skills as well as provide a criterion to be used by the organization’s Policy Committee in awarding biannual bonuses. Literature related to corporate peer reviews as well as the use of groupware provided the basis for questions posed. Both nondirective and focused interviews were conducted with key players and a sampling of actual evaluation data was collected. Analysis indicated that perceived management (noncommitment to using peer review data and issues of confidentiality may have led many individuals to be skeptical about the value of a peer review. As to the use of groupware to enable the evaluation, users were quite pleased; however, planners’ initial resistance to using this technology was evident and early efforts to devise usable reports were troublesome.

  20. Case study of a problem-based learning course of physics in a telecommunications engineering degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, Erica; Jesús Elejalde-García, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Active learning methods can be appropriate in engineering, as their methodology promotes meta-cognition, independent learning and problem-solving skills. Problem-based learning is the educational process by which problem-solving activities and instructor's guidance facilitate learning. Its key characteristic involves posing a 'concrete problem' to initiate the learning process, generally implemented by small groups of students. Many universities have developed and used active methodologies successfully in the teaching-learning process. During the past few years, the University of the Basque Country has promoted the use of active methodologies through several teacher training programmes. In this paper, we describe and analyse the results of the educational experience using the problem-based learning (PBL) method in a physics course for undergraduates enrolled in the technical telecommunications engineering degree programme. From an instructors' perspective, PBL strengths include better student attitude in class and increased instructor-student and student-student interactions. The students emphasised developing teamwork and communication skills in a good learning atmosphere as positive aspects.

  1. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  2. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Potential of tourism and recreational postindustrial city (Radzionków GIS-based case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślesak, Barbara; Absalon, Damian; Pytel, Sławomir

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the land structure use in the town Radzionków. The study area, despite of the industrial past, distinguished by a large proportion of green areas: parks, forests, agricultural lands, recreational areas. The study shows how important is the role of shaping the image of the municipality as an interesting tourist, plays right policy and how important local municipal authorities may support use of local tourism resources through appropriate and targeted use of space (Municipal Development Plan).

  4. Driver Sleepiness and Risk of Car Crashes in Shenyang, a Chinese Northeastern City: Population-based Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI-FEN LIU; SONG HAN; DUO-HONG LIANG; FENG-ZHI WANG; XIN-ZHU SHI; JIAN YU; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the association of driver sleepiness with the risk of car crashes.Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shenyang, a northeastern city in China, between November 2001 and July 2002. The case group comprised 406 car drivers involved in crashes, and 438 car drivers recruited at randomly selected sites, and on the day of week, and the time of day when they were driving on highways in the study region during the study period were used as control groups. Face-to-face interviews with drivers were conducted according to a well-structured questionnaire covering the circumstances of their current trip and their background information.Stanford sleepiness scale and Epworth sleepiness scale were used to quantify acute sleepiness and chronic sleepiness respectively. Results There was a strong association between chronic sleepiness and the risk of car crash. Significantly increased risk of crash was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10 vs <10; adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 95%confidence interval 1.30 to 3.29), but no increased risk was associated with measures of acute sleepiness. Conclusions Chronic sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of car crash. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy.

  5. Implementation of Link-based DMS Supporting ISO 9001 QMS: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kacmar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Document Management System supporting ISO 9001 Quality Management System is a typical application of Document Management it the enterprise environment. In order to be effective and sustainable it has to be implemented by taking into consideration organization’s own environment and culture. The article reviwes the ISO 9001 requirements on Document Management and available articles dealing with implementation of DMS. It uses a proposed methodology for the implementation of DMS supporting ISO 9001 on the real life example of an enterprise organization. Resulting link-based DMS suports the management of documents from various document storage systems and enable users to use either original sources or to access a central list of all documents.

  6. Developing an Interventional Pulmonary Service in a Community-Based Private Practice: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kim D; Desai, Neeraj R; Diamond, Edward; Kovitz, Kevin L

    2016-04-01

    Interventional pulmonology (IP) is a field that uses minimally invasive techniques to diagnose, treat, and palliate advanced lung disease. Technology, formal training, and reimbursement for IP procedures have been slow to catch up with other interventional subspecialty areas. A byproduct of this pattern has been limited IP integration in private practice settings. We describe the key aspects and programmatic challenges of building an IP program in a community-based setting. A philosophical and financial buy-in by stakeholders and a regionalization of services, within and external to a larger practice, are crucial to success. Our experience demonstrates that a successful launch of an IP program increases overall visits as well as procedural volume without cannibalizing existing practice volume. We hope this might encourage others to provide this valuable service to their own communities.

  7. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities.

  8. Collaborative development of knowledge-based support systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena; Winnberg, Patrik J; Yan, Chunli

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a user-driven collaborative knowledge engineering and interaction design process. The outcome is a knowledge-based support application tailored to physicians in the local dementia care community. The activity is organized as a part of a collaborative effort between different organizations to develop their local clinical practice. Six local practitioners used the generic decision-support prototype system DMSS-R developed for the dementia domain during a period and participated in evaluations and re-design. Additional two local domain experts and a domain expert external to the local community modeled the content and design of DMSS-R by using the modeling system ACKTUS. Obstacles and success factors occurring when enabling the end-users to design their own tools are detected and interpreted using a proposed framework for improving care through the use of clinical guidelines. The results are discussed.

  9. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs...... by specializing a definitional interpreter with respect to the program. Specialization is carried out using type-directed partial evaluation, which is a mild version of partial evaluation akin to lambda-calculus normalization. Our definitional interpreter follows the format of denotational semantics, with a clear......, annotations, etc.) than the typed lambda-calculus. In particular, it uses no other program analysis than traditional type inference. The overall simplicity and effectiveness of the approach has encouraged us to write this paper, to illustrate this genuine solution to denotational semantics...

  10. Semantics-based compiling: A case study in type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs...... by specializing a definitional interpreter with respect to the program. Specialization is carried out using type-directed partial evaluation, which is a mild version of partial evaluation akin to lambda-calculus normalization. Our definitional interpreter follows the format of denotational semantics, with a clear......, annotations, etc.) than the typed lambda-calculus. In particular, it uses no other program analysis than traditional type inference. The overall simplicity and effectiveness of the approach has encouraged us to write this paper, to illustrate this genuine solution to denotational semantics...

  11. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs.

  12. Structural integration-based fascial release efficacy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Tanya M

    2011-04-01

    Auto-immune conditions such as Scleroderma and SLE induce fascial sclerosis and fibrosis, with related vascular, lymphatic, neural, joint, and visceral compression. Ensuing ischaemic pain, necrosis, autonomic and immune dysfunction in turn account for much of patients' pain, functional impairment, and psychological distress. Fascial Release Therapy (FRT) is a hands-on therapeutic model focused on restoring postural and functional integrity by addressing fascial imbalance, with hypothesized efficacy for SLE patients in: Two SLE patients who received FRT treatment along KMI® SI methodology, reported improvements to seven symptoms, namely: While 'spontaneous recovery' cannot be ruled out without controls, these anecdotal results support further, broader-based clinical research with stringent evaluation tools to enhance outcome validity. Therapeutic mechanisms may includefascial relaxation as key to decreasing myofascial pain; myofibroblast response to 'stress'; inter- and trans-fascial plane transfer of enhanced 'ease' and 'glide'. Psycho-neuro-immunological factors reversing adverse auto-immune response.

  13. A Cycle Model of Co-evolution between Emerging Technology and Firm’s Capabilities Based on Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Min; Li; Limiao; Yin; Lu

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the mechanism on the co-evolution between emerging technology and capability.Our research focus is how the firms capabilities affect the evolution of emerging technology through strategy.Based on the theoretical analysis and case study,this paper builds a theoretical framework:firms capability is classified into static capability and dynamic capability,and the evolution of emerging technology is summarized by a cycle model.Further,strategy is looked as a mediated variable.The conclusion is that the static capability affects the emerging technology evolution through strategy implement,and the dynamic capability affects the evolution through strategy change.In both situations,organization learning is a key capability to the evolution of emerging technology.

  14. A GIS-based methodology to delineate potential areas for groundwater development: a case study from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishnu P.; Shrestha, Sangam; Kazama, Futaba

    2013-06-01

    For an effective planning of activities aimed at recovering aquifer depletion and maintaining health of groundwater ecosystem, estimates of spatial distribution in groundwater storage volume would be useful. The estimated volume, if analyzed together with other hydrogeologic characteristics, may help delineate potential areas for groundwater development. This study proposes a GIS-based ARC model to delineate potential areas for groundwater development; where `A' stands for groundwater availability, `R' for groundwater release potential of soil matrix, and `C' for cost for groundwater development. The model is illustrated with a case of the Kathmandu Valley in Central Nepal, where active discussions are going on to develop and implement groundwater management strategies. The study results show that shallow aquifers have high groundwater storage potential (compared to the deep) and favorable areas for groundwater development are concentrated at some particular areas in shallow and deep aquifers. The distribution of groundwater storage and potential areas for groundwater development are then mapped using GIS.

  15. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  16. A Process-Based Knowledge Management System for Schools: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Lung; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Yang, Chyan; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge management systems, or KMSs, have been widely adopted in business organizations, yet little research exists on the actual integration of the knowledge management model and the application of KMSs in secondary schools. In the present study, the common difficulties and limitations regarding the implementation of knowledge management into…

  17. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  18. GIS-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE DRIFT CASE STUDY: FRESNO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the potential risk of herbicide drift and accidentally damaging neighboring crops or surrounding native vegetation. This study is the first to use the California Pesticide Use Reporting database within a mapping framework (known as a Geographic Information S...

  19. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppelt, R.; Fath, B.; Burkhard, B.; Fisher, J.L.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lautenbach, S.; Pert, P.; Hotes, S.; Spangenberg, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments (ESA) hold the promise of supporting the quantification and valuation of human appropriation of nature and its goods and services. The concept has taken flight with the number of studies published on the topic increasing rapidly. This development, and the variation of d

  20. Fostering Digital Literacy through Web-Based Collaborative Inquiry Learning--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Fu; Pow, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Digital literacy (DL), a term that emerged with the explosion of digital information and multimedia technology, refers to basic competence in using digital technology. The present study first analyzed the evolvement from media literacy to digital literacy and developed a four-branch theoretical framework of DL by investigating related definitions…

  1. Problem-Based Educational Environments: A Case Study in e-Commerce and Business Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalakaki, Olga; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Savas, Stavros; Manoussakis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to explore the educational and cognitive aspects of an innovative approach to Internet use within an interdisciplinary, integrated framework for activities set up to enable students to acquire knowledge informally. These activities had the potential to provide real-world results through a model…

  2. Population-based case-control study of DRD2 gene polymorphisms and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, L V K S; Thangaraj, K; Non, A L; Singh, Lalji; Rao, V R

    2010-10-01

    Several independent lines of evidence for genetic contributions to vulnerability to alcoholism exist. Dopamine is thought to play a major role in the mechanism of reward and reinforcement in response to alcohol. D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene has been among the stronger candidate genes implicated in alcoholism. In this study, alcohol use was assessed in 196 randomly selected Kota individuals of Nilgiri Hills, South India. Six DRD2 SNPs were assessed in 81 individuals with alcoholism and 151 controls to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcoholism. Of the three models (dominant, recessive, and additive) tested for association between alcoholism and DRD2 SNPs, only the additive model shows association for three loci (rs1116313, TaqID, and rs2734835). Of six studied polymorphisms, five are in strong linkage disequilibrium forming onesingle haplotype block. Though the global haplotype analysis with these five SNPs was not significant, haplotype analysis using all six SNPs yielded a global P value of .033, even after adjusting for age. These findings support the importance of dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms in alcoholism. Further studies to replicate these findings in different populations are needed to confirm these results.

  3. Case Study Report: Community-Based Monitoring Systems for REDD+ in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bellfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental component of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+; will be the development of robust and cost-effective measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV instruments for national forest monitoring and safeguard information systems. It is increasingly recognized that community-based monitoring (CBM offers a positive model for greater participation and engagement of indigenous and forest-dependent communities within a REDD+ framework. Yet plans for CBM within REDD+ MRV systems remain limited, and there are currently relatively few concrete examples of CBM informing national forest monitoring systems. This paper outlines findings from a community MRV project with Amerindian communities in the North Rupununi, Guyana; and demonstrates that a CBM approach can enable key REDD+ requirements: in understanding local deforestation drivers and measuring carbon stocks; and for providing information on safeguards through social and environmental assessments. In addition, the authors discuss community capacity-building on smartphone technology for monitoring as a challenging yet viable pathway for scaling the use and adoption of indigenous knowledge and local skills for REDD+ programs.

  4. Design of a Hospital-Based Database System (A Case Study of BIRDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Surovi Khan,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As technology advances, information in different organizations of Bangladesh can no more be maintained manually. There is a growing need for the information to become computerized so that it can be suitably stored. This is where databases come into the picture. Databases are convenient storage systems which can store large amounts of data and together with application programs such as interfaces they can aid in faster retrieval of data. An initiative was taken to design a complete database system for a hospital management such as Bangladesh Institute of Research and rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic disorders (BIRDEM in Dhaka so that its information can be stored, maintained, updated and retrieved conveniently and efficiently. The existing information in BIRDEM is partly computerized via databases only in patients’ admissions, doctors’ appointments and medical tests and reports sections. A partly slow and tedious manual system still exists in BIRDEM for example, in record of ambulances in service,assigning ward boys and nurses to rooms, the billing process andrecord of doctors’ prescriptions etc. However, this paper outlinesone complete database design for the entire BIRDEM hospital inwhich data maintenance and retrieval are in perfect harmony and speedy. Sample SQL-based queries executed on the designed system are also demonstrated.

  5. Semantics-Based Intelligent Indexing and Retrieval of Digital Images - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Taha; Thakker, Dhavalkumar; Schaefer, Gerald

    The proliferation of digital media has led to a huge interest in classifying and indexing media objects for generic search and usage. In particular, we are witnessing colossal growth in digital image repositories that are difficult to navigate using free-text search mechanisms, which often return inaccurate matches as they typically rely on statistical analysis of query keyword recurrence in the image annotation or surrounding text. In this chapter we present a semantically enabled image annotation and retrieval engine that is designed to satisfy the requirements of commercial image collections market in terms of both accuracy and efficiency of the retrieval process. Our search engine relies on methodically structured ontologies for image annotation, thus allowing for more intelligent reasoning about the image content and subsequently obtaining a more accurate set of results and a richer set of alternatives matchmaking the original query. We also show how our well-analysed and designed domain ontology contributes to the implicit expansion of user queries as well as presenting our initial thoughts on exploiting lexical databases for explicit semantic-based query expansion.

  6. A Carbon Exergy Tax Evaluation Based on the Efficient Use of Energy Resources: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Santarelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An instrument to promote the CO2 emission reductions, taking the Kyoto Protocol goal into account, can be the assignment to energy conversion plants of a monetary charge linked to their specific emission intensity. Once the choice of a charge is defined, the next problem is the choice of a strategy to determine the amount of the imposed charge, named Carbon Tax (CT.

    In this paper an analytical procedure for the Carbon Tax evaluation is proposed and applied. This approach is based on the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system, that represents the evaluation of the cost of the exergy destroyed inside the system and the cost of the exergy rejected in the biosphere with the plant wastes; the Efficiency Penalty term is coupled with the evaluation of the Index of CO2 Emission, which connects the amount of the CO2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The evaluated charge on the CO2 emissions is defined as Carbon Exergy Tax (CET. The procedure is applied here to the analysis of a 700 MW combined plant burning fossil fuels in two different configurations: a typical natural gas fired combined plant, and a coal fired combined plant burning coal in a Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC.

  7. A Case Study on Developing an Effective Information Based Healthcare Services - India's Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pathanjali Sastri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The real test of technological development is to ensure whether it reaches people and the most important task is to produce, manage and deliver relevant information systems appropriately within India. Therefore technology needs to be acquired and adapted for it to be appropriately developed. A country like India needs to adapt and develop information systems based on their own needs and structures, using their own methods and practices. When it comes to eGovernance projects, better cooperation is the need of the day both from public as well as private players [1]. The Indian government is taking greater cognizance of the benefits of technology and some e-Gov projects have already been initiated and deployed in few states of our country [1]. However, despite an improved Information Communication Technology (ICT in our country thanks to the efforts of our government, there are still problems which continue to hamper the use of information and ICT in domain of healthcare in India [2]. This paper discusses the current levels of IT and quality in health care in our country and how Information Technology (IT might be helpful in future.

  8. Pathological Demand Avoidance in a population-based cohort of children with epilepsy: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Menlove, Leanne; Gillberg, Christopher; O'Nions, Elizabeth; Happé, Francesca; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    Childhood epilepsy is associated with a range of neurobehavioural comorbidities including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), motor impairments and emotional problems. These difficulties frequently have a greater impact on quality of life than seizures. Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) is a term increasingly in use in the UK and Europe to describe behaviours associated with an extreme resistance to demands and requests and the need to be in control in social interactions. In a population-based group of 85 children with epilepsy, four (5%) were identified as displaying significant symptoms of PDA, were assessed using the Extreme Demand Avoidance Questionnaire (EDA-Q) and are described in detail. As well as significant symptoms of PDA, the four children met criteria for a range of neurobehavioural disorders; all four had cognitive impairment (IQDSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Three, in addition, met criteria for ASD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and two for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). All four experienced their first seizure before 5 years of age. School and parent reports indicated very significant functional impairment and management concerns, particularly with respect to complying with everyday demands. Symptoms of PDA should be considered when evaluating neurobehavioural comorbidity in childhood epilepsy.

  9. Fractal Determination of Coastal Types Based on GIS--A Case Study of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaohua; Wu Xiuqin; Wang Jian

    2002-01-01

    The probability of fractal determination of coastal types based on GIS is preliminarily discussed with China as an example. Finally, some significant conclusions are drawn: (1) The fractal dimension of coastline of the bedrock coast is larger than that of the plain coast on the same scale map; (2) As far as the bedrock coast is concerned, the larger fractal dimension of coastline of the bedrock coast on the same scale map indicates that the bedrock coast is probably not typical; (3) As far as the plain coast is concerned, the smaller fractal dimension of coastline of the plain coast on the same scale map indicates that it is probably the silt plain coast; (4) The different substantial compositions affect the fractal dimensions of coastlines of different coastal types. In general, the coast which lies in the north of the Hangzhou Bay consists of sand mainly, its surface is flat, and it is connected with the coastal plain, its landform is broad shoal, its total change is comparatively homogenous in the tidal dynamic process, and thus, the relatively smaller fractal dimension of coastline results from this. For the bedrock coast, there is more bedrock, the coastline is comparatively smooth and straight, being affected by the faults and ocean dynamic process, which result in the larger fractal dimension.

  10. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  11. Audit of IT Governance Based on COBIT 5 Assessments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Fernandes Andry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Training Center in Jakarta offers a certification program for the individuals and companies who wish to search for or complement international scale IT certifications. The certification program consists of training certification exam preparation and certification exams. The purpose of this research is to get an overview of the performance of information technology governance in order to determine the extent of the capabilities of information technology governance in the Training Center which is currently running, with a few aspects to consider such as effectiveness, efficiency, functional unit of information technology within an organization. Implementing IT governance, however, is a challenge to organizations. To ensure IT alignment with business goals use standard COBIT. COBIT 5 Framework is a service for auditing IS/IT are the most commonly used to audit information systems in a rapid, accurate, and interactive. The result of this audit training center is business and IT management are aware of the impact of not managing performance and capacity. Performance needs are generally met based on assessments of individual systems and the knowledge of support and project teams. In this paper the method to be used is COBIT 5 is focused on the domain of DSS (Deliver, Service, and Support.

  12. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically

  13. H-- Filtering Algorithms Case Study GPS-Based Satellite Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jinlu; Tan, Soonhie

    In this paper the new Hfiltering algorithms for the design of navigation systems for autonomous LEO satellite is introduced. The nominal orbit (i.e., position and velocity) is computed by integrating the classical orbital differential equations of the LEO satellite by using the 7th-8th order Runge- Kutta algorithms. The perturbations due to the atmospheric drag force, the lunar-solar attraction and the solar radiation pressure are included together with the Earth gravity model (EGM-96). The spherical harmonic coefficients of the EGM-96 are considered up to 72 for the order and degree. By way of the MATLAB GPSoft software, the simulated pseudo ranges between the user LEO satellite and the visible GPS satellites are generated when given the appropriate angle of mask. The effects of the thermal noises, tropospheric refraction, ionospheric refraction, and multipath of the antenna are also compensated numerically in the simulated pseudo ranges. The dynamic Position-Velocity (PV) model is obtained by modeling the velocity as nearly constant being the white noise process. To further accommodate acceleration in the process model, the Position-Velocity-Acceleration (PVA) model is investigated by assuming the acceleration to be the Gaussian- Markov process. The state vector for the PV model becomes 8-dimensional (3-states for positions, 3-states for velocities, 1-state for range (clock) bias error, 1-state for range (clock) drift error). The state vector for the PV model becomes 11-dimensional with the addition of three more acceleration states. Three filtering approaches are used to smooth the orbit solution based upon the GPS pseudo range observables. The numerical simulation shows that the observed orbit root-mean-square errors of 60 meters by using the least squares adjustment method are improved to be less than 5 meters within 16 hours of tracking time by using the Hfiltering algorithms. The results are compared with the ones obtained by using the Extended Kalman

  14. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM: a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions

  15. Cognitive training transfer using a personal computer-based game: A close quarters battle case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Michael D.

    In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual-frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ˜0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ˜0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the failure mechanism concerning the lifetime of LC devices. Although cyano and isothiocyanato LC compounds have similar absorption peaks, the isothiocyanato compounds are more stable than their cyano counterparts under the same illumination conditions. This ultraviolet-durable performance of isothiocyanato compounds originates from its molecular structure and the delocalized electron distribution. We have investigated the alignment performance of negative dielectric anisotropic LCs in homeotropic (vertical aligned, VA) LC cell. Some (2, 3) laterally difluorinated biphenyls, terphenyls and tolanes are selected for this study. Due to the strong repulsive force between LCs and alignment layer, (2,3) laterally difluorinated terphenyls and tolanes do not align well in a VA cell resulting in a poor contrast ratio for the LC panel. We have developed a novel method to suppress the light leakage at dark state. By doping positive Deltaepsilon or non-polar LC compounds or mixtures into the host negative LC mixtures, the repulsive force is reduced and the cell exhibits an excellent dark state. In addition, these dopants increase the birefringence and reduce the viscosity of the host LCs which leads to a faster response time. In this dissertation, we investigate the

  16. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A case study in Yan’an, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhuang; Jianbing Peng; Yonglong Xu; Qiang Xu; Xinghua Zhu; Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation frequently triggers shallow landslides in the Loess Plateau of Shaanxi, China, resulting in loss of life, damage to gas and oil routes, and destruction of transport infrastructure and farmland. To assess the possibility of shallow landslides at different precipitation levels, a method to draw slope units and steepest slope profiles based on ARCtools and a new method for calculating slope stability areproposed. The methods were implemented in a case study conducted in Yan’an, north-west China. High resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) images, soil parameters from in-situ laboratory measurements and maximum depths of precipitation infiltration were used as input parameters in the method. Next,DEM and reverse DEM were employed to map 2146 slope units in the study area, based on which the steepest profiles of the slope units were constructed. Combining analysis of the water content of loess, strength of the sliding surface, its response to precipitation and the infinite slope stability equation, a newequation to calculate infinite slope stability is proposed to assess shallow landslide stability. The slope unit stability was calculated using the equation at 10-, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods of antecedent effective precipitation. The number of slope units experiencing failure increased in response to increasing effective antecedent rainfall. These results were validated based on the occurrence of landslides in recent decades. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the model are discussed.

  17. CT ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN VENTRICULAR SIZE BASED ON AGE AND SEX: A STUDY OF 112 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available CT being the primary modality of choice in many centers for the diagnosis of brain pathology, normal brain ventricular size measurem ents is an important parameter for the diagnosis of conditions like hydrocephalus, age related atrophic changes and also other brain pathologies producing ventriculomegaly. It is also important for knowing the normal upper and lower limits of the brain ven tricular system in the different age groups, and in both sexes so as to diagnose brain pathology.The ventricular system of the brain undergoes changes with aging and varies with gender.Our study consists of 48 female, and 64 male patients. Apart from the v entricular measurements, two ratios and two indices were also calculated – which included the right and left Evan’s ratio, CM index, and ventricular size inde

  18. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  19. [Traumatology in hang-gliding accidents. Studies based on 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, M A; de Gottrau, P; Fournier, P E; Arnold, T; Jacomet, H; Rigo, M

    1988-11-01

    The number of paragliding accidents is growing up exponentially. We review in this study 39 paragliding accidents which occurred 1985-1987 in the Val d'Illiez (Switzerland). The REGA (Swiss air ambulance) rescued 1987 61 pilots, which are also included. Most of the accidents were related to a mistake of the pilot. None is due to a failure of the material. The most severe injuries occurred immediately after taking off. The most frequent injuries occurred during landing. There is a correlation between the altitude, the wind velocity and the severity of the injuries. The lower extremities and the backbone are often injured, which is explained through the axial trauma. The pilots need a better training programme, the performance of the material should be built up and the starting places should be equipped.

  20. APPLICATION OF PROJECT BASED LEARNING IN THE DISCIPLINE OF LOGISTICS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the higher education institutions need to search for new tools and methods to make learning more enjoyable and dynamic for students because the job market increasingly needs young people who have the ability to self-criticism above average. A search was performed on a course of action and technologist who had a total of 15 students, for the purpose of this research was to improve the learning level of students, reducing absenteeism and dropout, encourage research and participation in teamwork. As a way to develop this study the students had to develop a project of a bridge made of newspaper and involving the disciplines of logistics, financial management, human resource management and managing projects.

  1. The GeoCitizen-approach: community-based spatial planning - an Ecuadorian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmanstorfer, Karl; Resl, Richard; Eitzinger, Anton; Izurieta, Xiomara

    2014-05-27

    Over the last years, geospatial web platforms, social media, and volunteered geographic information (VGI) have opened a window of opportunity for traditional Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) to usher in a new era. Taking advantage of these technological achievements, this paper presents a new approach for a citizen-orientated framework of spatial planning that aims at integrating participatory community work into existing decision-making structures. One major cornerstone of the presented approach is the application of a social geoweb platform (the GeoCitizen platform) that combines geo-web technologies and social media in one single tool allowing citizens to collaboratively report observations, discuss ideas, solve, and monitor problems in their living environment at a local level. This paper gives an account of an ongoing participatory land-zoning process in the Capital District of Quito, Ecuador, where the GeoCitizen platform is applied in a long-term study.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of atopic dermatitis: a population-based case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jen Tien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with systemic inflammation and induces various comorbid medical diseases. To date, no study has explored the relationship between OSA and atopic dermatitis (AD, an inflammatory and autoimmune skin disorder. This study investigated the longitudinal risk for AD in patients with OSA. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000,000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was collected. From this sample, 1222 patients with newly-diagnosed OSA between 2000 and 2005 were identified and compared with a matched cohort of 18330 patients without OSA. All patients were tracked for 5.5 years from the index date in order to identify which patients subsequently developed AD. RESULTS: During the 5.5-year follow-up period, the incidence rates of AD in the OSA cohort and comparison groups were 9.81 and 6.21 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, allergy, allergic rhinitis, asthma, monthly income, and geographic location, patients with OSA were 1.5-times more likely to develop AD than patients without OSA (95% CI = 1.15-1.95, p = 0.0025. The hazard risk for AD was greater in male OSA patients and young OSA patients (0-18 and 19-34 years, adjusted HRs being 1.53 (95% CI = 1.14-2.06, p = 0.005, 4.01(95% CI = 1.57-10.26, p = 0.0038 and 1.75(95% CI = 1.00-3.04, p = 0.0483, respectively. The log-rank test indicated that OSA patients <35-years-old had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of AD than those patient of the same age in the comparison group (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Patients with OSA, especially male patients and younger patients, are at an increased risk for AD later in life.

  3. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  4. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  5. Regionalized LCA-based optimization of building energy supply: method and case study for a Swiss municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Vadenbo, Carl; Steubing, Bernhard; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. The results show that the environmental improvement potential is very large: in the optimal case, greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply could be reduced by more than 75% and particulate emissions by over 50% in the municipality. This scenario supposes a drastic shift of heat supply systems from a fossil fuel dominated portfolio to a portfolio consisting of mainly heat pump and woodchip incineration systems. In addition to a change in heat supply technologies, roofs, windows and walls would need to be refurbished in more than 65% of the municipality's buildings. The full potential of the environmental impact reductions will hardly be achieved in reality, particularly in the short term, for example, because of financial constraints and social acceptance, which were not taken into account in this study. Nevertheless, the results of the optimization model can help policy makers to identify the most effective measures for improvement at the decision making level, for example, at the building level for refurbishment and selection of heating systems or at the municipal level for designing district heating networks. Therefore, this work represents a starting point for designing effective incentives to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. While the results of the optimization model are specific to the municipality studied, the model could readily be adapted to other regions.

  6. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  7. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  8. Incretin-Based Therapy and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Pedersen, Lars; Møller, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    adjusted for history of gallstones, alcoholism, obesity, and other pancreatitis-associated comorbidities and medications. RESULTS: A total of 89 pancreatitis patients (0.69%) and 684 control subjects (0.53%) were ever users of incretins. The crude OR for acute pancreatitis among incretin users was 1.36 (95...... OR comparing incretin-based therapy with other antihyperglycemic therapy internally while also adjusting for diabetes duration and complications was 0.97 (95% CI 0.76-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the use of incretin-based drugs appears not to be associated with an increased risk of acute...

  9. Cloud Based Drive Forensic and DDoS Analysis on Seafile as Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaweres, R. B.; Santo, N. B.; Ningsih, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet due to increasing data rates through both broadband cable networks and 4G wireless mobile, make everyone easily connected to the internet. Storages as Services (StaaS) is more popular and many users want to store their data in one place so that whenever they need they can easily access anywhere, any place and anytime in the cloud. The use of the service makes it vulnerable to use by someone to commit a crime or can do Denial of Service (DoS) on cloud storage services. The criminals can use the cloud storage services to store, upload and download illegal file or document to the cloud storage. In this study, we try to implement a private cloud storage using Seafile on Raspberry Pi and perform simulations in Local Area Network and Wi-Fi environment to analyze forensically to discover or open a criminal act can be traced and proved forensically. Also, we can identify, collect and analyze the artifact of server and client, such as a registry of the desktop client, the file system, the log of seafile, the cache of the browser, and database forensic.

  10. Conditional Copula-Based Spatial–Temporal Drought Characteristics Analysis—A Case Study over Turkey

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    Mahdi Hesami Afshar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commonly used copula functions belonging to Archimedean and Elliptical families are fitted to the univariate cumulative distribution functions (CDF of the drought characteristics duration ( LD , average severity ( S ¯ , and average areal extent ( A ¯ of droughts obtained using standardized precipitation index (SPI between 1960 and 2013 over Ankara, Turkey. Probabilistic modeling of drought characteristics with seven different fitted copula functions and their comparisons with independently estimated empirical joint distributions show normal copula links drought characteristics better than other copula functions. On average, droughts occur with an average LD of 6.9 months, S ¯ of 0.94, and A ¯ of 73%, while such a drought event happens on average once in every 6.65 years. Results also show a very strong and statistically significant relation between S ¯ and A ¯ , and drought return periods are more sensitive to the unconditioned drought characteristic, while return periods decrease by adding additional variables to the analysis (i.e., trivariate drought analysis compared to bivariate.

  11. A reba-based analysis of packers workload: a case study

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    Andrzej M. Lasota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the elements of a logistics system is the subsystem of production, which is a system composed of physical elements such as machinery, tools and (most importantly people. In addition, system-dependent human operators are particularly prone to problems related to discomfort, which can affect production quality and increase training costs and absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the workload and risk of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD's in the process of order fulfillment for the position of packer and to conduct an analysis of risk factors. Methods: The Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA evaluation method was used. Activities related to the fulfillment of an order were assessed for three workstations. Results: Five postures qualified for action category (AC 2, seven postures for AC 3 and one posture for AC 4. The main factors affecting the risk of a negative assessment of posture were keeping the back bent and twisted, keeping the arms raised above the trunk, working in a standing position and the weight of packaged carton. Conclusions: Packers working on research positions face a high level of exposure to the risk of MSD's, therefore corrective actions should be carried out as soon as possible. Ergonomic intervention should be linked to redesigning workstations and methods of working. After making changes to the research workstations, re-evaluation using the REBA method is recommended to verify the effectiveness of the changes.

  12. Gis-Based Method in Developing Wildfire Risk Model (Case Study in Sasamba, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Jarunton Boonyanuphap

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisis pemetaan lengkap (Cemplete Mapping Analysis yang berbasis sistem informasi geografis (SIG digunakan untuk melakukan pembobotan terhadap nilai “vulnerability” dari faktor-faktor resiko dalam rangka membangun suatu model dan memetakan kelas-kelas resiko kebakaran liar. Ada dua faktor utama, yaitu faktor lingkungan fisik dan aktifitas manusia yang sangat mempengaruhi terjadinya kebakaran hutan. Model yang ditemukan pada saat ini memperlihatkan bahwa kelembaban relatif adalah faktor terpenting diantara faktor lingkungan fisik, sementara jarak terhadap pusat-pusat pemukiman merupakan faktor terpenting diantara faktor aktifitas manusia. Diketahui juga bahwa, terjadinya kebakaran liar lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh faktor aktifitas manusia daripada faktor lingkungan fisik. Pada studi ini, wilayah resiko kebakaran liar dibagi atas 3 kelas, dimana ditemukan bahwa kelas resiko kebakaran tertinggi mendominasi lokasi penelitian, selanjutnya diikuti dengan kelas resiko sedang dan rendah. Berdasarkan hasil verifikasi, model hanya berhasil menduga kelas resiko tinggi yaitu sebesar 76,05%, sementara gagal dalam menduga resiko kebakaran sedang dan rendah (lebih rendah dari 40%.

  13. Supervised artificial neural network-based method for conversion of solar radiation data (case study: Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidi, Maamar; Hanini, Salah; Rezrazi, Ahmed; Yaiche, Mohamed Redha; El Hadj, Abdallah Abdallah; Chellali, Farouk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model is used as an alternative approach to predict solar radiation on tilted surfaces (SRT) using a number of variables involved in physical process. These variables are namely the latitude of the site, mean temperature and relative humidity, Linke turbidity factor and Angstrom coefficient, extraterrestrial solar radiation, solar radiation data measured on horizontal surfaces (SRH), and solar zenith angle. Experimental solar radiation data from 13 stations spread all over Algeria around the year (2004) were used for training/validation and testing the artificial neural networks (ANNs), and one station was used to make the interpolation of the designed ANN. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 60, 20, and 20 % of all data, respectively. The configuration 8-35-1 (8 inputs, 35 hidden, and 1 output neurons) presented an excellent agreement between the prediction and the experimental data during the test stage with determination coefficient of 0.99 and root meat squared error of 5.75 Wh/m2, considering a three-layer feedforward backpropagation neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer function at the hidden and the output layer, respectively. This novel model could be used by researchers or scientists to design high-efficiency solar devices that are usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface.

  14. Ontology-based approach for in vivo human connectomics: the medial Brodmann area 6 case study

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    Tristan eMoreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different non-invasive neuroimaging modalities and multi-level analysis of human connectomics datasets yield a great amount of heterogeneous data which are hard to integrate into an unified representation. Biomedical ontologies can provide a suitable integrative framework for domain knowledge as well as a tool to facilitate information retrieval, data sharing and data comparisons across scales, modalities and species. Especially, it is urgently needed to fill the gap between neurobiology and in vivo human connectomics in order to better take into account the reality highlighted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and relate it to existing brain knowledge. The aim of this study was to create a neuroanatomical ontology, called Human Connectomics Ontology (HCO, in order to represent macroscopic gray matter regions connected with fiber bundles assessed by diffusion tractography and to annotate MRI connectomics datasets acquired in the living human brain. First a neuroanatomical view called NEURO-DL-FMA was extracted from the reference ontology Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA in order to construct a gross anatomy ontology of the brain. HCO extends NEURO-DL-FMA by introducing entities (such as MR_Node and MR_Route and object properties such as tracto_connects pertaining to MR connectivity. The Web Ontology Language Description Logics (OWL DL formalism was used in order to enable reasoning with common reasoning engines. Moreover, an experimental work was achieved in order to demonstrate how the HCO could be effectively used to address complex queries concerning in vivo MRI connectomics datasets. Indeed, neuroimaging datasets of five healthy subjects were annotated with terms of the HCO and a multi-level analysis of the connectivity patterns assessed by diffusion tractography of the right medial Brodmann Area 6 was achieved using a set of queries. This approach can facilitate comparison of data across scales, modalities and species.

  15. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials: a case study.

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    Alessandra ePezzuto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days. Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EC No. 450/2009. This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  16. Ontology-based approach for in vivo human connectomics: the medial Brodmann area 6 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Tristan; Gibaud, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Different non-invasive neuroimaging modalities and multi-level analysis of human connectomics datasets yield a great amount of heterogeneous data which are hard to integrate into an unified representation. Biomedical ontologies can provide a suitable integrative framework for domain knowledge as well as a tool to facilitate information retrieval, data sharing and data comparisons across scales, modalities and species. Especially, it is urgently needed to fill the gap between neurobiology and in vivo human connectomics in order to better take into account the reality highlighted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and relate it to existing brain knowledge. The aim of this study was to create a neuroanatomical ontology, called "Human Connectomics Ontology" (HCO), in order to represent macroscopic gray matter regions connected with fiber bundles assessed by diffusion tractography and to annotate MRI connectomics datasets acquired in the living human brain. First a neuroanatomical "view" called NEURO-DL-FMA was extracted from the reference ontology Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) in order to construct a gross anatomy ontology of the brain. HCO extends NEURO-DL-FMA by introducing entities (such as "MR_Node" and "MR_Route") and object properties (such as "tracto_connects") pertaining to MR connectivity. The Web Ontology Language Description Logics (OWL DL) formalism was used in order to enable reasoning with common reasoning engines. Moreover, an experimental work was achieved in order to demonstrate how the HCO could be effectively used to address complex queries concerning in vivo MRI connectomics datasets. Indeed, neuroimaging datasets of five healthy subjects were annotated with terms of the HCO and a multi-level analysis of the connectivity patterns assessed by diffusion tractography of the right medial Brodmann Area 6 was achieved using a set of queries. This approach can facilitate comparison of data across scales, modalities and species.

  17. Customized, Outcome-Based, Relevant Evaluation (CORE) at Lipscomb University: A Competency-Based Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Olson, Rick

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in competency-based degree programs at the postsecondary level. These programs are promising for the future of higher education because they establish clear expectations for what graduates must know and be able to do, and many models have been designed to allow students to learn and earn a degree…

  18. Feasibility and utility of telephone-based psychological support for people with brain tumor: A single-case experimental study

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    Stephanie eJones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rates of psychological distress are high following diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor. There can be multiple barriers to accessing psychological support, including physical and cognitive impairments and geographical limitations. Tele-based support could provide an effective and more flexible option for delivering psychological interventions. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of a telephone-based psychotherapy intervention for people with brain tumor. A single-case multiple-baseline design was employed with a 4-7 week baseline phase, 10-week treatment phase and 5-week maintenance phase including a booster session. Four participants with a benign or malignant brain tumor (3 males & 1 female; aged 34 to 49 years, received 10 sessions of tele-based therapy and a booster session at four weeks post-treatment. Levels of depression, anxiety, and illness cognitions were monitored on a weekly basis throughout each phase whilst measures of quality of life, stress and self-concept were administered at the start and end of each phase. Weekly measures were analysed using a combination of both visual analysis and Tau-U statistics. Of the four participants, two of them demonstrated significant gains in mental health (depression and/or anxiety and a significant decrease in their levels of helplessness (p<.05. The other two participants did not show gains in mental health or change in illness cognitions. All participants reported improvement in quality of life post-treatment. The results of the study provide preliminary support concerning the feasibility and utility of tele-based therapy for some people with brain tumor. Further research examining factors influencing the outcomes of tele-based psychological support is needed.

  19. Assessment of urban vulnerability towards floods using an indicator-based approach – a case study for Santiago de Chile

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    A. Müller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularly occurring flood events do have a history in Santiago de Chile, the capital city of Chile and study area for this research. The analysis of flood events, the resulting damage and its causes are crucial prerequisites for the development of risk prevention measures. The goal of this research is to empirically investigate the vulnerability towards floods in Santiago de Chile as one component of flood risk. The analysis and assessment of vulnerability is based on the application of a multi-scale (individual, household, municipal level set of indicators and the use of a broad range of data. The case-specific set of indicators developed in this study shows the relevant variables and their interrelations influencing the flood vulnerability in the study area. It provides a decision support tool for stakeholders and allows for monitoring and evaluating changes over time. The paper outlines how GIS, census, and remote sensing data as well as household surveys and expert interviews are used as an information base for the derivation of a vulnerability map for two municipalities located in the eastern part of Santiago de Chile. The generation of vulnerability maps representing the two different perspectives of local decision makers (experts and affected households is exemplified and discussed using the developed methodology.

  20. Performance assessment of different day-of-the-year-based models for estimating global solar radiation - Case study: Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Ali, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Shehata, Ali I.

    2016-11-01

    Different models are introduced to predict the daily global solar radiation in different locations but there is no specific model based on the day of the year is proposed for many locations around the world. In this study, more than 20 years of measured data for daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface are used to develop and validate seven models to estimate the daily global solar radiation by day of the year for ten cities around Egypt as a case study. Moreover, the generalization capability for the best models is examined all over the country. The regression analysis is employed to calculate the coefficients of different suggested models. The statistical indicators namely, RMSE, MABE, MAPE, r and R2 are calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed models. Based on the validation with the available data, the results show that the hybrid sine and cosine wave model and 4th order polynomial model have the best performance among other suggested models. Consequently, these two models coupled with suitable coefficients can be used for estimating the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for each city, and also for all the locations around the studied region. It is believed that the established models in this work are applicable and significant for quick estimation for the average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface with higher accuracy. The values of global solar radiation generated by this approach can be utilized in the design and estimation of the performance of different solar applications.

  1. Grading Prediction of Enterprise Financial Crisis Based on Nonlinear Programming Evaluation: A Case Study of Chinese Transportation Industry

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    Zhi-yuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the core of the effective financial crisis prevention, enterprise finance crisis prediction has been the focal attention of both theorists and businessmen. Financial crisis predictions need to apply a variety of financial and operating indicators for its analysis. Therefore, a new evaluation model based on nonlinear programming is established, the nature of the model is proved, the detailed solution steps of the model are given, and the significance and algorithm of the model are thoroughly discussed in this study. The proposed model can deal with the case of missing data, and has the good isotonic property and profound theoretical background. In the empirical analysis to predict the financial crisis and through the comparison of the analysis of historical data and the real enterprises with financial crisis, we find that the results are in accordance with the real enterprise financial conditions and the proposed model has a good predictive ability.

  2. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhu; Yahweh Lao; Carey Jang; Chen-Jen Lin; Jia Xing; Shuxiao Wang; Joshua S.Fu

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time,science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface.The software,RSM-VAT,uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models.The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits.The case study of contiguous U.S.demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  3. Instituting a standards-based K--12 science curriculum supplement program at the National Institutes of Health: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherly, Jeffre

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based learning tools for science classrooms as part of a "voluntary curriculum." One problem facing federal entities, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the need to create science-learning tools that conform to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for curriculum materials and, therefore, are standards-based and applicable to the K-12 curriculum. This case study sought to better understand the change process at one federal agency as it went from producing K-12 learning tools that were educational in nature to a program that produced K-12 standards-based learning tools: the NIH Science Curriculum Supplement Program (NIH SCSP). The NIH SCSP was studied to gain insight into how this change in educational approach occurred, what factors enabled or inhibited the change process, and what the long-term benefits of the NIH SCSP are to the NIH. Kurt Lewin's three-step theory of change guided data gathering and data analysis. Semi-structured interviews and programmatic document review served as the major data gathering sources. Details describing the process of organizational change at the NIH were revealed during analysis of these data following the coding of interview transcripts and written record documents. The study found the process of change at the NIH proceeded in a manner generally predicted by the Lewinian change model. Enablers to the change were cost-sharing with individual institutes, support of senior leadership, and crediting the role of individual institutes prominently in each supplement. The cost of creating a supplement was reported as the single inhibitor to the program. This case study yielded a

  4. Assessment and regulation of ocean health based on ecosystem services:Case study in the Laizhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chengcheng; ZHENG Wei; SHI Honghua; DING Dewen; WANG Zongling

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem-based management of nearshore waters requires integrated assessment of ocean health and scientific guidance on artificial regulations to promote sustainable development. Quantitative approaches were developed in this paper to assess present and near-term ocean health based on ecosystem services. Results of the case study in the Laizhou Bay of China showed that the index score of ocean health was 0.785 6 out of 1.0 at present and was expected to range from 0.555 1 to 0.804 1 in the near-term future depending on different intensities of artificial regulation of negative pressures. Specifically, the results of ocean health at present mainly indicated that cultural services and provisioning services performed essentially perfectly while supporting services and regulating services functioned less well. It can be concluded that this nearshore ecosystem would partially lose supporting and regulating services in the near-term future if the increasing pressures were not well-regulated but that all of these categories of ecosystem services could be slightly improved if the negative pressures were fully controlled. Additionally, it is recommended that publicity and education on ecosystem services especially on cultural services and regulating services should be further strengthened. The analytical process and resulting quantification provide flexible tools to guide future development of regulations so as to facilitate ecosystem-based management in the coastal zone.

  5. Photosensitizing agents and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah N; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Spencer, Steven K; Duell, Eric J; Karagas, Margaret R

    2013-08-01

    It is well-known that UV light exposure and a sun-sensitive phenotype are risk factors for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this New Hampshire population-based case-control study, we collected data from 5,072 individuals, including histologically confirmed cases of BCC and SCC, and controls via a personal interview to investigate possible associations between photosensitizing medication use and NMSC. After adjustment for potentially confounding factors (e.g., lifetime number of painful sunburns), we found a modest increase in risk of SCC (odds ratio (OR)=1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-1.4) and BCC (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.5), in particular early-onset BCC, (≤ 50 years of age) (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1) associated with photosensitizing medication use. For SCC the association was strongest among those with tendency to sunburn rather than tan. We also specifically found associations with BCC, and especially early-onset BCC, and photosensitizing antimicrobials. In conclusion, certain commonly prescribed photosensitizing medications may enhance the risk of developing SCC, especially in individuals with a sun-sensitive phenotype, and may increase the risk of developing BCC and incidence of BCC at a younger age.

  6. The implementation of mentalization-based treatment for adolescents: a case study from an organizational, team and therapist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutsebaut Joost

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports on problems encountered in the implementation of complex interventions are scarce in psychotherapy literature. This is remarkable given the inherent difficulties of such enterprises and the associated safety risks for patients involved. Case description A case study of the problematic implementation process of Mentalization- Based Treatment for Adolescents (MBT-A, a new therapy for 14 to 18 year old youngsters with severe personality disorders, is presented. The implementation process is described and analyzed at an organizational, team and therapist level. Discussion and evaluation Our analysis shows that problems at all three levels contributed and interacted to make the implementation cumbersome and hazardous. Conclusion The implementation of complex psychotherapeutic programs for difficult patients could benefit from a structured attention to processes at multiple levels. We therefore propose a new comprehensive heuristic model of treatment integrity. This new model includes organisational, team and therapist adherence to the treatment model as necessary components of treatment integrity in the implementation of complex interventions. The application of this new model of treatment integrity potentially increases the chance of successful implementations and reduces safety risks for first patients enrolling in a new program.

  7. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  8. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  9. Implementation of Symptom Protocols for Nurses Providing Telephone‐Based Cancer Symptom Management: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Esther; Ballantyne, Barbara; Tarasuk, Joy; Skrutkowski, Myriam; Carley, Meg; Chapman, Kim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Kolari, Erin; Sabo, Brenda; Saucier, Andréanne; Shaw, Tara; Tardif, Lucie; Truant, Tracy; Cummings, Greta G.; Howell, Doris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The pan‐Canadian Oncology Symptom Triage and Remote Support (COSTaRS) team developed 13 evidence‐informed protocols for symptom management. Aim To build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing the COSTaRS protocols for nurses providing telephone‐based symptom support to cancer patients. Methods A comparative case study was guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework. Three cases were created for three Canadian oncology programs that have nurses providing telephone support. Teams of researchers and knowledge users: (a) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing protocol use, (b) adapted protocols for local use, (c) intervened to address barriers, (d) monitored use, and (e) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing sustained use. Analysis was within and across cases. Results At baseline, >85% nurses rated protocols positively but barriers were identified (64‐80% needed training). Patients and families identified similar barriers and thought protocols would enhance consistency among nurses teaching self‐management. Twenty‐two COSTaRS workshops reached 85% to 97% of targeted nurses (N = 119). Nurses felt more confident with symptom management and using the COSTaRS protocols (p < .01). Protocol adaptations addressed barriers (e.g., health records approval, creating pocket versions, distributing with telephone messages). Chart audits revealed that protocols used were documented for 11% to 47% of patient calls. Sustained use requires organizational alignment and ongoing leadership support. Linking Evidence to Action Protocol uptake was similar to trials that have evaluated tailored interventions to improve professional practice by overcoming identified barriers. Collaborating with knowledge users facilitated interpretation of findings, aided protocol adaptation, and supported implementation. Protocol implementation in nursing requires a tailored approach. A multifaceted intervention approach increased nurses’ use

  10. Cruciferous vegetables, mushrooms, and gastrointestinal cancer risks in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Otani, Tetsuya; Adachi, Helena Yukari; Montani, Ai; Natsukawa, Syusuke; Shaura, Kozo; Koizumi, Yoichi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Matsuzawa, Tsunetomo; Ikekawa, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the possible association of gastrointestinal cancers with cruciferous vegetables and mushrooms in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in an agricultural area of Japan. One hundred forty-nine cases and 287 controls for stomach cancer and 115 cases and 230 controls for colorectal cancer were matched by age, sex, and residential area. In stomach cancer, the protective effect of vegetables (consumption of total vegetable) was obscure, but it became clearer when we examined specific kinds of vegetables. Marginal associations were observed in the group of the highest consumption of Chinese cabbage (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.07), broccoli (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.34-1.08), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.31-1.04) and Pholita nameko (Nameko) (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.30-1.06). In colorectal cancer, we observed decreased risks from the highest tertile of total vegetables (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.08-0.66) and low-carotene-containing vegetables (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.08-0.77), and inverse associations were observed in the group of the highest consumption of broccoli (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.06-0.58). Although the sample size was limited, subgroup analyses showed that the associations differed with the histopathological subtype. These findings suggest that cruciferous vegetables decrease the risk of both stomach and colorectal cancer, and that mushrooms are associated with a decreased risk of stomach cancer.

  11. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study…

  12. CASE-BASED CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Weiqing; Yan Junwei; Wang Jian; Xie Youbai

    2004-01-01

    The current method of case-based design (CBD) can be well practiced for configuration design in which design experience knowledge is involved.However, since the design case is confined to a certain application domain, it is difficult for CBD to be applied to conceptual design process that develops concepts to meet design specifications.Firstly, a function factor description space is erected to provide an exhibition room for all functions of design cases.Next, the approach for identifying the space state of function factor in description space is proposed, including the determination of the similarities between function factors of design case.And then a general object-oriented representation for design case is presented by bringing the class of function and in-out flow into the current case representation.Finally, a living example for electro-pet design that illustrates the implementation of the method for case-based conceptual design based on distributed design case repositories is described.

  13. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Eriksson; Lena Nise; Anna Kats; Elin Luttropp; Anca Irinel Catrina; Johan Askling; Leif Jansson; Lars Alfredsson; Lars Klareskog; Karin Lundberg; Tülay Yucel-Lindberg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry ...

  14. Application of Case-Task Based Approach in Business English Teaching--A Case Study of the Marketing Course in SEIB of GDUFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiyu, Dai; Yi, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Business English Teaching aims at cultivating students' ability to analyze and solve problems, improving students' comprehensive language competence and honing their business practical skills. Adhering to the principle of learning by doing and learning by teaching others, Case-Task Based Approach emphasizes students' ability of language use in…

  15. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy, where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs. The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3, was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76 among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59 and for

  16. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  17. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ulutas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related tsunami, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The tsunami simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. In more detail, the study aims to assess the tsunami hazard on the Mentawai and Sumatra coasts: the tsunami heights and arrival times have been estimated employing three propagation models based on the long wave theory. The analysis was performed in three stages: (1 pre-calculated simulations by using the tsunami scenario database for that region, used by the GDACS system to estimate the alert level; (2 near-real-time simulated tsunami forecasts, automatically performed by the GDACS system whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismological data providers; and (3 post-event tsunami calculations using GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor fault mechanism solutions proposed by US Geological Survey (USGS for this event. The GDACS system estimates the alert level based on the first type of calculations and on that basis sends alert messages to its users; the second type of calculations is available within 30–40 min after the notification of the event but does not change the estimated alert level. The third type of calculations is performed to improve the initial estimations and to have a better understanding of the extent of the possible damage. The automatic alert level for the earthquake was given between Green and Orange Alert, which, in the logic of GDACS, means no need or moderate need of international humanitarian assistance; however, the earthquake generated 3 to 9 m tsunami run-up along southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands where 431 people died

  18. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  19. Evaluation of a Teleform-based data collection system: A multi-center obesity research case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Todd M.; Boyce, Tawny Wilson; Akers, Rachel; Andringa, Jennifer; Liu, Yanhong; Miller, Rosemary; Powers, Carolyn; Buncher, C. Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing electronic data capture (EDC) systems in data collection and management allows automated validation programs to preemptively identify and correct data errors. For our multi-center, prospective study we chose to use TeleForm, a paper-based data capture software that uses recognition technology to create case report forms (CRFs) with similar functionality to EDC, including custom scripts to identify entry errors. We quantified the accuracy of the optimized system through a data audit of CRFs and the study database, examining selected critical variables for all subjects in the study, as well as an audit of all variables for 25 randomly selected subjects. Overall we found 6.7 errors per 10,000 fields, with similar estimates for critical (6.9/10,000) and non-critical (6.5/10,000) variables – values that fall below the acceptable quality threshold of 50 errors per 10,000 established by the Society for Clinical Data Management. However, error rates were found to widely vary by type of data field, with the highest rate observed with open text fields. PMID:24709056

  20. Vision-based approach for long-term mobility monitoring: Single case study following total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dolatabadi, MSc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a single case study on the feasibility of using a low-cost and portable vision-based system (a Microsoft Kinect sensor to monitor changes in movement patterns before and after a total hip replacement surgery. The primary subject was an older male adult with total hip replacement who performed two different functional tasks: walking and sit-to-stand. The tasks were recorded with a Kinect multiple times, starting from 1 d before the surgery until 9 wk after the surgery. An automated algorithm has been developed to extract the important spatiotemporal characteristics from the video recorded functional tasks (walking and sit-to-stand. Statistical analysis was then performed by TryonC statistic to study changes in spatiotemporal characteristics between different stages before and after the surgery. The statistical analysis indicated significant difference and slight improvement between all measures from the presurgery to each postsurgery date. The study confirmed that the Kinect sensor and an automated algorithm have the potential to be integrated into a patient’s home to monitor changes in mobility during the recovery period.

  1. Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into inquiry-based science education: Three case studies in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; van den Berg, Ed; Ellermeijer, Ton; Beishuizen, Jos

    2016-05-01

    Integration of technology ( e.g. measuring with sensors, video measurement, and modeling) into secondary-school science teaching is a need globally recognized. A central issue of incorporating these technologies in teaching is how to turn manipulations of equipment and software into manipulations of ideas. Therefore, preparation for pre-service teachers to apply ICT tools should be combined with the issues of minds-on inquiring and meaning-making. From this perspective, we developed a course within the post-graduate teacher-education program in the Netherlands. During the course, pre-service teachers learnt not only to master ICT skills but also to design, teach, and evaluate an inquiry-based lesson in which the ICT tool was integrated. Besides three life sessions, teachers' learning scenario also consisted of individual tasks which teachers could carry out mostly in the school or at home with support materials and online assistance. We taught three iterations of the course within a design-research framework in 2013, 2014 and collected data on the teacher learning processes and outcomes. The analyses of these data from observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documents were to evaluate implementation of the course, then suggest for revisions of the course set-up, which was executed and then assessed again in a subsequent case study. Main outcomes of the three case studies can be summarized as follows: within a limited time (3 life sessions spread over 2-3 months), the heterogeneous groups of pre-service teachers achieved a reasonable level of competence regarding the use of ICT tools in inquiry-based lessons. The blended set-up with support materials, especially the Coach activities and the lesson-plan form for an ICT-integrated inquiry-based lesson, contributed to this result under the condition that the course participants really spent considerable time outside the life sessions. There was a need for more time for hands-on, in-group activities in life

  2. Development and applications of an optical tweezer-based microrheometer: case studies of biomaterials and living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yalcin, Huseyin; Lengel, Angela; Hewitt, Corey; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2007-02-01

    The investigation of mechanical properties of living biological cells and biomaterials is challenging because they are inhomogeneous and anisotropic at microscopic scales, and often time-dependent over a broad time scale. Through three case studies of biomaterials and living cells, we demonstrate that a novel, oscillating optical tweezer-based imaging microrheometer developed recently in our laboratory has overcome many technical barriers posed by the complexity of biological systems. In this paper, we present the working principle, system setup and calibration of the imaging microrheometer, and report the groundbreaking results of the three applications: gelation dynamics of cross-linkable hyaluronan acid (HA) hydrogels; Mechanical in-homogeneity and anisotropy in purified microtubule networks; and effects of drug treatment and temperature variation on the mechanical properties of in vitro human alveolar epithelial cells. In each case, micro beads inserted in the materials, or attached to the cell membrane were used as probes for optical trapping. The probe particle was set into a forced harmonic oscillation by oscillating optical tweezers. Position sensing optics and phase lock-in signal processing allow the determination of the amplitude and phase shift of the particle motion at high sensitivity. The complex mechanical modulus G * is then calculated from the amplitude and the phase shift. The rheometer system is capable of measuring dynamic local mechanical moduli in the broad frequency range of 1.3-1000 Hz at a sampling rate of 2 data point per second across a wide dynamic range (1~20,000 dyne/cm2). Integration of the rheometer system with spinning disk confocal microscopy enables the study of micromechanical properties and the microstructure of the sample simultaneously. Combination of dual-axis, piezo-electric activated mirror and 2-D position sensing detector gives the rheometer system the capability of investigating mechanical anisotropy in highly

  3. An association between initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and suicide - a nationwide register-based case-crossover study.

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    Charlotte Björkenstam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI is one of the most common treatments for depression. It is however not clear whether or not there is an increased short-term suicide risk during initiation with SSRI. METHODS: A register-based nationwide case-crossover study including 5,866 suicides, 1,698 women and 4,168 men, from the Death Register 2007-2010 in Sweden. SSRI initiation was defined as a dispensed prescription of SSRI within 28 days prior to the date of suicide with no previous dispensed prescription of SSRI within 4 months prior that prescription. The control period took place one year earlier. Odds ratio (OR was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULT: During the 28 day period prior to suicide 48 women and 138 men were exposed to SSRI initiation (while not being exposed in the control period and 22 women and 43 men were exposed in the control period (while not being exposed in the case period. The OR for suicide after initiation with SSRI was 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-44 for women, and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.1 for men. The highest OR was found 8-11 days after initiation with SSRI 9.7 (95% CI: 3.0-31.7 for women and men combined. CONCLUSION: The main limitation in this study is confounding by indication, but the descriptive question is however not confounded by indication. Together with plausible biological mechanisms and previous clinical and epidemiological observations our findings, linking initiation of SSRI to increased short-term suicide risk, deserve further attention specifically in the clinical setting.

  4. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  5. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs.

  6. Case Study for the Return on Investment of Internet of Things Using Agent-Based Modelling and Data Science

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    Charles Houston

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As technology advances towards new paradigms such as the Internet of Things, there is a desire among business leaders for a reliable method to determine the value of supporting these ventures. Traditional simulation and analysis techniques cannot model the complex systems inherent in fields such as infrastructure asset management, or suffer from a lack of data on which to build a prediction. Agent-based modelling, through an integration with data science, presents an attractive simulation method to capture these underlying complexities and provide a solution. The aim of this work is to investigate this integration as a refined process for answering practical business questions. A specific case study is addressed to assess the return on investment of installing condition monitoring sensors on lift assets in a London Underground station. An agent-based model is developed for this purpose, supported by analysis from historical data. The simulation results demonstrate how returns can be achieved and highlight features induced as a result of stochasticity in the model. Suggestions of future research paths are additionally outlined.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Aerosol Vertical Distribution Based on Lidar Observations: A Haze Case Study over Jinhua Basin

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    Wanchun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of haze emphasized significance of hazards for human activities and importance of observations of aerosol vertical distribution. This study aimed to analyze the aerosol vertical distribution during a haze case at temporal and spatial aspects, using space-borne and ground-based Lidar observations over Jinhua Basin, Zhejiang province, as well as the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HSPLIT model and optical situ monitoring at Jinhua site. The results highlight three pollution peaks above the surface located in the upper and lower boundary layer in Jinhua Basin. The trajectory analysis shows the pollutants inside and outside the planetary boundary layer from different sources. Planetary boundary layer height (PBLH obtained from the space-borne Lidar observations was compared with that from ground-based Lidar observations. The absolute error between the two instruments is about 0.193 km. It is illustrated that the space-borne Lidar is an effective instrument for obtaining regional aerosol pollution in vertical section. Pollution transport near the ground is closely related with the terrain condition.

  8. Use of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine related drugs and the risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Studies of the carcinogenic potential of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZRD) have been equivocal. A recent study reported a 35% excess cancer risk among users of hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. METHOD: Using Danish nationwide registers, we conducted a matched case-control study...

  9. Travel-Related Venous Thrombosis: Results from a Large Population-Based Case Control Study (MEGA Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Houwelingen, van Hans C.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. Methods and Findings We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel o

  10. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  11. A case study of self-efficacy and attitudes toward science in an inquiry-based biology laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laipply, Richelle Susan

    It is in the introductory college science class where future teachers of science and future scientists are trained. Research has shown that self-efficacy and attitudes toward science are linked to future enrollment in science courses, selection of a college major, and even to a science career. It is important to examine the effects of these and other factors which impact the undergraduate science experience so as to decrease the attrition from the sciences and to evaluate science teaching methodologies. The purpose of this case study was to examine the effect of an inquiry-based introductory biology laboratory on students' biology self-efficacy and attitudes toward science at an urban public university. Data were gathered from one laboratory section during a fifteen-week semester through the use of participant observations, interviews, and three administrations of the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale and the Test of Science-Related Attitudes . Results showed that the inquiry experience had a positive effect on students' attitudes toward science and increased their biology self-efficacy. Moreover, peer group collaborations and student interactions with the teaching assistant were found to facilitate the inquiry process and the development of positive attitudes and self-efficacy. The findings of this study have implications for the enhancement of the undergraduate experience in college science laboratories and are significant for all college science educators with regard to ways in which to structure laboratory instruction.

  12. Association between chronic viral hepatitis infection and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based case-control study

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    Su Fu-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Taiwan, there is a high incidence of breast cancer and a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. In this case-control study, we used a population-based insurance dataset to evaluate whether breast cancer in women is associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Methods From the claims data, we identified 1,958 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer during the period 2000-2008. A randomly selected, age-matched cohort of 7,832 subjects without cancer was selected for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to calculate odds ratios of breast cancer associated with viral hepatitis after adjustment for age, residential area, occupation, urbanization, and income. The age-specific ( Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV, or the prevalence of combined HBC/HBV infection between breast cancer patients and control subjects (p = 0.48. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, revealed that age Conclusions HCV infection, but not HBV infection, appears to be associated with early onset risk of breast cancer in areas endemic for HCV and HBV. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies.

  13. Knowledge-based expert systems and a proof-of-concept case study for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Siguenza, Sophie; Friedrich, Anne; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Thompson, Julie Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The traditional approach to bioinformatics analyses relies on independent task-specific services and applications, using different input and output formats, often idiosyncratic, and frequently not designed to inter-operate. In general, such analyses were performed by experts who manually verified the results obtained at each step in the process. Today, the amount of bioinformatics information continuously being produced means that handling the various applications used to study this information presents a major data management and analysis challenge to researchers. It is now impossible to manually analyse all this information and new approaches are needed that are capable of processing the large-scale heterogeneous data in order to extract the pertinent information. We review the recent use of integrated expert systems aimed at providing more efficient knowledge extraction for bioinformatics research. A general methodology for building knowledge-based expert systems is described, focusing on the unstructured information management architecture, UIMA, which provides facilities for both data and process management. A case study involving a multiple alignment expert system prototype called AlexSys is also presented.

  14. Epidemiology of fatty liver in an islander population of China:a population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Fen Dai; Zhe Shen; Chao-Hui Yu; Xi-Cheng Zhang; You-Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of dififculty in evaluating fatty liver disease in islander populations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of fatty liver and its risk factors in an islander population of East China. METHODS: Randomized multistage stratiifed cluster sampling from the islander population was used in a population-based case-control study. Then interview, physical examination, and ultrasonography were done. RESULTS: Univariate logistic-regression analysis showed that male gender, smoking, daily alcohol intake ≥20 g, duration of drinking≥5 years, total alcohol intake≥36.5 kg, hypertension and obesity were closely related to fatty liver (all P CONCLUSIONS: The duration of drinking≥5 years and obesity were two important risk factors for fatty liver in the islander population of East China. The prevalence of fatty liver in this population was high. An alcoholic threshold effect may be more important than a dose-response effect on the morbidity of fatty liver.

  15. A study on relationship between knowledge management and organizational culture based on Denison model: A case study of PVC industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Oroei

    Full Text Available Knowledge plays an essential role on creating value added business units in today’s competitive environment. In this paper, we perform a study to investigate the relationship between knowledge management and organization culture in an Iranian PVC industry. The proposed study selects a sample of 65 people and distributes a questionnaire among them. The study investigates the relationship between knowledge management and four organizational cultures’ components including mission, consistency, involvement and adaptability. Using Denison model and implementation of Pearson correlation ratio as well as stepwise regression techniques, we analyze four hypotheses of the survey. The results of the study confirm that there are strong relationships between knowledge management from one side and mission, consistency, involvement and adaptability.

  16. Study on ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation based on cloud model: a case study of Miaotan town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-lin; Fan, Min; Yang, Xiao-yu; Liu, Hui

    2008-10-01

    Combining the basic theory of cloud model and the process of ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation, the author constructs the rule of ecological impact evaluation and the cloud models of the antecedent and the consequent, by translating the uncertain factor conditions into quantitative values with the uncertain illation based on cloud model, computes the evaluation factor scores and comprehensive scores of MiaoTan, and then, comparing the results with composite index computation method and fuzzy comprehensive assessment, a feasible method used in Ecological Impact Evaluation for Land Consolidation is proposed.

  17. Blessings for All? Community-Based Ecotourism in Bali Between Global, National, and Local Interests – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine

  18. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Linda E; Hurenkamp, Gerard JB; ter Riet, Gerben; Schellevis, François G; Grundmeijer, Hans G; van Weert, Henk C

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001). Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP) with upper GI symptoms) and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints), matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psycho)pharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year). Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.37 to 3.45). Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90), including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or social co

  19. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001. Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP with upper GI symptoms and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints, matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psychopharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year. Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs ranging from 1.37 to 3.45. Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90, including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or

  20. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.