WorldWideScience

Sample records for case study approach

  1. Rebranding: a Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Size, Maria, (Thesis)

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore how and why companies implement rebranding campaigns. The study stemmed from a realisation by the author that the area of rebranding is very much under-researched academically although anecdotal evidence indicates and increase in the occurrence of the phenomenon in recent years. Therefore the purpose of this research is to add to the insufficient body of literature on rebranding through exploring it from a corporate perspective. The two chapte...

  2. Acquaintance Rape: A Case Study Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Rosalie D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a case study approach to acquaintance rape used in a Personal Health and Lifestyles course at the University of Nevada in Reno that allows students to discuss the characters in a scenario, an instructional process seen as less threatening than describing personal experiences. (MDM)

  3. Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1987-01-01

    Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies This paper enquires whether an industrialisation policy designed by the state might be successful in achieving industrialisation and development in the third world. Three common approaches to industrialisation are analysed in terms of their structural features and consequences: import substitution, capital goods sector promotion, and manufacturing export promotion. Associating these strategies to Brazil, India and South Korea, respectiv...

  4. Case Studies In Business Market Research: An Abductive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, A.; Gadde, L

    1999-01-01

    Case studies are frequently used in industrial network research. In this paper we discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case study approach. In particular we deal with single case research aiming at theory generation. For this purpose we suggest an approach based on 'systematic combining' grounded in an 'abductive' logic.

  5. USING CASE STUDIES AS AN APPROACH FOR CONDUCTING AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Sterns, James A.; Schweikhardt, David B.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural economists are not familiar with case study research, yet the approach is a useful means of collecting data, and building and testing theory. Case study research has a prescribed set of objectives, epistemology, methodology, and methods that have been developed and tested in a wide range of scholarly and pragmatic situations. This paper reviews these fundamentals, and then demonstrates the case study approach within the context of an agribusiness research project. This appli...

  6. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...

  7. Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.

  8. Neurological Fallacies Leading to Malpractice: A Case Studies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C; Wester, Knut; Sartwelle, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    A young woman presents with an intracranial arachnoid cyst. Another is diagnosed with migraine headache. An elderly man awakens with a stroke. And a baby delivered vaginally after 2 hours of questionable electronic fetal monitoring patterns grows up to have cerebral palsy. These seemingly disparate cases share a common underlying theme: medical myths. Myths that may lead not only to misdiagnosis and treatment harms but to seemingly never-ending medical malpractice lawsuits, potentially culminating in a settlement or judgment against an unsuspecting neurologist. This article provides a case studies approach exposing the fallacies and highlighting proper management of these common neurologic presentations.

  9. Linking biomedical engineering ethics case study approach and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrell, William; Dobie, Elizabeth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we link bioengineering case study methods to the development of policy. The case study approach to ethics is an excellent way to show the complex nature of practical/moral reasoning. This approach can, however, lead to a kind of overwhelming complexity. The individual nature of each case makes it difficult to identify the most important information and difficult to see what moral considerations are most relevant. In order to make the overwhelming complexity less debilitating, we present a framework for moral decision making derived from suggestions made by W.D. Ross and Virginia Held. Ross articulates the multiple sources of morality and Held deepens the discussion by reminding us of the foundational importance of care and sympathy to our moral natures. We show how to use the notion of prima facie duty and discuss moral conflict. In doing this, we show how the framework, applied to cases, can be of assistance in helping us develop policies and codes of ethics with sufficient plasticity to be useful in the complex world of the bioengineer.

  10. Approaches to Children's Exposure Assessment: Case Study with Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary; Ginsberg, Justine; Foos, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Children's exposure assessment is a key input into epidemiology studies, risk assessment and source apportionment. The goals of this article are to describe a methodology for children's exposure assessment that can be used for these purposes and to apply the methodology to source apportionment for the case study chemical, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). A key feature is the comparison of total (aggregate) exposure calculated via a pathways approach to that derived from a biomonitoring approach. The 4-step methodology and its results for DEHP are: (1) Prioritization of life stages and exposure pathways, with pregnancy, breast-fed infants, and toddlers the focus of the case study and pathways selected that are relevant to these groups; (2) Estimation of pathway-specific exposures by life stage wherein diet was found to be the largest contributor for pregnant women, breast milk and mouthing behavior for the nursing infant and diet, house dust, and mouthing for toddlers; (3) Comparison of aggregate exposure by pathways vs biomonitoring-based approaches wherein good concordance was found for toddlers and pregnant women providing confidence in the exposure assessment; (4) Source apportionment in which DEHP presence in foods, children's products, consumer products and the built environment are discussed with respect to early life mouthing, house dust and dietary exposure. A potential fifth step of the method involves the calculation of exposure doses for risk assessment which is described but outside the scope for the current case study. In summary, the methodology has been used to synthesize the available information to identify key sources of early life exposure to DEHP. PMID:27376320

  11. Disorders of the hand: a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamienski, Mary C

    2013-01-01

    Using a case study approach, 2 disorders of the hands are presented. Dupuytren's contractures and bilateral trigger finger are described with a discussion of the interventions, including injection and surgical repair. Dupuytren's disease is a contracture of the connective tissue in the hand. It is also known as palmar fibromatosis and can occur bilaterally. This is a progressive disorder and causes deformity of the hands and eventually results in a decrease of functionality. Trigger finger is a common finger ailment that also causes deformity of the hand. This disorder is often referred to as stenosing tenosynovitis and can occur in several fingers bilaterally. The inflammation and hypertrophy of the sheath restricts the motion of the flexor tendon that results in triggering of the affected finger. It is painful and disabling. The etiology, prevalence, incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and nursing care of these disorders are discussed. PMID:24247305

  12. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  13. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  14. Vital Approach to Transition: Slovene Multiple Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Winbauer Catana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a multiple case study to suggest the effectiveness in application of an integrated model for the design of sustainable change strategies in high velocity environments and organizations. The model integrates awareness of current organizational cultural characteristics with leadership intent and strategy formation. The cultural analysis provides a lens through which diverse organizational values are exposed and stakeholders can assess organizational alignment with the external environment, organizational mission and future vision. Using the inherent differentiation of values as creative tensions, strategies are formulated for purposeful change to improve alignment. Leadership inquiry is used to suggest an alignment of personal intent with the strategic initiatives to project sustainable change. This Values, Inquiry, and Tensions Alignment for Leadership model (VITAL is applied as an intervention sequence which provides information, direction, and motivation for sustainable change in transition organizations and environments.

  15. A NEW APPROACH TO QUALITY ENHANCEMENT: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of approaches for quality improvement that start from previously defined goal and definition of activities which lead to achievement of that goal. In this deterministic approach, risk in quality improvement has constantly been reduced by improvement activities, with relatively little increase in goal function. The basic approach is presented in the paper as well as measures and activities for decease of risk and vulnerability of quality improvement. This approach is tested in large company and part of results of model testing is presented in this paper.

  16. Dance Pedagogy Case Studies: A Grounded Theory Approach to Analyzing Qualitative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Combining traditional forms of research to fit unique populations contributes to understanding broad phenomena within the discipline of dance. This paper describes a methodological approach for understanding separate, but interrelated, case studies which illuminated a particular approach to teaching and learning about the body. In each case study…

  17. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Senesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultural production was carried out and organized: from self-production or ownership agriculture to a contract-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to explore and describe the emergence of networks in the Argentine crop production sector. The paper presents and describes four cases that currently represent about 50% of total grain and oilseed production in Argentina: "informal hybrid form", "agricultural trust fund", "investor-oriented corporate structure", and "network of networks". In all cases, hybrid forms involve a group of actors linked by common objectives, mainly to gain scale, share resources, and improve the profitability of the business. Informal contracts seem to be the most common way of organizing the agriculture process, but using short-term contracts and sequential interfirm collaboration. Networks of networks involve long-term relationships and social development, and reciprocal interfirm collaboration. Agricultural trust fund and investor-oriented corporate structures have combined interfirm collaboration and medium-term relationships. These organizational forms are highly flexible and show a great capacity to adapt to challenges; they are competitive because they enjoy aligned incentives, flexibility, and adaptability.

  18. A new design approach to innovative spectrometers. Case study: TROPOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatier, Jean-Baptiste; Baümer, Stefan; Kruizinga, Bob; Vink, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Designing a novel optical system is a nested iterative process. The optimization loop, from a starting point to final system is already mostly automated. However this loop is part of a wider loop which is not. This wider loop starts with an optical specification and ends with a manufacturability assessment. When designing a new spectrometer with emphasis on weight and cost, numerous iterations between the optical- and mechanical designer are inevitable. The optical designer must then be able to reliably produce optical designs based on new input gained from multidisciplinary studies. This paper presents a procedure that can automatically generate new starting points based on any kind of input or new constraint that might arise. These starting points can then be handed over to a generic optimization routine to make the design tasks extremely efficient. The optical designer job is then not to design optical systems, but to meta-design a procedure that produces optical systems paving the way for system level optimization. We present here this procedure and its application to the design of TROPOLITE a lightweight push broom imaging spectrometer.

  19. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  20. Pedagogical Approaches for ICT Integration into Primary School English and Mathematics: A Singapore Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Lee Yong; Lim, Siew Khiaw; Lim, Cher Ping; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling

    2012-01-01

    This case study research attempts to examine the pedagogical approaches for the teaching of English and mathematics with information communication technology (ICT) in a primary school in Singapore. The study uses the learning "with" and learning "from" ICT framework in reporting and analysing how ICT has been used in the teaching of English and…

  1. A Collaborative Approach to Experiential Learning in University Newswriting and Editing Classes: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Perry

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines a creative approach by two journalism professors to enhance experiential learning in separate skills-based newswriting and editing courses by collaborating to produce a live online news report from campus each week on a four-hour deadline. The study builds on previous research into how innovative classroom structures that…

  2. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness. PMID:26636563

  3. Inventory control of spare parts using a Bayesian approach: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-P. Aronis; I. Magou (Ioulia); R. Dekker (Rommert); G. Tagaras (George)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a case study of applying a Bayesian approach to forecast demand and subsequently determine the appropriate parameter S of an (S-1,S) inventory system for controlling spare parts of electronic equipment. First, the problem and the current policy are described. Then, t

  4. A general semiparametric Z-estimation approach for case-cohort studies

    CERN Document Server

    Nan, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Case-cohort design, an outcome-dependent sampling design for censored survival data, is increasingly used in biomedical research. The development of asymptotic theory for a case-cohort design in the current literature primarily relies on counting process stochastic integrals. Such an approach, however, is rather limited and lacks theoretical justification for outcome-dependent weighted methods due to non-predictability. Instead of stochastic integrals, we derive asymptotic properties for case-cohort studies based on a general Z-estimation theory for semiparametric models with bundled parameters using modern empirical processes. Both the Cox model and the additive hazards model with time-dependent covariates are considered.

  5. A case-comparison study of automatic document classification utilizing both serial and parallel approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well-known problem faced by any organization nowadays is the high volume of data that is available and the required process to transform this volume into differential information. In this study, a case-comparison study of automatic document classification (ADC) approach is presented, utilizing both serial and parallel paradigms. The serial approach was implemented by adopting the RapidMiner software tool, which is recognized as the worldleading open-source system for data mining. On the other hand, considering the MapReduce programming model, the Hadoop software environment has been used. The main goal of this case-comparison study is to exploit differences between these two paradigms, especially when large volumes of data such as Web text documents are utilized to build a category database. In the literature, many studies point out that distributed processing in unstructured documents have been yielding efficient results in utilizing Hadoop. Results from our research indicate a threshold to such efficiency

  6. A case-comparison study of automatic document classification utilizing both serial and parallel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilges, B.; Bastos, R. C.; Mateus, G. P.; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    A well-known problem faced by any organization nowadays is the high volume of data that is available and the required process to transform this volume into differential information. In this study, a case-comparison study of automatic document classification (ADC) approach is presented, utilizing both serial and parallel paradigms. The serial approach was implemented by adopting the RapidMiner software tool, which is recognized as the worldleading open-source system for data mining. On the other hand, considering the MapReduce programming model, the Hadoop software environment has been used. The main goal of this case-comparison study is to exploit differences between these two paradigms, especially when large volumes of data such as Web text documents are utilized to build a category database. In the literature, many studies point out that distributed processing in unstructured documents have been yielding efficient results in utilizing Hadoop. Results from our research indicate a threshold to such efficiency.

  7. Approaches and Technologies for Systems Integration: A Case Study at the Federal University of Lavras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCIA, C. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study aims to analyze the integration's approaches and technologies among information systems and services in an academic environment. It has been done a study on the integration history in the Federal University of Lavras. The data had been gathered via questionnaires and documentation analysis. In this analysis, 4 distinct phases were specified. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of each phase were discussed. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of different integration approaches among information systems and other services.

  8. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  9. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  10. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  11. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager;

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without...

  12. A Bayesian hierarchical approach for combining case-control and prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P; Parmigiani, G; Schildkraut, J; Tardella, L

    1999-09-01

    Motivated by the absolute risk predictions required in medical decision making and patient counseling, we propose an approach for the combined analysis of case-control and prospective studies of disease risk factors. The approach is hierarchical to account for parameter heterogeneity among studies and among sampling units of the same study. It is based on modeling the retrospective distribution of the covariates given the disease outcome, a strategy that greatly simplifies both the combination of prospective and retrospective studies and the computation of Bayesian predictions in the hierarchical case-control context. Retrospective modeling differentiates our approach from most current strategies for inference on risk factors, which are based on the assumption of a specific prospective model. To ensure modeling flexibility, we propose using a mixture model for the retrospective distributions of the covariates. This leads to a general nonlinear regression family for the implied prospective likelihood. After introducing and motivating our proposal, we present simple results that highlight its relationship with existing approaches, develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for inference and prediction, and present an illustration using ovarian cancer data. PMID:11315018

  13. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin

    2014-05-01

    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  14. Percutaneous trans-ulnar artery approach for coronary angiography and angioplasty; A case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani-Dehkordi, Farshad; Hadizadeh, Mahmood; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary angiography is the gold standard method for diagnosis of coronary heart disease and usually performed by femoral approach that has several complications. To reduce these complications, upper extremity approach is increasingly used and is becoming preferred access site by many interventionists. Although radial approach is relatively well studied, safety, feasibility and risk of applying ulnar approach in not clearly known yet. METHODS We followed 97 patients (man = 56%, mean ± standard deviation of age = 57 ± 18) who had undergone coronary angiography or angioplasty via ulnar approach for 6-10 months and recorded their outcomes. RESULTS In 97 patients out of 105 ones (92.38%), procedure through ulnar access were successfully done. Unsuccessful puncture (3 patients), wiring (2 patients), passing of sheet (2 patients), and anatomically unsuitable ulnar artery (1 patient) were the reasons of failure. In 94 patients (89.52%), the angiography and angioplasty was done without any complications. Five patients (5.1%) hematoma and 11 patients (11%) experienced low-grade pain that resolved with painkiller. No infection, amputation or need for surgery was reported. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that ulnar access in our patients was a safe and practical approach for coronary angiography or angioplasty, without any major complication. Bearing in mind its high success rate, it can be utilized when a radial artery is not useful for the catheterization and in cases such as prior harvesting of the radial artery (in prior coronary artery bypass grafting). PMID:26715936

  15. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  16. Towards an Integrated Approach to Crowd Analysis and Crowd Synthesis: a Case Study and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bandini, Stefania; Vizzari, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Studies related to crowds of pedestrians, both those of theoretical nature and application oriented ones, have generally focused on either the analysis or the synthesis of the phenomena related to the interplay between individual pedestrians, each characterised by goals, preferences and potentially relevant relationships with others, and the environment in which they are situated. The cases in which these activities have been systematically integrated for a mutual benefit are still very few compared to the corpus of crowd related literature. This paper presents a case study of an integrated approach to the definition of an innovative model for pedestrian and crowd simulation (on the side of synthesis) that was actually motivated and supported by the analyses of empirical data acquired from both experimental settings and observations in real world scenarios. In particular, we will introduce a model for the adaptive behaviour of pedestrians that are also members of groups, that strive to maintain their cohesion...

  17. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches

  18. A microsurgical anterior cervical approach and the immediate impact of mechanical retractors: A case control study

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    Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A microsurgical anterior cervical approach with discectomy and fusion (MACDF is one of the most widely used procedures for treating radicular disorders. This approach is highly successful; however, it is not free from complications. These can be associated with soft tissue injuries. Aim of the Study: The recognition of the risks for these complications should be identified for timely prevention and safe treatment. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Retrospective case control study. This study includes a retrospective case series of 37 patients, paying special attention to immediate complications related to the use of mechanical retraction of soft tissue (dysphagia, dysphonia, esophageal lesions and local hematoma; and a comparative analysis of the outcomes after changes in the retraction method. Results: All selected cases had a positive neurological symptom response in relation to neuropathic pain. Dysphagia and dysphonia were found during the first 72 h in 94.1% of the cases in which automatic mechanical retraction was used for more than one hour during the surgical procedure. A radical change was noted in the reduction of the symptoms after the use of only manual protective blades without automatic mechanical retraction: 5.1% dysphagia and 0% dysphonia in the immediate post-operative period, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles.

  19. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  20. Case study to illustrate an approach for detecting contamination and impurities in pesticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Machera, Kyriaki; Ambrus, Arpad

    2014-11-26

    Counterfeit pesticides threaten public health, food trade, and the environment. The present work draws attention to the importance of regular monitoring of impurities in formulated pesticide products. General screening revealed the presence of carbaryl as a contaminant in a copper oxychloride formulated product. In this paper, as a case study, a liquid chromatographic diode array-mass spectrometric method developed for general screening of pesticide products and quantitative determination of carbaryl together with its validation is presented. The proposed testing strategy is considered suitable for use as a general approach for testing organic contaminants and impurities in solid pesticide formulations. PMID:25360991

  1. Case study to illustrate an approach for detecting contamination and impurities in pesticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Machera, Kyriaki; Ambrus, Arpad

    2014-11-26

    Counterfeit pesticides threaten public health, food trade, and the environment. The present work draws attention to the importance of regular monitoring of impurities in formulated pesticide products. General screening revealed the presence of carbaryl as a contaminant in a copper oxychloride formulated product. In this paper, as a case study, a liquid chromatographic diode array-mass spectrometric method developed for general screening of pesticide products and quantitative determination of carbaryl together with its validation is presented. The proposed testing strategy is considered suitable for use as a general approach for testing organic contaminants and impurities in solid pesticide formulations.

  2. Towards an Agile Approach in Academic Software Development - A Case Study

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    Logica BANICA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is to emphasize the advantages of the Agile strategy when applied to a typical Project Management task. As software development has an old tradition, a comparison of the strengths of the new approach will be presented in detail, aiming to prove that the popularity of Agile is not without reason. There are software tools that help IT architects keep their teams and projects on track, and a case study for the academic environment will be discussed. The Conclusions part will summarize the results and shed some light on the future.

  3. In silico approaches to study mass and energy flows in microbial consortia: a syntrophic case study

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    Mallette Natasha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three methods were developed for the application of stoichiometry-based network analysis approaches including elementary mode analysis to the study of mass and energy flows in microbial communities. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages suitable for analyzing systems with different degrees of complexity and a priori knowledge. These approaches were tested and compared using data from the thermophilic, phototrophic mat communities from Octopus and Mushroom Springs in Yellowstone National Park (USA. The models were based on three distinct microbial guilds: oxygenic phototrophs, filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two phases, day and night, were modeled to account for differences in the sources of mass and energy and the routes available for their exchange. Results The in silico models were used to explore fundamental questions in ecology including the prediction of and explanation for measured relative abundances of primary producers in the mat, theoretical tradeoffs between overall productivity and the generation of toxic by-products, and the relative robustness of various guild interactions. Conclusion The three modeling approaches represent a flexible toolbox for creating cellular metabolic networks to study microbial communities on scales ranging from cells to ecosystems. A comparison of the three methods highlights considerations for selecting the one most appropriate for a given microbial system. For instance, communities represented only by metagenomic data can be modeled using the pooled method which analyzes a community's total metabolic potential without attempting to partition enzymes to different organisms. Systems with extensive a priori information on microbial guilds can be represented using the compartmentalized technique, employing distinct control volumes to separate guild-appropriate enzymes and metabolites. If the complexity of a compartmentalized network creates an

  4. An integrated approach to teaching and learning logistics: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus N. Cronjé

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Business managers and students often criticise university teaching for not addressing real-life problems. Furthermore, professors are dissatisfied with the research capabilities of postgraduate students. This paper advocates an integrated approach to teaching and learning based on the features of project-based learning aimed at enhancing the practical and research skills of undergraduate students in Logistics. A case study is presented where third-year students were engaged in a real-life project in collaboration with industry, exposing them to collaborative learning, questionnaire design, surveys, analysing and evaluating results, literature review and report writing. The project was carried out in phases where students were assessed after each phase. The paper analyses the assessment of students and their perception of the value of the project. It is concluded that an integrated teaching and learning approach will increase students’ interest in the subject, understanding of theoretical concepts, research skills, business skills and life skills.

  5. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research. PMID:26456000

  6. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  7. An Evaluation Concerning Participatory Approaches in Design Process: A Case Study in Istanbul - Levent Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ceylan Baba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship of society and architecture under the context of participative approaches in design processes. Participation methodologies are described as democratic enterprises in design process and user participation is a notion which can be realized by the collaboration of designer – city dweller (user – local authorities. In this study the demand of user participation in contemporary life-style is emphasized and different participation methods are assessed together. Participative approaches strengthen the relations between society and architecture in spatial organizations. In this context, city dwellers (society may have the right to have place in designing their environment by the contemporary participation methods and media. User participation approaches gained different dimensions with parallel to the changing of world. In the article, new understandings of user participation in design process are re-evaluated with historical and contemporary epochs. In this study, contemporary participation models will be analyzed by the help of theoretic postulations. Then the issue will be discussed in concern to Istanbul. Relation between city and city dweller in Istanbul will be introduced by a "case study in Levent" (globally developing region. Results of public survey in Levent regarding user participation will be presented. Article concludes with a participation proposal for Levent which discusses the methods of participation in pilot region and the social Dynamics of city-dwellers in Levent.

  8. Knowledge-enhancing Helix: An Approach for Developing Key Academic Skills at Universities. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Boeller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly e-literate society, new and media technologies are proliferating and traditional teaching approaches are challenged to meet new requirements. Other aspects such as teamwork and knowledge exchange are also becoming more important. Collaborative working methods are more dominant in the networked business environment. The vocational training at universities is therefore continuously facing with new challenges. The objective of this paper is to show how the implementation of a holistic teaching approach including the idea of blended learning can be an effective way to train students in collaborative and academic working skills, methodological expertise, information literacy, as well as making students aware of new developments in media literacy. This approach follows our proposed concept DIAMOND (Didactical Approach for Media Competence Development with a main focus on the implementation of the "knowledgeenhancing helix." This pedagogical concept was developed corresponding the requirements for "good online learning." The paper accordingly discusses the theoretical framework and presents a case study where the concept was implemented in practice.

  9. Case Studies on an Approach to Multiple Autonomous Vehicle Motion Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K. Liu; X. Wu; G. Paul; G. Dissanayake

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a series of case studies on a novel Simultaneous Path and Motion Planning (SiPaMoP) approach[1] to multiple autonomous or Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) motion coordination in bidirectional networks. The SiPaMoP approach plans collision-free paths for vehicles based on the principle of shortest path by dynamically changing the vehicles' paths, traveling speeds or waiting times, whichever gives the shortest traveling time. It integrates path planning, collision avoidance and motion planning into a comprehensive model and optimizes the vehicles' path and motion to minimize the completion time of a set of tasks. Five case studies, i.e., head-on collision avoidance,catching-up collision avoidance, buffer node generation and collision avoidance, prioritybased motion coordination, and safety distance based planning, are presented. The results demonstrated that the method can effectively plan the path and motion for a team of autonomous vehicles or AGVs, and solve the problems of traffic congestion and collision under various conditions.

  10. Statistical Approaches to Analyse Gene Bank Data Using a Lentil Germplasm Collection as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Sonnante

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally in a plant gene bank a large number of accessions per each crop and/ or taxon is stored. During their characterization and preliminary evaluation, several quantitative and qualitative data are recorded and, usually, a wide intra accession variation is observed. Th e management of all this information becomes very difficult without effective statistical methods combining these different types of data. At the Institute of Plant Genetics, CNR, in Bari (Italy this problem has been tackled by testing many statistical approaches. The present contribution describes one of these approaches, which to date has proven to be highly adequate; a case study describing a lentil germplasm collection has been used for demonstration. A valuable application of this method is the determination of core subsets important to increase the utilization and accessibility of plant genetic resources. In the presented case study a subset of the lentil germplasm collection was chosen to perform molecular analysis based on ISSR markers. The samples were selected on the basis of both morpho-agronomic evaluation and geographical origin. These markers proved to be useful for distinguishing among closely related genotypes and for possibly substantiating the genetic peculiarity of some interesting material.

  11. The parent-child-therapist alliance: A case study using a strategic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Behari, Sheethal

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we present a single case study of a clinical approach that addresses the needs of parents and their children in psychotherapy. The approach begins by addressing the child's and parent's concerns separately at first by establishing strong therapeutic alliances with each, and then proceeds to address the concerns of the parent-child dyad. The basic premise is that the therapeutic alliance is the central element to successful outcomes in psychotherapy. The nature of alliance-building and its associated methods and techniques have been extensively considered for adult therapy. However, there is considerably less written on the therapeutic alliance with children and adolescents in the context of family interventions. We briefly examine some theoretical dimensions and applications of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy with children/adolescents and their parents. A three-phase alliance-building psychotherapy strategy, founded on the idea that each therapeutic relationship warrants an effective working alliance, is proposed. The case of a single mother and her adolescent daughter is employed to illustrate the strategy. PMID:25859699

  12. THE BILINGUAL INTERCULTURAL APPROACH AND ITS IMPACT ON THE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS EDUCATION: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Viveros-Márquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a systematic evaluation of the implementation of the Bilingual Intercultural approach (EIB in indigenous primary education and its impact on the quality of education, in the dimensions of equity, relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of education; in two indigenous regions of Mexico, with a comparative approach between the cases studied. The study is qualitative descriptive-explanatory section; the evaluation model CIPP (Context, Input, Process and Product and Shinkfield Stufflebeam (1987 was applied. It also appealed to the school ethnography, for data collection techniques of participant observation (class sessions focus group (teachers and parents, and semi-structured interview (managers and supervisors of each indigenous region. The results show that the EIB has had a limited impact on the quality of education; associated internal and external factors of each school and context; shape in the lack of effectiveness of the EIB in elementary school that significantly reduces the outcomes achieved by the indigenous teachers and education regarding bilingualism, multiculturalism and educational quality.

  13. Knowledge management through the e-learning approach - a case study of online engineering courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichouni, Mohamed; Benchicou, Soraya; Nehari, Dris

    2013-06-01

    Though it is universally accepted that the face-to-face approach is the best way for education and training, however, with the advent of the information and communication technologies (mainly the World Wide Web) it became possible to enhance further the methods we are using to teach our students and to share the teaching material within a broaden engineering, technical and business communities. This paper is dedicated to making a review of the basic concepts of knowledge management and e-learning and to show how these two modern concepts can be integrated into engineering education to produce knowledge, disseminate it and share it within virtual interest groups and networks of engineering students, academic teachers and industrial engineers and technicians and business managers. A practical case study will be presented and discussed.

  14. Automated Neuroanatomical Relation Extraction: A Linguistically Motivated Approach with a PVT Connectivity Graph Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdeniz, Erinç; Özgür, Arzucan; Canbeyli, Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the relations among different regions of the brain is vital for a better understanding of how the brain functions. While a large number of studies have investigated the neuroanatomical and neurochemical connections among brain structures, their specific findings are found in publications scattered over a large number of years and different types of publications. Text mining techniques have provided the means to extract specific types of information from a large number of publications with the aim of presenting a larger, if not necessarily an exhaustive picture. By using natural language processing techniques, the present paper aims to identify connectivity relations among brain regions in general and relations relevant to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) in particular. We introduce a linguistically motivated approach based on patterns defined over the constituency and dependency parse trees of sentences. Besides the presence of a relation between a pair of brain regions, the proposed method also identifies the directionality of the relation, which enables the creation and analysis of a directional brain region connectivity graph. The approach is evaluated over the manually annotated data sets of the WhiteText Project. In addition, as a case study, the method is applied to extract and analyze the connectivity graph of PVT, which is an important brain region that is considered to influence many functions ranging from arousal, motivation, and drug-seeking behavior to attention. The results of the PVT connectivity graph show that PVT may be a new target of research in mood assessment.

  15. Generalizing geological maps with the GeoScaler software: The case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnoff, Alex; Huot-Vézina, Gabriel; Paradis, Serge J.; Boivin, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    Map generalization is rapidly becoming an important task in surficial and bedrock geology as broader regional and cross-boundary compilations are made from maps originally describing more specific areas. However, the entire process is still not defined in sufficient detail and relatively few automated tools are available. Moreover, the existing tools are primarily designed for generalization of topographic maps and do not address the needs specific to geology. Here we present two case studies describing our approach to the generalization of surficial and bedrock geology maps, respectively. To accomplish the task, we employed the GeoScaler software developed at the Laboratoire de cartographie numérique et de photogrammétrie (LCNP) of the Quebec division of the Geological Survey of Canada (Version 2009). The software is free over the Internet but requires an ArcGIS (ArcInfo) license. Four surficial geology maps at 1:250,000 scale were produced from 14 maps scaled at 1:100,000, while a single compilation of six bedrock maps was generalized from 1:125,000 to 1:500,000 scale. We describe the general considerations required to approach any generalization exercise, applied software, objectives, input data, major generalization steps, and the final results. All generalized maps were favorably evaluated by experts in geological mapping and the surficial maps have been published.

  16. What do European veterinary codes of conduct actually say and mean? A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Osborne, M; Hanlon, A

    2015-06-20

    Codes of Professional Conduct (CPCs) are pivotal instruments of self-regulation, providing the standards to which veterinarians should, and sometimes must, comply. Despite their importance to the training and guidance of veterinary professionals, research is lacking on the scope and emphasis of the requirements set out in veterinary CPCs. This paper provides the first systematic investigation of veterinary CPCs. It relies on a case study approach, combining content and thematic analyses of five purposively selected European CPCs: Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE), Denmark, Ireland, Portugal and the UK. Eight overarching themes were identified, including 'definitions and framing concepts', 'duties to animals', 'duties to clients', 'duties to other professionals', 'duties to competent authorities', 'duties to society', 'professionalism' and 'practice-related issues'. Some differences were observed, which may be indicative of different approaches to the regulation of the veterinary profession in Europe (which is reflected in having a 'code of ethics' or a 'code of conduct'), cultural differences on the status of animals in society, and regulatory bodies' proactivity in adapting to professional needs and to societal changes regarding the status of animals. These findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the roles of CPCs in regulating the veterinary profession in Europe. PMID:25861823

  17. NEW APPROACHES TO THE MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM RESOURCES. CASE STUDY THE BUZAU COUNTY

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    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the new approaches to the management of tourism resources. Starting from theoretical and methodological approaches to date regarding the principles of substantiating the touristic zoning of the territory, it has been achieved the valuation of the touristic potential of the basic territorial and administrative divisions in Romania. For this purpose, the following analysis elements for defining the national territory have been established: the natural touristic potential, the cultural heritage, the general infrastructure, the specific touristic infrastructure, and the quality of the environment .Following discussions with specialists in touristic and related fields, as well as of reference to the specific legislation in force, the result was a model of categorizing the potential and infrastructure components. Starting from the component elements of touristic valences, for valuation and hierarchy purposes of the territorial and administrative divisions, we have chosen the method of the analysis families according to fundamental criteria and sub-criteria; the estimation levels have been attributed by using a moderation procedure of a 100 points total.To demonstrate these theoretical aspects, we developed case study focused on Buzau County. As a conclusion, Buzau County is rich in tourism resourcespotential, but their management is not efficient.

  18. Supportive Communication to Facilitate Chinese Patients' Adaptation to a Permanent Colostomy: A Qualitative Case Study Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Wang, Qingxi

    2016-01-01

    This study, which is a part of action research, aims to explore how supportive communication can impact individuals' adaptation to a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context. Two Chinese rectal cancer patients with complexity and difficulty in living with a permanent colostomy were selected using a qualitative case study approach. The researcher (H.T.) interacted with the participants along their journey from the preoperative period until the third postoperative month after discharge via face-to-face or telephone interviews. Content analysis was applied. Supportive communication was characterized by "communication as a supportive tool," which consisted of 4 elements: respect, description, empathy, and empowerment. The nursing strategies included (1) developing a collaborative relationship with patients and families; (2) understanding patients' concerns and problems; (3) discussing potential solutions; (4) encouraging patients to take action; (5) bringing out emotional expression; (6) normalizing negative emotions; and (7) protecting hope. The findings of this study informed that supportive communication is a valuable tool for nurses to provide informational and emotional support to Chinese patients in order to enhance their adaptation to living with a permanent colostomy. Developing an operational manual to enhance supportive communication for patients with colostomy is suggested. PMID:27684635

  19. Learning nursing through simulation: A case study approach towards an expansive model of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berragan, Liz

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the impact of simulation upon learning for undergraduate nursing students. The study objectives were (a) to explore the experiences of participating in simulation education for a small group of student nurses; and (b) to explore learning through simulation from the perspectives of the nursing students, the nurse educators and the nurse mentors. Conducted as a small-scale narrative case study, it tells the unique stories of a small number of undergraduate nursing students, nurse mentors and nurse educators and explores their experiences of learning through simulation. Data analysis through progressive focusing revealed that the nurse educators viewed simulation as a means of helping students to learn to be nurses, whilst, the nurse mentors suggested that simulation helped them to determine nursing potential. The students' narratives showed that they approached simulation learning in different ways resulting in a range of outcomes: those who were successfully becoming nurses, those who were struggling or working hard to become nurses and those who were not becoming nurses. Theories of professional practice learning and activity theory present an opportunity to articulate and theorise the learning inherent in simulation activities. They recognise the links between learning and the environment of work and highlight the possibilities for learning to inspire change and innovation. PMID:24713128

  20. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical

  1. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  2. Applying clustering approach in predictive uncertainty estimation: a case study with the UNEEC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Solomatine, Dimitri; Lal Shrestha, Durga

    2014-05-01

    Within the context of flood forecasting, assessment of predictive uncertainty has become a necessity for most of the modelling studies in operational hydrology. There are several uncertainty analysis and/or prediction methods available in the literature; however, most of them rely on normality and homoscedasticity assumptions for model residuals occurring in reproducing the observed data. This study focuses on a statistical method analyzing model residuals without having any assumptions and based on a clustering approach: Uncertainty Estimation based on local Errors and Clustering (UNEEC). The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the UNEEC method's performance in view of clustering approach employed within its methodology. This is done by analyzing normality of model residuals and comparing uncertainty analysis results (for 50% and 90% confidence level) with those obtained from uniform interval and quantile regression methods. An important part of the basis by which the methods are compared is analysis of data clusters representing different hydrometeorological conditions. The validation measures used are PICP, MPI, ARIL and NUE where necessary. A new validation measure linking prediction interval to the (hydrological) model quality - weighted mean prediction interval (WMPI) - is also proposed for comparing the methods more effectively. The case study is Brue catchment, located in the South West of England. A different parametrization of the method than its previous application in Shrestha and Solomatine (2008) is used, i.e. past error values in addition to discharge and effective rainfall is considered. The results show that UNEEC's notable characteristic in its methodology, i.e. applying clustering to data of predictors upon which catchment behaviour information is encapsulated, contributes increased accuracy of the method's results for varying flow conditions. Besides, classifying data so that extreme flow events are individually

  3. Evaluation of deep vadose zone contaminant flux into groundwater: Approach and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, M.; Truex, M. J.; Last, G. V.; Strickland, C. E.; Tartakovsky, G. D.

    2016-06-01

    For sites with a contaminant source located in the vadose zone, the nature and extent of groundwater contaminant plumes are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to groundwater. Especially for thick vadose zones, transport may be relatively slow making it difficult to directly measure contaminant flux. An integrated assessment approach, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, is presented to explain current vadose zone contaminant distributions and to estimate future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (WA, USA) SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of a large existing contaminant inventory in its deep vadose zone, the presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount of available data for the site. A predictive quantitative analysis was applied to refine a baseline conceptual model through the completion of a series of targeted simulations. The analysis revealed that site recharge is the most important flux-controlling process for future contaminant flux. Tank leak characteristics and subsurface heterogeneities appear to have a limited effect on long-term contaminant flux into groundwater. The occurrence of the current technetium-99 groundwater plume was explained by taking into account a considerable historical water-line leak adjacent to one of the tanks. The analysis further indicates that the vast majority of technetium-99 is expected to migrate into the groundwater during the next century. The approach provides a template for use in evaluating contaminant flux to groundwater using existing site data and has elements that are relevant to other disposal sites with a thick vadose zone.

  4. Evaluation of Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Flux into Groundwater: Approach and Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Last, George V.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2016-03-09

    For sites with a contaminant source located in the vadose zone, the nature and extent of groundwater contaminant plumes are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to groundwater. Especially for thick vadose zones, transport may be relatively slow making it difficult to directly measure contaminant flux. An integrated assessment approach, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, is presented to explain current vadose zone contaminant distributions and to estimate future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (WA, USA) SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of a large existing contaminant inventory in its deep vadose zone, the presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount of available data for the site. A predictive quantitative analysis was applied to refine a baseline conceptual model through the completion of a series of targeted simulations. The analysis revealed that site recharge is the most important flux-controlling process for future contaminant flux. Tank leak characteristics and subsurface heterogeneities appear to have a limited effect on long-term contaminant flux into groundwater. The occurrence of the current technetium-99 groundwater plume was explained by taking into account a considerable historical water-line leak adjacent to one of the tanks. The analysis further indicates that the vast majority of technetium-99 is expected to migrate into the groundwater during the next century. The approach provides a template for use in evaluating contaminant flux to groundwater using existing site data and has elements that are relevant to other disposal sites with a thick vadose zone.

  5. Natural Environment Exploration Approach: The Case Study in Department of Biology, Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimah, Siti; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Moh

    2016-01-01

    The study reports the evaluation and analysis of the implementation of the Nature Environment Exploration approach in the Department of Biology, Universitas Negeri Semarang State University. The method used was survey method. The results showed that the implementation of the Nature Environment Exploration approach was still far from optimal…

  6. Strategic approaches to simulation-based education: A case study from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Nestel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses some of the challenges met when developing widely distributed, broad spectrum, simulation-based education (SBE for health professionals, such as resource duplication, inconsistent facilities utilization, discipline-specific silos, and the intersection of academic institutions and health services sectors. We examine three primary contributors to successful simulation-based practices - strategic planning, program development, and professional networks. Further, we provide examples of how each of these contributors function at different levels to assure comprehensive, yet sustainable approaches to implementing SBE for greatest impact at national, state, regional, and institutional levels. We draw on the example of Australia and its state and regional government structures, including the challenges in providing health services across a widely variable geography and population distribution. The types of health services and issues relating to health provision and management reflect those found in many western countries. Our hope is that the experiences gained at each level of governance within Australia may inform similar, successful development in other countries. We emphasize the importance of leadership and investment at the national level that serves to inform state, regional, and institutional efforts through a "trickle down" effect. Although evaluation of the strategic planning, program development, and professional networks described in this case study is still ongoing, their preliminary coordination has resulted in significant investment and support at all levels.

  7. Management of gallbladder duplication using a single-site robotic-assisted approach: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melanie Adams; Kaplin, Aviva Wallace; Kushnir, Leon; Montero-Pearson, Per

    2016-06-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. Here, we describe a 29-year-old female who presents with classic symptoms of biliary colic. A duplicated gallbladder was recognized on preoperative ultrasound. This case report reviews a single-site robotic-assisted cholecystectomy with a cystic duct duplication. The patient underwent the surgery without complication. Due to the aberrant anatomy of the cystic triangle, it was decided to mobilize the gallbladder in a dome-down fashion. True gallbladder duplication can be categorized according to cystic duct orientation based on Boyden's classification. Preoperative diagnosis is essential to prevent surgical complications. A laparoscopic approach can be carried out safely in the hands of a skilled surgeon. This case report shows that the robotic-assisted surgical approach is a viable and safe alternative. PMID:27039190

  8. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  9. Eclectic/mixed approach to physiotherapy in post-stroke patients – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of stroke, and its associated costs, are going to rise with the aging population and changes in lifestyle in developing countries. Further research should better identify modifiable and non-modifiable determinants of poor outcomes in stroke survivors. Complex rehabilitation of post-stroke survivors still needs novel solutions. An eclectic/mixed approach to intervention, regarded as synthesis of the classical intervention methods, techniques, and tools, may be regarded as one of them, but it still needs more research. The aim of the article is to familiarise the aforementioned approach based on the presented case report and to investigate the extent to which available opportunities of an eclectic/mixed approach to physiotherapy is being exploited.

  10. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  11. Intradistrict Resource Reallocation for Latino English Language Learners: An Exploratory Multiple Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar; Rodriguez, James L.

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute to the recent discussion regarding school finance, teacher quality, and English language learners (ELLs) based on a comparative study within a school district with a significant ELL population. The study described in this article utilizes an exploratory multiple case study methodology to examine the complex…

  12. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  13. Human-Centered Approaches in Geovisualization Design: Investigating Multiple Methods Through a Long-Term Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, D; Dykes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and develo...

  14. Case Studies of Interactive Whole-Class Teaching in Primary Science: Communicative Approach and Pedagogic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    By developing two case studies of expert teaching in action, this study aimed to develop knowledge of talk in whole-class teaching in UK primary science lessons and understand this in relation to both the teachers' interpretations and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. Lessons were observed and video-recorded and the teachers engaged in…

  15. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  16. A comparison of different hydrologic modeling approaches: the case study of Cerfone river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Sara; Di Francesco, Silvia; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2016-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of extreme meteorological events and the strong land exploitation, especially the overbuilding and urbanization of the flood prone areas, has led to a considerable increase of the hydraulic risk associated to these areas and, consequently, to an effort of institutions and researchers to find proper solutions. The analyzed case study deals with the Cerfone river, a tributary of the Tiber River, in the Tuscany region (Italy). The complex morphology of the floodplains and the presence of hydraulic structures (i.e. bridges) that block the river discharge cross section, cause the periodic flooding of the neighbouring small villages during extreme weather events. The flood hazard management and safety plan implementation is strictly connected to the hydrological modeling of river basin.The uncertainty in rain- run off evaluation can lead to different results in terms of discharge peak and hydrographs shape, affecting then all the next risk analysis. The choice of the hydrologic model to apply in the study of Hydraulic Risk delineation is therefore a critical issue. In this work three different approaches to model the basin hydrological response are used and discussed: i) lumped model built in accordance with the standards of methodological model of ALTo (ALluvioni Toscana, Tuscany Region), generally used in the region for hydrologic and hydraulic studies; ii) a semi-distributed model, performed using the hydrological software model HEC - HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, US Army Corps of Engineers), which is based on the evaluation of the value of critical duration storm at significant sections of the basin. It is based on models for estimated losses, inflows - outflows transformation method and meteorological model in accordance with the standards of ALTo; iii) lumped model based on the rational equation and the concentration time of Giandotti, in accordance with the methodology of the Tiber River Basin Authority. The critical analysis and

  17. Capability Approach for well-being Evaluation in Regional Development Planning : Case Study in Magelang Regency. Central java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramono, Retno Widodo Dwi

    2016-01-01

    The thesis uses Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (1993, 2000) to devise a set of criteria to evaluate the well-being and quality of life of economic groups in a case study of Magelang, a small rural area in Central Java, Indonesia. In applying this method, the researcher examines how the spatial ch

  18. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit-risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Andersen, R.; Antoine, J.-M.; Finglas, P.; Hoekstra, J.; Kardinaal, A.; Nordmann, H.; Pekcan, G.; Pentieva, K.; Sanders, T.A.; Berg, H. van den; Kranen, H. van; Chiodini, A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective examples, described in this paper, illustrate how the BRAFO-tiered approach, on benefit-risk assessment, can be tested on a wide range of case studies. Various results were provided, ranging from a quick stop as the result of non-genuine benefit-risk questions to continuation through

  19. The role of the observational approach in RI planning: WAG 5 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Remedial Investigation (RI) Plan was developed for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 in March 1988 and submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV and the State of Tennessee for review and approval. The observational approach was evaluated by the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program and accepted by EPA as an accelerated and cost-effective approach to the RI/Feasibility Study (FS) process for remediation of WAG 5. The traditional approach used in preparing the 1988 RI Plan focused on data completeness, included a typical range of RI data-gathering activities for determining the nature and extent of contamination at WAG 5, and used multiple iterations of sampling activities to deal with uncertainties without consideration of potential deviations. In fall 1991, a revised Field Sampling Plan (FSP) was developed that used the observational approach to integrate site characterization with site remediation needs. This approach recognized the uncertainties of site characterization/remedial planning and developed contingency plans for dealing with them. The observational approach emphasizes data sufficiency to support remedial planning decisions for WAG 5

  20. Generalization in Qualitative IS Research - Approaches and their Application to a Case Study on SOA Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Goeken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In qualitative information systems research little methodological support has been provided so far for the generalization of data. Generalizability, however, is a major concern in this field. It has been subject to a number of publications in recent years but commonly accepted frameworks of generalizability and methodological guidance are still missing. In order to address these problems, this paper investigates if and how abstraction mechanisms from the field of conceptual modeling can be used to generalize empirical data. An explorative single case study on the development of service-oriented architectures provides the raw data for an exemplary application. Abstraction mechanisms are used to generalize observations from the case study and to transform them into hypotheses. Finally, another abstraction leads to three models illustrating relationships of certain concepts and abstract categories as a major result of this case study. The paper shows that abstraction mechanisms from the field of conceptual modeling can be used for the generalization of case study data and provides guidance on how to use these mechanisms.

  1. An Ecosystem Approach to Invasive Species Management: An Aquatic Ecosystem Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, A. M.; Karpanty, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    College students in natural resources continue to encounter instructor-centered teaching, despite strong evidence that suggests active-learning experiences benefit students more than passive learning activities. Case studies provide an active-learning alternative to lectures by teaching students new content and challenging them to engage in…

  2. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  3. Teaching Information Security with Workflow Technology--A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu; Kshirsagar, Ashish; Nwala, Alexander; Li, Yaohang

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the demand from professionals in different areas for improving the curricula regarding information security. The use of authentic case studies in teaching information security offers the potential to effectively engage students in active learning. In this paper, the authors introduce the…

  4. An approach to multicore parallelism using functional programming: A case study based on Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2015-01-01

    platform executing on an 8-core machine. A speedup of approximately 4 was obtained for Cooper’s algorithm and a speedup of approximately 6 was obtained for the exact-shadow part of the Omega Test. The considered procedures are complex, memory-intense algorithms on huge formula trees and the case study...

  5. Gwinnett County Public Schools: A Systemic Approach to Scaling Effective School Leadership. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George W. Bush Institute, Education Reform Initiative, 2015

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness among educators and policymakers that effective school leaders are critical to school success and student achievement. Many studies illustrate the important benefits of effective school leadership for teachers, pointing to the significant influence on teacher satisfaction, development, and retention. This case study…

  6. The "Curriculum Challenge": Moving towards the "Storyline" Approach in a Case Study Urban Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on an inquiry into the design and implementation of the curriculum in a case study urban primary school in the north of England. In response to the introduction of the revised National Curriculum in September 2014, teachers and the school head engaged in a critical discourse around their perceptions of students' attainment and…

  7. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    , integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  8. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT : a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khatiwada, Prabesh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Khatiwada, Prabesh. Social entrepreneurship as an approach to community development: a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal. 66 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2014. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelors of Social Services, Focus in Community Development Work. This is a qualitative and descriptive study. The aim of the research is to study the role of social entrepreneurship in community devel...

  9. Case Study: Does Korea Telecom’s (KT) Sustainability Achievements Follow the Ten Steps Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Eun; Cave, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Many companies have reduced greenhouse gas emissions and gone paperless, shrunk packaging and eliminated hazardous substances from their products. They also have dramatically reduced the amount of water and energy they consume and the amount of waste they produce. They have attracted highly engaged employees and have written supplier Codes of Conduct and started monitoring supplier performance. This case study compares a practical application of Korea Telecom’s (KT) initiatives...

  10. A comparative case study of indoor soundscape approach on objective analyses and subjective evaluations of libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Dökmeci, Papatya; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    International audience In this study indoor soundscaping approaches were used to evaluate 3 different libraries in Sheffield, United Kingdom. Acoustic measurement and recordings as well as social survey on indoor soundscapes were carried out in each library. Usage, time spent, evaluation of physical conditions, demographics, sound perception, noise annoyance, and sound preferences were included in the survey. In addition, established frameworks were used for examining the architectural cha...

  11. A simple insightful approach to investigating a hospital standardised mortality ratio: an illustrative case-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Mohammed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite methodological concerns Hospital Standardised Mortality Ratios (HSMRs are promoted as measures of performance. Hospitals that experience an increase in their HSMR are presented with a serious challenge but with little guidance on how to investigate this complex phenomenon. We illustrate a simple penetrating approach. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital admissions data comparing observed and expected deaths predicted by the Dr Foster Unit case mix adjustment method over three years (n = 74,860 admissions in Shropshire and Telford NHS Trust Hospital (SaTH constituting PRH (Princess Royal Hospital and RSH (Royal Shrewsbury Hospital; whose HSMR increased from 99 in the year 2008/09 to 118 in the year 2009/10. RESULTS: The step up in HSMR was primarily located in PRH (109 to 130 vs. 105 to 118 RSH. Disentangling the HSMR by plotting run charts of observed and expected deaths showed that observed deaths were stable in RSH and PRH but expected deaths, especially at PRH, had fallen. The fall in expected deaths has two possible explanations-genuinely lower risk admissions or that the case-mix adjustment model is underestimating the risk of admissions perhaps because of inadequate clinical coding. There was no evidence that the case-mix profile of admissions had changed but there was considerable evidence that clinical coding process at PRH was producing a lower depth of coding resulting in lower expected mortality. CONCLUSION: Knowing whether the change (increase/decrease in HSMR is driven by the numerator or the denominator is a crucial pivotal first step in understanding a given HSMR and so such information should be an integral part of the HSMR reporting methodology.

  12. SOFTWARE BASED APPROACH FOR CLASSROOM TEACHING OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COURSES: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Mehar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical engineering concepts are abstract in nature and difficult to explain using conventional teaching tools. The use of software in teaching holds the potential in providing better learning support as these tools can provide visual representations of complex circuits operation and waveforms for enhanced concept and procedural learning in power electronics. The software packages available for simulation of power electronic circuits include MATLAB, PSPICE and PSIM. In this study the author takes an example of an AC voltage controller to explain the software based teaching approach. The author used two software based simulation tools to explain the AC voltage controller concept and compare the software based approach with the blackboard and power point presentation based technique. Results of different approaches are compared in the last session of this paper, so it is helpful for the faculty of electrical engineering to find the various applications of MATLAB, SIMULINK and PSIM in teaching. Overall students find the simulation approach is helpful for their learning.

  13. Evaluating Approaches to Teaching and Learning Chinese Vocabulary from the Learning Theories Perspective: An Experimental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja SIMONČIČ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With Chinese language gaining more and more popularity among Slovenian students and with the growing numbers of learners of Chinese as a foreign language in Slovenia and elsewhere it is crucial to find an approach that will lead to high quality and long-term knowledge of Chinese and that will motivate learners to continue learning. We can speak of two basic approaches to teaching Chinese vocabulary: the approach that first introduces pronunciation and the approach that simultaneously introduces pronunciation and character. The key question that arises is which of the two approaches leads to high quality and long-term knowledge? To answer the question an experimental case study was carried out at Ljubljana’s Faculty of Arts in the academic year 2011/2012. The case study showed that the approach that simultaneously introduces pronunciation and character and is based on the key principles of constructivist learning theory had beneficial effects on the students in terms of motivation and quality of knowledge of Chinese vocabulary.

  14. An optimization approach for communal home meal delivery service: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräysy, Olli; Nakari, Pentti; Dullaert, Wout; Neittaanmäki, Pekka

    2009-10-01

    This paper is the first to discuss the communal home meal delivery problem. The problem can be modelled as a multiple travelling salesman problem with time windows, that is closely related to the well-studied vehicle routing problem with time windows. Experimental results are reported for a real-life case study from Central Finland over several alternative scenarios using the SPIDER commercial solver. The comparison with current practice reveals that a significant savings potential can be obtained using off-the-shelf optimization tools. As such, the potential for supporting real-life communal routing problems can be considered to be important for VRP practitioners.

  15. Mathematical modelling with case studies a differential equations approach using Maple and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, B

    2011-01-01

    ""The book is written in a very lucid manner, with numerous case studies and examples thoroughly discussed. The material is very well organized, generously illustrated, and delightfully presented. All chapters, except the first one, conclude with scores of nicely designed exercises that can be used for independent study. The book contains enough material to organize a new well-structured one-semester course or to complement the existing one with additional examples and problems and is highly recommended for either purpose""-Zentralblatt MATH, 1168""… The book can be useful for students of math

  16. A Human Rights Approach for Access to Clean Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaaneh; McKay; Sims

    1995-01-01

    In northern and central Israel are some 70 villages that are not recognized by the state of Israel. At least half of these villages are not connected to the national drinking water networks and lack sufficient quality and quantity of water. Outbreaks of diseases associated with contaminated water supply have occurred, as well as substantial environmental distress. An outbreak of hepatitis A led to the cooperation of a public health physician, a nurse, an environmental engineer, and a human rights lawyer in successfully taking a case to the International Water Tribunal to get access to safe drinking water for these communities. This case study provides a model for cooperation between proponents and practitioners of health and human rights.

  17. Estimating the Impact of Education on Income with Econometric Approach: A Case Study in Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mirmohammad Sadeghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, education is one of the most important issues in individual development of people in the society. Therefore, the attention on the development of education is increasing. During the past years, a number of economical theorists have studied on the education and training concepts. Econometrics has been identified as the most common technique in previous studies. In this research, the income values in different level of education are examined. The case study includes two groups of staffs and faculty members in a university. Regression equations are estimated in both groups according to Mincer’s equations in a way that staffs are evaluated in three levels of diploma, associate and bachelor degrees. And faculty members are evaluated in two levels of master and PhD degrees. Moreover, in this study, the meaningfulness of coefficient and regression equations is examined. Finally, the reformed equations of income are developed in different level of education.

  18. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  19. Life Cycle Perspective of R&D Investment Management: Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáňková, Marie; Hyršlová, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    The management of R&D activities has become popular among researchers. The need for changes in R&D organization and financial support brings new decision-making issues for the R&D manager. Life cycle concepts help to manage R&D in the whole perspective. The aim of this paper was to examine the life cycle costing for R&D investment appraisal. A case study was realised in a private SME company for the R&D project of the bumblebee laboratory production. The analysis showed the possibility of usi...

  20. Intermediaries in the Music Industry: A Case Study Approach Focusing on the United Kingdom and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Spulber (1996: 135) states that intermediaries are “market players whose activities create and manage markets by acting as intermediaries between buyers and sellers”. Intermediaries are involved in the careers of all acts that enter the modern music industry. The amount of success an act achieves internationally and domestically is determined by the inputs of various intermediaries. To determine the extent of the effect that intermediaries have on the success of acts, a case study approach...

  1. The surgery-first approach in orthognathic surgery: a retrospective study of 50 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H B; Mao, L X; Wang, X D; Fang, B; Shen, S G

    2015-12-01

    The surgery-first approach (SFA), without presurgical orthodontic treatment, has become favoured in the treatment of dentomaxillofacial deformities. This approach has been applied in our institution since 2012. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with the SFA for skeletal malocclusion. Fifty patients with skeletal malocclusions were enrolled in this study (11 bimaxillary protrusion, 27 skeletal class III malocclusion, and 12 facial asymmetry). After orthognathic-orthodontic consultation, suitability for SFA was determined and a treatment plan drawn up. Patients then underwent orthognathic surgery, which included Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy, subapical osteotomy, and genioplasty. Postoperative orthodontic treatment was started after a healing period of 2 weeks. The mean postoperative orthodontic treatment duration was 14.9 months, which is shorter than that of traditional joint orthognathic-orthodontic treatment. In the bimaxillary protrusion group, this was about 19 months, which was longer than for the other groups. After joint orthognathic-orthodontic treatment, a good facial profile and ideal occlusion were achieved. With the advantages of earlier improvements in patient facial aesthetics and dental function, the reduction in difficulty and treatment duration of orthodontic management, and increasing patient acceptance, SFA is regarded as an ideal and valuable alternative for this potentially complicated procedure.

  2. The surgery-first approach in orthognathic surgery: a retrospective study of 50 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H B; Mao, L X; Wang, X D; Fang, B; Shen, S G

    2015-12-01

    The surgery-first approach (SFA), without presurgical orthodontic treatment, has become favoured in the treatment of dentomaxillofacial deformities. This approach has been applied in our institution since 2012. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with the SFA for skeletal malocclusion. Fifty patients with skeletal malocclusions were enrolled in this study (11 bimaxillary protrusion, 27 skeletal class III malocclusion, and 12 facial asymmetry). After orthognathic-orthodontic consultation, suitability for SFA was determined and a treatment plan drawn up. Patients then underwent orthognathic surgery, which included Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy, subapical osteotomy, and genioplasty. Postoperative orthodontic treatment was started after a healing period of 2 weeks. The mean postoperative orthodontic treatment duration was 14.9 months, which is shorter than that of traditional joint orthognathic-orthodontic treatment. In the bimaxillary protrusion group, this was about 19 months, which was longer than for the other groups. After joint orthognathic-orthodontic treatment, a good facial profile and ideal occlusion were achieved. With the advantages of earlier improvements in patient facial aesthetics and dental function, the reduction in difficulty and treatment duration of orthodontic management, and increasing patient acceptance, SFA is regarded as an ideal and valuable alternative for this potentially complicated procedure. PMID:26573566

  3. An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration.

  4. Scenarios Approach to the Electromagnetic Exposure: The Case Study of a Train Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure.

  5. Scenarios approach to the electromagnetic exposure: the case study of a train compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, A; Apollonio, F; Pinto, R; Liberti, M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits) to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure.

  6. New approach to study tribological properties of polymer materials. A case of car windshield wipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Bielinski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Existing approach to tribology of polymer materials does not take into account their composition and structure. This paper presents the original analysis of friction characteristics, enabling an insight from the material engineering point of view.Design/methodology/approach: Apart friction also dissipation energy spectra have been analyzed. For transformation of friction fluctuations from the force into the frequency domain the FFT methodology has been applied. Parameters for evaluation of friction and wear have been proposed. Results of bench tests have been verified by examinations of wiper blades under conditions simulating real exploitation, adapting a system of car window cleaning. Power consumption by a driving engine has been monitored.Findings: Various kinds of modifications, influencing composition and structure of polymer materials have been studied. Ageing and wear resistance have been found to be the most important from the point of view of working properties of blades. They influence the efficiency of water removal from a car window.Research limitations/implications: Different blade designs have to be checked working under various conditions.Practical implications: A correlation between tribological properties and structure of polymer materials has to be taken into account at the stage of their compounding and processing. The proposed method for testing car windshield wiper blades is more appropriate than standards used so far, enabling quantitative assessment of products.Originality/value: The paper helps to understand materials engineering aspects of tribology. It is of potential value for producers of polymer parts.

  7. CFD simulation of an industrial hydrocyclone with Eulerian-Eulerian approach:A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safa Raziyeh; Soltani Goharrizi Ataallah⇑

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation together with exper-imental field measurements was applied to optimize the performance of an industrial hydrocyclone at Sarcheshmeh copper complex. In the simulation, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach was used for solid and liquid phases, the latter being water. In this approach, nine continuous phases were considered for the solid particles with different sizes and one continuous phase for water. The continuity and momen-tum equations with inclusion of buoyancy and drag forces were solved by the finite volume method. The k-e RNG turbulence model was used for modeling of turbulency. There was a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. After validation of the model accuracy, the effect of inlet solid percentage, pulp inlet velocity, rod inserting in the middle of the hydrocyclone and apex diam-eter on hydrocyclone performance was investigated. The results showed that by decreasing the inlet solid percentage and increasing the pulp inlet velocity, the efficiency of hydrocyclone increased. Decreasing the apex diameter caused an increase in the hydrocyclone efficiency.

  8. Is there Needed an Industry Approach on Corporate Default Risk? Case Study on Companies Listed on Romanian Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Triandafil

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on applying Black and Scholes structural approach on credit risk in the case of the companies listed on Romanian Stock Exchange. We conduct a case-study on 35 companies belonging to five industries (energetic, materials, chemistry, pharmaceuticals, equipments during a period of 10 years in order to highlight out default point/threshold and its essential factors evolution across industries. Research approach is concentrated also on the specific characteristics of the Romanian capital market (especially in terms of illiquidity and lack of transparency additional costs, macroeconomic environment and corporate finance decision process. We compute default point from the perspective of the arbitrage between assets and leverage; in accordance with the most recent theories on specific features corporate default within emerging countries (Galytskyy, 2006, a key element will be represented by the assets volatility which will be correlated with the country risk premium in order to highlight out a potential macroeconomic impact on corporate failure.

  9. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha; G Victor Rajamanickam; P Kumaravel

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes – low, very low, uncertain, high and very high − 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  10. What Can We Learn from a Well-Adapted Enterprise System? A Case Study Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    how the system was highly integrated, accepted by its users, and well-aligned to the work processes. This leads to the research question: Why is the enterprise system so well-adapted in SCANDI and what can we learn from this case study? Building on the structural model of technology to investigate...... the institutional logics and the sensemaking processes at play, we present three sets of reasons for the successful adaptation that relate to: 1) The institutional properties where a rationalized myth about effective work practices and an efficient ES travels from a national to a local level; 2) The nature...... as a long-term institutionalization and legitimization course of events leading to secondary socialization as the key lessons learned in achieving successful ES adaptations....

  11. Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, B. [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.

  12. Agile software development and its compatibility with a document-driven approach? A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2009-01-01

    It is generally assumed among software developers and managers that a document-driven development process is incompatible with an agile development process. There are few reports on this issue and even less empirical research documenting the assumed incompatibility. More and more software companies...... however have a desire to adopt agile development processes while maintaining compliance with a quality assurance standard or even a process standard. We have studied the software development process of a Danish pharmaceutical company. For market reasons the company has to comply the US Food and Drug...... Administration’s standards for software development. The company has also successfully implemented significant parts of the agile methodology Scrum. We describe this case and we analyse using Soft Systems Methodology how well the development process combines these diverging sets of process requirements. We find...

  13. Approaching the Kyoto targets: a case study for Basilicata region (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Pietrapertosa, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Cosmi, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Fisiche

    2004-02-01

    Approaching the national Kyoto Protocol (KP) targets involves a re-definition of the actual configuration of local energy systems. This study deals with a local scale application of the IEA-MARKAL models generator, in which the anthropogenic system of Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) is investigated to support the definition of coherent long- term strategies and sound climate protection policies. A scenario by scenario analysis points out the behaviour of the optimal mix of fuels and technologies in the presence of carbon dioxide emissions constraints. Trade off curves and reduced costs analyses outline the most effective actions for contributing to the national KP targets, with particular emphasis on the interventions in Civil (Residential, Commercial and Services) and waste management sectors. (author)

  14. COMPARABLE VALUATION METHOD A NEW APPROACH. CASE STUDY: A ROMANIAN FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Imola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the valuation scheme of a flexographic printing industry firm. The industry, the technology used and most importantly the firm being young ones, it is not possible to use the classical comparable valuation methods. The new approach in this matter is to use as benchmark financial ratios not those related to the price of the firm (as P/E, P/S, P/BV, P/CF, P/CAPEX, but those related to the structure of the income statement, financial and operating leverage using 13 Romanian and 6 Hungarian reference firms data. Our main contribution to this line of research is to solve the problem of lack of reference data regarding the price, the benchmark companies not being listed on any stock exchange.

  15. Proposing an Aggregate Production Planning Model by Goal Programming Approach, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Farzam Rad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Production planning is one of the most important functions in the process of production management. Production planning in the intermediate range of time is termed as aggregate production planning (APP. Aggregate production planning is an important upper level planning activity in a production management system. The present study tries to suggest an aggregate production planning model for products of Hafez tile factory during one year. Due to this fact that the director of the company seeks 3 main objectives to determine the optimal production rate, the linear goal planning method was employed. After solving the problem, in order to examine the efficiency and the distinctiveness of this method in compare to linear programming, the problem was modeled just by considering one objective then was solved by linear programming approach. The findings revealed the goal programming with multi objectives resulted more appropriate solution rather than linear programming with just one objective.

  16. Simplification approach to detect urban areas vulnerable to flash floods using GIS: a case study Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Marzena; Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a consistent methodology to determine urban areas that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of torrential rains. They are, as a result of climate change, more and more prevalent in the temperate climate, usually spring - summer from mid-May to late August - and involve the risk of flash floods. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of such phenomena is noticeable throughout the whole Europe. It is assumed that through the analysis of environmental and infrastructural conditions, using the developed methodology, it is possible to determine areas vulnerable to flooding due to torrential rains. This may lead to a better management, quicker response in case of a phenomenon, and even to take measures to prevent the occurrence of adverse effects of torrential rains (for instance modernization of the urban drainage system and development of methods to get rid of rapidly collected water). Designation of areas particularly vulnerable to the effects of heavy rains can be achieved by adapting hydrological models, but they require an appropriate adjustment and highly accurate input data: (based on spot or radar measurements of precipitation, land cover, soil type, humidity, wind speed, vegetation species in a given area, growing season, the roughness and porosity of the cover and soil moisture) but such detailed data are generally hard to obtain or not available for less developed areas. It could also be achieved by performing spatial analysis in GIS, which is a more simplified form of modelling, but it gives results more quickly and the methodology can be adapted to the commonly available data. A case study of Warsaw's district Powiśle has been undertaken for three epochs - from 2008 to 2010 and areas, that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of flash floods and heavy rains, have been designated.

  17. Systems approach for condition management design: JET neutral beam system-A fusion case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maturation of any new technology can be coarsely divided into three stages of a development lifecycle: (1) fundamental research, (2) experimental rig development and testing through to (3) commercialization. With the enhancement of machines like JET, the building of ITER and the initiation of DEMO design activities, the fusion community is moving from stages 1 and 2 towards stage 3. One of the consequences of this transition will be a shift in emphasis from scientific achievement to maximizing machine reliability and availability. The fusion community should therefore be preparing itself for this shift by examining all methods and tools utilized in established engineering sectors that might help to improve these fundamental performance parameters. To this end, the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE) has proactively engaged with UK industry to examine whether the development of condition management (CM) systems could help improve such performance parameters. This paper describes an initial CM design case study on the JET neutral beam system. The primary output of this study was the development of a CM design methodology that captures existing experience in fault detection, and classification as well as new methods for fault diagnosis. A summary of the methods used and the potential benefits of data fusion are presented here.

  18. THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION MANAGEMENT Case Study -Trotus Hydrographic Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Maricica STOICA

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem approach proved to be the most efficient strategy for integrated management of soil, water and life which promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable application of the ecosystem approach helps to achieve a balance of natural components, socio-economic and weather and climate phenomena with adequate scientific methodologies multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.Such an approach is now imposed on the European level in flood risk management, to make a river basin as th...

  19. Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Nii A; Poirier, Alain; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts. PMID:25118135

  20. A research approach for quality based design of healthy foods: Dried broccoli as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    An approach for process design based on optimization of product quality attributes is presented. Adsorption drying of broccoli with retention of its health benefits is taken as an example to illustrate the approach. Related to its content of glucosinolates, broccoli has a high potential to reduce th

  1. Innovation in project-based companies - A case study in different approaches to organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grex, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This paper asks how project-based organizations can be developed in order to establish and sustain innovation. The question is being explored by examining and comparing two approaches to organizational change. One approach emphasizes planning, regulation and control and creation of changes through...

  2. A Two-Stage Penalized Logistic Regression Approach to Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-stage penalized logistic regression approach to case-control genome-wide association studies. This approach consists of a screening stage and a selection stage. In the screening stage, main-effect and interaction-effect features are screened by using L1-penalized logistic like-lihoods. In the selection stage, the retained features are ranked by the logistic likelihood with the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD penalty (Fan and Li, 2001 and Jeffrey’s Prior penalty (Firth, 1993, a sequence of nested candidate models are formed, and the models are assessed by a family of extended Bayesian information criteria (J. Chen and Z. Chen, 2008. The proposed approach is applied to the analysis of the prostate cancer data of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project in the National Cancer Institute, USA. Simulation studies are carried out to compare the approach with the pair-wise multiple testing approach (Marchini et al. 2005 and the LASSO-patternsearch algorithm (Shi et al. 2007.

  3. Bayesian approach to the assessment of the population-specific risk of inhibitors in hemophilia A patients: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2016-10-01

    significant inhibitor (10/100, 5/100 [high rates], and 1/86 [the Food and Drug Administration mandated cutoff rate in PTPs] were calculated. The effect of discounting prior information or scaling up the study data was evaluated.Results: Results based on noninformative priors were similar to the classical approach. Using priors from PTPs lowered the point estimate and narrowed the 95% credible intervals (Case 1: from 1.3 [0.5, 2.7] to 0.8 [0.5, 1.1]; Case 2: from 1.9 [0.6, 6.0] to 0.8 [0.5, 1.1]; Case 3: 2.3 [0.5, 6.8] to 0.7 [0.5, 1.1]. All probabilities of satisfying a threshold of 1/86 were above 0.65. Increasing the number of patients by two and ten times substantially narrowed the credible intervals for the single cohort study (1.4 [0.7, 2.3] and 1.4 [1.1, 1.8], respectively. Increasing the number of studies by two and ten times for the multiple study scenarios (Case 2: 1.9 [0.6, 4.0] and 1.9 [1.5, 2.6]; Case 3: 2.4 [0.9, 5.0] and 2.6 [1.9, 3.5], respectively had a similar effect.Conclusion: Bayesian approach as a robust, transparent, and reproducible analytic method can be efficiently used to estimate the inhibitor rate of hemophilia A in complex clinical settings. Keywords: inhibitor rate, meta-analysis, multicentric study, Bayesian, hemophilia A

  4. A Bayesian semiparametric approach for incorporating longitudinal information on exposure history for inference in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Dhiman; Daniels, Michael J; Kim, Sungduk; Ghosh, Malay; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2012-06-01

    In a typical case-control study, exposure information is collected at a single time point for the cases and controls. However, case-control studies are often embedded in existing cohort studies containing a wealth of longitudinal exposure history about the participants. Recent medical studies have indicated that incorporating past exposure history, or a constructed summary measure of cumulative exposure derived from the past exposure history, when available, may lead to more precise and clinically meaningful estimates of the disease risk. In this article, we propose a flexible Bayesian semiparametric approach to model the longitudinal exposure profiles of the cases and controls and then use measures of cumulative exposure based on a weighted integral of this trajectory in the final disease risk model. The estimation is done via a joint likelihood. In the construction of the cumulative exposure summary, we introduce an influence function, a smooth function of time to characterize the association pattern of the exposure profile on the disease status with different time windows potentially having differential influence/weights. This enables us to analyze how the present disease status of a subject is influenced by his/her past exposure history conditional on the current ones. The joint likelihood formulation allows us to properly account for uncertainties associated with both stages of the estimation process in an integrated manner. Analysis is carried out in a hierarchical Bayesian framework using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. The proposed methodology is motivated by, and applied to a case-control study of prostate cancer where longitudinal biomarker information is available for the cases and controls. PMID:22313248

  5. The traditional healer's approach to the treatment of obsessional neurosis. A case study at Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N; Ohaeri, J U

    1989-10-01

    This paper presents a case study of a Nigerian traditional healer's methods of treating obsessional thinking. Under supervision, two psychology students of the University of Ibadan watched several sessions during the treatment of a woman suffering from obsessional thoughts in a traditional healer's home. The mental state of the woman was assessed by a clinical interview at the beginning and end of the course of treatment, and the traditional healer was interviewed after each session. The healer used psychological and physical methods of treatment. Supernatural forces were implicated as being aetiological to this disorder. Elements of Western psychological medical methods (such as environmental manipulation, enquiry into the unconscious motivation of behaviour, and suggestion through incantation) were evident in this practice, although applied without the systematic coherence of clinical medicine. Physical methods included the oral administration of a variety of roots and leaves and bathing with a local soap. The paper calls for some form of cooperation with these native healers in health care delivery. PMID:2635457

  6. The traditional healer's approach to the treatment of obsessional neurosis. A case study at Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N; Ohaeri, J U

    1989-10-01

    This paper presents a case study of a Nigerian traditional healer's methods of treating obsessional thinking. Under supervision, two psychology students of the University of Ibadan watched several sessions during the treatment of a woman suffering from obsessional thoughts in a traditional healer's home. The mental state of the woman was assessed by a clinical interview at the beginning and end of the course of treatment, and the traditional healer was interviewed after each session. The healer used psychological and physical methods of treatment. Supernatural forces were implicated as being aetiological to this disorder. Elements of Western psychological medical methods (such as environmental manipulation, enquiry into the unconscious motivation of behaviour, and suggestion through incantation) were evident in this practice, although applied without the systematic coherence of clinical medicine. Physical methods included the oral administration of a variety of roots and leaves and bathing with a local soap. The paper calls for some form of cooperation with these native healers in health care delivery.

  7. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  8. Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by introducing an unsupervised learning algorithm called k-means clustering. An intrinsic method known as silhouette coefficient was used to measure the classification quality. An identification process is also discussed in this paper to help users identify the operation mode each types of operation cycle stands for. A case study using a typical household refrigerator is presented to validate the proposed method. Results show that the proposed the classification and identification method can partition and identify different operation cycles adequately. Classification of operation cycles for such appliances is beneficial for Smart Grid as it provides a clear and convincing understanding of the operation modes for effective power management.

  9. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO4 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O4 materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra.

  10. Strategic Planning Approaches for Creating Resilient Cities: A Case Study on Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Dan; Hua; Chen

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the population in China will be increasingly urbanized – focusing the sustainability challenge on cities and raising new challenges to address the urban resilience capacity. During the past two decades, China’s urban policies are state institution-directed, growth-oriented, and land-based, imposing unprecedented challenges on sustainability. Strengthening the capacity of cities to manage resilience appears to be a key factor for cities to effectively pursue sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to explore strategic planning approaches for creating resilient cities in China through a study on Hangzhou City in an integrated framework. Firstly, the paper gives a systematic insight into the structure of Hangzhou City. Secondly, the development trajectory of the urban system is analyzed to understand how the past has shaped the present and to get a broader perspective on its evolution. Thirdly, scenario planning is conducted to explore the adaptive capacity of Hangzhou City under different future conditions. At last, having analyzed the past, present, and future of the urban system, the paper discusses the strategies for resilient planning, which helps to identify factors and trends that might enhance or inhabit the adaptability.

  11. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    between this phytochemical approach and the traditional morphometrical analysis in studying the Helichrysum populations supports the validity of the VOC profile in solving taxonomic problems. PMID:27502926

  12. A multi-range approach for Cultural Heritage survey: a case study in Mantua Unesco site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, S.; Cremonesi, S.; Fregonese, L.; Fassi, F.; Taffurelli, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a Cultural Heritage survey, performed by employing and integrating different type of acquisition technologies (imagebased and active sensor based) is presented. The aim of the survey is to create a 3D multiscale database, therefore, different restitution scales, from the architectural-urban one to a detail one are taken in consideration. This research is part of a project financed by the Unesco for the study of historical gardens located in Mantua and Sabbioneta, and in particular for the Palazzo Te renaissance gardens in Mantua, which are reported in this paper. First of all, a general survey of the area has been realized by employing the classical aerial photogrammetry in order to provide the actual arboreal and urban furniture conditions of the gardens (1:500 scale). Next, a detailed photogrammetric survey of the Esedra courtyard in Palazzo Te has been performed by using a UAV system. At the end, laser scanning and traditional topography have been used for the terrestrial detailed acquisition of gardens and architectural façades (1:50-1:20 scale). The aim of this research is to create a suitable graphical documentation support for the study of the structure of the gardens, to analyze how they have been modified over the years and as an effective support for eventual future re-design. Moreover, the research has involved a certain number of botanic and archeological investigations, which have been duly acquired and modeled with image based systems. Starting from the acquired datasets with their acquisition scales, a series of comparative analysis have been performed, especially for those areas in which all the systems have been employed. The comparisons have been extracted by analyzing point cloud models obtained by using a topographical network. As a result, the multi-range approach efficiency, obtained by employing the actual available technologies have been illustrated in the present work.

  13. Exploring fire dynamics with BFAST approach: case studies in Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Verbesselt, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of wildfire and extreme post-fire climatic events, (e.g. droughts or torrential rainfall), may result in long windows of disturbance - challenging the overall resilience of Mediterranean ecosystems and communities. The notion that increased fire frequency and severity may reduce ecosystem resilience has received much attention in Mediterranean regions in recent decades. Careful evaluation of vegetation recovery and landscape regeneration after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. In this study, an extension of Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST) is proposed as an ideal approach to monitor change and assess fire dynamics at the landscape level based on analysis of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, TERRA) time series. To this end, satellite images of three vegetation indices (VIs), the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used. The analysis was conducted on areas affected by wildfires in the Sardinia region (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. Some land surface (LS) descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI) and fire characteristics (e.g. pre-fire trend & VI, change magnitude, current VI) were extracted to characterize the post-fire evolution of each site within a fifteen-year period (2000-2015). Resilience was estimated using a classic linear function, whereby recovery rates were compared to regional climate data (e.g. water balance) and local landscape components (e.g.topography, land use and land cover). The methodology was applied according to land cover type (e.g. mixed forest, maquis, shrubland, pasture) within each fire site and highlighted the challenge of isolating effects and quantifying the role of fire regime characteristics on resilience in a dynamic way when considering large, heterogeneous areas. Preliminary findings can be outlined as follows: I. NBR showed it was most effective at

  14. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  15. Narrative Approaches to Organizational Development: A Case Study of Implementation of Collaborative Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, William C

    2016-06-01

    Across North America, community agencies and state/provincial jurisdictions are embracing family-centered approaches to service delivery that are grounded in strength-based, culturally responsive, accountable partnerships with families. This article details a collaborative consultation process to initiate and sustain organizational change toward this effort. It draws on innovative ideas from narrative theory, organizational development, and implementation science to highlight a three component approach. This approach includes the use of appreciative inquiry focus groups to elicit existing best practices, the provision of clinical training, and ongoing coaching with practice leaders to build on those better moments and develop concrete practice frameworks, and leadership coaching and organizational consultation to develop organizational structures that institutionalize family-centered practice. While the article uses a principle-based practice framework, Collaborative Helping, to illustrate this process, the approach is applicable with a variety of clinical frameworks grounded in family-centered values and principles.

  16. Narrative Approaches to Organizational Development: A Case Study of Implementation of Collaborative Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, William C

    2016-06-01

    Across North America, community agencies and state/provincial jurisdictions are embracing family-centered approaches to service delivery that are grounded in strength-based, culturally responsive, accountable partnerships with families. This article details a collaborative consultation process to initiate and sustain organizational change toward this effort. It draws on innovative ideas from narrative theory, organizational development, and implementation science to highlight a three component approach. This approach includes the use of appreciative inquiry focus groups to elicit existing best practices, the provision of clinical training, and ongoing coaching with practice leaders to build on those better moments and develop concrete practice frameworks, and leadership coaching and organizational consultation to develop organizational structures that institutionalize family-centered practice. While the article uses a principle-based practice framework, Collaborative Helping, to illustrate this process, the approach is applicable with a variety of clinical frameworks grounded in family-centered values and principles. PMID:27080245

  17. GRAPH THEORETICAL AND NETWORKS APPROACH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LEARNING MODEL – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF. DR. P. K. SRIMANI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the graph theoretical approach for developing a framework for the Learning model used to optimise the Mathematical Pathway in children at the elementary level and verifying it by usingNetworks model. Data collected pertaining to the mathematical concepts a child needs to learn at elementary level [Class I to VII] is represented by using Concept Flow Graphs and are optimized by using graph theory techniques and algorithms by rearranging nodes as per the learning progression, partitioning the graphs into subgraphsto represent levels of learning, optimizing the sub-graphs using merging and elimination technique and identifying / marking the optional nodes. The design of the framework by using the graph theoretical approach is validated by the application of the Networks approach and this is used to design the Mathematical Pathwaydriver which is the core component of the Learning model. This approach is novel and the Learning model developed is highly accurate.

  18. A staggered approach to flash flood forecasting a case study in the Cevennes region

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Smith, P J; J. Thielen-del Pozo; Beven, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    A staggered approach to flash flood forecasting is developed within the IMPRINTS project (FP7-ENV-2008-1-226555). Instead of a single solution system, a chain of different models and input data is being proposed that act in sequence and provide decision makers with information of increasing accuracy in localization and magnitude as the events approach. The first system in the chain is developed by adapting methodologies of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) to forecast f...

  19. Management of interdisciplinary project approaches in Engineering Education : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rui M.; Carvalho, Dinis; Sousa, Rui M.; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes project management processes of coordination teams, in the implementation of interdisciplinary project approaches in Engineering Education. These interdisciplinary projects are based on the Project-Led Education (PLE) concept and are being implemented since 2004/2005 in the Industrial Management and Engineering (IME) master degree course (1st and 2nd cycle of Engineering Education) at University of Minho. Usually, these approaches involve a coordination tea...

  20. A Case Study of Teaching New College English Integrated Course in an Interactive Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莹

    2008-01-01

    New College English Integrated Course book integrates all four skins rather than emphasizing one particular skill in isola tion. Because integrated skills are at the heart of the text book, the interactive approach would be the best choice to maximize op portunities for students to develop their language skills and abilities. This paper introduces the organization and important features of text book, and then explaim with an example how the interactive approach is embodied in the practical classroom teaching.

  1. An inquiry-based approach to Maxwell distribution: a case study with engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of distribution is a fundamental component of statistical thinking. This paper describes a teaching approach for it that uses a specific activity related to the field of statistical mechanics. The concept of the velocity distribution of a particle system is dealt with using an inquiry-based approach involving an experimental examination of Maxwell's distribution. Some outcomes of a teaching experiment held at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Palermo, Italy are described. (paper)

  2. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%. PMID:26253498

  3. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, C. M.; Selicato, M.

    2013-01-01

    During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA), in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  4. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Torre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During centuries, seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats, and consequently their carrying capacity that permits to guest many essential functions.

    Low-impact activities are often replaced on the surface by new intensive others that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine of reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is an essential tool of decision support and of monitoring.

    The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been subject of study and modeling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analisys (DSDA, in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  5. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Torre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA, in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  6. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  7. Application Of Decision Tree Approach To Student Selection Model- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwati; Sudiya, Amby

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the institution is to provide quality education to the students and to improve the quality of managerial decisions. One of the ways to improve the quality of students is to arrange the selection of new students with a more selective. This research takes the case in the selection of new students at Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. One of the university's selection is through filtering administrative selection based on the records of prospective students at the high school without paper testing. Currently, that kind of selection does not yet has a standard model and criteria. Selection is only done by comparing candidate application file, so the subjectivity of assessment is very possible to happen because of the lack standard criteria that can differentiate the quality of students from one another. By applying data mining techniques classification, can be built a model selection for new students which includes criteria to certain standards such as the area of origin, the status of the school, the average value and so on. These criteria are determined by using rules that appear based on the classification of the academic achievement (GPA) of the students in previous years who entered the university through the same way. The decision tree method with C4.5 algorithm is used here. The results show that students are given priority for admission is that meet the following criteria: came from the island of Java, public school, majoring in science, an average value above 75, and have at least one achievement during their study in high school.

  8. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr

    2015-09-15

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO{sub 4} (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O{sub 4} materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra. - Graphical abstract: Scheelites AMO{sub 4} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids with high specific surface areas and narrow size distributions. The optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Ca

  9. Ontology-based approach for in vivo human connectomics: the medial Brodmann area 6 case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan eMoreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different non-invasive neuroimaging modalities and multi-level analysis of human connectomics datasets yield a great amount of heterogeneous data which are hard to integrate into an unified representation. Biomedical ontologies can provide a suitable integrative framework for domain knowledge as well as a tool to facilitate information retrieval, data sharing and data comparisons across scales, modalities and species. Especially, it is urgently needed to fill the gap between neurobiology and in vivo human connectomics in order to better take into account the reality highlighted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and relate it to existing brain knowledge. The aim of this study was to create a neuroanatomical ontology, called Human Connectomics Ontology (HCO, in order to represent macroscopic gray matter regions connected with fiber bundles assessed by diffusion tractography and to annotate MRI connectomics datasets acquired in the living human brain. First a neuroanatomical view called NEURO-DL-FMA was extracted from the reference ontology Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA in order to construct a gross anatomy ontology of the brain. HCO extends NEURO-DL-FMA by introducing entities (such as MR_Node and MR_Route and object properties such as tracto_connects pertaining to MR connectivity. The Web Ontology Language Description Logics (OWL DL formalism was used in order to enable reasoning with common reasoning engines. Moreover, an experimental work was achieved in order to demonstrate how the HCO could be effectively used to address complex queries concerning in vivo MRI connectomics datasets. Indeed, neuroimaging datasets of five healthy subjects were annotated with terms of the HCO and a multi-level analysis of the connectivity patterns assessed by diffusion tractography of the right medial Brodmann Area 6 was achieved using a set of queries. This approach can facilitate comparison of data across scales, modalities and species.

  10. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. PMID:27110976

  11. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens.

  12. Human-centered approaches in geovisualization design: investigating multiple methods through a long-term case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Dykes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and developed with collaborators. These processes take time but modified human-centred approaches can be effective. A scenario developed through contextual inquiry but supplemented with domain data and graphics is useful to geovis designers. Wireframe, paper and digital prototypes enable successful communication between specialist and geovis domains when incorporating real and interesting data, prompting exploratory behaviour and eliciting previously unconsidered requirements. Paper prototypes are particularly successful at eliciting suggestions, especially for novel visualization. Enabling specialists to explore their data freely with a digital prototype is as effective as using a structured task protocol and is easier to administer. Autoethnography has potential for framing the design process. We conclude that a common understanding of context of use, domain data and visualization possibilities are essential to successful geovis design and develop as this progresses. HC approaches can make a significant contribution here. However, modified approaches, applied with flexibility, are most promising. We advise early, collaborative engagement with data – through simple, transient visual artefacts supported by data sketches and existing designs – before moving to successively more sophisticated data wireframes and data prototypes. PMID:22034371

  13. Human-centered approaches in geovisualization design: investigating multiple methods through a long-term case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Dykes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and developed with collaborators. These processes take time but modified human-centred approaches can be effective. A scenario developed through contextual inquiry but supplemented with domain data and graphics is useful to geovis designers. Wireframe, paper and digital prototypes enable successful communication between specialist and geovis domains when incorporating real and interesting data, prompting exploratory behaviour and eliciting previously unconsidered requirements. Paper prototypes are particularly successful at eliciting suggestions, especially for novel visualization. Enabling specialists to explore their data freely with a digital prototype is as effective as using a structured task protocol and is easier to administer. Autoethnography has potential for framing the design process. We conclude that a common understanding of context of use, domain data and visualization possibilities are essential to successful geovis design and develop as this progresses. HC approaches can make a significant contribution here. However, modified approaches, applied with flexibility, are most promising. We advise early, collaborative engagement with data – through simple, transient visual artefacts supported by data sketches and existing designs – before moving to successively more sophisticated data wireframes and data prototypes.

  14. Pollutant fates in fluvial systems: on need of individual approach to each case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Novakova, Tereza

    2015-04-01

    deposition in a channel belt and subsequent secondary pollution via physical mobilisation, most pollution storing in the floodplain in a surprisingly heterogeneous manner - in hotspots with a size comparable to fragments of abandoned channels (from a few to few tens of metres). The hotspots are hence best revealed by well-designed field analysis using portable instruments (gamma spectrometry or XRF). The Litavka is specific because most pollution is in its floodplain in the form of anthropogenic alluvium, a very thick vertical accretion body of "artificial" material added to the river system in the amount exceeding its normal transport capacity. That situation favours secondary pollution by chemical mobilisation of pollutants under low river discharges revealed by geochemical analysis. Our case studies show that simple "rules" such as continuous decay of pollutant concentrations downstream from the pollution source, existence of a continuous blanket of polluted overbank fines in floodplain, simple change of the pollution extent with growing distance from the river channel and as a consequence of extreme floods, or simple recipes such as low-density sampling to trace point pollution sources are too simplistic to be applicable in real polluted fluvial systems. Each river system represents a nearly unique combination of individual geomorphic processes, and each pollution has been specific by the mode how it entered the fluvial system. We will not offer "magic tools" in our contribution. In literature we can find all pieces we need for the jigsaw puzzle - pollutants fates in fluvial systems. The question is why so rarely researchers put them together. We would like to encourage them to do so.

  15. A Fuzzy-AHP-QFD approach for achieving lean attributes for competitive advantages development, Case study: The Staam Sanat Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Roghanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the new producing approaches, lean production has brought in new opportunities for producers all around the world. Many producers have adopted the technique for surviving the growing world market. By combining competitive advantages, lean attributes, and lean enablers as three factors, the present study attempts to determine the most suitable enablers for improvement of lean attributes in a case study. Quality Function Deployment (QFD in fuzzy environment and House of Quality (HOQ matrix, successfully employed for development of new products, are adopted as approach of the study. Weights of competitive advantages, lean attributes and enablers are calculated through fuzzy analysis hierarchy process (FAHP, while fuzzy logarithmic least square method (LLSM is used in calculation of the weights. Throughout the methodology, fuzzy logic is the basis for translating linguistic judgments required for the relationships and correlation matrix to numerical values. Moreover, final ranking of lean enablers is represented through area ranking method and taking into account various techniques of decision makers’ risk. Finally, a case study in automotive industry is introduced to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  16. A Comparative Study of Ab-Initio Thermal Conductivity Approaches: The Case of Cubic Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lindsay, Lucas; Broido, David; Stewart, Derek

    2013-03-01

    Given its high strength and large thermal conductivity, cubic boron nitride (cBN) provides an important complement to diamond films for heat spreading applications. However, cBN, in contrast to diamond, is a polar material with significant LO-TO splitting in the phonon dispersion. In this talk, we examine the lattice thermal conductivity of cBN using several approaches based on first principles calculations. These approaches include: (1) an analytic modified Callaway-Debye model that relies on parameters from ab-initio harmonic force constants, (2) a fully self-consistent calculation of the thermal conductivity that links an iterative solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with harmonic and anharmonic interatomic force constants. The force constants for the BTE are calculated using two approaches: density functional perturbation theory and a real-space supercell approach. We will compare the results from these approaches, highlight the role of normal phonon-phonon scattering, and also examine the impact of optical modes and LO-TO splitting. In addition, we will discuss how isotope scattering affects thermal conductivity and compare this to other boron nitride structures (hexagonal BN, BN sheets and BN nanotubes).

  17. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  18. Experimenting with distributed approaches - Case study: A 'national-level' distributed dialogue on bioenergy in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta

    2016-05-01

    An emerging thread in the public participation debate is the need for innovative and more experimental forms of dialogue to address weaknesses of previous structured deliberative methods. This research note discusses an experiment with a distributed approach to dialogue, which used bioenergy as a case study. We discuss the potential of the model to attract a variety of publics and views and to inform policy. This is done with a view to refining future dialogues and increasing the involvement of scientists and other practitioners at the science-policy interface.

  19. PLS path model building: A multivariate approach to land price studies-A case study in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Wu; Wenzhong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that statistical methods can be used to analyze land-leasing parcel data. However, the conventional statistical methods used in land analysis have some limitations, especially in cases of limited observational data. In this paper, with the help of geographic information system (GIS) techniques, a partial least squares (PLS) path model is applied to study the relationship between residential land prices and various determinants through a case study of Beijing in China. From a preliminary analysis, four latent variables are selected: accessibility of the workplace center, livability, traffic, and environment facilities. The results show that the observation variables have a strong explanatory power for their corresponding latent variables, and the four latent variables have varying impacts on residential land prices. Of the latent variables, accessibility to the workplace center has the strongest impact on the residential land price.

  20. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Caitlin E; Main, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape. We

  1. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  2. An Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approach to Social Phobia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…

  3. The Portfolio Selection by Using Quadratic Programming Approach Case Study of Malaysia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    YOUSFAT, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the quadratic approach to select the optimum portfolio of the Malaysian stovk exchange. This framework deals with ten biggest firms posted on the stock exchange during 2014. The result shows that the optimum portfolio includes 22 % of Axiata Group shares, 11% of Genting shares, 30 % of Petronas Chemicals shares, 1% of Sime Darbi shares and 36 % of Tenaga Nasional shares.

  4. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  5. Knowledge Management through the E-Learning Approach-- A Case Study of Online Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichouni, Mohamed; Benchicou, Soraya; Nehari, Dris

    2013-01-01

    Though it is universally accepted that the face-to-face approach is the best way for education and training, however, with the advent of the information and communication technologies (mainly the World Wide Web) it became possible to enhance further the methods we are using to teach our students and to share the teaching material within a broaden…

  6. Variations in Decision-Making Approach to Tertiary Teaching: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Tien

    2016-01-01

    Although the question of what to teach and how to teach has received much attention from the literature, little was known about the way in which academics in teaching groups make decision on what and how to teach. This paper reports an analysis of variations in the decision-making approach to tertiary teaching through academics' practices of…

  7. University Strategic Planning and the Foresight/Futures Approach: An Irish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Ronaldo; McConnell, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The contemporary university operates within a global context characterized by ever-increasing uncertainty and complexity. Strategic planning must, therefore, be cognizant of future trends and how those trends will affect the university by creating both threats and opportunities. Our hypothesis is that an approach we refer to as "strategic…

  8. Meta-Learning Approach for Automatic Parameter Tuning: A Case Study with Educational Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M. M.; Luna, J. M.; Romero, C.; Ventura, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to the use of a meta-learning approach for automatic parameter tuning of a well-known decision tree algorithm by using past information about algorithm executions. Fourteen educational datasets were analysed using various combinations of parameter values to examine the effects of the parameter values on accuracy classification.…

  9. Balancing uncertainty of context in ERP project estimation: an approach and a case 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maya

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solutions as well as the high rates of troubled ERP implementations and outright cancellations calls for developing effort estimation practices to systematically deal with uncertainties in ERP projects. This paper describes an approach - a

  10. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  11. Implementing a blended learning approach in a further education college : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Aileen

    2009-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Blended or hybrid learning refers to learning which is provided through any combination of instructional modalities, both physical and virtual. It combines concepts, methods, processes, tools and pedagogic styles to achieve a holistic learner centred approach to teaching and learning and has become evermore dynamic thanks to the evolution of web 2.0 technologies and open source software. The operational delivery of blended learning can also be supported by the use of a Co...

  12. Managing change in performance measures – An inter-company case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, M; Cedergren, S.

    2012-01-01

    The field of performance measurement and management (PMM) is well filled with frameworks, models and guidelines addressing what to measure and how to design a performance measurement system (PMS). However, what has been less examined so far is how to ensure that PM evolve in tandem with their environments. Further, the few approaches available today are prescriptive and outlines how or what practitioners should do in order to manage change in their PM. Thus, a gap exists in understanding how ...

  13. Supervised extensions of chemography approaches: case studies of chemical liabilities assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Bykov, Arseniy A; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu.; Dyachkov, Evgeny P; Kireeva, Natalia V

    2014-01-01

    Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in modern drug discovery process. In silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Herein, we propose an approach combining several classification and chemography methods to be able to predict chemical liabilities and to interpret obtained results in the context of impact of structural chan...

  14. The Portfolio Selection by Using Quadratic Programming Approach Case Study of Malaysia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YOUSFAT

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the quadratic approach to select the optimum portfolio of the Malaysian stovk exchange. This framework deals with ten biggest firms posted on the stock exchange during 2014. The result shows that the optimum portfolio includes 22 % of Axiata Group shares, 11% of Genting shares, 30 % of Petronas Chemicals shares, 1% of Sime Darbi shares and 36 % of Tenaga Nasional shares.

  15. An approach to cork oak forest management planning: a case study in southwestern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    A. Costa; A.C. Oliveira; Vidas, F.; J. G. Borges

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of research aiming at the development of tools that may enhance cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forest management planning. Specifically, it proposes an hierarchical approach that encompasses the spatial classification of a cork oak forest and the temporal scheduling of cork harvests. The use of both geographical information systems and operations research techniques is addressed. Emphasis is on the achievement of cork even flow objectives. Resu...

  16. Representation a Model of Organizational Culture Management with Contextual Approach (Case Study: An Industrial Company)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadesmaeil Ansari; Ali Shaemi Barzoki; Ali Safari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is representation a model of organizational culture in an industrial company with contextual approach in diagnostic of present and desire organizational culture and suggestions about organizational culture change for obtain desire culture. For this purpose, three questions designed and in based on, the model of cultural management represented. For gathering data observation, semi structure interview and researcher designed questionnaire were used.Observation and se...

  17. Understanding the Economics of Electronic Identity: Theoretical Approaches and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoikkanen, Anssi; Bacigalupo, Margherita; Lusoli, Wainer; Maghiros, Ioannis; Nikolov, Stavri

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the economics of electronic identity (eIdentity) from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Personal identity data are becoming increasingly important in online transactions, and they have never been monetised to the extent they are today. Consequently, there is a need for an improved understanding of the economic externalities resulting from the electronic use of identities in transactions. In this context, we distinguish four main theoretical approaches for under...

  18. Bottom-up approach for decentralised energy planning: Case study of Tumkur district in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralized Energy Planning (DEP) is one of the options to meet the rural and small-scale energy needs in a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable way. The main aspect of the energy planning at decentralized level would be to prepare an area-based DEP to meet energy needs and development of alternate energy sources at least-cost to the economy and environment. Present work uses goal-programming method in order to analyze the DEP through bottom-up approach. This approach includes planning from the lowest scale of Tumkur district in India. The scale of analysis included village level-Ungra, panchayat level (local council)-Yedavani, block level-Kunigal and district level-Tumkur. The approach adopted was bottom-up (village to district) to allow a detailed description of energy services and the resulting demand for energy forms and supply technologies. Different scenarios are considered at four decentralized scales for the year 2005 and are developed and analyzed for the year 2020. Decentralized bioenergy system for producing biogas and electricity, using local biomass resources, are shown to promote development compared to other renewables. This is because, apart from meeting energy needs, multiple goals could be achieved such as self-reliance, local employment, and land reclamation apart from CO2 emissions reduction.

  19. Jane Addams Resource Corporation: A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy K.; Nelson, Candace; Thompson, Jeffery W.

    This case study on the Jane Addams Resource Corporation (JARC) is the third of six sectoral studies to provide an in-depth look at individual sectoral employment development programs and their interaction within distinct economic and industry environments. It explores a community-based organization that developed specialized metalworking and…

  20. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  1. 案头案例研究方法分析%An Introduction to A Desk Case Study Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周力虹; 罗立国; 李旭光; 李琴

    2013-01-01

      理论创新并非必须基于对所采集的一手数据的运用和分析。阐述和讨论案头案例定性研究方法,在综述和分析国外相关研究的基础上,构建严谨的理论和应用模型,并通过研究项目实例来展现和阐释该研究方法运用于信息科学研究中的技术细节。%It is not always compulsory to use first-hand primary data in order to achieve theoretical innovation. This paper presents and discusses a desk case study research approach as a qualitative research methodology. Through in-depth exploration and analysis of its theo-retical foundation, establishing application model and theoretical framework, this paper aims at providing a schematic roadmap to the im-plementation of the desk case study research approach

  2. Development of a Portfolio Management Approach with Case Study of the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Kurt W.; Hartman, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    A portfolio management approach was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Airspace Systems Program (ASP). The purpose was to help inform ASP leadership regarding future investment decisions related to its existing portfolio of advanced technology concepts and capabilities (C/Cs) currently under development and to potentially identify new opportunities. The portfolio management approach is general in form and is extensible to other advanced technology development programs. It focuses on individual C/Cs and consists of three parts: 1) concept of operations (con-ops) development, 2) safety impact assessment, and 3) benefit-cost-risk (B-C-R) assessment. The first two parts are recommendations to ASP leaders and will be discussed only briefly, while the B-C-R part relates to the development of an assessment capability and will be discussed in greater detail. The B-C-R assessment capability enables estimation of the relative value of each C/C as compared with all other C/Cs in the ASP portfolio. Value is expressed in terms of a composite weighted utility function (WUF) rating, based on estimated benefits, costs, and risks. Benefit utility is estimated relative to achieving key NAS performance objectives, which are outlined in the ASP Strategic Plan.1 Risk utility focuses on C/C development and implementation risk, while cost utility focuses on the development and implementation portions of overall C/C life-cycle costs. Initial composite ratings of the ASP C/Cs were successfully generated; however, the limited availability of B-C-R information, which is used as inputs to the WUF model, reduced the meaningfulness of these initial investment ratings. Development of this approach, however, defined specific information-generation requirements for ASP C/C developers that will increase the meaningfulness of future B-C-R ratings.

  3. The Development of Quality Control Genotyping Approaches: A Case Study Using Elite Maize Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafa; Zavala, Cristian; Ortega, Noemi; Petroli, Cesar; Franco, Jorge; Burgueño, Juan; Costich, Denise E; Hearne, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Quality control (QC) of germplasm identity and purity is a critical component of breeding and conservation activities. SNP genotyping technologies and increased availability of markers provide the opportunity to employ genotyping as a low-cost and robust component of this QC. In the public sector available low-cost SNP QC genotyping methods have been developed from a very limited panel of markers of 1,000 to 1,500 markers without broad selection of the most informative SNPs. Selection of optimal SNPs and definition of appropriate germplasm sampling in addition to platform section impact on logistical and resource-use considerations for breeding and conservation applications when mainstreaming QC. In order to address these issues, we evaluated the selection and use of SNPs for QC applications from large DArTSeq data sets generated from CIMMYT maize inbred lines (CMLs). Two QC genotyping strategies were developed, the first is a "rapid QC", employing a small number of SNPs to identify potential mislabeling of seed packages or plots, the second is a "broad QC", employing a larger number of SNP, used to identify each germplasm entry and to measure heterogeneity. The optimal marker selection strategies combined the selection of markers with high minor allele frequency, sampling of clustered SNP in proportion to marker cluster distance and selecting markers that maintain a uniform genomic distribution. The rapid and broad QC SNP panels selected using this approach were further validated using blind test assessments of related re-generation samples. The influence of sampling within each line was evaluated. Sampling 192 individuals would result in close to 100% possibility of detecting a 5% contamination in the entry, and approximately a 98% probability to detect a 2% contamination of the line. These results provide a framework for the establishment of QC genotyping. A comparison of financial and time costs for use of these approaches across different platforms is

  4. The Development of Quality Control Genotyping Approaches: A Case Study Using Elite Maize Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafa Chen

    Full Text Available Quality control (QC of germplasm identity and purity is a critical component of breeding and conservation activities. SNP genotyping technologies and increased availability of markers provide the opportunity to employ genotyping as a low-cost and robust component of this QC. In the public sector available low-cost SNP QC genotyping methods have been developed from a very limited panel of markers of 1,000 to 1,500 markers without broad selection of the most informative SNPs. Selection of optimal SNPs and definition of appropriate germplasm sampling in addition to platform section impact on logistical and resource-use considerations for breeding and conservation applications when mainstreaming QC. In order to address these issues, we evaluated the selection and use of SNPs for QC applications from large DArTSeq data sets generated from CIMMYT maize inbred lines (CMLs. Two QC genotyping strategies were developed, the first is a "rapid QC", employing a small number of SNPs to identify potential mislabeling of seed packages or plots, the second is a "broad QC", employing a larger number of SNP, used to identify each germplasm entry and to measure heterogeneity. The optimal marker selection strategies combined the selection of markers with high minor allele frequency, sampling of clustered SNP in proportion to marker cluster distance and selecting markers that maintain a uniform genomic distribution. The rapid and broad QC SNP panels selected using this approach were further validated using blind test assessments of related re-generation samples. The influence of sampling within each line was evaluated. Sampling 192 individuals would result in close to 100% possibility of detecting a 5% contamination in the entry, and approximately a 98% probability to detect a 2% contamination of the line. These results provide a framework for the establishment of QC genotyping. A comparison of financial and time costs for use of these approaches across different

  5. Cost Allocation of Multiagency Water Resource Projects: Game Theoretic Approaches and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Davos, Climis A.

    1995-05-01

    Water resource projects are often jointly carried out by a number of communities and agencies. Participation in a joint project depends on how costs are allocated among the participants and how cost shares compare with the cost of independent projects. Cooperative N-person game theory offers approaches which yield cost allocations that satisfy rationality conditions favoring participation. A new solution concept, the normalized nucleolus, is discussed and applied to a water reuse project in southern California. Results obtained with the normalized nucleolus are compared with those derived with more traditional solution concepts, namely, the nucleolus and the Shapley value.

  6. System Dynamics Approach to Urban Water Demand Forecasting A Case Study of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongwei; ZHANG Xuehua; ZHANG Baoan

    2009-01-01

    A system dynamics approach to urban water demand forecasting was developed based on the analysis of urban water resources system.which was characterized by multi.feedback and nonlinear interactions among system elements.As an example,Tianjin water resources system dynamic model was set up to forecast water resources demand of the planning years.The practical verification showed that the relative error was lower than 1O%.Furthermore,through the comparison and analysis of the simulation results under different development modes presented in this paper.the forecasting results ofthe water resources demand ofTianiin was achieved based on sustainable utilization strategy of water resources.

  7. Analysis Of A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach Of Air Pollution: Building A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Daniel NEAGU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates the necessity of an Artificial Intelligence (AI-based approach of air quality in urban and industrial areas. Some related results of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs and Fuzzy Logic (FL for environmental data are considered: ANNs are proposed to the problem of short-term predicting of air pollutant concentrations in urban/industrial areas, with a special focus in the south-eastern Romania. The problems of designing a database about air quality in an urban/industrial area are discussed. First results confirm ANNs as an improvement of classical models and show the utility of ANNs in a well built air monitoring center.

  8. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  9. Using the social entrepreneurship approach to generate innovative and sustainable malaria diagnosis interventions in Tanzania: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatfield Jennifer M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1 identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2 recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3 engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4 remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5 sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities.

  10. Are individual based models a suitable approach to estimate population vulnerability? - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available European populations of the Large Blue Butterfly Maculinea arion have experienced severe declines in the last decades, especially in the northern part of the species range. This endangered lycaenid butterfly needs two resources for development: flower buds of specific plants (Thymus spp., Origanum vulgare, on which young caterpillars briefly feed, and red ants of the genus Myrmica, whose nests support caterpillars during a prolonged final instar. I present an analytically solvable deterministic model to estimate the vulnerability of populations of M. arion. Results obtained from the sensitivity analysis of this mathematical model (MM are contrasted to the respective results that had been derived from a spatially explicit individual based model (IBM for this butterfly. I demonstrate that details in landscape configuration which are neglected by the MM but are easily taken into consideration by the IBM result in a different degree of intraspecific competition of caterpillars on flower buds and within host ant nests. The resulting differences in mortalities of caterpillars lead to erroneous estimates of the extinction risk of a butterfly population living in habitat with low food plant coverage and low abundance in host ant nests. This observation favors the use of an individual based modeling approach over the deterministic approach at least for the management of this threatened butterfly.

  11. Doing it with mirrors: a case study of a novel approach to neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, K; Greenspan, A I; Wolf, S L

    2000-01-01

    Arm amputees can experience the perception of movement of a phantom limb while looking at a mirror reflection of the moving, intact arm superimposed on the perceived phantom. Such use of a mirror to provide illusory visual feedback of movement can be useful in rehabilitation of hemiparetic patients. In this case report, we describe the successful application of "mirror therapy" to the post-stroke rehabilitation of a patient with poor functional use of an upper extremity, due mainly to somatosensory deficits. Mirror therapy facilitated employment of a motor copy strategy (bimanual movements) and later progression to "forced use" of the affected arm. The end result was increased functional use of the affected upper limb. PMID:11228952

  12. A Contrastive Approach to Discourse Particles--A Case Study of the Mandarin UFP Ne 呢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈承熹

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes a contrastive approach to the analysis of the utterance-final particle (UFP) ne 呢 by isolating two core properties: (a) a necessity to look back for contrast and (b) a demand to continue. From these two core properties all the meanings and interpretations can be directly or indirectly derived. On the basis of the analysis, the paper proposes a 3-level semantic-pragmatic system for the UFP. As a particle, ne is identified as a discourse marker to increase relevance for discourse-pragmatic purposes. When compared with the structural schema from the grammaticalizaton point of view, the proposed pragmatic operational system shows a remarkable difference in terms of its core properties. While the historically oriented analyses take semantic properties as the core, such as "interrogation" in Qi (2002) and "unchanged state" in Tsao (2000), the proposed system takes communicative functions as its core properties.

  13. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  14. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach--acute appendicitis masquerading as macroamylasaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Muniappan; Salam, Imroz

    2008-05-01

    Macroamylasaemia is a condition in which serum amylase is elevated in the presence of a low to normal urinary amylase and normal renal function. It is rare but can masquerade as other clinical disorders. Discussed here is a case report of a patient who presented initially with abdominal pain (later recognized as being due to gangrenous appendicitis) and in whom there was a very high serum amylase level, leading to an erroneous initial diagnosis and management as acute pancreatitis. The CT scan of the abdomen was normal without any evidence of pancreatitis. Subsequently, the renal amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (C(am)/C(cr)) was found to be low, being characteristic and diagnostic of macroamylasaemia; the latter was, in turn, the cause for the elevated serum amylase level. The underlying macroamylasaemia had thus masqueraded as pancreatitis. The patient underwent appendicectomy and hence made an excellent recovery. It is vitally important to recognize this condition in order to avoid both an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment/management.

  15. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach--acute appendicitis masquerading as macroamylasaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Muniappan; Salam, Imroz

    2008-05-01

    Macroamylasaemia is a condition in which serum amylase is elevated in the presence of a low to normal urinary amylase and normal renal function. It is rare but can masquerade as other clinical disorders. Discussed here is a case report of a patient who presented initially with abdominal pain (later recognized as being due to gangrenous appendicitis) and in whom there was a very high serum amylase level, leading to an erroneous initial diagnosis and management as acute pancreatitis. The CT scan of the abdomen was normal without any evidence of pancreatitis. Subsequently, the renal amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (C(am)/C(cr)) was found to be low, being characteristic and diagnostic of macroamylasaemia; the latter was, in turn, the cause for the elevated serum amylase level. The underlying macroamylasaemia had thus masqueraded as pancreatitis. The patient underwent appendicectomy and hence made an excellent recovery. It is vitally important to recognize this condition in order to avoid both an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment/management. PMID:18595630

  16. An improved MCDM method for maintenance approach selection: A case study of auto industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Aghaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current competitive environment, managers have been making attempts to convert organizations under their supervision into competitive and responsive through creating capability of timely delivery of quality products and services. In line with this, maintenance as a system plays an important role in achieving these goals. The maintenance strategy selection is a kind of multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problem, which requires considering a large number of complex factors as multiple evaluation criteria. A robust MCDM method should consider the interactions among criteria. The analytic network process (ANP is a relatively new MCDM method, which can deal with all kinds of interactions systematically. Moreover, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL not only can convert the relations between cause and effect of criteria into a visual structural model, but also can be used as a way to handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. Hence, this paper proposes an effective solution based on a combined ANP and DEMATEL approach to help vehicle companies that need to evaluate and select maintenance strategies.

  17. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  18. Steps towards incorporating heterogeneities into program theory: A case study of a data-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Jones, Bobby; Caudill, Barry; Nakaima, April

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a framework that can help refine program theory through data explorations and stakeholder dialogue. The framework incorporates the following steps: a recognition that program implementation might need to be multi-phased for a number of interventions, the need to take stock of program theory, the application of pattern recognition methods to help identify heterogeneous program mechanisms, and stakeholder dialogue to refine the program. As part of the data exploration, a method known as developmental trajectories is implemented to learn about heterogeneous trajectories of outcomes in longitudinal evaluations. This method identifies trajectory clusters and also can estimate different treatment impacts for the various groups. The framework is highlighted with data collected in an evaluation of an alcohol risk-reduction program delivered in a college fraternity setting. The framework discussed in the paper is informed by a realist focus on "what works for whom under what contexts." The utility of the framework in contributing to a dialogue on heterogeneous mechanism and subsequent implementation is described. The connection of the ideas in paper to a 'learning through principled discovery' approach is also described. PMID:27344483

  19. QFD-ANP Approach for the Conceptual Design of Research Vessels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kambagowni; Yeshwanth Sai, Koneru; Suresh, Challa

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual design is a subset of concept art wherein a new idea of product is created instead of a visual representation which would directly be used in a final product. The purpose is to understand the needs of conceptual design which are being used in engineering designs and to clarify the current conceptual design practice. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer oriented design approach for developing new or improved products and services to enhance customer satisfaction. House of quality (HOQ) has been traditionally used as planning tool of QFD which translates customer requirements (CRs) into design requirements (DRs). Factor analysis is carried out in order to reduce the CR portions of HOQ. The analytical hierarchical process is employed to obtain the priority ratings of CR's which are used in constructing HOQ. This paper mainly discusses about the conceptual design of an oceanographic research vessel using analytical network process (ANP) technique. Finally the QFD-ANP integrated methodology helps to establish the importance ratings of DRs.

  20. A multiscale modeling approach to inflammation: A case study in human endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Jeremy D.; Mavroudis, Panteleimon D.; Foteinou, Panagiota T.; An, Gary; Calvano, Steve E.; Doyle, John; Dick, Thomas E.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2013-07-01

    Inflammation is a critical component in the body's response to injury. A dysregulated inflammatory response, in which either the injury is not repaired or the inflammatory response does not appropriately self-regulate and end, is associated with a wide range of inflammatory diseases such as sepsis. Clinical management of sepsis is a significant problem, but progress in this area has been slow. This may be due to the inherent nonlinearities and complexities in the interacting multiscale pathways that are activated in response to systemic inflammation, motivating the application of systems biology techniques to better understand the inflammatory response. Here, we review our past work on a multiscale modeling approach applied to human endotoxemia, a model of systemic inflammation, consisting of a system of compartmentalized differential equations operating at different time scales and through a discrete model linking inflammatory mediators with changing patterns in the beating of the heart, which has been correlated with outcome and severity of inflammatory disease despite unclear mechanistic underpinnings. Working towards unraveling the relationship between inflammation and heart rate variability (HRV) may enable greater understanding of clinical observations as well as novel therapeutic targets.

  1. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: Pocahontas II – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT. The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant errors are related to syntax, spelling, style, length of sentences, lack of clarity, and gender-related issues. These errors though made by one subtitler who has translated the animation feature film Pocahontas II released in 2012, are still typical and therefore a thorough investigation has been done and a set of linguistic rules has been suggested as a guideline for the audiovisual industry. These rules are to be added to the technical and software requirements sent by subtitling companies (such as the number of characters per line, the font, the reading speed per minute, and punctuation. This set of rules helps monitor the quality of the subtitled target text (TT.    Keywords: audiovisual translation, subtitling, quality assessment, practical functional approach, Arabic-English simulation

  2. Remote sensing based approach for monitoring urban growth in Mexico city, Mexico: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obade, Vincent

    The world is experiencing a rapid rate of urban expansion, largely contributed by the population growth. Other factors supporting urban growth include the improved efficiency in the transportation sector and increasing dependence on cars as a means of transport. The problems attributed to the urban growth include: depletion of energy resources, water and air pollution; loss of landscapes and wildlife, loss of agricultural land, inadequate social security and lack of employment or underemployment. Aerial photography is one of the popular techniques for analyzing, planning and minimizing urbanization related problems. However, with the advances in space technology, satellite remote sensing is increasingly being utilized in the analysis and planning of the urban environment. This article outlines the strengths and limitations of potential remote sensing techniques for monitoring urban growth. The selected methods include: Principal component analysis, Maximum likelihood classification and "decision tree". The results indicate that the "classification tree" approach is the most promising for monitoring urban change, given the improved accuracy and smooth transition between the various land cover classes

  3. An Approach to Composition Based on a Minimal Techno Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bougaïeff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines key issues relating to minimal techno, a sub-genre of electronic dance music (EDM) that emerged in the early 1990s. These key issues are the aesthetics, composition, performance, and technology of minimal techno, as well as the economics of EDM production. The study aims to answer the following question. What is the musical and social significance of minimal techno production and performance? The study is conducted in two parts. The history of minimal music is ...

  4. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinal cord injury: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with consequences such as full loss of spinal movements, incontinence of bladder functions, bed sores, etc. There is no satisfactory treatment available in biomedicine with only limited treatments only for enhancement of spinal cord function. These treatments have many limitations. Ayurvedic drugs and Pancakarma procedures have been in use to treat such conditions since a long time. We present a case of SCI with lesion at C4 level which was treated for 2 months with an Ayurvedic combined intervention. The combined treatment plan involved Ayurvedic oral medications (Brhadvātacintāmaṇi rasa - 125 mg, Ardhanāgavātāri rasa - 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha - 40 ml, Aśvagandhācūrṇa [powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL] - 3 g, Amṛtā [Tinospora cordifolia WILLD] - 500 mg, Muktāśukti piṣṭi - 500 mg and Trayodaśāṅga guggulu - 500 mg) twice daily. Combined procedures involved such as śāliṣaṣṭika piṇḍasvedana (sudation with medicated cooked bolus of rice) every day for 2 months and Mātrā basti (enema) for first 15 days with Aśvagandhā oil. From 16(th) day, Mustādi yāpana basti (MYB, enema with medicated milk) was given for 16 days. After an interval of 7 days, MYB was further repeated for next 16 days. Substantial clinical improvement was reported after 2 months of the Ayurvedic treatment in existing neurological deficits and in quality of life. PMID:26283809

  5. Assessing Agricultural Sustainable Development Based on the DPSIR Approach:Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-dong; Felix Mueller; Benjamin Burkhard; CAO Xing-jin; HOU Ying

    2013-01-01

    According to the contemporary ecosystem approach, the linkages of human actions with their environment have to be assessed in an integrative manner. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model is applied to identify and describe processes and interactions in human-environmental systems. An example application from a research project dealing with the development of sustainable management strategies for the agriculture in Jiangsu, China, illustrates the potentials and limitations of its sustainable development. The concept and indicators of ecological integrity are used to assess the indicators in the dimensions of DPSIR between 2003 and 2006. The main drivers included population growth which caused increasing demand for food, growing environmental demands, and rapidly decreasing of land and other natural resources. The main environmental problem was water pollution. The results show that in the dimension of driver, total grain output and agricultural land productivity both increased. Labor intensive agriculture has been promoted to increase agricultural land productivity. In the dimension of pressure, on the positive side, infrastructure got greatly improved, the input level such as total power of machinery, and level of fertilizer use increased, and level of pesticides use decreased, but on the negative side, cultivated land per capita and irrigation rate decreased, natural resources keep decreased. Environmental pollution indicators such as industrial wastewater discharge and acid rain rate increased in Jiangsu Province. In the aspect of state, ecosystem state was improved, plant coverage index increased, biological abundance index increased, fertilizer productivity increased, eco-environmental quality index increased, but land degradation index also increased. In the aspect of impact, output level increased, output efficiency enhanced, farmer’s social economic benefit improved. In the aspect of response, social support was greatly improved, input

  6. Planning approaches for Rurban areas: Case studies from Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busck, A.G.; Hidding, M.C.; Kristensen, S.B.P.; Persson, C.; Praestholm, S.

    2009-01-01

    Past and current impacts of climate change on three small islands, Ontong Java, Bellona and Tikopia, in the Solomon Islands are studied on the basis of a survey of production systems, household questionnaires and key informant and group interviews. Perceptions of the local population are compared to

  7. A multiple case study approach to work stress prevention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Cooper, C.L.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Work stress has become a major issue among European employees. The current practice of its prevention seems disappointing, as work stress prevention programmes are predominantly reactive and biased to the individual. The lack of organization-level intervention studies is a barrier to progress in red

  8. An ontological modeling approach to cerebrovascular disease studies : The NEUROWEB case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombo, Gianluca; Merico, Daniele; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; De Paoli, Flavio; Ellul, John; Frisoni, Giuseppe; Nagy, Zoltan; van der Lugt, Aad; Vassanyi, Istvan; Antoniotti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The NEUROWEB project supports cerebrovascular researchers' association studies, intended as the search for statistical correlations between a feature (e.g., a genotype) and a phenotype. In this project the phenotype refers to the patients' pathological state, and thus it is formulated on the basis o

  9. Japanese Approaches to Organizational Internationalization of Universities: A Case Study of Three National University Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Yuki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to develop an understanding of the internationalization processes at universities in Japan by exploring a strategic model in internationally oriented universities. Universities in Japan have experienced university reform since the 1990s. The role and system of Japanese universities have been re-examined due to an emerging global…

  10. Quantitative urban climate mapping based on a geographical database: A simulation approach using Hong Kong as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Ng, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The urban environment has been dramatically changed by artificial constructions. How the modified urban geometry affects the urban climate and therefore human thermal comfort has become a primary concern for urban planners. The present study takes a simulation approach to analyze the influence of urban geometry on the urban climate and maps this climatic understanding from a quantitative perspective. A geographical building database is used to characterize two widely discussed aspects: urban heat island effect (UHI) and wind dynamics. The parameters of the sky view factor (SVF) and the frontal area density (FAD) are simulated using ArcGIS-embedded computer programs to link urban geometry with the UHI and wind dynamic conditions. The simulated results are synergized and classified to evaluate different urban climatic conditions based on thermal comfort consideration. A climatic map is then generated implementing the classification. The climatic map shows reasonable agreement with thermal comfort understanding, as indicated by the biometeorological index of the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) obtained in an earlier study. The proposed climate mapping approach can provide both quantitative and visual evaluation of the urban environment for urban planners with climatic concerns. The map could be used as a decision support tool in planning and policy-making processes. An urban area in Hong Kong is used as a case study.

  11. Market orientation and service quality of public sector sport and recreation providers: a case study approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont-Kerridge, John

    2001-01-01

    This study examines market orientation and service quality constructs within the public sector sport and recreation providers in the U.K. A preliminary review of the literature regarding marketing as a concept, its implementation and the constructs of service quality concludes that two models measure the constructs of market orientation and service quality adequately. These are the Kohli and Jaworski (1990) market orientation model and the Cronin and Taylor (1992; 1994) service quality mea...

  12. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin E Jacobs; Main, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model co...

  13. Systemic Design approach applied to building. Analysis and comparison of international case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Montrucchio, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis starts from the assumption that design is becoming more and more like a platform connecting various fields of knowledge. In particular in this thesis the design discipline is adopted to investigate issues concerning buildings (from architecture to technical plants) in order to reach a minimization of resource depletion and a reduction of costs. The decision to focus this study on the built environment field is due to two main factors: the huge environmental impact which has derive...

  14. A case study of Facebook marketing approaches of two Nepali companies

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Sudeep Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Facebook marketing as a social media is an online communication that creates an avenue for companies to reach out to their customers. Nowadays, Facebook has become an effective and cheap medium to market products and services with higher positive results and feedbacks. The main objective of this thesis was to explore whether two Nepali companies Muncha.com and Thamel.com are able to promote their goods and services through Facebook or not. Moreover, this thesis will also study the overall...

  15. Interdisciplinary approaches to better understand the past tsunamis -Case study of the 1771 Meiwa Tsunami, Japan-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is important to know frequency and magnitude of past tsunamis over hundred to thousand years to better understand the risk from low-frequency large tsunamis. Historical documents, archeological evidence, and sediments laid down by tsunamis in coastal environments are useful for understanding the past tsunamis. Among them, tsunami geology has become a subject of great interest since the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, Japan. This is because the 2011 tsunami was suspected as a recurrence of the AD869 Jogan tsunami, which was well known based on the geological and historical evidence. Our newly acquired geological data on the 2011 tsunami however, suggest that previous estimates of the Jogan tsunami have probably been underestimated [Goto et al., 2011]. This suggests that more interdisciplinary research is needed to better understand the historical and prehistoric tsunamis. As an example of the interdisciplinary research to better understand the past tsunami, here I review the studies of the AD1771 Meiwa Tsunami and its predecessors that struck the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Reliable historical documents suggest run-up heights of up to 30 m for this tsunami [e.g. Goto et al., 2010], which are well supported by the archeological evidence as well as local traditions. Moreover, the displacement of specific coral boulders by the tsunami is also described in detail. Geological studies and numerical modeling of the boulder transport by the tsunami further revealed that many coral boulders of several hundred tons were deposited by the tsunami [e.g. Goto et al., 2010]. Based on such researches, the source model for the tsunami was estimated by the high-resolution numerical modeling, although it remains still controversial. Our study suggests that all available historical, geological, and archaeological data should be collected to better estimate the historical and prehistoric tsunami source model. The field evidences are still increasing for the 1771 Meiwa Tsunami

  16. A diachronic approach of landscape changes. Case study: Morii Lake and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Alina Ristea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify specific characteristics of urban development in the category of complex facilities within cities. The study aims to identify changes that took place in the urban landscape, near Morii Lake on Dâmboviţa River, changes with a significant impact on the natural and anthropogenic environment. The analysis follows space functionality structure, whose evolution is basically modified. The communist period of the 80's, the one of great constructions, includes the design of Morii dam, based on the overall goal of protecting the capital from Dâmboviţa's floods. The interpretation of the results is oriented towards a complete picture of the advantages and disadvantages of building a dam lake within an urban area. The changes that took place both during and after the construction of Morii Lake, led to impregnation of another aspect of the landscape in the area. Among the visible effects, as a result of demolitions and displacements from the adjacent area, blocks of flats and villas were built, some agricultural area from the past have been left without use, nowadays attempting the tourist development of the area. For a better understanding and visualization of the results, databases were represented using GIS techniques.

  17. Theoretical approaches to bird migration. The white stork as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2008-04-01

    Birds are often considered to be one of the best studied groups of organisms. However, only a few investigations have been devoted to a theoretical analysis of avian migration patterns in time and space. This paper is meant to be a first step into this direction. We start by presenting different types of observational data sets that are available and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for use in quantitative analysis of bird movement and migration. Based on ring recovery and satellite telemetry data we perform a statistical analysis of the migratory patterns of the white stork Ciconia ciconia. We find that standard methods from random walk theory can be applied, but have to be carefully interpreted and possibly modified to analyse migration movement data which are dominated by seasonal drift. Our analysis reveals two different modes of movement fast, directed migration and slow, undirected resting. Furthermore, we present a conceptional network model of avian migration. In our model a number of discrete breeding, resting and wintering habitats are linked by migration in the form of seasonally driven transition probabilities that are described by a unimodal circular function of time. Our study emphasises the need for more rigorous quantitative data analysis and mathematical modelling to gain a better understanding of the dynamic processes of avian migration.

  18. Priorities of the Nurse Schedule by using MODM Approach: A case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Abtahi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling and planning for allocating resources to the activities so that the activities can be done in the best manner and resources allocated appropriately is one of the most important problems of management and operation research. The hospitals are one of the organizations that face with this problem in allocating nurses to the shifts in the most appropriate time period so precisely that the defections could not be eliminated and the goals are achieved. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop a model for nurse scheduling through goal programing technique. The proposed model includes different purposes as its goals and strives to achieve them. This model can be used for solving similar problems in the urgency units in hospitals. This problem has been solved by Lingo 8 and finally its results have been compared with the results of manual methods.

  19. STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS SIZING OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN SPACE APPROACH: CASE STUDY FOR RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  20. An integrated approach to safety-driven and ICT-enabled process reengineering: methodological advice and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures.

  1. Teaching compound words to a spelling-disabled child via Smart Notebook Technology: Α case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styliani N. Tsesmeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The case-study aims to examine the effectiveness of training of morphological structure on the spelling of compounds by a spelling-disabled primary school student. The experimental design of the intervention was based on the word-pair paradigm and included a pre-test, a training program and a post-test (n= 50 pairs. The Training Program aimed to offer systematic, targeted and step-by-step instruction of morphological decomposition of words to the student and delivered via the Smart Notebook educational software. The intervention had a substantial impact in enhancing the spelling of compounds by the individual. Especially, instructional gains were statistically significant, and generalized substantially to untrained but analogous words and pseudowords in terms of structure and common stems. These findings are particularly important for the development of alternative approaches to the educational interventions of individuals with spelling difficulties and developmental dyslexia, and are consistent with the experimental literature.

  2. An integrated approach to safety-driven and ICT-enabled process reengineering: methodological advice and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures. PMID:24943545

  3. Digital Earth, a new approach for geoconservation: case study of Hexigten Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwen; Tian, Mingzhong; Shi, Wenqiang

    2010-11-01

    Though Digital Earth (DE) has been adopted in the nature conservation, its application in geoheritage conservation is still rather limited. Geoheritage are usually distributed over extensive areas, posing great problems to actual conservation. The Digital Earth is a useful tool for systematic spatial accounts and data management. The aim of this article is attempting to apply DE in geoconservation. The Hexigten Global Geopark (HGG) in Inner Mongolia of China, which covers an area of 1783.58km2, was chosen as the study area. This paper was composed of five sections. The first section, we briefly reviewed the origin of geoheritage and developments of world geoconservation, and present the justifications of adopting DE for it. In the second and third section, DE is a comprehensive, massively distributed geographic information and knowledge organization system, so we developed a theoretic frame based on it, which can be applied in geoheritage survey, resources appraisal, geoconservation planning, research and public. The fourth section, DE platforms - Google Earth and Skyline Globe Pro were as tools for geoheritage surveying and zoning of HGG. Finally, we draw conclusions that DE can be applied in geoheritage conservation limitedly today; however, excellent characteristics such VR earth, geo-library and digital atlas has huge potential for geoconservation.

  4. Cross Innovation approach and the creative industries: a case study in the city of Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Mendes Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the cultural diversity of Europe, and the inextricable link between culture and creativity, creative industries also represent a great asset and a source of global competitive advantage. In this regard the EU launched the project Cross Innovation, aimed at identifying and sharing innovative experiences among the participating cities, and more specifically seeking to identify how the creative industries can interact with other industries in other sectors. This project was taken part by 11 European cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Birmingham, Stockholm, Linz, Lisbon, Pilsen, Vilnius, Warsaw, Rome and Tallinn. The purpose of this article is to describe the process performed in Europe and show that this can be used by other cities and even other regions to leverage the innovation process using the potential of the creative industry. It was utilized a documentary research on the project (reports, websites, documents submitted by respondents and there was performed a field study, with personal interviews with those responsible for the agencies involved in the project (Town Hall, University of Lisbon, companies, including others in one of the participant cities: the city of Lisbon, in Portugal. When researching the results of this project, specifically in the city of Lisbon, it is seen that there was learning in the sense of how the city can arrange a mediation policy from this process of rapprochement between the sectors of the economy of a region and Creative Industries, and the results in terms of knowledge generation are visible.

  5. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  6. Earthquake hazard in northeast India – A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds – a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively. The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in the broad northeast Indian region, implicates scenario earthquakes of 8.3 and 8.7 to the respective study regions for deterministic seismic hazard assessments. The microzonation approach as undertaken in the present analyses involves multi-criteria seismic hazard evaluation through thematic integration of contributing factors. The geomorphological themes for Sikkim Himalaya include surface geology, soil cover, slope, rock outcrop and landslide integrated to achieve geological hazard distribution. Seismological themes, namely surface consistent peak ground acceleration and predominant frequency were, thereafter, overlaid on and added with the geological hazard distribution to obtain the seismic hazard microzonation map of the Sikkim Himalaya. On the other hand, the microzonation study of Guwahati city accounts for eight themes – geological and geomorphological, basement or bedrock, landuse, landslide, factor of safety for soil stability, shear wave velocity, predominant frequency, and surface consistent peak ground acceleration. The five broad qualitative hazard classifications – `low’, `moderate’, `high’, `moderate high’ and `very high’ could be applied in both the cases, albeit with different implications to peak ground acceleration variations. These developed hazard maps offer better representation of the local specific seismic hazard variation in the terrain.

  7. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.

  8. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions. PMID:25053006

  9. Do assorted approaches aid in estimation of uronic acids? Case studies on Tinospora sinensis polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Nagar, Shipra; Tripathi, Y C

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides containing uronic acids are of immense biological significance. Colorimetric methods using different chromogens have been explored for uronic acid estimation in polysaccharides but these methods counter numerous difficulties, when neutral sugars are present in substantial amount. The uronic acid content of cold water-soluble polysaccharide (CWSP) and hot water-soluble polysaccharide (HWSP) isolated from Tinospora sinensis, widely known for marked therapeutic significance has been studied. The uronic acid was quantitatively estimated by spectrophotometric methods using carbazole, 3-phenylphenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol (DMP) vis-a-vis gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis. Galacturonic acid in CWSP and HWSP was estimated as 1.41% and 1.20% respectively. The findings bring to light, the efficacy of chromogens and also reveal to what extent, they could be relied upon. The results also indicated higher specificity and selectivity of DMP over carbazole and 3-phenylphenol. However, GLC analysis despite time consuming remains the finest method for precise estimation of uronic acids. Further, GLC analysis of alditol acetates indicated the monosugar composition of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-galactose and D-glucose in molar ratio 0.178, 0.259, 0.140, 1.045 and 98.377 in CWSP and L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose and D-glucose in molar ratio 0.608, 0.628, 0.978, 0.227, 0.111 and 97.448 in HWSP respectively. PMID:25034757

  10. A global approach to a transport system for radioactive waste-case study: radioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the year 1984 in France: radionuclides in unsealed sources, used in medical circles represent 4812 Ci (4812 x 37 GBq) of which 80% for Technetium 99 m alone. The market for these products has expanded greatly in fifteen years, by at least a factor of 6. the parcels are in the number of at least 200 000 of which 120 000 parcels are A labelled containing radiopharmaceutical preparations administered in vivo and radiochemical preparations used in vitro or in research. the users are few in number, 375 in all, of whom 127 are Departments of Nuclear Medicine who are the principal users; deliveries are very regular and are made along some large axes. transport accidents are extremely rare. the dosimetric data of workers are of a quality and equivalent of the collective dose for workers is in the order of 0.42 h.Sv; furthermore this equivalent of the collective dose has been recognisably the same for 15 years despite the increases in personnel and production; within the present framework of regulations concerning transport of the parcels, radioprotection of workers depends on the ethics of the suppliers. The drivers, who transport radioactive parcels only are regularly exposed to more than 10 mSv per year and the study of this group of workers should be a priority. The distribution of the doses received by packers in the large transit centres is not known. The equivalent of the collective public dose, due to the transport of these unsealed sources for medical use must be between 0.01 h.Sv and 0.1 h.Sv

  11. A Bayesian Semiparametric Approach for Incorporating Longitudinal Information on Exposure History for Inference in Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadra, Dhiman; Daniels, Michael J.; Kim, Sungduk; Ghosh, Malay; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2012-01-01

    In a typical case-control study, exposure information is collected at a single time-point for the cases and controls. However, case-control studies are often embedded in existing cohort studies containing a wealth of longitudinal exposure history on the participants. Recent medical studies have indicated that incorporating past exposure history, or a constructed summary measure of cumulative exposure derived from the past exposure history, when available, may lead to more precise and clinical...

  12. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  13. Multidate remote sensing approaches for digital zoning of terroirs at regional scales: case studies revisited and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Carey, Victoria A.; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    Geospatial technologies prove more and more useful for characterizing terroirs and this, not only at the within-field scale: amongst innovating technologies revolutionizing approaches for digitally zoning viticultural areas, be they managed by individual or cooperative grape growers, or even unions of grape growers, multispectral satellite remote sensing data have been used for 15 years already at either regional or whole-vineyard scale, starting from single date-studies to multi-temporal processings. Regional remotely-sensed approaches for terroir mapping mostly use multispectral satellite images in conjunction with a set of ancillary morphometric and/or geomorphological and/or legacy soil data and time series data on grape/wine quality and climate. Two prominent case-studies of regional terroir mapping using SPOT satellite images with medium spatial resolution (20 m) were carried out in the Southern Rhone Valley (Côtes-du-Rhône controlled Appelation of origin) in Southern France and in the Stellenbosch-Paarl region (including 5 Wine of Origin wards: Simonsberg-Stellenbosch, Simonsberg-Paarl, Jonkershoek Valley, Banghoek and Papegaaiberg and portions of two further wards, namely, Franschoek and Devon Valley) in the South Western Cape of South Africa. In addition to emphasizing their usefulness for operational land management, our objective was to develop, compare and discuss both approaches in terms of formalization, spatial data handling and processing, sampling design, validation procedures and/or availability of uncertainty information. Both approaches essentially relied on supervised image classifiers based on the selection of reference training areas. For the Southern Rhone valley, viticultural terroirs were validated using an external sample of 91 vineyards planted with Grenache Noir and Syrah for which grape composition was available over a large 17 years-period: the validation procedure highlighted a strong vintage effect for each specific terroir. The

  14. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-05-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  15. Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored...

  16. LEADERSHIP APPROACH IN SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN GHANA : A Case Study Of Data Bank Financial Service Limited-Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ashie, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    The viability of any organization begins from the fundamental leadership approach or principle adopted. Studies have shown that leadership approach could be a contributing factor to the success or failure of any institution. The purpose of this research was to examine the leadership approach in the small scale industries in Ghana. Transformational, Transactional and Laissez-fair forms are the three types of leadership styles reviewed in this study while employee dedication was also considered...

  17. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  18. Effectiveness of constructivist approach on students achievement in mathematics: A case study at primary school in Kuantan, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Syafiza Saila; Ujang, Suriyati; Sahlan, Nor Fasiha

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted on students in Year 3 at Sekolah Kebangsaan Air Putih, Kuantan. The study used a constructivism approach in simplest fraction topic in Mathematics. Students were divided into 2 groups; the control group and the experimental group. Experimental group was taught using Constructivist Approach whereas the control group student was taught using the Traditional Approach. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of constructivist learning approach the topic of Simplest Fraction. It also aimed to compare the student's achievement between the constructivist approach and traditional approach. This study used the instrument in pre-test, post-test, questionnaires and observation. The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 for window. The finding shows there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test for experimental group after using constructivism approach in learning process. The mean scores (76.39) of the post-test is higher than the mean scores (60.28) for pre-test. It is proved that constructivist approach is more efficient and suitable for teaching and learning in simplest fraction topic in the classroom compared to traditional approaches. The findings also showed interest and the positive perception of this approach.

  19. The Case Study Technologies as the Means of Competency Building Approach Realization in Higher Education of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrafikova, Albina R.; Konopatskaya, Ekaterina A.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of increasing education efficiency in Russian high school under the condition of well-organized educational process with using "Case-study" technology is considered in the article. The article is devoted to the methodology of case study, and especially its implementation in Kazan Federal University, the Institute of Philology…

  20. Global approach to ecological qualification of industrial products: Leather industry case-study; La qualificazione ecologica dei prodotti industriali: il case-study della produzione conciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, G. [Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Rome (Italy); Bufalo, G. [Potenza Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Agraria; Manzo, G. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Economia e Commercio

    1994-09-01

    This paper deals with both economic and technical points of view of the arising question of ecological normalization of industrial products, for instance via informative quality marks. This is accomplished introducing adequate definitions of terms and specifications of objectives, based on such ecological criteria as global life-cycle of the product (`from cradle to grave`) and energy and matter complete process balance. In order to explain a concrete analysis of similar labelling and computing procedures, the specific case-study of environmental impact of leather goods was faced up. Regulation and deregulation measures of public policy concerning the environmental questions are also discussed, some emphasis doing on the normalization tools as ecolabel and ecoaudits. Finally economic analysis of ecological products is performed, involving concepts as ecological value, net added value, utilization value and ecological premium-price. Environmental factory costs for pollution control are so firstly changed in ecological quality characteristics and next in competitive market opportunities.

  1. Examining the Approaches of Customer Segmentation in a Cosmetic Company: A Case Study on L'oreal Malaysia SDN BHD

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Poh Choo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the market segmentation approaches available and identify which segmentation approaches best suit for L’Oreal Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires were distributed to 80 L’Oreal cosmetic users in Malaysia and 55 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Besides, two interviews being conducted at L’Oreal Malaysia office and the result were analyzed too. Findings – The results were as follows. First, analysis of L’Oreal cos...

  2. A multi-disciplinary approach to study coastal complex landslides: the case of Torino di Sangro (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Marco; Carabba, Luigi; Urbano, Tullio; Calista, Monia

    2016-04-01

    This work illustrates the studies carried out on a complex landslide phenomenon between the Sangro and Osento River's mouths, near Torino di Sangro village in Southern Abruzzo Region (Italy). Historical activity of this landslide is well-documented since 1916; the activation/reactivation of the movements caused several interruptions of a national railway and the damage of few houses. The Torino di Sangro case study can be regarded as representative of many large landslides distributed along the central Adriatic coast (e.g., Ancona, Ortona, Vasto and Petacciato Landslides) that affect densely populated urban areas with a large amount of man-made infrastructure. The main controlling factors of these large and deep-seated landslides are still debated. From the geological and geomorphological viewpoint, the central Adriatic coast is characterized by a low-relief landscape (mesa) carved on clay-sandstone-conglomerate bedrock belonging to the Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene marine deposits and locally to the Middle Pleistocene marine to continental transitional deposits. This high coast is widely affected by slope instability (rock falls, rotational, complex and shallow landslides) on both active and inactive sea cliffs, the first being mainly affected by wave-cut erosion and the latter influenced by heavy rainfall and changes of pore pressure. The main landslide has the typical characteristics of a deep-seated gravitation deformation. The landslide study was based on a multidisciplinary approach including: 1) definition and GIS mapping of geology and geomorphology factors (slope, aspect, topographic curvature, bedrock lithology, near-surface deposits, deposit thickness and land use), by means of DTM processing, multi-temporal analysis, and large-scale geomorphological field survey; 2) monitoring system in the landslide; 3) application of empiric models for the analysis of unstable sandstone-conglomerate escarpments; 4) slope stability analysis performed using a

  3. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  4. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  5. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  6. Biological control of aphids in wheat and vegetable crops : a multi-approach case study in Shandong province (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas; Bosquée, Emilie; Chen, Julian; Yong, Liu; Bragard, Claude; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This multi-approach study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the effectiveness of different biological control methods against aphids in wheat and vegetable crops. Three approaches were tested: (1) wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations, (2) potatoes/peas association, and (3) E-β-farnesene (aphid alarm pheromone) releasers in squashes under plastic tunnels. Aphids and aphidophagous beneficials were monitored by observations on plants. Wheat associations and E-β-fa...

  7. USING THE BUSINESS ENGINEERING APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS FOR A LARGE CORPORATION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Moll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most South African organisations were historically part of a closed competitive system with little global competition and a relatively stable economy (Manning: 18, Sunter: 32. Since the political transformation, the globalisation of the world economy, the decline of world economic fundamentals and specific challenges in the South African scenario such as GEAR and employment equity, the whole playingfield has changed. With these changes, new challenges ', appear. A significant challenge for organisations within this scenario is to think, plan and manage strategically. In order to do so, the organisation must understand its relationship with its environment and establish innovative new strategies to manipulate; interact with; and ultimately survive in the environment. The legacy of the past has, in many organisations, implanted an operational short-term focus because the planning horizon was stable. It was sufficient to construct annual plans rather than strategies. These plans were typically internally focused rather than driven by the external environment. Strategic planning in this environment tended to be a form of team building through which the various members of the organisation 's management team discussed and documented the problems of the day. A case study is presented of the development of a strategic management process for a large South African Mining company. The authors believe that the approach is a new and different way of addressing a problem that exists in many organisations - the establishment of a process of strategic thinking, whilst at the same time ensuring that a formal process of strategic planning is followed in order to prompt the management of the organisation for strategic action. The lessons that were drawn from this process are applicable to a larger audience due to the homogenous nature of the management style of a large number of South African organisations.

  8. Toward a Conceptual Synthesis and Ecological Approach to Case Studies of Curricular Innovation Implementation and University Restructuring in Russian HE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with the application of disconnected frameworks of organizational theory and case studies, focused on "efficiency, effectiveness, and economy" to investigate complex educational phenomena in post-Soviet higher education systems under the condition of…

  9. A Descriptive Case Study of Appreciative Inquiry as an Approach to Strategic Planning for Special Education in a Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Paul L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe appreciative inquiry (AI) as an approach to strategic planning for special education in a public school. The study investigated four research questions. How do plans for special education emerge as participants engage in the four phases of AI during strategic planning for the future of special education in a…

  10. A model for personnel selection with a data mining approach: A case study in a commercial bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The success or failure of an organisation has a direct relationship with how its human resources are employed and retained.Research purpose: In this paper, a decision-making tool is provided for managers to use during the recruitment process. The effective factors in employees’ performance will be identified by discovering covert patterns of the relationship between employees’ test scores and their performance at work.Motivation for the study: Large amounts of information and data on entrance evaluations and processes have been kept in organisations. There is a need to discover the pattern in the relationship between employee’s test scores and their performance at work as a tool for use during the recruitment process.?Research design, approach and method: The data mining technique that was used in this project serves as the decision tree. Rules derivation was accomplished by the Quick Unbiased and Efficient Statistical Tree(QUEST, Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID,C5.0 and Classification And Regression Tree  (CART algorithm. The objective and the appropriate algorithm were determined based on seemingly ‘irrelevant’ components, which the Commerce Bank Human Resources management’s experts describe.Main finding: It was found that the ‘performance assessment’ variable was not considered as the objective. Also, it was concluded that out of 26 effective variables only five variables, such as province of employment, education level, exam score, interview score and work experience, had the most effect on the ‘promotion score’ target.Practical/managerial implication: The database and personnel information of the Commerce Bank of Iran (in 2005 and 2006 was studied and analysed as a case study in order to identify the labour factors that are effective in job performance. Appropriate and scientific employment of staff that were selected from the entrance exams of companies and organisations

  11. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  12. Identifying Effective Pedagogical Approaches for Online Workplace Training: A case study of the South African wood products manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. Macdonald

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated appropriate pedagogical techniques for workplace e-learning programs in the South African wood products (furniture manufacturing sector. The study found that learners responded favourably to constructivist teaching approaches, such as asynchronous discussions, open-ended task-based activities, and assignments incorporating authentic, real-world examples. Learners viewed constructivist activities to be more useful than quizzes and traditional essay-based assignments, as they allowed new concepts to be learned in context and were perceived to promote deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nevertheless, they valued the inclusion of a blend of pedagogical approaches in the course design, as this enabled them to approach and analyze new concepts in an assortment of ways. Learners placed importance on regular interaction with other learners and course instructors, and were strongly in favour of including face-to-face components in Web-based courses.

  13. Accuracy evaluation of different statistical and geostatistical censored data imputation approaches (Case study: Sari Gunay gold deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ghane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the geochemical datasets include missing data with different portions and this may cause a significant problem in geostatistical modeling or multivariate analysis of the data. Therefore, it is common to impute the missing data in most of geochemical studies. In this study, three approaches called half detection (HD, multiple imputation (MI, and the cosimulation based on Markov model 2 (MM2 are used to impute the censored data. According to the fact that the new datasets have to satisfy the original data underlying structure, the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS approach has been used to explore the validity of different imputation methods. Log-ratio transformation (alr transformation was performed to open the closed compositional data prior to applying the MDS method. Experiments showed that, based on the MDS approach, the MI and the MM2 could not satisfy the original underlying structure of the dataset as well as the HD approach. This is because these two mentioned approaches have produced values higher than the detection limit of the variables.

  14. Nursing students' experiences with and strategic approaches to case-based instruction: a replication and comparison study between two disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Rosanna; Hayward, Lorna; Lynch, Marcia

    2002-04-01

    In the classroom and in clinical areas, knowing how to learn, reason, reflect, think creatively, generate and evaluate ideas, make decisions, and solve problems have been identified as key elements of critical thinking. However, to be successful in the current health care arena, caregivers cannot be satisfied with possessing the ability to solve problems and simply meet preestablished "outcomes" (Alfaro-LeFevre, 1998). It is necessary to improve knowledge and practice applications and to explore the best ways to do things within a work group. This qualitative study evaluated the experiences of senior-level nursing students using case-based instruction in a course titled, Leading and Managing in Nursing. It is a replication and extension (Phase II) of an original case-based instruction study, completed with senior physical therapy students (Phase I). Phase III of this study trajectory is the creation of an interdisciplinary case-based course that addresses either or both clinical collaborative care issues or leadership and management issues for health care profession students. From this Phase II study, six thematic groupings emerged as distinct student experiences in case-based instruction-motivation, real world, learning, knowledge development, emerging from within, and group dynamic issues.

  15. From Bhopal to Cold Fusion: A Case-Study Approach to Writing Assignments in Honors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamely-Wiik, Donna M.; Haky, Jerome E.; Galin, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Faculty from the chemistry and English departments have developed a combined second-semester honors general chemistry and college writing course that fosters critical thinking through challenging writing assignments. Examples of case-study writing assignments and guidelines are provided that faculty at other institutions can adapt in similar…

  16. Polish Teachers' Conceptions of and Approaches to the Teaching of Linear Equations to Grade Six Students: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Gosia; Andrews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an exploratory case study of six Polish teachers' perspectives on the teaching of linear equations to grade six students. Data, which derived from semi-structured interviews, were analysed against an extant framework and yielded a number of commonly held beliefs about what teachers aimed to achieve and how they would…

  17. A Case Study of Prior Knowledge, Learning Approach and Conceptual Change in an Introductory College Chemistry Tutorial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Per Christian; Hewson, Peter W.

    This paper presents a case study involving a small group of students enrolled in a tutorial program learning introductory college chemistry. The underlying theoretical framework of this investigation was a constructivist view of learning, but more specifically it was based on Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning. The findings of this…

  18. Case Studies of Integrated Pedagogy in Vocational Education: A Three-Tier Approach to Empowering Vulnerable Youth in Urban Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper starts with the real-life issues pertaining to the educational, economic and socio-cultural vulnerability of young Cambodians; and the latter in turn has called for greater integrated stance in vocational education. A multiple-case study of nine educational NGOs located in four cities was conducted, whereby what constitutes an…

  19. A Multidisciplinary approach to Tsunami Risk Management: A proposal for a framework based on a case study of Iquique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Blokland, J.; De Groot, P.; Rot, M.; Wieringa, S.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this multidisciplinary project a proposal for a framework for tsunami risk management in Chile, has been developed. This was done using Iquique in the north of Chile as a case study. Solutions for improvement of current practice have been searched within specific activity areas of hazard manageme

  20. Different Approaches for Treating Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Retrospective Study of 153 Cases from a Single Spinal Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumao Li

    Full Text Available The optimal surgical treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM remains controversial. This study compared the outcomes of three surgical approaches for MSCM treatment, focusing on the efficacy and safety of a combined approach.This retrospective study included 153 consecutive MCSM patients (100 men, 53 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 55.7 ± 9.4 years undergoing operations involving ≥3 intervertebral segments. The patients were divided into three groups according to surgical approach: anterior (n = 19, posterior (n = 76, and combined (n = 58. We assessed demographic variables, perioperative parameters, and clinical outcomes ≥12 months after surgery (20.5 ± 7.6 months, including Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score, improvement, recovery rate, and complications.The anterior group had the most favorable preoperative conditions, including the highest preoperative JOA score (12.95 ± 1.86, p = 0.046. In contrast, the combined group had the highest occupancy ratio (48.0% ± 11.6%, p = 0.002. All groups showed significant neurological improvement at final follow-ups, with JOA recovery rates of 59.7%, 54.6%, and 68.9% in the anterior, posterior, and combined groups, respectively (p = 0.163. After multivariable adjustments, the groups did not have significantly different clinical outcomes (postoperative JOA score, p = 0.424; improvement, p = 0.424; recovery rate, p = 0.080. Further, subgroup analyses of patients with occupancy ratios ≥50% showed similar functional outcomes following the posterior and combined approaches. Overall complication rates did not differ significantly among the three approaches (p = 0.600. Occupancy ratios did not have a significant negative influence on postoperative recovery following the posterior approach.If applied appropriately, all three approaches are effective for treating MCSM. All three approaches had equivalent neurological outcomes, even in subgroups with high occupancy

  1. Tourism Planning: A Case Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the tourism marketing and attraction strategies adopted by various countries. A case study based approach is adopted in this study. On the basis of investigation of tourism development strategies adopted by various countries, suggestions are also made at the end. These suggestions are aimed to increase visitors our tourists’ base in a country. These suggestions can be used by any country to increase visitors or tourists. Future directions are also given at the end.

  2. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. → The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. → Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  3. Identifying Effective Pedagogical Approaches for Online Workplace Training: A case study of the South African wood products manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, Ian S.; Mark Bullen; R. A. Kozak

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated appropriate pedagogical techniques for workplace e-learning programs in the South African wood products (furniture) manufacturing sector. The study found that learners responded favourably to constructivist teaching approaches, such as asynchronous discussions, open-ended task-based activities, and assignments incorporating authentic, real-world examples. Learners viewed constructivist activities to be more useful than quizzes and traditional essay-based assignments, a...

  4. Nanoparticle dispersion in environmentally relevant culture media: a TiO2 case study and considerations for a general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.

  5. A moving point approach to model shallow ice sheets: a study case with radially-symmetrical ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the evolution of ice sheets requires numerical models able to accurately track the migration of ice sheet continental margins or grounding lines. We introduce a physically-based moving point approach for the flow of ice sheets based on the conservation of local masses. This allows the ice sheet margins to be tracked explicitly and the waiting time behaviours to be modelled efficiently. A finite difference moving point scheme is derived and applied in a simplified context (continental radially-symmetrical shallow ice approximation. The scheme, which is inexpensive, is validated by comparing the results with moving-margin exact solutions and steady states. In both cases the scheme is able to track the position of the ice sheet margin with high precision.

  6. Methodology to characterize a residential building stock using a bottom-up approach: a case study applied to Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gendebien

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, the development and implementation of measures to mitigate climate change have become of major importance. In Europe, the residential sector accounts for 27% of the final energy consumption [1], and therefore contributes significantly to CO2 emissions. Roadmaps towards energy-efficient buildings have been proposed [2]. In such a context, the detailed characterization of residential building stocks in terms of age, type of construction, insulation level, energy vector, and of evolution prospects appears to be a useful contribution to the assessment of the impact of implementation of energy policies. In this work, a methodology to develop a tree-structure characterizing a residential building stock is presented in the frame of a bottom-up approach that aims to model and simulate domestic energy use. The methodology is applied to the Belgian case for the current situation and up to 2030 horizon. The potential applications of the developed tool are outlined.

  7. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  8. An Optimization based on Simulation Approach to the Patient Admission Scheduling Problem: Diagnostic Imaging Department Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Granja, Conceição; Almada-Lobo, Bernardo; Janela, Filipe; Seabra, João; Mendes, Adélio

    2013-01-01

    The growing influx of patients in healthcare providers is the result of an aging population and emerging self-consciousness about health. In order to guarantee the welfare of all the healthcare stakeholders, it is mandatory to implement methodologies that optimize the healthcare providers' efficiency while increasing patient throughput and reducing patient's total waiting time. This paper presents a case study of a conventional radiology workflow analysis in a Portuguese healthcare provider. ...

  9. Evaluation of Bilingual Intercultural Approach in Indigenous Primary Education: Case Study in the Indigenous Region Los Altos, Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    José Viveros-Márquez

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the EIB (Bilingual Intercultural approach, by its acronym in Spanish) in an elementary indigenous school located in San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas. This school is characterized by the cultural and linguistic diversity represented by the integration of teachers, students and parents of tseltal and tsotsil origin. We use the evaluation model CIPP (context, input, process and product) and complemented it with school ethnograp...

  10. Sales approach to customer service in e-commerce - A case study within a specialty retailer's customer service chat

    OpenAIRE

    Iso-Peura, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    As the incremental digitalization changes the world significantly, companies need to be present and successful at electronic marketplaces in order to thrive. This study attempts to broaden the understanding of the companies' online competitiveness by applying the sales approach to customer service in the context of a specialty retailer's customer service chat. The objective is to find ways to make the company's customer service function more cost-effective by applying traditional, face-to-fac...

  11. A criticism to the classical technology innovation approach. A case study of greenhouse use in the Horticultural Belt of La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this work is to critically analyze the classical technology adoption-diffusion approach. In order to do this, a general study of Rogers’s technology adoption approach is first performed. A case study is then carried out in which we describe and analyze the onset and expansion of the most important horticultural sector’s innovation: the use of greenhouse technology in the area of La Plata. Together with these two sections, we discuss how pertinent this innovation approach is and we show that Rogers’s model fails to explain small horticulturists’ behavior in the face of this technological landmark. Finally, a novel perspective is presented which may very well supplement this classical approach.

  12. Exploratory case study of students' main explanatory approaches to science concepts and their states of mental engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicdao-Quita, Maria Isabel T.

    This study explored students' dominant ways of operating in science; the types of structuring that is evident, not in terms of ideas, but in terms of how the students think about, imagine, and relate to the physical processes. As the study progressed, the investigation of the students' ideas went beyond their prior knowledge; other significant dimensions emerged as these students interacted with the heating process. The students demonstrated rich and dynamic pictures of the heating process, and from these images, a larger picture of the mental entities and processes dominant in their understanding of the physical phenomenon. Four Filipino students studying in the United States were individually observed in their science classes, were visited at home, and were interviewed about water being heated. The analysis of each student's data led to the two constructs, the main explanatory approach and the students' states of mental engagement (SOME), while the student was cognitively and affectively connected with the phenomenon. The features of the main explanatory approach include an explanatory element and an affective element that pervade the students' thinking about the phenomenon. It is common to and dominant in students' thinking across time. It is the approach of the student taken as a holistic organization within the student when he or she starts dealing with the phenomenon. One of the assumptions behind dealing with the main explanatory approach is that it is much more connected with what kind of person the student is and with the state of mental engagement (SOME) the student is in. SOME refers to the personal energy of a student as he or she relates to and becomes involved with the physical process--there is absorption into the object of study. SOME is related to energizing the main explanatory approach. The interconnectedness of these two constructs can be viewed as a different level of abstraction or interpretation of the students' ways of thinking about the

  13. Evaluating the improvements of the BOLAM meteorological model operational at ISPRA: A case study approach - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Lastoria, B.; Accadia, C.; Flavoni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Fritsch. A fully updated serial version of the BOLAM code has been recently acquired. Code improvements include a more precise advection scheme (Weighted Average Flux); explicit advection of five hydrometeors, and state-of-the-art parameterization schemes for radiation, convection, boundary layer turbulence and soil processes (also with possible choice among different available schemes). The operational implementation of the new code into the SIMM model chain, which requires the development of a parallel version, will be achieved during 2009. In view of this goal, the comparative verification of the different model versions' skill represents a fundamental task. On this purpose, it has been decided to evaluate the performance improvement of the new BOLAM code (in the available serial version, hereinafter BOLAM 2007) with respect to the version with the Kain-Fritsch scheme (hereinafter KF version) and to the older one employing the Kuo scheme (hereinafter Kuo version). In the present work, verification of precipitation forecasts from the three BOLAM versions is carried on in a case study approach. The intense rainfall episode occurred on 10th - 17th December 2008 over Italy has been considered. This event produced indeed severe damages in Rome and its surrounding areas. Objective and subjective verification methods have been employed in order to evaluate model performance against an observational dataset including rain gauge observations and satellite imagery. Subjective comparison of observed and forecast precipitation fields is suitable to give an overall description of the forecast quality. Spatial errors (e.g., shifting and pattern errors) and rainfall volume error can be assessed quantitatively by means of object-oriented methods. By comparing satellite images with model forecast fields, it is possible to investigate the differences between the evolution of the observed weather system and the predicted ones, and its sensitivity to the improvements in the model code

  14. Assessing levels of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" in psychodynamic psychotherapy with children: a case study approach (preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the degree of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" during the first year of two children's once-weekly psychodynamic psychotherapy.Methods: This study used a longitudinal, descriptive, repeated-measures design based on the systematic case study method. Two male school children (here referred to as Walter and Peter and their therapists took part in the study. All sessions were video and audio recorded. Ten sessions from each case were selected for analysis in this preliminary study. Trained examiners (randomly selected in pairs independently and blindly evaluated each session using the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ. Experts in psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy from several countries rated each of the 100 CPQ items with regard to how well it characterized a hypothetical ideal session of either treatment modality. A series of paired t tests comparing analogous adherence scores within each session were conducted.Results:There were no significant correlations between time elapsed and adherence to the prototypes. Walter's treatment adhered to both prototypes and Peter's treatment did not adhere to either prototype.Conclusion:Child psychotherapy theory and practice are not absolutely coincident. Real psychotherapy sessions do not necessarily resemble the ideal prototypes.

  15. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  16. Quality by design approach for development of suspension nasal spray products: a case study on budesonide nasal suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudiwal, Swapnil Sharadkumar; Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan G

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide quality by design (QbD) approach for development of suspension type nasal spray products. Quality target product profile (QTPP) of test product budesonide nasal suspension (B-NS) was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) were identified. Critical formulation, process and delivery device variables were recognized. Risk assessment was performed by using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) methodology. Selected variables were further assessed using a Plackett Burman screening study. A response surface design consisting of the critical factors was used to study the interactions between the study variables. Formulation variable X2: median particle size of budesonide (D50) (µ) has strikingly influenced dissolution (%) (Y1), while D50 droplet size distribution (µm) (Y2) was significantly impacted by formulation variable X1: Avicel RC 591 (%) and process variable X4: homogenization speed (rpm). A design space plot within which the CQAs remained unchanged was established at lab scale. A comprehensive approach for development of B-NS product based on the QbD methodology has been demonstrated. The accuracy and robustness of the model were confirmed by comparability of the predicted value generated by model with the observed value. PMID:26943653

  17. How physics teachers approach innovation: An empirical study for reconstructing the appropriation path in the case of special relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Ambrosis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers’ education and how to foster fruitful interactions between research and school practice via the construction of networks of researchers and teachers. In the paper, the problems related to innovation are addressed by focusing on the phase during which teachers analyze an innovative teaching proposal in the perspective of designing their own paths for the class work. The proposal analyzed in this study is Taylor and Wheeler’s approach for teaching special relativity. The paper aims to show that the roots of problems known in the research literature about teachers’ difficulties in coping with innovative proposals, and usually related to the implementation process, can be found and addressed already when teachers approach the proposal and try to appropriate it. The study is heuristic and has been carried out in order to trace the “appropriation path,” followed by the group of teachers, in terms of the main steps and factors triggering the progressive evolution of teachers’ attitudes and competences.

  18. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit–risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, Hans; Andersen, Rikke; Antoine, Jean-Michel;

    2011-01-01

    for the individual effects done by others; no new risk or benefit evaluations were made. The following case studies were thoroughly analysed: an example of food fortification, folic acid fortification of flour, macronutrient replacement/food substitution; the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids...... with carbohydrates; the replacement of saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated fatty acids; the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages containing mono- and disaccharides with low calorie sweeteners and an example of addition of specific ingredients to food: chlorination of drinking water....

  19. Evaluation of Bilingual Intercultural Approach in Indigenous Primary Education: Case Study in the Indigenous Region Los Altos, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Viveros-Márquez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the EIB (Bilingual Intercultural approach, by its acronym in Spanish in an elementary indigenous school located in San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas. This school is characterized by the cultural and linguistic diversity represented by the integration of teachers, students and parents of tseltal and tsotsil origin. We use the evaluation model CIPP (context, input, process and product and complemented it with school ethnography, using semi-structured interviews (director and supervisor, participant observation (classroom sessions, focus group interviews to teachers and parents and a sociolinguistic questionnaire to students. The theoretical framework retrieves the core theoretical elements of the EIB, by reviewing and analysing bilingual education, bilingual bicultural education (biculturalism, pedagogical interculturalism and the intercultural bilingual approach. The main findings of this study show that, in practice, intercultural bilingual indigenous education has not transcended the bilingual dimension (the indigenous language teaching. Interculturalism is not yet clearly integrated in the speech nor in the educational practice of the studied school. The EIB implementation is still limited and responds to sociocultural, linguistic, political, educational and teacher training conditions that characterize the local educational context and are not favorable to enhance the effective implementation of the EIB in the primary school.

  20. Seeking an Alternative Modality to the Management of Nigeria's Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme-An Empirical Approach to the Case Study of Ondo State (1976-1996)

    OpenAIRE

    Victor O. Asekunowo; Grace Olutunla; Adebiyi G. Daramola

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The objective of Nigerias fertilizer subsidy scheme was to make inorganic fertilizers readily available to farmers at affordable prices in order to boost food production in the country. Shortly into the scheme, farmers complained that fertilizers were not received at the time of need and in sufficient quantities. Approach: Using Ondo State, Nigeria as a case study, to determine; inter alia, if the farmers complaints were founded and if so, to design alte...

  1. Geopolitical Constructs Understanding and Survey with Constructivism Geography Approach Case Study: IRI and Its Confronting Challenges in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pishgahifard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: After dissolution of Soviet Union, both of political geography system and dominance ideational structure have deconstructed in central Asia region. In year of 1979 with revolution, Iranian actors was accepted the Islamic republic system in their country, so new actors, structure and exigencies were revealed in Iran and central Asia relations, that cause create new challenges in confronting of Islamic republic of Iran government. Our fundamental question in this research is that: How geopolitical constructs have constituted confronting challenges for Islamic republic of Iran in Central Asia region? Approach: Therefore in this study we tried to explain the question in geographical framework and constructivism approach (on ground as constructivism geography. We had utilized qualitative research method and hermeneutic-positivist procedure in this study. As attention implicated question, the purpose of this article is understand challenges how constitute in reason of geopolitical constructs. Results: Differences in geopolitical constructs, between Iran and countries of central Asia region and also being harmonious construct, these countries with the present actors in the region, has caused an opposition in regional anarchic system between IRI and these countries in region and actors in the region and also form of distribution of capabilities between actors which has caused challenges for IRI. Conclusion: For following its goals against, high level fruition enemies of IRI like USA, Israel and Russian, China competitors from distribution of capabilities in national and international caused many challenges and double-deficiency for IRI.

  2. An integrated approach for analysing earthquake-induced surface effects: A case study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldini, D.; Genevois, R.; Panizza, M.; Puccinelli, A.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    This paper illustrates research addressing the subject of the earthquake-induced surface effects by means of a multidisciplinary approach: tectonics, neotectonics, seismology, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, soil/rock mechanics have been considered. The research is aimed to verify in areas affected by earthquake-triggered landslides a methodology for the identification of potentially unstable areas. The research was organized according to regional and local scale studies. In order to better emphasise the complexity of the relationships between all the parameters affecting the stability conditions of rock slopes in static and dynamic conditions a new integrated approach, Rock Engineering Systems (RES), was applied in the Northern Apennines. In the paper, the different phases of the research are described in detail and an example of the application of RES method in a sample area is reported. A significant aspect of the study can be seen in its attempt to overcome the exclusively qualitative aspects of research into the relationship between earthquakes and induced surface effects, and to advance the idea of beginning a process by which this interaction can be quantified.

  3. A Modeling Approach for Farmland Protection Zoning Considering Spatial Heterogeneity: A Case Study of E-Zhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmland protection in China is facing multiple pressures, including urbanization, population growth and ecological degradation. Primary farmland zoning was introduced as a basic state policy to ensure national food security. Previous studies about “primary farmland zoning” have always taken the factors as global linear variables, neglecting the spatial heterogeneity of the study areas. Based on the Development Priority Zoning (DPZ strategy, we present a zoning approach using Bayesian networks (BNs for considering regional differences. The networks were developed using quantitative biophysical and economic variables from multi-scale and historical change data of farmland. The simulated results substantiate that this method can ensure the agricultural quality, stability and connectivity of primary farmland. Furthermore, it can further optimize the spatial allocation of primary farmland to meet the development conditions and trends of different sub-regions, promoting the balance between the farmland protection, urban development and ecological protection of certain regions.

  4. A new approach to integrate Internet-of-things and software-as-a-service model for logistic systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Liang; Chen, Yun-Yao; Hsu, Chiang

    2014-03-28

    Cloud computing is changing the ways software is developed and managed in enterprises, which is changing the way of doing business in that dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are regarded as services over the Internet. Traditional manufacturing systems such as supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are often developed case by case. However, effective collaboration between different systems, platforms, programming languages, and interfaces has been suggested by researchers. In cloud-computing-based systems, distributed resources are encapsulated into cloud services and centrally managed, which allows high automation, flexibility, fast provision, and ease of integration at low cost. The integration between physical resources and cloud services can be improved by combining Internet of things (IoT) technology and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) technology. This study proposes a new approach for developing cloud-based manufacturing systems based on a four-layer SaaS model. There are three main contributions of this paper: (1) enterprises can develop their own cloud-based logistic management information systems based on the approach proposed in this paper; (2) a case study based on literature reviews with experimental results is proposed to verify that the system performance is remarkable; (3) challenges encountered and feedback collected from T Company in the case study are discussed in this paper for the purpose of enterprise deployment.

  5. A New Approach to Integrate Internet-of-Things and Software-as-a-Service Model for Logistic Systems: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is changing the ways software is developed and managed in enterprises, which is changing the way of doing business in that dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are regarded as services over the Internet. Traditional manufacturing systems such as supply chain management (SCM, customer relationship management (CRM, and enterprise resource planning (ERP are often developed case by case. However, effective collaboration between different systems, platforms, programming languages, and interfaces has been suggested by researchers. In cloud-computing-based systems, distributed resources are encapsulated into cloud services and centrally managed, which allows high automation, flexibility, fast provision, and ease of integration at low cost. The integration between physical resources and cloud services can be improved by combining Internet of things (IoT technology and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS technology. This study proposes a new approach for developing cloud-based manufacturing systems based on a four-layer SaaS model. There are three main contributions of this paper: (1 enterprises can develop their own cloud-based logistic management information systems based on the approach proposed in this paper; (2 a case study based on literature reviews with experimental results is proposed to verify that the system performance is remarkable; (3 challenges encountered and feedback collected from T Company in the case study are discussed in this paper for the purpose of enterprise deployment.

  6. A new approach to integrate Internet-of-things and software-as-a-service model for logistic systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Liang; Chen, Yun-Yao; Hsu, Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the ways software is developed and managed in enterprises, which is changing the way of doing business in that dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are regarded as services over the Internet. Traditional manufacturing systems such as supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are often developed case by case. However, effective collaboration between different systems, platforms, programming languages, and interfaces has been suggested by researchers. In cloud-computing-based systems, distributed resources are encapsulated into cloud services and centrally managed, which allows high automation, flexibility, fast provision, and ease of integration at low cost. The integration between physical resources and cloud services can be improved by combining Internet of things (IoT) technology and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) technology. This study proposes a new approach for developing cloud-based manufacturing systems based on a four-layer SaaS model. There are three main contributions of this paper: (1) enterprises can develop their own cloud-based logistic management information systems based on the approach proposed in this paper; (2) a case study based on literature reviews with experimental results is proposed to verify that the system performance is remarkable; (3) challenges encountered and feedback collected from T Company in the case study are discussed in this paper for the purpose of enterprise deployment. PMID:24686728

  7. A multi-objective approach for optimal prioritization of energy efficiency measures in buildings: Model, software and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We provide a model for prioritization of energy efficiency measures in buildings. • We examine the case of a new building and one under renovation. • Objective functions are total primary energy consumption and total investment cost. • We provide a software tool that solves this multi-objective optimization problem. • Primary energy consumption and investment cost are inversely proportional. - Abstract: Buildings are responsible for some 40% of the total final energy consumption in the European Union and about 40% of the world’s primary energy consumption. Hence, the reduction of primary energy consumption is important for the overall energy chain. The scope of the current work is to assess the energy efficiency measures in the residential and small commercial sector and to develop a methodology and a software tool for their optimal prioritization. The criteria used for the prioritization of energy efficiency measures in this article are the primary energy consumption and the initial investment cost. The developed methodology used is generic and could be implemented in the case of a new building or retrofitting an existing building. A multi-objective mixed-integer non-linear problem (MINLP) needs to be solved and the weighted sum method is used. Moreover, the novelty of this work is that a software tool has been developed using ‘Matlab®’ which is generic, very simple and time efficient and can be used by a Decision Maker (DM). Two case studies have been developed, one for a new building and one for retrofitting an existing one, in two cities with different climate characteristics. The building was placed in Edinburgh in the UK and Athens in Greece and the analysis showed that the primary energy consumption and the initial investment cost are inversely proportional

  8. a Knowledge-Based Approach on GLOBELAND30 Incremental Updating: a Case Study of Built-Up Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Hao; Peng, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Global land cover/land use product in multiple periods is pivotal to understand the complex drivers and mechanisms in global climate change, and to forecast future land use trends in sustainable development. GlobeLand30, as the world's first high spatial resolution land cover product (83% accuracy), needs to be continually updated to meet various needs. However, many challenges - such as removing pseudo change to keep consistency of updating - remain unsolved. To deal with high temporal and spatial variability happened within built-up area class and between it and other classes, this paper presents an alternative approach that exploits domain knowledge and object-based change detection technique. The central premise of the approach is that one-class segmentation is first proceeded on both former image and current image. Then, segments of former image are labeled by using corresponding Globeland30 product. Segments of built-up area in current image are finally recognized through correlation which is established based on domain knowledge. Knowledge used in this study mainly includes area index, shape index, perimeter index, spectral similarity, 'from to' types and spatial relation. The proposed method and classification method were tested for their ability for built-up area updating in Shandong area. Results showed that the proposed method proved particularly effective for maintaining consistency of unchanged areas from former product to current one, and more than 80% changes could be identified correctly. The proposed method also provided a practical way for an economic and accurate updating of Globeland30 product.

  9. Commercialization as a recommended approach to hospital restructuring. Case study of Łańcut Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Patena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our society is on the brink of health care system reorganization and implementation of new medical technology. Hospitals have to be a core component of the medical revolution so they have to be prepared for the upcoming leap in their development. If Poland wants to be a pioneer in providing new medical solutions, the current ineffective system has to be changed. The necessary action should be taken to deal with the financial problems Polish hospitals have faced for over 20 years. The current structure of hospitals - SPZOZ, is old-fashioned and cannot adapt to a turbulent social and economic environment. The hospitals should be commercialized and restructured. Being capitalized companies will give incentives and new tools to deal with financial problems. The article presents an example of the commercialized hospital in Łańcut. We make the observations that commercialization increases: a hospital’s profitability, its employment productivity, its capital investment spending and leverage. The case proves that the transformation of hospitals to capital companies proposed by the Ministry of Health may be an appropriate approach and it does work once a reasonable management board is in charge. However, the legal structure alteration should be treated as the first step in the overall restructuring process. The article highlights the problem of managers of Polish hospitals who do not only struggle with financial shortages, but barely know which business model they should follow after commercialization to successfully run the restructuring process. Having examined the LMC the authors are crafting a prelude to the overall research on already commercialized hospitals to find an appropriate business model.

  10. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers: ten case studies of rejected programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume, Volume 3, contains ten case studies of non-implemented programs. It is noted that in Volume 2, the implemented lifeline programs, evolved as policy closely after the 1973 oil embargo; in contrast, the rejected programs were initiated about 4 years later and considered in a more-complex policy environment - after which time alternate methods of assisting low-income people had been developed. Specifically presented here are program summary, issue development, governmental process, and impact for the following: (a) Delaware Senate Bill 202; (b) Illinois House Bill 83; (c) Maine Legislative Document No. 1043; (d) Minnesota House File 1243; (e) New York Assembly Bill 12214; (f) New York Senate Bill 7013-A; (g) Rhode Island Resolution 79-H 5770-A; (h) South Dakota Senate Joint Resolution 9; (i) West Virginia House Bill 943; and (j) Wisconsin Assembly Bill 1250. 4 figures, 24 tables.

  11. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  12. Subject Specialist Mentors in the LifeLong Learning Sector: who needs them? A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentoring has become a key to success in many fields and different organisations, and has now become one of the important roles within initial teacher training in the Lifelong Learning Sector. The training of mentors, in particular, subject specialist mentors, is therefore fundamental to ensure that trainees on initial teacher training courses develop with regard to teaching and ensuring they have the necessary subject knowledge. Research was based on a case study at the University Campus Barnsley (part of the University of Huddersfield. Findings from subject specialist mentors, through focus groups, and trainees on a Certificate in Education/Professional or Post Graduate Certificate in Education (Cert Ed/PGCE initial teacher training course, through questionnaires highlighted some interesting development needs. The research has found that there is a changing profile of the subject specialist mentor who supports trainees on initial teacher training courses, in particular they feel that they are not only mentors, but also coaches.

  13. Statistical approach for the estimation of watershed scale nitrate export: a case study from Melen watershed of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiner Muhammed Ernur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution such as nitrate (NO3− can cause water quality degradation in rivers used as a source of drinking water. This situation raises the question of how the nutrients have moved depending on many factors such as land use and anthropogenic sources. Researchers developed several nutrient export coefficient models depending on the aforementioned factors. To this purpose, statistical data including a number of factors such as historical water quality and land use data for the Melen Watershed were used. Nitrate export coefficients are estimates of the total load or mass of nitrate (NO3− exported from a watershed standardized to unit area and unit time (e.g. kg/km2/day. In this study, nitrate export coefficients for the Melen Watershed were determined using the model that covers the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches. River retention coefficient was determined and introduced into the model as an important variable.

  14. Biases and best approaches for assessing debris ingestion in sea turtles, with a case study in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Paolo; Freggi, Daniela; Paduano, Valentina; Oliverio, Marco

    2016-09-15

    In a sample of 567 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the central Mediterranean, debris occurrence varied according to methods and turtle source, and was up to 80% in pelagic turtles. Frequencies of plastic types, size and color are also reported. These results and a critical review of 49 studies worldwide indicate that: (i) the detected occurrence of plastic (% turtles) is affected by several factors (e.g., necropsy/feces, ecological zone, type and date of finding, captivity period for feces collection), (ii) mixed dataset and opportunistic approaches provide results which are biased , not comparable, and ultimately of questionable value, (iii) only turtles assumed to have had a normal feeding behaviour at the time of capture or death should be considered, (iv) turtle foraging ecology and possible selectivity may undermine the use of turtles as indicator species for monitoring marine litter, as recently proposed for the Mediterranean. PMID:27321803

  15. Vision-based approach for long-term mobility monitoring: Single case study following total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dolatabadi, MSc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a single case study on the feasibility of using a low-cost and portable vision-based system (a Microsoft Kinect sensor to monitor changes in movement patterns before and after a total hip replacement surgery. The primary subject was an older male adult with total hip replacement who performed two different functional tasks: walking and sit-to-stand. The tasks were recorded with a Kinect multiple times, starting from 1 d before the surgery until 9 wk after the surgery. An automated algorithm has been developed to extract the important spatiotemporal characteristics from the video recorded functional tasks (walking and sit-to-stand. Statistical analysis was then performed by TryonC statistic to study changes in spatiotemporal characteristics between different stages before and after the surgery. The statistical analysis indicated significant difference and slight improvement between all measures from the presurgery to each postsurgery date. The study confirmed that the Kinect sensor and an automated algorithm have the potential to be integrated into a patient’s home to monitor changes in mobility during the recovery period.

  16. Measuring Monetary and Debt Roots of Inflation by Panel Data Approach (Case Study: Iran, South Korea, China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nahidi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this survey is testing the Fisher's quantity theory of money and the Fiscal Theory of the Price Level (FTPL to measure the root of money or debt of inflation; for Iran, South Korea, China and India by panel data approach. Thus at the first step we expressed the theoretical fundamental of Fisher's quantity theory of money, FTPL theory and checking research background (similar internal and external studies. In the next step we estimate panel models by considering various conditions and the related tests (F Leamer and Hausman and finally we identified the monetary root and debt of Inflation by selecting a fixed effects panel model. The survey results also indicate that in the panel estimates of all models (fixed effects, the coefficient of annual amount of money growth variable (MQMgr was a significant factor and other factors are meaningless, including the annual growth rate of government debt to GDP. So in these countries, the monetary root of inflation confirmed but the debt root of inflation is not verified. The results of this study adapt with all internal and external studies in the field of monetary roots of inflation in most developing countries. Therefore we suggested liquidity management, adjustment of debt monetary policy, enhancing the productivity and technological power of production, currency control and reducing the dependence on foreign earnings from oil exports as well as controlling the budget deficit and government debt as a policy solution for inflation adjustment.

  17. Comparing approaches to spatially explicit ecosystem service modeling: a case study from the San Pedro River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of ecosystem service modeling tools has grown in recent years, quantitative comparative studies of these tools have been lacking. In this study, we applied two leading open-source, spatially explicit ecosystem services modeling tools – Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) – to the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. We modeled locally important services that both modeling systems could address – carbon, water, and scenic viewsheds. We then applied managerially relevant scenarios for urban growth and mesquite management to quantify ecosystem service changes. InVEST and ARIES use different modeling approaches and ecosystem services metrics; for carbon, metrics were more similar and results were more easily comparable than for viewsheds or water. However, findings demonstrate similar gains and losses of ecosystem services and conclusions when comparing effects across our scenarios. Results were more closely aligned for landscape-scale urban-growth scenarios and more divergent for a site-scale mesquite-management scenario. Follow-up studies, including testing in different geographic contexts, can improve our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these and other ecosystem services modeling tools as they move closer to readiness for supporting day-to-day resource management.

  18. Social learning in Models and Cases - an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Johannes; De Cian, Enrica; Carrara, Samuel; Monetti, Silvia; Berg, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Our paper follows an interdisciplinary understanding of social learning. We contribute to the literature on social learning in transition research by bridging case-oriented research and modelling-oriented transition research. We start by describing selected theories on social learning in innovation, diffusion and transition research. We present theoretical understandings of social learning in techno-economic and agent-based modelling. Then we elaborate on empirical research on social learning in transition case studies. We identify and synthetize key dimensions of social learning in transition case studies. In the following we bridge between more formal and generalising modelling approaches towards social learning processes and more descriptive, individualising case study approaches by interpreting the case study analysis into a visual guide on functional forms of social learning typically identified in the cases. We then try to exemplarily vary functional forms of social learning in integrated assessment models. We conclude by drawing the lessons learned from the interdisciplinary approach - methodologically and empirically.

  19. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  20. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000-1600 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Meghan C L; Palace, Michael W; McMichael, Crystal H

    2016-07-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000-1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data.

  1. A Complex Systems Approach to Energy Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidebell Emordi, Chukwunonso

    Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities sweeping the developing world has caught on in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known of the economic and social implications of these transitions within the unique socio-technical system of the region's electricity sector, especially as it applies to energy poverty. This dissertation proposes a complex systems approach to measuring and mitigating energy poverty in Nigeria due to its multi-dimensional nature. This is done via a three-fold approach: the first section of the study delves into causation by examining the governance institutions that create and perpetuate energy poverty; the next section proposes a context-specific minimum energy poverty line based on field data collected on energy consumption; and the paper concludes with an indicator-based transition management framework encompassing institutional, economic, social, and environmental themes of sustainable transition within the electricity sector. This work contributes to intellectual discourse on systems-based mitigation strategies for energy poverty that are widely applicable within the sub-Saharan region, as well as adds to the knowledge-base of decision-support tools for addressing energy poverty in its complexity.

  2. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-07-01

    The uncertainty brought about by intermittent volcanic activity is fairly common at volcanoes worldwide. While better knowledge of any one volcano's behavioural characteristics has the potential to reduce this uncertainty, the subsequent reduction of risk from volcanic threats is only realised if that knowledge is pertinent to stakeholders and effectively communicated to inform good decision making. Success requires integration of methods, skills and expertise across disciplinary boundaries. This research project develops and trials a novel interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). For the first time, volcanological techniques, probabilistic decision support and social scientific methods were integrated in a single study. New data were produced that (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience; and (5) evaluated the effectiveness of a scenario planning approach, both as a method for integrating the different strands of the research and as a way of enabling on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification and management, and capacity building within their community. The paper provides empirical evidence of the value of an innovative interdisciplinary framework for reducing volcanic risk. It also provides evidence for the strength that comes from integrating social and physical sciences with the development of effective, tailored engagement and communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  3. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000-1600 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Meghan C L; Palace, Michael W; McMichael, Crystal H

    2016-07-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000-1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data. PMID:27330115

  4. A case study of spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in the Loess Plateau,western China:A geostatistical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Huaxing; LI Xiaoyin; LIU Xin; GUO Mengxia; LI Jun

    2009-01-01

    Soil moisture distribution shows highly variation both spatially and temporally.This study assesses the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture on a hill-slope scale in the Loess Plateau in West China by using a geostatistical approach.Soil moisture was measured by time-domain reflectometry (TDR) in 313 samples.Two kinds of sampling scales were used (2 × 2 m and 20 × 20m) at two soil layers (0-30 cm and 30-450 cm).The general characteristics of soil moisture were analyzed by a classical statistics method,and the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture was analyzed using a geostatistical approach.The results showed that the spherical model is the best-fit model to simulate soil moisture on the experimental hill-slope.The parameters of this model indicated that the spatial dependence of soil moisture in the selected hill-slope was moderate.Even the 2 × 2 m sampling scale was too coarse to show the detailed spatial variances of soil moisture in this area.The dependent distance increased from 27.4 m to 494.16 m as the sampling scale became coarse (from 2 ×2 m to 20 × 20 m).A map of soil moisture was generated by using original soil moisture data and interpolated values determined by the Kriging method.The average soil moisture (area weighted) in the different layers of soil was calculated on the basis of this map (10.94% for the 0-30 cm soil layer,11.88% for the 30-60 em soil layer).This average soil moisture is lower than the corresponding average effective soil moisture,which suggests that the soil moisture is not sufficient to support vegetation in this area.

  5. A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini Marcello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived species to their environment. As a first step toward the construction of a SSR-based linkage map of oak for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping, we describe the mining and survey of EST-SSRs as well as a fast and cost-effective approach (bin mapping to assign these markers to an approximate map position. We also compared the level of polymorphism between genomic and EST-derived SSRs and address the transferability of EST-SSRs in Castanea sativa (chestnut. Results A catalogue of 103,000 Sanger ESTs was assembled into 28,024 unigenes from which 18.6% presented one or more SSR motifs. More than 42% of these SSRs corresponded to trinucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 748 putative unigenes. Overall 37.7% (283 were found to amplify a single polymorphic locus in a reference full-sib pedigree of Quercus robur. The usefulness of these loci for establishing a genetic map was assessed using a bin mapping approach. Bin maps were constructed for the male and female parental tree for which framework linkage maps based on AFLP markers were available. The bin set consisting of 14 highly informative offspring selected based on the number and position of crossover sites. The female and male maps comprised 44 and 37 bins, with an average bin length of 16.5 cM and 20.99 cM, respectively. A total of 256 EST-SSRs were assigned to bins and their map position was further validated by linkage mapping. EST-SSRs were found to be less polymorphic than genomic SSRs, but their transferability rate to chestnut, a phylogenetically related species to oak, was higher. Conclusion We have generated a bin map for oak

  6. A CASE STUDY OF LUNTIAN MULTI-PURPOSE COOPERATIVE IN BARANGAY LALAIG, TIAONG, QUEZON, PHILIPPINES: A VERTICAL INTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Perilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Luntian Multi-Purpose Cooperative located in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines. The Luntian MultiPurposecooperative focuses more on feed production as well as hog fattening. The LMC applied thevertical integration to develop the cooperative. They have their members as their primary costumers of theirfeeds. The cooperative’s business activity includes also meat shop, granting of production loan, microfinance,mobilization of saving deposits, aside from feed milling and hog fattening. Different agencies, industryorganizations and private institutions provide trainings, seminars, assistance, as well as credit for thecooperative.The aims of the study was to determine the present and discuss a noteworthy business issue (sof Luntian Multipurpose Cooperative, evaluate the business environment prevailing at a particular time ofthis case , assess the cooperative’s performance in terms of the four business functions , define the problemrelevant to the business issue(s being studied. The study used primary and secondary data. Primary datawere gathered through interviews with the key personnel, managers, and other informants of the LuntianMultipurpose Cooperative in order to obtain responses regarding the overall status of the cooperative includingits problem and plans. Secondary data were taken from files and documents, especially the history, backgroundinformation and financial statements. Other data were taken through research materials such as book,unpublished special problems and from some government institutions. The recommendation of this researchshowed that Luntian MPC should engage in establishing a communal farm as to become the primary sourceof hybrid piglets that their members would raised. The alternatives solution was establishing a breeding farmthat would ask for initial investment.

  7. Applying System Dynamics Approach to the Fast Fashion Supply Chain: Case Study of an SME in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariany W Lidia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fashion industry is the biggest contributor among the 14 creative industries in Indonesia. Nowadays many apparel companies are shifting toward the vertical integration. Since speed is everything to be successful in the apparel industry, fast fashion retailers must quickly respond to the market demand. This papers aims to develop a model of the supply chain of a small and medium scale enterprise (SME of an apparel company in Indonesia and to propose a decision support system using System Dynamics (SD and helps the management to identify the best business strategy. Simulated scenarios can help the management to identify the most appropriate policy to be applied in the future. Case study method was used in this research where data were collected from a typical fast fashion firm in Indonesia that produces its own wares ranging from raw materials to be ready-to-wear clothes, has three stores, a warehouse and is running online sales system. We analyses the result of many simulations in a fashion company from an operational point of view and from them we derive suggestions about the future business strategy in a small and medium fashion company in Indonesia. Keywords: system dynamics, fast fashion, supply chain management, SME, Indonesia

  8. Enhancement of energy efficiency in a paint curing oven via CFD approach: Case study in an air-conditioning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We use CFD model to simulate air temperature in an industrial-scale paint curing oven. • Comparison of temperature is made for two proposed options to achieve energy saving. • Both proposed options provide the increase in average air temperature for the oven. - Abstract: An oven has been commonly employed to cure powder painted on metal parts for an air-conditioning production. There are many options to improve efficiency in fuel use for the paint curing oven; however some options need deep understanding to prove the possibility of thermal performance. In this work, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling and simulation have been applied to study the temperature distribution and the flow pattern in the paint curing oven on a large scale. The CFD model has been validated against real data. The validated CFD model is used to investigate the temperature distribution and the flow pattern for two proposed options: eliminating stored heat and rearranging airflow. Results demonstrate that both cases provide temperature increase of 1.9 and 1.3 °C for air compared to the present paint curing oven. It can be concluded that the two proposed options are applicable for further implementation to the present paint curing oven

  9. Multiparametric approach to unravel the mechanism of Strombolian activity at a multivent system: Mt. Etna case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Andrea; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Kueppers, Ulrich; Privitera, Eugenio; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Sciotto, Mariangela; Spina, Laura; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Pena Fernandez, Juan Jose; Sesterhenn, Joern

    2016-04-01

    On 5th July 2014 an eruptive fissure (hereafter referred to as EF) opened at the base of North-East Crater (NEC) of Mt. Etna. EF produced both Strombolian explosions and lava effusion. Thanks to the multiparametric experiment planned in the framework of MEDSUV project, we had the chance to acquire geophysical and volcanological data, in order to investigate the ongoing volcanic activity at EF. Temporary instruments (2 broadband seismometers, 2 microphones, 3-microphone arrays, a high-speed video camera and a thermal-camera) were deployed near the active vents during 15-16 July 2014 and were integrated with the data recorded by the permanent networks. Several kinds of studies are currently in progress, such as: frequency analysis by Fourier Transform and Short Time Fourier Transform to evaluate the spectral content of both seismic and acoustic signals; partitioning of seismic and acoustic energies, whose time variations could reflect changes in the volcanic dynamics; investigation on the intertimes between explosions to investigate their recurrence behaviour; classification of the waveforms of infrasound events. Furthermore, joint analysis of video signals and seismic-acoustic wavefields outlined relationships between pyroclasts ejection velocity, total erupted mass, peak explosion pressure, and air-ground motion coupling. This multiparametric approach allowed distinguishing and characterizing individually the behavior of the two vents active along the eruptive fissure via their thermal, visible and infrasonic signatures and shed light in the eruptive dynamics.

  10. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  11. Change impact analysis of indirect goal relations: comparison of NFR and TROPOS approaches based on industrial case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teka, A.; Condori-Fernández, N.; Kurtev, I.; Quartel, D.A.C.; Engelsman, W.; Mussbacher, G.; Araujo, J.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with recent trends in using goal-oriented approaches for requirements engineering and system development activities, various techniques for managing adaptable stakeholder goals and requirements are proposed and used by the software engineering industry. Enterprise Architecture (EA) models whic

  12. Ranking of Companies based on TOPSIS-DEA Approach Methods (Case Study of Cement Industry in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mansory

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ranking options has always been the main issue for managers. There are a lot of qualitative and quantitative approaches for ranking. However most of the approaches for separating and ranking corporations in stock market are less reliable and the results obtained will be invalid. While the evaluation obtained merely through qualitative or quantitative approaches alone, the advantages of integration will be ignored. Thus logically the efficiency of result will be questionable. Thus in this paper the advantages of qualitative and quantitative approaches are integrated which in turn bring about more precision in values of input and output indices. Hence in this paper the approaches, TOPSIS & DEA, have been introduced to rate active companies in cement industry accepted in Tehran stock market. The approach adopted in this paper is applicable and carried out during 2006-2011 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock market in cement industry (28 companies and at the end a precise ranking of the companies is presented by integrattive techniques.

  13. Data-Driven Approaches for Computation in Intelligent Biomedical Devices: A Case Study of EEG Monitoring for Chronic Seizure Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Verma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent biomedical devices implies systems that are able to detect specific physiological processes in patients so that particular responses can be generated. This closed-loop capability can have enormous clinical value when we consider the unprecedented modalities that are beginning to emerge for sensing and stimulating patient physiology. Both delivering therapy (e.g., deep-brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, etc. and treating impairments (e.g., neural prosthesis requires computational devices that can make clinically relevant inferences, especially using minimally-intrusive patient signals. The key to such devices is algorithms that are based on data-driven signal modeling as well as hardware structures that are specialized to these. This paper discusses the primary application-domain challenges that must be overcome and analyzes the most promising methods for this that are emerging. We then look at how these methods are being incorporated in ultra-low-energy computational platforms and systems. The case study for this is a seizure-detection SoC that includes instrumentation and computation blocks in support of a system that exploits patient-specific modeling to achieve accurate performance for chronic detection. The SoC samples each EEG channel at a rate of 600 Hz and performs processing to derive signal features on every two second epoch, consuming 9 μJ/epoch/channel. Signal feature extraction reduces the data rate by a factor of over 40×, permitting wireless communication from the patient’s head while reducing the total power on the head by 14×.

  14. Turner syndrome case report: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS was fi rst reported in the literature in 1938 by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich and Henry Turner. This chromosomal alteration only affects female individuals, who have monosomy of the X chromosome. Only one X chromosome is functional, while the other sexual chromosome is either absent or abnormal. The main oral characteristics are transverse defi ciency of the maxilla, mandibular retrognathism, anterior open bite, cleft palate, premature dental eruption, and alterations in the shape, size and thickness of teeth, with an increased number of roots on the fi rst and second premolars. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical case of a patient with TS undergoing orthodontic treatment, and to emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to patients with TS.

  15. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  16. A Parametric Optimization Approach to Mitigating the Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study in Ancona, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cocci Grifoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify a parameterization method that considers existing connections and relationships between traditional indicators of environmental sustainability as a step in combating climate change via urban strategies. A typical Mediterranean city (Ancona, Italy is investigated with a multi-objective optimization platform called modeFrontier, which uses Pareto optimality. This concept formalizes the trade-off between a given set of mutually contradicting objectives, such as high thermal comfort and low energy consumption, to identify a set of Pareto solutions. A solution is Pareto optimal when it is not possible to improve one objective without deteriorating at least one of the others. The optimization process employs given constraints (for example, meteorological scenarios with high temperature and low winds or morphological building parameters, custom procedural algorithms (recursive algorithms to generate the set of all non-dominated objective parameters, and genetic algorithms (inspired by the natural selection process to examine a wide urban space and identify interesting relationships among relevant variables for typical summer scenarios. Multi-objective optimizers involve many evaluations of two objectives (i.e., energy consumption and thermal comfort in this study while considering many analytical constraints. This approach entails a considerably more exhaustive search of environmental variables that can help the urban planning process to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI effect. Three quantitative metrics related to urban morphology and local climate conditions, as well as a thermal comfort indicator (the predicted mean vote, are defined and applied to Ancona to examine the potential for new sustainability in urban design. The results show that two parameters examined—compacity and a building-scale energy indicator—can offer insight when designing comfortable cities, while a citywide energy indicator shows

  17. A multi-instrument approach to monitoring turbidity currents: Case study from the Squamish Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Sophie; Cartigny, Matthieu; Clare, Michael; Talling, Peter; Sumner, Esther; Vardy, Mark; Hughes Clarke, John

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents are volumetrically the most important process for moving sediment in submarine environments. They may travel at high speeds, thereby posing a threat to important and expensive seafloor infrastructure. Despite their importance, we still know little about their flow dynamics because direct monitoring is challenging and consequently rare. Additionally, the few settings in which monitoring has been feasible, have generally involved a single instrument approach, either measuring flow velocity, sediment concentration or grain size. Here we present results issued from a multi-instrument study where a single turbidity current was observed with several instruments at the same location and time using different measuring frequencies. Three types of geophysical sensors were deployed from a single vessel moored over a turbidity current channel on the Squamish Delta in British Colombia, Canada. First, two 500 kHz multibeam sonars suspended from the bow of the ship imaged the incoming turbidity current and documented its interaction with the crescentic bedforms on the channel thalweg. Second, a 600 kHz downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) lowered from the back of the ship provided vertical profiles of velocity through time. Third, a 1.0-24.0 kHz Chirp profiler enabled for the first time imaging of the dense near-bed zone of the turbidity current, which has so far been largely impenetrable using higher frequency sonar and ADCP instruments. Besides the stationary deployment, a repetitive multibeam survey was also performed using a moving vessel in order monitor temporal evolution of the seafloor morphology resulting from turbidity currents. By combining the measurements from each system, a single turbidity current was characterised in unusually high resolution. This current was 6 to 8 meters thick and at least 40 meters wide according to the multibeam sonars. The ADCP measured a front speed of around 1.5 m/s, higher than the internal

  18. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  19. An equivalent fluid/equivalent medium approach for the numerical simulation of coastal landslides propagation: theory and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mazzanti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.

  20. An equivalent fluid/equivalent medium approach for the numerical simulation of coastal landslides propagation: theory and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, P.; Bozzano, F.

    2009-11-01

    Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano) using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.

  1. Curriculum Assessment Using Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machine Modeling Approaches: A Case Study. IR Applications. Volume 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chau-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) approaches have been on the cutting edge of science and technology for pattern recognition and data classification. In the ANN model, classification accuracy can be achieved by using the feed-forward of inputs, back-propagation of errors, and the adjustment of connection weights. In…

  2. Senior University Officials' Approaches to Global Engagement: A Case Study of a Private and a Public Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization has a significant impact on higher education, but the lack of a clear roadmap for how senior university officials should create and implement global engagement strategies and for how these approaches support (or impede) an organizational culture that fosters globalization remains a gap in knowledge in higher…

  3. The Application of a Resilience Assessment Approach to Promote Campus Environmental Management: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Irene; Tempelhoff, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the benefits of using resilience assessment instead of command and control mechanisms to evaluate sustainable campus environments. Design/Methodology/Approach: An exploratory mixed-method design was followed for the purposes of the project. During the first qualitative phase, a historical timeline of the focal…

  4. Redesigning the Student Learning Approach through Personality Types and Pedagogies, A Case Study in an Undergraduate Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Corinna; Nakagawa, Elizabeth; Kelley, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    As the National Science Foundation and engineers throughout the world seek to strengthen the future of the engineering profession, the Civil Engineering (CE) program at the United States Coast Guard Academy embodies this initiative with a student focused approach. One course in particular, Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers (CE…

  5. Synergies between Theoretical Approaches to Mathematics Education with Technology: A Case Study through a Cross-Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracci, Mirko; Cazes, Claire; Vandebrouck, Fabrice; Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics education as a research domain is characterized by a plurality of theoretical approaches. Acknowledging the existence of such diversity and the risks of an excessive theoretical fragmentation does not mean to search for a unifying theory but to urge the community to develop strategies for coping with this diversity. This article is…

  6. A Comprehensive Approach in Developing "akhlaq": A Case Study on the Implementation of Character Education at Pondok Pesantren Darunnajah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izfanna, Duna; Hisyam, Nik Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how a unique Islamic education system, named Pondok Pesantren, implemented and contributed substantially to the character education of its students. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 12 teachers and 24 students of Pondok Pesantren Darunnajah, Indonesia were interviewed, participated in focus…

  7. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohaghar

    2014-02-01

    Based on the information accessible for the researchers, this is one of the first works which evaluates the key factors of successful knowledge management through fuzzy quality function deployment approach. It is expected that the proposed method would represent appropriate tools for enterprises which have decided to implement knowledge management because it prioritizes the critical success factors based on the knowledge management outcomes.

  8. Collective Innovation: A new approach for dealing with society induced challenges: A case study in the Dutch Bakery Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Van der Duin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Since many of today's problems are becoming ever more complex, the way we look for and manage innovations to solve these problems should also be innovated. We introduce the ‘Collective Innovation’ approach to deal with these kind of ‘wicked problems’ that require the input of many different parties.

  9. Effect of Active Learning Techniques on Students' Choice of Approach to Learning in Dentistry: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on empirical work, related to a techniques module, undertaken with the dental students of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. I will relate how a range of different active learning techniques (tutorials; question papers and mock tests) assisted students to adopt a deep approach to learning in…

  10. Towards an approach to assess critical quality points (CQPs) in food production systems : a case study on French fries production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigated how to develop an approach for the systematic and science based assessment of those points in food production systems that have a critical effect on quality; such points could be designated as critical quality points (CQPs). One of the fundamental objectives of quality contr

  11. Outcomes Approaches to Assessment: Comparing Non-Government and Government Case-Study Schools in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Joanne; Vidovich, Lesley; Chapman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A key feature of recent curriculum reform in post-industrialised liberal economies has been the ascendancy of outcomes-based education policies. A 1995 review conducted in Western Australia (WA) recommended an outcomes-based approach, and in response, the Curriculum Framework (CF) was released in 1998. The same year, the WA State government…

  12. Detecting relationships between the interannual variability in climate records and ecological time series using a multivariate statistical approach - four case studies for the North Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyen, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1998-12-31

    A multivariate statistical approach is presented that allows a systematic search for relationships between the interannual variability in climate records and ecological time series. Statistical models are built between climatological predictor fields and the variables of interest. Relationships are sought on different temporal scales and for different seasons and time lags. The possibilities and limitations of this approach are discussed in four case studies dealing with salinity in the German Bight, abundance of zooplankton at Helgoland Roads, macrofauna communities off Norderney and the arrival of migratory birds on Helgoland. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein statistisches, multivariates Modell wird vorgestellt, das eine systematische Suche nach potentiellen Zusammenhaengen zwischen Variabilitaet in Klima- und oekologischen Zeitserien erlaubt. Anhand von vier Anwendungsbeispielen wird der Klimaeinfluss auf den Salzgehalt in der Deutschen Bucht, Zooplankton vor Helgoland, Makrofauna vor Norderney, und die Ankunft von Zugvoegeln auf Helgoland untersucht. (orig.)

  13. A combined approach to physical vulnerability of large cities exposed to natural hazards - the case study of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Ettinger, Susanne; Zuccaro, Giulio; Guitton, Mathieu; Martelli, Kim; Degregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Santoni, Olivier; Magill, Christina; Luque, Juan Alexis; Arguedas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru with almost one million inhabitants, is exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. This study focuses on the vulnerability and response of housing, infrastructure and lifelines in Arequipa to flash floods and eruption induced hazards, notably lahars from El Misti volcano. We propose a combined approach for assessing physical vulnerability in a large city based on: (1) remote sensing utilizing high-resolution imagery (SPOT5, Google Earth Pro, Bing, Pléïades) to map the distribution and type of land use, properties of city blocks in terms of exposure to the hazard (elevation above river level, distance to channel, impact angle, etc.); (2) in situ survey of buildings and critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges) and strategic resources (e.g., potable water, irrigation, sewage); (3) information gained from interviews with engineers involved in construction works, previous crises (e.g., June 2001 earthquake) and risk mitigation in Arequipa. Remote sensing and mapping at the scale of the city has focused on three pilot areas, along the perennial Rio Chili valley that crosses the city and oasis from north to south, and two of the east-margin tributaries termed Quebrada (ravine): San Lazaro crossing the northern districts and Huarangal crossing the northeastern districts. Sampling of city blocks through these districts provides varying geomorphic, structural, historical, and socio-economic characteristics for each sector. A reconnaissance survey included about 900 edifices located in 40 city blocks across districts of the pilot areas, distinct in age, construction, land use and demographics. A building acts as a structural system and its strength and resistance to flashfloods and lahars therefore highly depends on the type of construction and the used material. Each building surveyed was assigned to one of eight building categories based on physical criteria (dominant

  14. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohaghar; Mehdi Shami Zanjani; Mozhgan Nouri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to rank the critical success factors of knowledge management using fuzzy quality function deployment (QFD) approach in MECO Company. The research has utilized a three-step qualitative-quantitative-qualitative strategy. At the first step (1st qualitative phase), the critical success factors of knowledge management and knowledge management outcomes were characterized in MECO. Then, the critical success factors of knowledge management which were identified ...

  15. A case study approach to understand how quality improvement methods led to improvements in primary care for insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Tilling, Michelle; Togher, Fiona; Davy, Zowie; Dyas, Jane; Middleton, Hugh; Orner, Roderick

    2011-01-01

    Context: The Resources for Effective Sleep Treatment (REST) project was conducted in Lincolnshire, UK from 2007-2010. Its aim was to develop and evaluate new approaches to implementing sleep assessment methods and non-pharmacological treatments for insomnia into routine general practice. Problem: Sleep problems are common affecting 30% of the population in the previous year. Many insomnia sufferers present to general practice but patients and clinicians feel that primary care management sh...

  16. A survey of student-centred approaches to engineering education - a case study concerning Slovenia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kocijančič, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary technologies require continuous development of curricula, course contents and laboratory practical classes. However, the teacher-centred teaching approach seems still to dominate in engineering education when compared with more active teaching methods that are oriented towards student-centred learning. This article overviews the cognitive levels in engineering education related to the revised Bloom taxonomy, where student-centred methods can contribute more to higher cognitive le...

  17. Approaches for setting micronutrient recommendations : a case study of vitamin B12 for adults and elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Doets, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most countries in Europe provide recommendations on the micronutrient composition of diets to fulfil requirements of nearly all individuals in the general apparently healthy population. However as each country uses its own methods for deriving such recommendations, there is large variation between countries in the recommended micronutrient intakes. The objectives of this thesis are to signal key issues for harmonizing approaches for establishing micronutrient recommendations for a...

  18. A weight-of-evidence approach to identify nanomaterials in consumer products: a case study of nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Michael F; Poda, Aimee R; Moser, Robert D; Weiss, Charles A; Cairns, Carolyn; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale ingredients in commercial products represent a point of emerging environmental concern due to recent findings that correlate toxicity with small particle size. A weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach based upon multiple lines of evidence (LOE) is developed here to assess nanomaterials as they exist in consumer product formulations, providing a qualitative assessment regarding the presence of nanomaterials, along with a baseline estimate of nanoparticle concentration if nanomaterials do exist. Electron microscopy, analytical separations, and X-ray detection methods were used to identify and characterize nanomaterials in sunscreen formulations. The WOE/LOE approach as applied to four commercial sunscreen products indicated that all four contained at least 10% dispersed primary particles having at least one dimension <100 nm in size. Analytical analyses confirmed that these constituents were comprised of zinc oxide (ZnO) or titanium dioxide (TiO2). The screening approaches developed herein offer a streamlined, facile means to identify potentially hazardous nanomaterial constituents with minimal abrasive processing of the raw material.

  19. High direct drive illumination uniformity achieved by multi-parameter optimization approach: a case study of Shenguang III laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Liu, Dongxiao; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Weiwu; Zhang, Baohan; Gu, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    The uniformity of the compression driver is of fundamental importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In this paper, the illumination uniformity on a spherical capsule during the initial imprinting phase directly driven by laser beams has been considered. We aim to explore methods to achieve high direct drive illumination uniformity on laser facilities designed for indirect drive ICF. There are many parameters that would affect the irradiation uniformity, such as Polar Direct Drive displacement quantity, capsule radius, laser spot size and intensity distribution within a laser beam. A novel approach to reduce the root mean square illumination non-uniformity based on multi-parameter optimizing approach (particle swarm optimization) is proposed, which enables us to obtain a set of optimal parameters over a large parameter space. Finally, this method is applied to improve the direct drive illumination uniformity provided by Shenguang III laser facility and the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.62% to 0.23% for perfectly balanced beams. Moreover, beam errors (power imbalance and pointing error) are taken into account to provide a more practical solution and results show that this multi-parameter optimization approach is effective. PMID:25969321

  20. Exploring Flexible and Multidisciplinary Approaches to Applied Science Research Project Assessments: Case Studies from the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Favors, J. E.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Within the NASA DEVELOP National Program, teams conduct rapid prototype and feasibility projects, applying NASA Earth Observations to a broad range of problems in diverse focus areas, including water resources, agriculture, disaster management, and ecological forecasting, with the goal of assisting partner organizations in their decision making processes. Projects vary in scope, design, and satellite data utilized. As a result, there is no "fixed" set of indicators that encompasses all relevant impacts of all projects. Rather, a flexible toolkit of both shared indicators and individualized approaches is needed to capture the diverse outcomes of these projects, while still allowing for comparability of the projects. This has been done through the creation of pre- and post-project partner assessments that capture partner needs, capabilities, and expectations. This provides both baseline data and an overview of project impacts on partners. Selected projects are then individually assessed in greater detail through partner follow-ups and research into the quantification of project impacts utilizing interdisciplinary approaches to fit each project. This process is discussed through three examples of project impact assessments that draw from varied discipline approaches including cost benefit analysis and ecosystem services.

  1. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  2. A new approach to global health institutions? A case study of new vaccine introduction and the formation of the GAVI Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristin Ingstad; Andresen, Steinar; Bjune, Gunnar

    2010-10-01

    There is an emerging research agenda to analyse empirically the forces driving changes in global health governance. This study applies analytical tools from international relations research to explain the formation of international health regimes. The study utilizes two explanatory perspectives: individual leadership, and the interests of key non-state actors in the formation process, using the case of the formation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) from 1995 to 1999. The case study is based on material from interviews with key actors, an archival review of documents from the Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI), and published literature. Findings show that the regime formation process was initiated by individuals who were primarily affiliated to scientific communities and who led to the World Bank and the Gates Foundation becoming champions of a new coordinating mechanism for new vaccine introduction. Negotiations in the regime formation process were between a small group of founding agencies with divergent interests regarding immunization priorities. The case also sheds light on the authority of the WHO and the resources of the Gates Foundation in driving the process towards the final structure of the alliance. The paper discusses the potential contribution of the international relations approach compared to policy research as a way of understanding the institutional dynamics of global health, particularly in respect of relations between countries and non-state actors. PMID:20692756

  3. Teaching Approaches of Beginning Teachers for Jewish Studies in Israeli "Mamlachti" Schools: A Case Study of a Jewish Education Teachers' Training Program for Outstanding Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzin, Ori

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a longitudinal qualitative study that examined teaching approaches of neophyte teachers in Israel during their 4-year exclusive teachers' training program for teaching Jewish subjects and first two years of teaching. The program wanted to promote change in secular pupils' attitudes toward Jewish subjects. We…

  4. The case for an emergentist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertus van Rooy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out an argument in favour of emergentism as an alternative theoretical paradigm to nativism, arguing that it offers a coherent, evidence-based account of language structure, language acquisition, language evolution, and language change. A number of key tenets of the nativist approach are summarised first, including the nature of the presumed complexity of language, the poverty of the input argument against the learnability of language, the assumption of parsimony, the view of language as innate, biological faculty, and the view of the primary function of language as cognitive representation rather than communication. This is followed by a presentation of the emergentist alternative, which is centred on the notion of the grammatical construction as central unit in the emergentist approach. The properties of constructions, and how they can come into being with recourse to only domain-general cognitive processes, are presented, before the implications of this view for language structure, language acquisition, language evolution and language change are discussed. Additional points of difference with the nativist position are highlighted, including the assumptions of non-parsimonious storage and the centrality of communicative interaction in the ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of language. Throughout the presentation, arguments are illustrated with reference to aspects of complementation in the Germanic languages. The article concludes with a detailed case study of the wh-extraction construction, drawing on an analysis of corpus data from Afrikaans, to demonstrate how the construction-based, emergentist approach leads to an insightful analysis of a well-known construction, without having to make extensive assumptions about the underlying linguistic complexity and the need for innate mechanisms to enable the acquisition of such a complex construction.

  5. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design. PMID:18406517

  6. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  7. Efficient approach for the detection and identification of new androgenic metabolites by applying SRM GC-CI-MS/MS: a methandienone case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed. This enables the search for previously unknown but expected metabolites by selection of their predicted transitions. The combination of both factors allows the setup of an efficient approach to search for new metabolites. The approach uses selected reaction monitoring which is inherently more sensitive than full scan or precursor ion scan. Additionally, structural information obtained from the structure specific CI fragmentation pattern facilitates metabolite identification. The procedure was demonstrated by a methandienone case study. Its metabolites have been studied extensively in the past, and this allowed an adequate evaluation of the efficiency of the approach. Thirty three metabolites were detected, including all relevant previously discovered metabolites. In our study, the previously reported long-term metabolite (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl,17α-methyl-androst-1,4,13-trien-3-one) could be detected up to 26 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS. The study proves the validity of the approach to search for metabolites of new synthetic AAS and new long-term metabolites of less studied AAS and illustrates the increase in sensitivity by using CI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434811

  8. A BSC-DEA approach to measure the relative efficiency of service industry: A case study of banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Aryanezhad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation plays an important role in determining faults and difficulties of any organization as well as attempting to increase capabilities and improve activities. Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a non-parametric method, has been one of the most important and significant management tools for measuring output or efficiency. In this paper, we propose a method to utilize balanced score card (BSC as a tool for designing performance evaluation indices of an organization. The integrated BSC-DEA has been applied as an empirical case for a major private bank organization and the results are analyzed.

  9. Pragmatic Approach for Multistage Phasor Measurement Unit Placement: A Case Study of Danish Power System and Inputs from Practical Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thoegersen, Poul;

    2016-01-01

    Effective phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement is a key to the implementation of efficient and economically feasible wide area measurement systems in modern power systems. This paper proposes a pragmatic approach for cost-effective stage-wise deployment of PMUs while considering realistic...... on the Danish power system projected for the year 2040. Furthermore, practical experience learnt from an optimal PMU placement project aimed at PMU placement in the Danish power system is presented, which is expected to provide insight of practical challenges at ground level that could be considered by PMU...

  10. Identification of a common variant affecting human episodic memory performance using a pooled genome-wide association approach: a case study of disease gene identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Traci L; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an important tool for discovering novel genes associated with disease or traits. Careful design of case-control groups greatly facilitates the efficacy of these studies. Here we describe a pooled GWAS study undertaken to find novel genes associated with human episodic memory performance. A genomic locus for the WW and C2 domain-containing 1 protein, KIBRA (also known as WWC1), was found to be associated with memory performance in three cognitively normal cohorts from Switzerland and the USA. This result was further supported by correlation of KIBRA genotype and differences in hippocampal activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These findings provide an excellent example of the application of GWAS using a pooled genomic DNA approach to successfully identify a locus with strong effects on human memory.

  11. Knowledge Creation in Construction Organisations: A Case Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliufoo, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and characterise the knowledge creation process in construction organisations and explore to what extent organisations facilitate the process. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach is adopted using four construction organisations; a knowledge creation model is also used as the…

  12. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-11-03

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice.

  13. GIS-Based Fast Moving Landslide Risk Analysis Model Using Qualitative Approach: A Case Study of Balakot, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Soomro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of this research is the development of new model called fast moving landslide risk analysis model by modifying one of the previous prominent landslide risk algorithms focusing on the fast moving type of the landslides (such as mudslides, mud flows, block slide, rock fall and topple based on the qualitative approach using Heuristic method in GIS (Geographical Information Systems. The different event controlling parameters and criteria were used for fast moving landslide predictive risk model. The pair wise comparison method was used in which the parameters of landslide hazard and vulnerability were compared by their assigned weights. The drawback of the used approach was justified by the standard value of consistency ratio, which proved the assigned weight of the parameters as reasonable and consistent. The model was validated by using the occurred landslides inventory data and correlation coefficient test, which showed the positive relationship between the landslide risk predicted regions and the occurred landslides locations. The various landslide events occurred on 8th October, 2005 were accumulated as landslide inventory by the interpretation of satellite imagery. The validation of the model was justified by using one of the statistical two paired, \\"t\\" test, and the amount of the predicted risk in the different regions. It is believed that this modified model will prove beneficial to the decision makers in future.

  14. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    This research project adopted an interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). New data were produced that: (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  15. The Saturation+ Approach to Behavior Change: Case Study of a Child Survival Radio Campaign in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanna; Remes, Pieter; Ilboudo, Rita; Belem, Mireille; Salouka, Souleymane; Snell, Will; Wood, Cathryn; Lavoie, Matthew; Deboise, Laurent; Head, Roy

    2015-12-01

    A 35-month cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Burkina Faso to test whether a radio campaign focused on child health, broadcast between March 2012 and January 2015, could reduce under-5 mortality. This paper describes the design and implementation of the mass media intervention in detail, including the Saturation+ principles that underpinned the approach, the creative process, the lessons learned, and recommendations for implementing this intervention at scale. The Saturation+ approach focuses on the 3 core principles of saturation (ensuring high exposure to campaign messages), science (basing campaign design on data and modeling), and stories (focusing the dramatic climax on the target behavior) to maximize the impact of behavior change campaigns. In Burkina Faso, creative partnerships with local radio stations helped us obtain free airtime in exchange for training and investing in alternative energy supplies to solve frequent energy problems faced by the stations. The campaign used both short spots and longer drama formats, but we consider the short spots as a higher priority to retain during scale-up, as they are more cost-effective than longer formats and have the potential to ensure higher exposure of the population to the messages. The implementation research synthesized in this paper is designed to enable the effective adoption and integration of evidence-based behavior change communication interventions into health care policy and practice. PMID:26681703

  16. Conflict Management in Participatory Approaches to Water Management: A Case Study of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Furber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Joint Commission (IJC has been involved in a 14-year effort to formulate a new water regulation plan for the Lake Ontario St. Lawrence River (“LOSLR” area that balances the interests of a diverse group of stakeholders including shipping and navigation, hydropower, environment, recreational boating, municipal and domestic water supply, First Nations, and shoreline property owners. It has embraced the principles of collaborative and participatory management and, applying a Shared Visioning Planning (SVP approach, has worked closely with stakeholders throughout all stages of this process; however, conflicts between competing stakeholders have delayed and complicated this effort. The overarching aim of this paper is to consider the extent to which the SVP approach employed by the IJC was effective in managing conflict in the LOSLR context. Audio recordings and transcriptions of public and technical hearings held by the IJC in 2013 have been systematically analysed using stakeholder mapping and content analysis methods, to gain insight into the stakeholder universe interacting with the IJC on Plan 2014.  The principal conclusions of this paper are that (a the Shared Vision Planning approach employed by the IJC had some significant successes in terms of conflict management—particularly notable is the success that has been achieved with regards to integration of First Nation concerns; (b there is a distinct group of shoreline property owners, based in New York State, who remain opposed to Plan 2014—the IJC’s public outreach and participation efforts have not been successful in reconciling their position with that of other stakeholders due to the fact that this stakeholder group perceive that they can only lose out from any regulation change and are therefore unlikely to be motivated to engage productively in any planning dialogue; and (c a solution would require that the problem be reframed so that this stakeholder can see

  17. Nationalism Studies between Methodological Nationalism and Orientalism : An Alternative Approach Illustrated with the Case of El Greco in Toledo, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological nationalism is still dominant in nationalism studies. When studying the construction of national identities, scholars generally limit their study to the borders of one nation-state, while only paying attention to members of that particular nation. Implicitly, foreign actors and influe

  18. Approach to the research and the situation of Public Relations in Europe. Comparative study between German and Spanish cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. María Isabel Míguez González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of bring near to the spanish academic field the european approaches of Public Relations, this article makes a compared revision of the situation of this subject and profession in Germany and Spain. This revision shows important resemblances on the use of the term “public relations”, the confusion of this subject with other communicative activities, the professional development and the problems of the field in both countries. However, it also shows that Germany has more tradition on public relations research than Spain and, therefore, it has a more extensive corpus of theories about this subject. For this reason, since important resemblances exist in other aspects, german research on public relations could be interesting for the spanish academic field both to explain the situation of public relations in Spain and to motivate theoretical development in our country.

  19. Approaches Management in the Process to Improve Quality. A Case Study in the manufacture of Supplied pieces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Miguel Estrada Márquez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of this work some opportunities to quality improvement have been detected in the productive results of T 16 workshop from the management process guide and with the support of the basic tools for industrial engineering: maps, diagrams and the process chip for identification, description, documentation, chase, measurement, verification and improvement of the results. The principle of manufacture adjustment, the engineering method, some elements related with working organization, technical conditions, and the working environment were evaluated. The integration by means of approaches in the process make possible to determine the results of the actions. With on analysis of the costs of the quality process, the economic and productive results and the benefit for importation substitutions a procedure that creates new ways to improve quality is proposed. It achieves efficiency and efficacy in the production of the bit drum for the Junz 6M tractor.

  20. Facilitating a stakeholder-led approach to the development of Mediterranean climate services: co-ordinating the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIM-RUN case studies provide a real-world context for bringing together experts on the demand and supply side of climate services. They are essential to the CLIM-RUN objective of using iterative and bottom-up (i.e., stakeholder led) approaches for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders. The region of interest for CLIM-RUN is the Mediterranean, which is a recognised climate change hotspot (i.e., a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming) and which does not currently have developed climate service networks such as exist in a number of Central and Northern European countries. The case studies focus on the energy and tourism sectors, but also include a cross-cutting study on wild fires (an issue of increasing concern in the Mediterranean) as well as a cross-sectorial integrated case study for the Venice lagoon. They span coastal (e.g., Tunisia and Croatia), island (e.g., Cyprus) and mountain (e.g., Savoie) environments, the eastern (e.g., Greece) to western (e.g., Spain, Morocco) Mediterranean regions, and regional to local foci. Stakeholder involvement has been critical from the start of the project in March 2011, with a series of targeted workshops helping to define the framework for each case study. Two specific workshop objectives were to (i) better understand who are the climate services stakeholders and (ii) what they need/want from climate services (both in terms of data products and broader knowledge). Many of the workshops were held in local languages to maximise stakeholder participation, with expert knowledge provided by the CLIM-RUN climate and stakeholder expert teams (the CET and SET). Following the workshops, CET members are 'translating' the user needs into specific requirements from climate observations and models and identifying areas where additional modelling and analysis are required. As part of the central co-ordination of the case studies, a perception and data needs

  1. Community Approach to Growing Greener Cities through Self-help Street Horticultural Gardens: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abegunde, Albert Ayorinde

    2011-01-01

    The study examines residents’ concerns in greening their communities though self-help initiatives (SHI) carried out by individuals who utilise road set-backs to plant street horticultural gardens (SHG) in Eti-osa Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. It purposefully administered questionnaire to managers of all SHG in the study area to establish their socio-economic characteristics, contributions to community greening and motivating factors behind their SHI. The study found that the ho...

  2. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  3. On the Use of Dance as a Rehabilitation Approach for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Single Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán Pascual, Patricia; Mortes Roselló, Esther; Domingo Jacinto, Amparo; Belda Lois, Juan Manuel; Bermejo, Ignacio; Medina, Enric; Barberà Guillem, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood. It is a group of permanent disorders that affect child development causing disorders of movement and posture and activity limitations. The impairment of psychomotor skills of children with Cerebral Palsy is attributed to a permanent alteration occurred in non-progressive brain development of the fetus or nursing infant. Some motor related symptoms can be treated using proper physical therapy. However, one of the biggest problems of the usual physical therapy is adherence to therapy. Ballet can be an alternative or a complement to physiotherapy, with the added attraction of not being part of a to therapy, but a fun activity with the extra reward associated with the realization of an artistic activity. For some years the ballet is used as therapeutically valuable for both children with cerebral palsy: Intensive ballet training can generate changes in the sensorimotor cortex. Ballet is characterized by a complex process of movements that have to be in a musical rhythm (hence have to be precise), in which there is an overall coordination of the muscles. It is also a highly motivating and rewarding activity that allows many children with CP sharing the activities of their peers without special needs. Objective measurements of the Full Port de Bras movement has been chosen as an index of improvement. The results shows progressive improvements of the execution in a single case. PMID:26294586

  4. A new approach to improve reservoir characterization using intelligent systems - a case study: Toldado field in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo; Bernal, Maria C.; Silva, Bernardo; Bejarano, Aristobulo; Cobaleda, Gloria [Ecopetrol S.A., Bogota (Colombia)]|[Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo, Bogota (Colombia); Arango, Sandro; Torres, Freddy

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a new technique to improve reservoir characterization. We integrated concepts of multivariate statistical analysis and soft computing to get better petrophysical models. We applied the proposed technique to model permeability for the highly heterogeneous cretaceous Caballos formation in Toldado field, Colombia. First, we evaluated the permeability model developed by D. K. Davies in this field. His method is based fundamentally on the identification of rock types (intervals of rock with unique pore geometry). We think this a good approach to improve the prediction of permeability. However, Davies gets traditional models (Log permeability vs. porosity) for each rock type. We found a 78% of average absolute error in his model for Toldado field. Using of multivariate statistical analysis, we found that the dominant independent variables to predict the permeability for Toldado field were porosity, index of the effective photo-electric absorption cross section of the formation, and gamma ray logs. Our neural network permeability model has an average absolute error less than 8%. Finally, we validated the neural network permeability model by applying the concept of the hydraulic interwell connectivity index (HICI). These models helped us to improve the history match and make recommendations to increase the oil production by about 500 bopd. (author)

  5. The structure of a hydrothermal system from an integrated geochemical, geophysical, and geological approach: The Ischia Island case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Napoli, R.; Martorana, R.; Orsi, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Camarda, M.; de Gregorio, S.; Gagliano Candela, E.; Luzio, D.; Messina, N.; Pecoraino, G.; Bitetto, M.; de Vita, S.; Valenza, M.

    2011-07-01

    The complexity of volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems is such that thorough characterization requires extensive and interdisciplinary work. We use here an integrated multidisciplinary approach, combining geological investigations with hydrogeochemical and soil degassing prospecting, and resistivity surveys, to provide a comprehensive characterization of the shallow structure of the southwestern Ischia's hydrothermal system. We show that the investigated area is characterized by a structural setting that, although very complex, can be schematized in three sectors, namely, the extra caldera sector (ECS), caldera floor sector (CFS), and resurgent caldera sector (RCS). This contrasted structural setting governs fluid circulation. Geochemical prospecting shows, in fact, that the caldera floor sector, a structural and topographic low, is the area where CO2-rich (>40 cm3/l) hydrothermally mature (log Mg/Na ratios 150 g m-2 d-1), is clearly captured by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys as a highly conductive (resistivity 10,000 mg/l) and poorly conductive meteoric-derived (TDS Ischia's hydrothermal system.

  6. An Integrative Approach to Understand the Climatic-Hydrological Process: A Case Study of Yarkand River, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Yarkand River as an example, this paper conducted an integrative approach combining the Durbin-Watson statistic test (DWST, multiple linear regression (MLR, wavelet analysis (WA, coefficient of determination (CD, and Akaike information criterion (AIC to analyze the climatic-hydrological process of inland river, Northwest China from a multitime scale perspective. The main findings are as follows. (1 The hydrologic and climatic variables, that is, annual runoff (AR, annual average temperature, (AAT and annual precipitation (AP, are stochastic and, no significant autocorrelation. (2 The variation patterns of runoff, temperature, and precipitation were scale dependent in time. AR, AAT, and AP basically present linear trends at 16-year and 32-year scales, but they show nonlinear fluctuations at 2-year and 4-year scales. (3 The relationship between AR with AAT and AP was simulated by the multiple linear regression equation (MLRE based on wavelet analysis at each time scale. But the simulated effect at a larger time scale is better than that at a smaller time scale.

  7. Review and Prospects of Diversiifed Approaches to Constructing Learning Centers--A Case Study of Guangzhou Open University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; GONG Hong-wu; LI Wen-fei

    2014-01-01

    Guangzhou Open University (GZOU) has been considering the system construction as an important approach to extending the Radio and TV university (RTVU) education to the grass-root stratum and establishing bases for developing tal-ents. For years, in addition to local RTVUs, GZOU has established an array of learning centers by cooperating with more than 100 partners from a variety of industries, enterprises, secondary and higher vocational schools, social organizations, groups and other training institutions. Such learning centers have taken on different characteristics corresponding to the school’s three developmental phases, that is, period before 1999, when the Open Education Pilot Project was launched; that between 1999 and 2006, when the Conclusive Evaluation was implemented; and the one after 2006. At present, the constitution of Learning Center in GZOU System holds out some notable features as follows: diversity of collaborators and cooperative modes, and ex-tensiveness of function and orientation. These strengths would facilitate the GZOU’s endeavor to transform itself from a local RTVU into the Open University.

  8. WINE TOURISM IN EUROPE AND ROMANIA – A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH WITH APPLICATION TO PRAHOVA COUNTY. CASE STUDY AT HALEWOOD WINERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE ELENA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Always considered a gift of nature and associated with noble names, wine-growing regions have begun to capture the interest of tourists from the interwar period of the last century. Representing a new form of tourism, however, people are reluctant to spend their time in this way, but wine tourism should be seen as an opportunity to visit the lesser known rural areas of Europe, viewed closely with all their secrets, areas that have kept the history and traditions regarding one of the oldest professions - that of winemaker. In Romania, potential growth opportunities, supported by wine are very high. Different varieties of grapes grown in hilly regions like Dealu Mare, Transylvania or Murfatlar, represents the secret of the Romanian wines, exported to all continents by Halewood Romania. This paper presents some aspects of wine tourism in Europe and make a blueprint for this type of tourism in the region Dealu Mare, ways that the thematic roads such as the Wine Road, ten years after the launch can contribute to socio-economic development of the subcarpathic sector of Teleajen and Buzau by moderate investment and quick results. Local development goals are to encourage an attractive territory and a well-defined identity, with competitive and efficient agriculture and rural economy, with respect for the environment, able to provide welfare to the residents, to develop integrated approaches such as "bottom-up" in circumstances where it is necessary to territorial and local challenges that require structural changes.

  9. Multiscale approach to (micro)porosity quantification in continental spring carbonate facies: Case study from the Cakmak quarry (Denizli, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Eva; Foubert, Anneleen; Oligschlaeger, Dirk; Claes, Steven; Soete, Jeroen; Bertier, Pieter; Özkul, Mehmet; Virgone, Aurélien; Swennen, Rudy

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate spring deposits gained renewed interest as potential contributors to subsurface reservoirs and as continental archives of environmental changes. In contrast to their fabrics, petrophysical characteristics - and especially the importance of microporosity (Turkey): the extended Pond, the dipping crystalline Proximal Slope Facies and the draping Apron and Channel Facies deposits formed by encrustation of biological substrate. Integrating mercury injection capillary pressure, bulk and diffusion Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), NMR profiling and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements with microscopy and micro-computer tomography (µ-CT), shows that NMR T2 distributions systematically display a single group of micro-sized pore bodies, making up between 6 and 33% of the pore space (average NMR T2 cut-off value: 62 ms). Micropore bodies are systematically located within cloudy crystal cores of granular and dendritic crystal textures in all facies. The investigated properties therefore do not reveal differences in micropore size or shape with respect to more or less biology-associated facies. The pore network of the travertine facies is distinctive in terms of (i) the percentage of microporosity, (ii) the connectivity of micropores with meso- to macropores, and (ii) the degree of heterogeneity at micro- and macroscale. Results show that an approach involving different NMR experiments provided the most complete view on the 3-D pore network especially when microporosity and connectivity are of interest.

  10. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hicks

    2013-12-01

    analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4 evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  11. Applying the collective impact approach to address non-native species: A case study of the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H. B.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Hollins, K.

    2016-01-01

    To address the invasion of non-native Phragmites in the Great Lakes, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey—Great Lakes Science Center partnered with the Great Lakes Commission in 2012 to establish the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative (GLPC). The GLPC is a regional-scale partnership established to improve collaboration among stakeholders and increase the effectiveness of non-native Phragmites management and research. Rather than forming a traditional partnership with a narrowly defined goal, the GLPC follows the principles of collective impact to engage stakeholders, guide progress, and align resources to address this complex, regional challenge. In this paper, the concept and tenets of collective impact are described, the GLPC is offered as a model for other natural resource-focused collective impact efforts, and steps for establishing collaboratives are presented. Capitalizing on the interactive collective impact approach, the GLPC is moving toward a broadly accepted common agenda around which agencies and individuals will be able to better align their actions and generate measureable progress in the regional campaign to protect healthy, diverse ecosystems from damage caused by non-native Phragmites.

  12. Efficiency evaluation of a safety department in a construction company-A case study: A DEA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Odeyale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a decision making tool based on linear programming for measuring the relative efficiency of a set of comparable units. DEA helps us identify the sources and level of inefficiency for each of the inputs and outputs. This approach has been used to evaluate the efficiency of the safety department in five construction companies. A three-input, safety workforce, safety training, and safety budget, and two-output, Perfect days and Uptime, constant returns-to-scale (CRS model was developed. The model indicated the necessary improvements required in the inefficient unit’s inputs and outputs to make it efficient, by identifying what factor is responsible for the low efficiency of performance, and also what factor should be improved in order to improve the efficiency of the safety department. The result shows that the safety department of firm A, B and D are efficient, but Firm C and Firm E can improve their efficiency by reducing inputs up to 3.34% and 6.05%, respectively. The inputs identified for reduction were; number of safety staffs and safety budget for Firm C and E respectively.

  13. A clustering approach for the analysis of solar energy yields: A case study for concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; García-Barberena, Javier; Guisado, María Vicenta; Gastón, Martín

    2016-05-01

    The design of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSTP) systems requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the meteorology at the site of interest. Meteorological series are often condensed into one representative year with the aim of data volume reduction and speeding-up of energy system simulations, defined as Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). This approach seems to be appropriate for rather detailed simulations of a specific plant; however, in previous stages of the design of a power plant, especially during the optimization of the large number of plant parameters before a final design is reached, a huge number of simulations are needed. Even with today's technology, the computational effort to simulate solar energy system performance with one year of data at high frequency (as 1-min) may become colossal if a multivariable optimization has to be performed. This work presents a simple and efficient methodology for selecting number of individual days able to represent the electrical production of the plant throughout the complete year. To achieve this objective, a new procedure for determining a reduced set of typical weather data in order to evaluate the long-term performance of a solar energy system is proposed. The proposed methodology is based on cluster analysis and permits to drastically reduce computational effort related to the calculation of a CSTP plant energy yield by simulating a reduced number of days from a high frequency TMY.

  14. A GIS-based approach for estimating volcaniclastic flow susceptibility: a case study from Sorrentina Peninsula (Campania Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Fubelli, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Università degli Studi "Roma Tre", Roma, Italy; Sulpizio, R.; Dipartimento di scienze della terra e Geoambientali, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy; Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali—CNR, via M. Bianco 9, Milan, Italy; Zanchetta, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Pisa, Italy

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to improve volcaniclastic flows hazard zonation and risk mitigation in volcanic areas, this work presents a GIS-based study on the Sorrentina Peninsula, located southwest of the main Neapolitan volcanoes (Ischia, Procida, Campi Flegrei, and Somma-Vesuvius; Campanian Plain, Southern Italy). This area has been heavily affected by historical events with more than 200 volcani - clastic flows recorded in the last 500 years. The study here proposed combines different information, in...

  15. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  16. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available Quality by design (QbD concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs. Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC, amount of water added (AWA, and stirring speed (SS were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  17. Screening regional management options for their impact on climate resilience: an approach and case study in the Venen-Vechtstreek wetlands in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardekker, J A; Wildschut, D; Stemberger, S; van der Sluijs, J P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems provide various resources and services. These are often vulnerable to climate change and other pressures. Therefore, enhancing resilience to climate change is important for their long term viability. This paper explores how management options can be evaluated on their resilience implications. The approach included five steps: (1) characterizing the system, (2) characterizing the impacts of climate change and other disturbances, (3) inventorying management options, (4) assessing the impacts of these on climate resilience, and (5) follow-up analysis. For the resilience assessment, we used a set of 'resilience principles': homeostasis, omnivory, high flux, flatness, buffering, and redundancy. We applied the approach in a case study in a Dutch wetlands region. Many options in the region's management plan contribute to resilience, however, the plan underutilised several principles, particularly flatness, but also redundancy and omnivory for agriculture, and high flux for nature. Co-benefits was identified as an important additional criterion to obtain support for adaptation from local stakeholders, such as farmers. The approach provided a relatively quick and participatory way to screen options. It allowed us to consider multiple impacts and sectors, multiple dimensions of resilience, and stakeholder perspectives. The results can be used to identify gaps or pitfalls, and set priorities for follow-up analyses.

  18. Screening regional management options for their impact on climate resilience: an approach and case study in the Venen-Vechtstreek wetlands in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardekker, J A; Wildschut, D; Stemberger, S; van der Sluijs, J P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems provide various resources and services. These are often vulnerable to climate change and other pressures. Therefore, enhancing resilience to climate change is important for their long term viability. This paper explores how management options can be evaluated on their resilience implications. The approach included five steps: (1) characterizing the system, (2) characterizing the impacts of climate change and other disturbances, (3) inventorying management options, (4) assessing the impacts of these on climate resilience, and (5) follow-up analysis. For the resilience assessment, we used a set of 'resilience principles': homeostasis, omnivory, high flux, flatness, buffering, and redundancy. We applied the approach in a case study in a Dutch wetlands region. Many options in the region's management plan contribute to resilience, however, the plan underutilised several principles, particularly flatness, but also redundancy and omnivory for agriculture, and high flux for nature. Co-benefits was identified as an important additional criterion to obtain support for adaptation from local stakeholders, such as farmers. The approach provided a relatively quick and participatory way to screen options. It allowed us to consider multiple impacts and sectors, multiple dimensions of resilience, and stakeholder perspectives. The results can be used to identify gaps or pitfalls, and set priorities for follow-up analyses. PMID:27386233

  19. A LiDAR-based approach for a multi-purpose characterization of Alpine forests: an Italian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti G; Boscutti F; Pirotti F; Bertacco C; Simon G.; Sigura M; Cazorzi F; Bonfanti P

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have verified the suitability of LiDAR for the estimation of forest metrics over large areas. In the present study we used LiDAR as support for the characterization of structure, volume, biomass and naturalistic value in mixed-coniferous forests of the Alpine region. Stem density, height and structure in the test plots were derived using a mathematical morphology function applied directly on the LiDAR point cloud. From these data, digital maps describing the horizontal and ver...

  20. APPROACH BASED ON LINEAR REGRESSION FOR STOCK EXCHANGE PREDICTION – CASE STUDY OF PETR4 PETROBRÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson S. Timbó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange is an important apparatus for economic growth as it is an opportunity for investors to acquire equity and, at the same time, provide resources for organizations expansions. On the other hand, a major concern regarding entering this market is related with the dynamic in which deals are made since the pricing of shares happens in a smart and oscillatory way. Due to this context, several researchers are studying techniques in order to predict the stock exchange, maximize profits and reduce risks. Thus, this study proposes a linear regression model for stock exchange prediction which, combined with financial indicators, provides support decision-making by investors.

  1. A Comparison of Individual and School Level Approaches to Merit Pay: A Case Study of the Dade County Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.; And Others

    This policy study discusses two models of merit pay programs enacted in Florida: the Florida Meritorious Teacher Program and the Quality Instruction Incentives Program (QUIIP). Using the Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg et al.) as a theoretical framework, each program was analyzed from the perspective of how it worked as a motivator and source…

  2. Team Science Approach to Developing Consensus on Research Good Practices for Practice-Based Research Networks: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette M; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; Aspy, Cheryl B; Dolor, Rowena J; Fagnan, Lyle J; Levy, Barcey T; Palac, Hannah L; Michaels, LeAnn; Patterson, V Beth; Kano, Miria; Smith, Paul D; Sussman, Andrew L; Williams, Robert; Sterling, Pamela; O'Beirne, Maeve; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Using peer learning strategies, seven experienced PBRNs working in collaborative teams articulated procedures for PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs). The PRGPs is a PBRN-specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. This paper describes the team science processes which culminated in the PRGPs. Skilled facilitators used team science strategies and methods from the Technology of Participation (ToP®), and the Consensus Workshop Method to support teams to codify diverse research expertise in practice-based research. The participatory nature of "sense-making" moved through identifiable stages. Lessons learned include (1) team input into the scope of the final outcome proved vital to project relevance; (2) PBRNs with diverse domains of research expertise contributed broad knowledge on each topic; and (3) ToP® structured facilitation techniques were critical for establishing trust and clarifying the "sense-making" process.

  3. A Case Study Approach On Indian Companies And Global Companies Entry In Foreign Markets An Analysis Of Glocalization Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Semila

    2013-01-01

    The present paper involved a study on Glocal communication strategy adopted by select global companies while foraying into India and Indian companies foray into the foreign markets. Glocalization concept in specific terms implies Think Global and Act Local which has been developed through Japanese business practices. The requirement of this global localization idea arrived in the late 1980s to bridge the gap between local, regional, national, global management of the businesses 20.PROBLEM STA...

  4. An ethical approach to socio-economic information sources in ongoing vulnerability and resilience studies: the Mount Cameroon case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilaria Pannaccione Apa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vulnerability of facing natural and man-made hazards, with the related resilient answers belong to the complex and articulate field of social sciences called ‘Disaster Anthropology’. Vulnerability is generally defined as a weak point in facing an aggressive event that is difficult to manage. Resilience is the subsequent capacity for self-repair after a sustained natural or anthropogenic stress. Consequently, the theoretical model of economic resilience is the ability to restore an economic background that can support the gradual recovery of social benefits following a disaster. Moreover, the presence in the territory of different systems of production (natural eco-systems and/or technical systems should allow multi-resilient communities. The mathematical structure of these economic theorems makes their practical application difficult inside an ethno-anthropological context, as it conflicts with cultural variables of the socio-structural fabric. An example can be given by some urban and rural family structures that are settled around the Mount Cameroon volcano (southwest Cameroon, in which the general psychological pressure increases because of both the constant exposure to natural hazards and the vulnerability arising from its social environment (e.g. castes, forced housing allocation, cultural estrangement to local chiefdom. Therefore, the rational heuristic model to be adopted in this social vulnerability study is performed by several combined analyses that have many interpretive obstacles. In 2009, within FP7-MIA-VITA, the first fieldwork mission for the study of socio-economic development of communities living around Mount Cameroon was launched. This completed 108 interviews across several social groups of different ethnicities and religions. The resulting information is being re-tested and verified from the second fieldwork mission in 2011, for completion of the study area.

  5. Workplace Futures: A Case Study of an Adaptive Scenarios Approach to Establish Strategies for Tomorrow’s Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Saurin, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Workplace change and innovation will become critical to the organisation’s future in a dynamic, knowledge-based economy and society. As such, anticipating and managing future change is fast becoming a vital dimension underpinning the successful transition – to new work styles, patterns and locations; yet traditional workplace planning methods are rather limited in their ability to fulfil this task. This research, therefore, examines how the potential application of Futures Studies, and more s...

  6. A Semi-supervised learning approach to enhance health care Community-based Question Answering: A case study in alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Wongchaisuwat, Papis; Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Community-based Question Answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for online health communities. In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within online heal...

  7. A Holistic Approach for Managing ICT Security in Non-Commercial Organisations : A Case Study in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Jabiri Kuwe

    2007-01-01

    The research reported here is about improvement of the ICT security management process in non-commercial organisations in order to reduce possible financial damage, taking into consideration the realities found in developing countries. The research took place in a developing country—Tanzania, where five organisations were involved. The study is organised into seven papers covering: the state of ICT security management in the organisations; prerequisites when utilising the existing ICT securit...

  8. Role of Blended Learning Approach in Development of International Distance Education Programs – Case Study from Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharam Chittoor Jhansi

    2013-01-01

    Distance education is less a philosophy and more a method of education. Students can study in their own time, at the place of their choice (home, work or learning centre), and without face-to-face contact with a teacher. Technology is a critical element of distance education. International distance education program, in its broader perspective, aims to provide a multinational platform where the latest trends in distance education can be shared and discussed in a friendly environment with the ...

  9. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  10. Assessing Office Automation Effect on Performance Using Balanced Scorecard approach Case Study: Esfahan Education Organizations and Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Moshref Javadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Survival of each organization depends on its dynamic interaction with internal and external environment. Regarding development of technology and its effect on performance of organizations, organizations need to implement these technologies in order to be successful. This research aims to explore relationship between implementation of office automation and performance using structural equitation modeling method (SEM. This study is considered an applied survey in which its method is descriptive. Statistical population was managers of offices and schools of ministry of education in Esfahan and Lenjan city.130 individuals were selected randomly as sample. In order to evaluate validity of questionnaire, content and construct validity were used and relations between variables of this research has been confirmed based on results of SEM method. For analyzes of data, structural equation method has been used. Regarding obtained results, effectiveness amount of office automation on performance was measured which was equal to estimated standard amount as 83%. Obtained results from main hypothesis test of this research completely conform which there is about office automation in studied organization and office automation could improve performance of organization.

  11. Distribution network design under demand uncertainty using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach: a case study in pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Arman; Kimiagari, Ali Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Distribution network design as a strategic decision has long-term effect on tactical and operational supply chain management. In this research, the location-allocation problem is studied under demand uncertainty. The purposes of this study were to specify the optimal number and location of distribution centers and to determine the allocation of customer demands to distribution centers. The main feature of this research is solving the model with unknown demand function which is suitable with the real-world problems. To consider the uncertainty, a set of possible scenarios for customer demands is created based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The coefficient of variation of costs is mentioned as a measure of risk and the most stable structure for firm's distribution network is defined based on the concept of robust optimization. The best structure is identified using genetic algorithms and 14 % reduction in total supply chain costs is the outcome. Moreover, it imposes the least cost variation created by fluctuation in customer demands (such as epidemic diseases outbreak in some areas of the country) to the logistical system. It is noteworthy that this research is done in one of the largest pharmaceutical distribution firms in Iran.

  12. A Comparison of deterministic and probabilistic approaches for assessing risks from contaminated aquifers: an Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, Maria Fernanda; Fallico, Carmine; Guerra, Ignazio; Straface, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    In this article we consider the methods of deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis regarding the presence of chemical contaminants in soil, water and air, with a broader meaning than usual for the latter, as we extended the probabilistic treatment to the parameters that influence the transport to a greater extent, in particular hydraulic conductivity and partition coefficient. These parameters, to which only one value is assigned, are considered here as random variables. The objective of the study reported herein was to demonstrate that application of the probabilistic method of risk assessment is preferable to the use of the deterministic method. Both methods yield contaminant removal levels that will reduce adverse effects on human health and the environment, but results from the deterministic method are typically more conservative than necessary, and are thus more costly to achieve. In addition, we found it essential to consider the importance of random variables (the parameters influencing the flow and the transport), such as the hydraulic conductivity and the partition coefficient, when assessing health risks. Both methodologies of health risk analysis, deterministic and probabilistic, were applied to a site in southern Italy, contaminated by heavy metals. The results obtained confirm the purposes of this study. PMID:24293229

  13. A Two-Dimensional Approach to Evaluate the Scientific Production of Countries (Case Study: The Basic Sciences)

    CERN Document Server

    Nejati, Ammar; 10.1007/s11192-009-0103-1

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural and biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics and astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996-2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a "quantity-quality diagram", and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm (k-means), into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

  14. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM - A case study in hilly watershed of Lower Himalayan Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Gupta, Surya

    2016-09-01

    Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived from soil map is used to generate soil erodibility factor map. Soil maps are not available at appropriate scale. In general, soil maps at small scale are used in deriving soil erodibility map that largely generalized spatial variability and it largely ignores the spatial variability since soil map units are discrete polygons. The present study was attempted to generate soil erodibilty map using terrain indices derived from DTM and surface soil sample data. Soil variability in the hilly landscape is largely controlled by topography represented by DTM. The CartoDEM (30 m) was used to derive terrain indices such as terrain wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI) and slope parameters. A total of 95 surface soil samples were collected to compute soil erodibility factor (K) values. The K values ranged from 0.23 to 0.81 t ha-1R-1 in the watershed. Correlation analysis among K-factor and terrain parameters showed highest correlation of soil erodibilty with TWI (r 2= 0.561) followed by slope (r 2= 0.33). A multiple linear regression model was developed to derive soil erodibilty using terrain parameters. A set of 20 soil sample points were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The coefficient of determination (r 2) and RMSE were computed to be 0.76 and 0.07 t ha-1R-1 respectively. The proposed methodology is quite useful in generating soil erodibilty factor map using digital elevation model (DEM) for any hilly terrain areas. The equation/model need to be established for the particular hilly terrain under the study. The developed model was used to generate spatial soil erodibility factor (K) map of the watershed in the lower Himalayan range.

  15. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  16. 331 cases of clinically node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx: a study of a modest size fixed field radiotherapy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx, radiotherapy with surgery in reserve commonly provides very good results in terms of both local control and survival, while preserving function. However uncertainty exists over the treatment of the node-negative neck. Elective whole neck radiotherapy, while effective, may be associated with significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to examine our practice of treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose and compare it with the patterns of recurrence from other centers that use different dose/volume approaches. Methods and Materials: Over a 10-year period 331 patients with node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx were treated with radiotherapy at the Christie Hospital Manchester. Patients were treated with doses of 50-55 Gy in 16 fractions over 3 weeks. Data were collected retrospectively for local and regional control, survival, and morbidity. Results: Overall local control, after surgical salvage in 17 cases, was 79% (T1-92%, T2-81%, T3-67%, T4-73%). Overall regional lymph node control, after surgical salvage in 13 cases, was 84% (T1-91%, T2-88%, T3-81%, T4-72%). Five-year crude survival was 50%, but after correcting for intercurrent deaths was 70% (T1-83%, T2-78%, T3-53%, T4-61%). Serious morbidity requiring surgery was seen in 7 cases (2.1%) and was related to prescribed dose (50 Gy-0%, 52.5 Gy-1.3%, 55 Gy-3.4%). Discussion: Our results confirm that treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose is highly effective. It enables preservation of the larynx in most cases, with acceptable regional control and no loss of survival compared to whole neck radiotherapy regimes

  17. Approach to derive doses for case-control studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among workers internally exposed to uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case-control studies are currently conducted in 3 European countries (Belgium, France and the United Kingdom) to estimate the risk of lung cancer and leukaemia in relation to internal exposure to uranium and plutonium amongst workers in the nuclear industry. The project requires calculating doses absorbed by the lung and the bone marrow for many hundreds of cases and controls internally exposed. In order to establish a common approach to dose reconstruction, a detailed dosimetry protocol and a database of individual exposure were set up and will be presented. The dose reconstruction relies heavily on bioassay data, which are usually urine analysis, extending back over 50 years in some cases. Inevitably, data obtained over such a time span are of variable quality. It is important to review the monitoring practices at the various laboratories and to assess the reliability of these data in order to estimate possible biases as well as random uncertainties. Another key step in the reconstruction process is to decide upon the likely intake regimes consistent with the data. Generally, chronic intakes will be assumed and acute intakes will be added only when their existence is supported by operational data. Biokinetic models are used both to calculate intakes from bioassay data and to convert intakes to doses. The ICRP publication 66 respiratory tract model will be used along with the latest systemic models described by ICRP. These will be supplemented by the Leggett 2005 model for plutonium. These various models will be implemented by the code IMBA-Expert. Since it is essential to obtain central estimates for the doses, a particular problem is encountered with datasets consisting only of values below the limit of detection. For these cases Bayesian statistics will be employed using a non-informative prior probability distribution. (author)

  18. Artificial intelligence based approach to forecast PM2.5 during haze episodes: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2015-02-01

    Delhi has been listed as the worst performer across the world with respect to the presence of alarmingly high level of haze episodes, exposing the residents here to a host of diseases including respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and lung cancer. This study aimed to analyze the haze episodes in a year and to develop the forecasting methodologies for it. The air pollutants, e.g., CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 as well as meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction index, relative humidity, visibility, dew point temperature, etc.) have been used in the present study to analyze the haze episodes in Delhi urban area. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and relative humidity. The correlation matrix shows that temperature, pressure, wind speed, O3, and dew point temperature are the dominating variables for PM2.5 concentrations in Delhi. The hour-by-hour analysis of past data pattern at different monitoring stations suggest that the haze hours were occurred approximately 48% of the total observed hours in the year, 2012 over Delhi urban area. The haze hour forecasting models in terms of PM2.5 concentrations (more than 50 μg/m3) and relative humidity (less than 90%) have been developed through artificial intelligence based Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) techniques and compared with the other modeling techniques e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN). The haze hour's data for nine months, i.e. from January to September have been chosen for training and remaining three months, i.e., October to December in the year 2012 are chosen for validation of the developed models. The forecasted results are compared with the observed values with different statistical measures, e.g., correlation coefficients (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA). The performed

  19. Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Protein Oligomerization: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Paulina J; Lai, F Anthony; Zissimopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization is often a structural requirement for proteins to accomplish their specific cellular function. For instance, tetramerization of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is necessary for the formation of a functional Ca(2+) release channel pore. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the assessment of protein self-association, including yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and chemical cross-linking assays. In the Y2H system, protein self-interaction is detected by β-galactosidase assay in yeast co-expressing GAL4 bait and target fusions of the test protein. Protein self-interaction is further assessed by co-IP using HA- and cMyc-tagged fusions of the test protein co-expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells. The precise stoichiometry of the protein homo-oligomer is examined by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis following expression in HEK293 cells. Using these different but complementary techniques, we have consistently observed the self-association of the RyR N-terminal domain and demonstrated its intrinsic ability to form tetramers. These methods can be applied to protein-protein interaction and homo-oligomerization studies of other mammalian integral membrane proteins. PMID:27500320

  20. How to Calculate Range and Population Size for the Otter? The Irish Approach as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierdre Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All EU Member States are obliged to submit reports to the EU Commission every 6 years, detailing the conservation status of species and habitats listed on the Habitats Directive. The otter (Lutra lutra is one such species. Despite a number of national surveys that showed that the otter was widespread across the country, in Ireland’s 2007 conservation status assessment the otter was considered to be in unfavourable condition. While the Range, Habitat and Future Prospects categories were all considered favourable, Population was deemed to be unfavourable.This paper examines the data behind the 2007 assessment by Ireland, which included three national otter surveys and a series of radio-tracking studies. Range was mapped and calculated based on the results of national distribution surveys together with records submitted from the public. Population size was estimated by calculating the extent of available habitats (rivers, lakes and coasts, dividing that by the typical home range size and then multiplying the result by the proportion of positive sites in the most recent national survey.While the Range of the otter in Ireland did not decrease between the 1980/81 and the 2004/05 surveys, Population trend was calculated as -23.7%. As a consequence, the most recent national Red Data List for Ireland lists the species as Near Threatened (Marnell et al., 2009.

  1. Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Protein Oligomerization: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Paulina J; Lai, F Anthony; Zissimopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization is often a structural requirement for proteins to accomplish their specific cellular function. For instance, tetramerization of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is necessary for the formation of a functional Ca(2+) release channel pore. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the assessment of protein self-association, including yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and chemical cross-linking assays. In the Y2H system, protein self-interaction is detected by β-galactosidase assay in yeast co-expressing GAL4 bait and target fusions of the test protein. Protein self-interaction is further assessed by co-IP using HA- and cMyc-tagged fusions of the test protein co-expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells. The precise stoichiometry of the protein homo-oligomer is examined by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis following expression in HEK293 cells. Using these different but complementary techniques, we have consistently observed the self-association of the RyR N-terminal domain and demonstrated its intrinsic ability to form tetramers. These methods can be applied to protein-protein interaction and homo-oligomerization studies of other mammalian integral membrane proteins.

  2. Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) Approach Applied to Human Genetic History: A Case Study of Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Kassian, Alexei; Thomas, Mark G; Fedchenko, Valentina; Changmai, Piya; Starostin, George

    2016-08-16

    In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016 Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132-1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence. In our view, there are major conceptual problems with both the genetic and linguistic parts of the work. We argue that GPS is a provenancing tool suited to inferring the geographic region where a modern and recently unadmixed genome is most likely to arise, but is hardly suitable for admixed populations and for tracing ancestry up to 1,000 years before present, as its authors have previously claimed. Moreover, all methods of historical linguistics concur that Yiddish is a Germanic language, with no reliable evidence for Slavic, Iranian, or Turkic substrata.

  3. DESIGNING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED APPROACH USING FAHP TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY IN COIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHAMID S. GHADIKOLAEI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive attributes of today’s successful companies is having at least one competitive advantage in one known area. Technological competency is an important advantage which helps improve the firm’s competitiveness. In fact, suitable use of new technologies can dramatically influence the innovation speed, decrease the time of product development cycle and also increase the rate of new product introduction. Firm-specific technological competencies help explain why a firm is different, how it changes over time, and whether it is capable of remaining competitive. In this study, technological competency factors (technology management, process technology, product technology are prioritized according to the competitive advantage levels(customer satisfaction, brand reputation, new product introduction, market share and competitive priorities (cost, price, quality, flexibility, time using fuzzy Analytic hierarchy process (FAHP with the aim of maximizing the nonfinancial performance at coil manufacture industry. The results indicate that within Iran coil industry, process technology is of greater importance than technology management and product technology.

  4. Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) Approach Applied to Human Genetic History: A Case Study of Ashkenazi Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Kassian, Alexei; Thomas, Mark G.; Fedchenko, Valentina; Changmai, Piya; Starostin, George

    2016-01-01

    In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016. Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132–1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence. In our view, there are major conceptual problems with both the genetic and linguistic parts of the work. We argue that GPS is a provenancing tool suited to inferring the geographic region where a modern and recently unadmixed genome is most likely to arise, but is hardly suitable for admixed populations and for tracing ancestry up to 1,000 years before present, as its authors have previously claimed. Moreover, all methods of historical linguistics concur that Yiddish is a Germanic language, with no reliable evidence for Slavic, Iranian, or Turkic substrata. PMID:27389685

  5. An artificial intelligence approach for modeling volume and fresh weight of callus - A case study of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ali; Fadavi, Ali; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-05-21

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) is valued for its aroma and its medicinal and therapeutic properties. A supervised feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) trained with back propagation algorithms, was applied to predict fresh weight and volume of Cuminum cyminum L. calli. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate input/output dependency of the eleven input parameters. Area, feret diameter, minor axis length, perimeter and weighted density parameters were chosen as input variables. Different training algorithms, transfer functions, number of hidden nodes and training iteration were studied to find out the optimum ANN structure. The network with conjugate gradient fletcher-reeves (CGF) algorithm, tangent sigmoid transfer function, 17 hidden nodes and 2000 training epochs was selected as the final ANN model. The final model was able to predict the fresh weight and volume of calli more precisely relative to multiple linear models. The results were confirmed by R(2)≥0.89, R(i)≥0.94 and T value ≥0.86. The results for both volume and fresh weight values showed that almost 90% of data had an acceptable absolute error of ±5%. PMID:26987421

  6. A Novel Approach based on GPS/GNSS Surveying to Monitor Excessive Active Landslide: A Case Study of Intepe Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngördü, Deniz; Cuneyt Erenoǧlu, R.; Akcay, Özgün; Erenoǧlu, Oya

    2016-04-01

    Landslide is the down-slope of soil, rock and organic material under the influence of gravity and they leave deep scars in the topography and occur quite fast in a short time, are one of the most dangerous types of natural disasters. Geology, geotechnics and geodesy sciences had implemented many kind of technique which is many usefully and early warning systems with increasing of technologically events for monitoring. In last decades, the Global Positioning System (GPS/GNSS) technology has shown that it is capable to monitor sub-centimeter landslide deformations. In this study, it is imposed to represent the area under investigation by a number of GPS/GNSS sites in order to monitor the landslide phenomena. After the landslide occured in February 2015 in Intepe, Canakkale (NW Turkey), some sites are used to define a stable reference frame and remaining stations are the monitoring points situated in the deformation area. In this way, these sites were surveyed for 6 days using rapid-static GPS/GNSS technique. Then, a series of deformation analysis was performed between consecutive days. Finally, the determination of the significant movement of these sites was done relatively to the reference ones, e.g. the movement was 3.5 cm per a day averagely. This paper therefore highlights an investigation of landslide motions to discover the characteristics of mass movement for the excessive active landslide. Keywords: GPS/GNSS, landslide, deformation monitoring, Intepe, Turkey

  7. A proteomic approach for studying insect phylogeny: CAPA peptides of ancient insect taxa (Dictyoptera, Blattoptera as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gäde Gerd

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide ligands have to fit exactly into their respective receptors and thus the evolution of the coding regions of their genes is constrained and may be strongly conserved. As such, they may be suitable for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within higher taxa. CAPA peptides of major lineages of cockroaches (Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Cryptocercidae and of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis were chosen to test the above hypothesis. The phylogenetic relationships within various groups of the taxon Dictyoptera (praying mantids, termites and cockroaches are still highly disputed. Results Tandem mass spectrometry of neuropeptides from perisympathetic organs was used to obtain sequence data of CAPA peptides from single specimens; the data were analysed by Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Interference. The resulting cladograms, taking 61 species into account, show a topology which is in general agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, including the recent phylogenetic arrangement placing termites within the cockroaches. When sequence data sets from other neuropeptides, viz. adipokinetic hormones and sulfakinins, were included, the general topology of the cladogram did not change but bootstrap values increased considerably. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of neuropeptides of insects for solely phylogenetic purposes and concludes that sequences of short neuropeptides are suitable to complement molecular biological and morphological data for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships.

  8. An artificial intelligence approach for modeling volume and fresh weight of callus - A case study of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ali; Fadavi, Ali; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-05-21

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) is valued for its aroma and its medicinal and therapeutic properties. A supervised feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) trained with back propagation algorithms, was applied to predict fresh weight and volume of Cuminum cyminum L. calli. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate input/output dependency of the eleven input parameters. Area, feret diameter, minor axis length, perimeter and weighted density parameters were chosen as input variables. Different training algorithms, transfer functions, number of hidden nodes and training iteration were studied to find out the optimum ANN structure. The network with conjugate gradient fletcher-reeves (CGF) algorithm, tangent sigmoid transfer function, 17 hidden nodes and 2000 training epochs was selected as the final ANN model. The final model was able to predict the fresh weight and volume of calli more precisely relative to multiple linear models. The results were confirmed by R(2)≥0.89, R(i)≥0.94 and T value ≥0.86. The results for both volume and fresh weight values showed that almost 90% of data had an acceptable absolute error of ±5%.

  9. Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) Approach Applied to Human Genetic History: A Case Study of Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Kassian, Alexei; Thomas, Mark G; Fedchenko, Valentina; Changmai, Piya; Starostin, George

    2016-01-01

    In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016 Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132-1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence. In our view, there are major conceptual problems with both the genetic and linguistic parts of the work. We argue that GPS is a provenancing tool suited to inferring the geographic region where a modern and recently unadmixed genome is most likely to arise, but is hardly suitable for admixed populations and for tracing ancestry up to 1,000 years before present, as its authors have previously claimed. Moreover, all methods of historical linguistics concur that Yiddish is a Germanic language, with no reliable evidence for Slavic, Iranian, or Turkic substrata. PMID:27389685

  10. A Probabilistic Boolean Network Approach for the Analysis of Cancer-Specific Signalling: A Case Study of Deregulated PDGF Signalling in GIST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuwat Trairatphisan

    Full Text Available Signal transduction networks are increasingly studied with mathematical modelling approaches while each of them is suited for a particular problem. For the contextualisation and analysis of signalling networks with steady-state protein data, we identified probabilistic Boolean network (PBN as a promising framework which could capture quantitative changes of molecular changes at steady-state with a minimal parameterisation.In our case study, we successfully applied the PBN approach to model and analyse the deregulated Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF signalling pathway in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST. We experimentally determined a rich and accurate dataset of steady-state profiles of selected downstream kinases of PDGF-receptor-alpha mutants in combination with inhibitor treatments. Applying the tool optPBN, we fitted a literature-derived candidate network model to the training dataset consisting of single perturbation conditions. Model analysis suggested several important crosstalk interactions. The validity of these predictions was further investigated experimentally pointing to relevant ongoing crosstalk from PI3K to MAPK signalling in tumour cells. The refined model was evaluated with a validation dataset comprising multiple perturbation conditions. The model thereby showed excellent performance allowing to quantitatively predict the combinatorial responses from the individual treatment results in this cancer setting. The established optPBN pipeline is also widely applicable to gain a better understanding of other signalling networks at steady-state in a context-specific fashion.

  11. The Rediscovery and Resurrection of Bunk Johnson – a Grounded Theory Approach: A case study in jazz historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ekins, Ph.D., FRSA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written in the beginning phase of my transitioning from grounded theory sociologist (Ekins, 19971 to grounded theory musicologist (Ekins, 20102. In particular, it provides preliminary data for a grounded theory of ‘managing authenticity’, the core category/basic social process (Glaser, 1978 that has emerged from my ongoing grounded theory work in jazz historiography. It was written whilst I was ‘credentialising’ (Glaser, 2010 my transition to popular music studies and popular musicology. In consequence, it incorporates many aspects that are inimical to classic grounded theory. As with so much of Straussian and so-called constructivist grounded theory (Bryant and Charmaz, 2007, it roots itself in G.H. Mead and a social constructivist symbolic interactionism – inter alia, a legitimising (authenticating strategy. Moreover, as is typical of this mode of conceptualising, the paper fills the void of inadequate classic grounded theorising with less conceptual theorising and more conceptual description. Nevertheless, the article does introduce a number of categories that ‘fit and work’, and have ‘conceptual grab’ (Glaser, 1978; Glaser, 1992. In particular, in terms of my own continuing credentialising as a classic grounded theorist, it sets forth important categories to be integrated into my ongoing work on managing authenticity in New Orleans revivalist jazz, namely, ‘trailblazing’, ‘mythologizing’, ‘debunking’, and ‘marginalising’, in the context of the ‘rediscovering’ and ‘resurrecting’ of a jazz pioneer. More specifically, the paper is offered to classic grounded theorists as a contribution to preliminary generic social process analysis in the substantive area of jazz historiography.

  12. A Case Study on Energy Management Using Solar Power Analysis and Simulation Approach of Student Hostel in Giet Gunupur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The operation of renewable energy source is becoming very compulsory due to restricted reserves of fossil fuels and across-the-board environmental concerns for the production of electric power generation and utilization. For the production of electrical energy by using solar power can be more economical. The fast draw down of conventional sources is forcing to use renewable energy sources as substitute to meet the load power demand of any building, which is completely dangling on grids which are dependent on conventional sources for electricity generation and utilization. So, there is a need to degrade this dependency of loads on grids. For this we need to incorporate the grid technologies to reduce the energy cost of building and thereby reduce consumption of conventional sources. In this paper, analysis is done on combining the PV technology with grid technology for MM-2 LADIES HOSTEL BUILDING of GIET Gunupur, We have taken HOMER simulation software to find how much reduction of cost of energy consumption is possible by this combination. This study can help us to find ways for enhancing the life of conventional fuels in existence and know the reduction of greenhouse emissions. Renewable energy is energy that is induced from natural processes that are continuously replenished. Such examples are sunlight, geothermal heat, wind, tides and various forms of biomass. This energy is constantly renewed and cannot be exhausted.When we think of fuel what comes to our mind ? we might think of firewood, gasoline for our car, or maybe food, which is fuel for our body which may provide heat for our home. The bull‟s eye is that fuel is an absolutely essential part of everyone's daily life. Deep within our Earth, there are ready-made of fuel that our world has become totally dependent on. They are called fossil fuels.Fossil fuels are the hot-button subject, they simultaneusly power and diminish our planet. As the global population continues to rise and as

  13. Penman-Monteith approaches for estimating crop evapotranspiration in screenhouses--a case study with table-grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkner, Moran; Dicken, Uri; Tanny, Josef

    2014-07-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions many crops are grown under screens or in screenhouses to protect them from excessive radiation, strong winds, hailstorms and insects, and to reduce crop water requirements. Screens modify the crop microclimate, which means that it is necessary to accurately estimate crop water use under screens in order to improve the irrigation management and thereby increase water-use efficiency. The goal of the present study was to develop a set of calibrated relationships between inside and outside climatic variables, which would enable growers to predict crop water use under screens, based on standard external meteorological measurements and evapotranspiration (ET) models. Experiments were carried out in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel in a table-grape vineyard that was covered with a transparent screen providing 10% shading. An eddy covariance system was deployed in the middle of the vineyard and meteorological variables were measured inside and outside the screenhouse. Two ET models were evaluated: a classical Penman-Monteith model (PM) and a Penman-Monteith model modified for screenhouse conditions by the inclusion of an additional boundary-layer resistance (PMsc). Energy-balance closure analysis, presented as a linear relation between half-hourly values of available and consumed energy (1,344 data points), yielded the regression Y=1.05X-9.93 (W m(-2)), in which Y=sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes, and X=net radiation minus soil heat flux, with R2=0.81. To compensate for overestimation of the eddy fluxes, ET was corrected by forcing the energy balance closure. Average daily ET under the screen was 5.4±0.54 mm day(-1), in general agreement with the model estimates and the applied irrigation. The results showed that measured ET under the screen was, on average, 34% lower than that estimated outside, indicating significant potential water saving through screening irrigated vineyards. The PM model was somewhat more accurate than

  14. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-12-10

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health.

  15. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health. PMID:26766856

  16. An improved approach based on fuzzy clustering and Back-Propagation Neural Networks with adaptive learning rate for sales forecasting: Case study of PCB industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attariuas Hicham

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new hybrid sales forecasting system based on fuzzy clustering and Back-propagation (BP Neural Networks with adaptive learning rate (FCBPN.The proposed approach is composed of three stages: (1 Winters Exponential Smoothing method will be utilized to take the trend effect into consideration; (2 utilizing Fuzzy C-Means clustering method (Used in an clusters memberships fuzzy system (CMFS, the clusters membership levels of each normalized data records will be extracted; (3 Each cluster will be fed into parallel BP networks with a learning rate adapted as the level of cluster membership of training data records. Compared to many researches which use Hard clustering, we employ fuzzy clustering which permits each data record to belong to each cluster to a certain degree, which allows the clusters to be larger which consequently increases the accuracy of the proposed forecasting system . Printed Circuit Board (PCB will be used as a case study to evaluate the precision of our proposed architecture. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the previous and traditional approaches. Therefore, it is a very promising solution for industrial forecasting.

  17. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: a case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to define the treatment threshold for more aggressive treatment. This approach is illustrated by a case study in advanced testicular cancer, where patients with a high risk of mortality under standard treatment may be eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support, which is currently defined by the IGCC classification. Methods We used published literature to estimate the benefit and harm of high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT versus standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT for patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer. Benefit and harm were defined as the reduction and increase in absolute risk of mortality due to HD-CT respectively. Harm included early and late treatment related death, and treatment related morbidity (weighted by 'utility'. Results We considered a conservative and an optimistic benefit of 30 and 40% risk reduction respectively. We estimated the excess treatment related mortality at 2%. When treatment related morbidity was taken into account, the harm of HD-CT increased to 5%. With a relative benefit of 30% and harm of 2 or 5%, HD-CT might be beneficial for patients with over 7 or 17% risk of cancer specific mortality with SD chemotherapy, while with a relative benefit of 40% HD-CT was beneficial over 5 and 12.5% risk respectively. Compared to the IGCC classification 14% of the patients would receive more aggressive treatment, and 2% less intensive treatment. Conclusion Benefit and harm can be used to define 'poor prognosis' explicitly for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients who are considered for high-dose chemotherapy. This approach can readily be adapted to new results and extended to other cancers to define candidates for

  18. A STUDY OF ERRORS IN THE THIRD SINGULAR PRONOUNS OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE BY USING INTERLANGUAGE ANALYSIS AS AN APPROACH. A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Pandarangga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze factors contributing to errors made in learning English as a target language (TL. Employing a case study research, the participant was interviewed for approximately 30 minutes about daily activities and experiences in learning English. This research focuses in analysing the participant‟s use of third singular pronoun in simple present tense. The findings revealed that errors made by TL learners are mainly influenced by some factorsrelated to their TL‟s and native language‟s (NL knowledge, systems and rules. These factors are coexisted and interconnected in TL learners‟ minds. This is against Robert Lado‟s argument which mentioned that learner made errors in TL learning because of the interference from NL. The study provides pedagogical implications that TL teachers should perceive errors made by the learners as a sign of language learning and development; therefore they should not be discouraged to learn. Also, TL teachers should be aware of their very important roles to help, to guide and to lead the learners‟ progress in learning the TL. The future subsequent studies should consider of involving more sample size over a longer period of time as to obtain to a more generalized finding.

  19. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  20. : Case studies: France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonerandi, Emmanuelle; Santamaria, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on territorial governance : urban region of Lyon (France) and the "Pays" policy (France) in the framework of the ESPON 2.3.2 project Études de cas sur la gouvernance territoriale : région urbaine de Lyon et politique des pays

  1. Rotordynamic Stability Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Pranabesh

    2004-01-01

    In this article case studies are presented involving rotordynamic instability of modern high-speed turbomachinery relating the field data to analytical methods. The studies include oil seal related field problems, instability caused by aerodynamic cross-coupling in high-pressure, high-speed compressors, and hydrodynamic bearing instability resulting in subsynchronous vibration of a high-speed turbocharger. It has been shown that the analytical tools not only help in problem diagnostics, bu...

  2. Modelling in Action. Examining How Students Approach Modelling Real Life Situations. Three Case Studies. Model of the Movement of an Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eugenia Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    By means of three case studies, we will present two mathematical modelling activities that are suitable for students enrolled in senior high school and the first year of mathematics at university level. The activities have been designed to enrich the learning process and promote the formation of vital modelling skills. In case studies one and two,…

  3. Combining research-enhanced and technology-enhanced teaching approaches in module design: A case study of an undergraduate course in Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, V.

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the research-teaching nexus, and there are many innovative ways to incorporate research materials and methods in undergraduate teaching. Solar Physics is a cross-disciplinary subject and offers the ideal opportunity for research-enhanced teaching (1). In this presentation, I outline i) how student-led teaching of research content and methods is introduced in an undergraduate module in Solar Physics, and ii) how electronic learning and teaching can be used to improve students' learning of mathematical concepts in Solar Physics. More specifically, I discuss how research literature reviewing and reporting methods can be embedded and developed systematically throughout the module with aligned assessments. Electronic feedback and feedforward (2) are given to the students in order to enhance their understanding of the subject and improve their research skills. Other technology-enhanced teaching approaches (3) are used to support students' learning of the more quantitative components of the module. This case study is particularly relevant to a wide range of pedagogical contexts (4) as the Solar Physics module is taught to students following undergraduate programs in Geology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Geology as well as Planetary Science with Astronomy in the host Department. Related references: (1) Tong, C. H., Let interdisciplinary research begin in undergraduate years, Nature (2010) v. 463, p. 157. (2) Tong, V. C. H., Linking summative assessments? Electronic feedback and feedforward in module design, British Journal of Educational Technology (2011), accepted for publication. (3) Tong, V. C. H., Using asynchronous electronic surveys to help in-class revision: A case study, British Journal of Educational Technology (2011), doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01207.x (4) Tong, V. C. H. (ed.), Geoscience Research and Education, Springer, Dordrecht (2012)

  4. An approach to LCSA: the case of concrete recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Mingming; Kleijn, René; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova;

    2013-01-01

    . This approach is illustrated with an on-going case study on concrete recycling. Methods In the context of an EC-FP7 project on technology innovation for concrete recycling, five operational steps to implement the LCSA framework are proposed: (1) broad system definition, (2) making scenarios, (3) defining...

  5. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  6. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. A new approach for the assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation: a case study of the Korba Coastal Aquifer (Tunisia, Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayni, Foued; Cherif, Semia; Jrad, Amel; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water in Mediterranean, water-scarce, semiarid regions of Tunisia, Africa. In this study of the Korba coastal aquifer, 17 water wells were studied to assess their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. Assessment parameters include pH, salinity, specific ion toxicity, sodium adsorption ratio, nutrients, trace metals pollutants, and fecal indicators and pathogens. Results indicate that salinity of groundwater varied between 0.36 dS/m and 17.4 dS/m; in addition, its degree of restriction is defined as "none", "slight to moderate", and "severe" for 18, 23, and 59% of the studied wells, respectively. To control salts brought in by irrigation waters, the question arises as to how much water should be used to reach crop and soil requirements. To answer this question, a new approach that calculates the optimum amount of irrigation water considering the electrical conductivity of well water (ECw), field crops, and the semiarid meteorological local conditions for evapotranspiration and rainfall is developed. This is applied to the authors' case study area; barley and lettuce were selected among the commonly grown crops because they are high- and low-salinity tolerant, respectively. Leaching requirements were found to be independent of the crop selected, and depend only on the season, that is, 250 to 260 mm/month in the driest season, with a minimum of 47 mm/month though all seasons. A high bacteriological contamination appears in almost all samples. However, if disinfected and corrected for pH, all the well waters can be used for animal farming (including livestock and poultry), although only 29% could be used for human consumption.

  8. An ecosystem service approach to support integrated pond management: a case study using Bayesian belief networks--highlighting opportunities and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landuyt, Dries; Lemmens, Pieter; D'hondt, Rob; Broekx, Steven; Liekens, Inge; De Bie, Tom; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Goethals, Peter L M

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ponds deliver a broad range of ecosystem services (ESS). Taking into account this broad range of services to attain cost-effective ESS delivery is an important challenge facing integrated pond management. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of an ESS approach to support decisions in integrated pond management, we applied it on a small case study in Flanders, Belgium. A Bayesian belief network model was developed to assess ESS delivery under three alternative pond management scenarios: intensive fish farming (IFF), extensive fish farming (EFF) and nature conservation management (NCM). A probabilistic cost-benefit analysis was performed that includes both costs associated with pond management practices and benefits associated with ESS delivery. Whether or not a particular ESS is included in the analysis affects the identification of the most preferable management scenario by the model. Assessing the delivery of a more complete set of ecosystem services tends to shift the results away from intensive management to more biodiversity-oriented management scenarios. The proposed methodology illustrates the potential of Bayesian belief networks. BBNs facilitate knowledge integration and their modular nature encourages future model expansion to more encompassing sets of services. Yet, we also illustrate the key weaknesses of such exercises, being that the choice whether or not to include a particular ecosystem service may determine the suggested optimal management practice. PMID:25005053

  9. Nová publikace "Exploring regional sustainable development issues. Using the case study approach in higher education" dostupná on-line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dlouhý

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S tématem udržitelného rozvoje na regionální (a globální úrovni souvisí nedávno publikovaná kniha "Exploring regional sustainable development issues. Using the case study approach in higher education" editorů Andrew Bartona a Jany Dlouhé. Jsou zde rekapitulována teoretická východiska pro užití případových studií ve výuce (především na vysokoškolské úrovni, kde představují vhodnou formupředstavení kvalitativních metod výzkumu a jejich využití praxi; obsahuje dále celkem sedm případových studií udržitelného rozvoje, které byly použity jako otevřené vzdělávací zdroje v mezinárodních programech výuky (především v programu ISPoS a EVS. Plný text knihy je dostupný zde. Vznik publikace byl podpořen z projektu MOSUR a projektů TAČR Omega "Metodika tvorby a využití tzv. Open Educational Resources (TD020400" a "Studium a podpora procesů participativní tvorby regionálních strategií UR (TD020120".

  10. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Xu, Changqing; Xu, Te; Melching, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5-1030.6t·yr(-1); Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3-31.0t·yr(-1); and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480-1918.0t·yr(-1). The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS) determination. The sources

  11. Estudo de caso discutido à luz das diferentes abordagens para a terapia da gagueira Case study discussed under the light of different stuttering therapy approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Severa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: na atualidade, a gagueira pode apresentar definições distintas de acordo com a abordagem defendida pelos autores para fundamentar tal distúrbio. O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir tais abordagens na terapia do caso em questão, aplicando suas técnicas terapêuticas e adequando-as conforme o contexto em questão e a aceitação do indivíduo para com as atividades, promovendo o desenvolvimento dos objetivos, procedimentos e técnicas utilizados na terapêutica para a gagueira. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo longitudinal de um paciente de 14 anos, atendido em dois momentos: entre 2005/2006, ano em que recebeu alta com indicação de monitoramento, e 2008/2009 época em que retorna ao atendimento devido à recidiva. No estudo, são consideradas as diferentes abordagens: psicolinguística da fluência, neurolinguística e motora da gagueira, vertente contextualizada e abordagem fenomenológica da gagueira. RESULTADOS: na evolução, observou-se a diminuição considerável da gagueira e dos movimentos compensatórios, bem como, comportamento e postura adequados e uma melhor socialização. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo das abordagens consideradas na terapia propiciou a realização do atendimento que atingiu os objetivos propostos. Além disso, o paciente contribuiu no direcionamento da terapia conforme sua aceitação e aplicação em sua vida, revelando, dessa forma, quais condutas foram mais efetivas e puderam contribuir de forma mais direta com a sua qualidade de vida e sua evolução.BACKGROUND: stuttering may currently have different definitions according to the approach advocated by the authors to substantiate such a disorder. The paper aims to discuss such approaches in the therapy of the case, applying its therapeutic techniques and adapting them according to the context at issue and take the individual to activities, promoting the development of goals, procedures and techniques used in the stuttering therapy. PROCEDURES: a longitudinal study of

  12. Estudo de caso discutido à luz das diferentes abordagens para a terapia da gagueira Case study discussed under the light of different stuttering therapy approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Severa da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: na atualidade, a gagueira pode apresentar definições distintas de acordo com a abordagem defendida pelos autores para fundamentar tal distúrbio. O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir tais abordagens na terapia do caso em questão, aplicando suas técnicas terapêuticas e adequando-as conforme o contexto em questão e a aceitação do indivíduo para com as atividades, promovendo o desenvolvimento dos objetivos, procedimentos e técnicas utilizados na terapêutica para a gagueira. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo longitudinal de um paciente de 14 anos, atendido em dois momentos: entre 2005/2006, ano em que recebeu alta com indicação de monitoramento, e 2008/2009 época em que retorna ao atendimento devido à recidiva. No estudo, são consideradas as diferentes abordagens: psicolinguística da fluência, neurolinguística e motora da gagueira, vertente contextualizada e abordagem fenomenológica da gagueira. RESULTADOS: na evolução, observou-se a diminuição considerável da gagueira e dos movimentos compensatórios, bem como, comportamento e postura adequados e uma melhor socialização. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo das abordagens consideradas na terapia propiciou a realização do atendimento que atingiu os objetivos propostos. Além disso, o paciente contribuiu no direcionamento da terapia conforme sua aceitação e aplicação em sua vida, revelando, dessa forma, quais condutas foram mais efetivas e puderam contribuir de forma mais direta com a sua qualidade de vida e sua evolução.BACKGROUND: stuttering may currently have different definitions according to the approach advocated by the authors to substantiate such a disorder. The paper aims to discuss such approaches in the therapy of the case, applying its therapeutic techniques and adapting them according to the context at issue and take the individual to activities, promoting the development of goals, procedures and techniques used in the stuttering therapy. PROCEDURES: a longitudinal study of

  13. Strategic planning in small voluntary sector organisations in Edinburgh : a case study approach to preparing small charities to use strategic planning models and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Florence Elvira Hill

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of six organisations and two pilot organisations to investigate the implementation of strategic planning in small charitable organisations in the voluntary sector in Edinburgh. The case studies utilised semi-structured interviews, observations and questionnaires on multiple occasions over a two-year time period. The data collected provided insight into the financial management systems utilised by these organisations and the training level attained by...

  14. How to Settle the Tussle between Business Model Innovation Approaches : Exploring the Automotive industry using a dual case study of Fiat and Tata Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Arifulla; Elsalhy, Mennatullah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers and forms of business model innovation. It is built on the business model innovation typology proposed by Koen et al. (2011), we have developed its dimensions into Hurdle rate, technology, partners value network and customer value network. The study used these dimensions as a base to differentiate between the two approaches of the business model innovation which were identified as innovating the existing business model approach and multiple business model a...

  15. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed

  16. Seeking an Alternative Modality to the Management of Nigeria's Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme-An Empirical Approach to the Case Study of Ondo State (1976-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Asekunowo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of Nigeria’s fertilizer subsidy scheme was to make inorganic fertilizers readily available to farmers at affordable prices in order to boost food production in the country. Shortly into the scheme, farmers complained that fertilizers were not received at the time of need and in sufficient quantities. Approach: Using Ondo State, Nigeria as a case study, to determine; inter alia, if the farmers’ complaints were founded and if so, to design alternative ways of administering the scheme such that the lofty goals for which it was established could be realized. Methodology: Primary data were collected from 596 farmers randomly selected from the state. Secondary data were collected from purposively selected NAFCON, AISC, ADP, FPDD (now FFD and a published book source. The primary data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics such as percentages and means. The secondary data were analyzed with the use of OLS and TLS regression methods. Results: The descriptive analyses showed that farmers in Ondo State did not receive their fertilizer supplies in sufficient quantities and at the time of need, despite the fact that supply surpassed adoption (demand for most years of the study period. The inferential analyses showed that a subsidy introduced into NAFCON and other producing firms’ production processes would engender increased output and induce fertilizer prices to fall in Ondo State. Conclusion: These results showed that farmers in Ondo State did not receive their fertilizer supplies at the time of need and in sufficient quantities due to leakages and diversion of the substance from the vast bureaucratic distribution channels. As an alternative, if subsidy was administered through the producing firms’ production processes, output of fertilizers would have increased making the market supply curve of fertilizers to shift to the right. This would have also caused the price of fertilizer to

  17. A quantitative approach to analyzing genome reductive evolution using protein-protein interaction networks: A case study ofMycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O Akinola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The advance in high-throughput sequencing technologies has yielded complete genome sequences of several organisms, including complete bacterial genomes. The growing number of these available sequenced genomes has enabled analyses of their dynamics, as well as the molecular and evolutionary processes which these organisms are under. Comparative genomics of different bacterial genomes have highlighted their genome size and gene content in association with lifestyles and adaptation to various environments and have contributed to enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms of their evolution. Protein-protein functional interactions mediate many essential processes for maintaining the stability of the biological systems under changing environmental conditions. Thus, these interactions play crucial roles in the evolutionary processes of different organisms, especially for obligate intracellular bacteria, proven to generally have reduced genome sizes compared to their nearest free-living relatives. In this study, we used the approach based on the Renormalization Group (RG analysis technique and the Maximum-Excluded-Mass-Burning (MEMB model to investigate the evolutionary process of genome reduction in relation to the organization of functional networks of two organisms. Using a Mycobacterium leprae (MLP network in comparison with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB network as a case study, we show that reductive evolution in MLP was as a result of removal of important proteins from neighbours of corresponding orthologous MTB proteins. While each orthologous MTB protein had an increase in number of interacting partners in most instances, the corresponding MLP protein had lost some of them. This work provides a quantitative model for mapping reductive evolution and protein-protein functional interaction network organization in terms of roles played by different proteins in the network structure.

  18. Towards an optimal semiquantitative approach in giant cell arteritis: an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, Florent L.; Bouvard, Gerard [CHU Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Boysson, Hubert de; Bienvenu, Boris [CHU Caen, Department of Internal Medicine, Caen (France); Parienti, Jean-Jacques [CHU Caen, Department of Biostatistics, Caen (France); Agostini, Denis [CHU Caen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); University of Caen Lower-Normandy, EA 4650, Caen (France)

    2014-01-15

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis in western countries. {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been shown to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of extracranial GCA, but results of studies are inconsistent due to a lack of standardized {sup 18}F-FDG PET criteria. In this study, we compared different semiquantitative approaches using a controlled design to define the most efficient method. All patients with biopsy-proven GCA who had undergone an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan in our PET unit were reviewed and matched with a control group based on age and sex. Different semiquantitative arterial (ascending and descending thoracic aorta and aortic arch) to background (liver, lung and venous blood pool) SUV ratios were blindly compared between GCA patients and matched controls. We included 11 patients with biopsy-proven GCA cases and 11 matched controls. There were no differences between the groups with regard to body weight, injected radioactivity, blood glucose level or CRP. The arterial to venous blood pool ratios discriminated the two groups better than other methods when applied to the aortic arch and the descending thoracic aorta (p < 0.015). In particular, the highest aortic to highest blood pool SUV{sub max} ratio, when applied to the aortic arch, provided optimal diagnostic performance (sensitivity 81.8 %, specificity 91 %, AUC 0.87; p < 0.0001) using a cut-off value of 1.53. Among all tested {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT methods, the aortic to blood pool SUV{sub max} ratio outperformed the liver and lung ratios. We suggest the use of this ratio for the assessment of aortic inflammation in GCA patients. (orig.)

  19. Do método do caso ao case: a trajetória de uma ferramenta pedagógica Case method and case study: an epistemological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arlinda de Assis Menezes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura distinguir os conceitos acerca do método de estudo de casos e o método do caso dentro das Ciências Sociais e suas aplicabilidades, assim como diferenciar o modo empírico/indutivo e o teórico/dedutivo de pensar, sendo apresentado no trabalho como característicos de americanos e alemães respectivamente, fatores que diferenciam o ensino nos dois países. Para tanto, realiza uma descrição sobre o momento do surgimento do método do caso na escola de Direito em Harvard, destacando a conjuntura social, econômica e cultural que possibilitaram a criação desse instrumento pedagógico e, concomitantemente, apresenta o estudo de caso que, como proposto por Yin, cuja obra referenciou o trabalho em questão, se configura em um dos mais utilizados métodos nos estudos científicos, rompendo com o credo de que é um método fácil de ser aplicado, antes, exige do pesquisador dedicação e rigor científico, além de uma elaboração do problema de maneira a não torná-lo óbvio, um simples relato de experiência. Já o método de casos, criado por Christopher Columbus Langdell, não busca a pesquisa empírica como resposta a um determinado problema, antes, é uma ferramenta pedagógica utilizada na formação de advogados, juristas e administradores de empresas em que a teoria é um subsídio à análise de jurisprudências e experiências em administração, não apenas o objetivo puro e simples da academia.The present work seeks to draw a distinction between the concepts of Case Method and Case Study within the Social Sciences and their applicability, as well as to differentiate the empirical/inductive and theoretical/deductive modes of thinking, which are presented here as respectively characteristic of Americans and Germans, and as factors that distinguish the education in those two countries. To such end, the text describes the moment when the Case Method appeared in the Harvard Law School, emphasizing the social

  20. A pre-calibration approach to selecting optimum inputs for hydrological models in data-scarce regions: a case study in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Esraa; Bridge, Jonathan; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    This study reports a pre-calibration methodology to select optimum inputs to hydrological models in dryland environments, demonstrated on the semi-arid Wala catchment, Jordan (1743 km2). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to construct eighteen model scenarios combining three land-use, two soil and three weather datasets spanning 1979 - 2002. Weather datasets include locally-recorded precipitation and temperature data and global reanalysis data products. Soil data comprise a high-resolution map constructed from national soil survey data and a significantly lower-resolution global soil map. Landuse maps are obtained from global and local sources; with some modifications applied to the latter using available descriptive landuse information. Variability in model performance arising from using different dataset combinations is assessed by testing uncalibrated model outputs against discharge and sediment load data using r2, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), RSR and PBIAS. A ranking procedure identifies best-performing input data combinations and trends among the scenarios. In the case of Wala, Jordan, global weather inputs yield considerable improvements on discontinuous local datasets; conversely, local high-resolution soil mapping data perform considerably better than globally-available soil data. NSE values vary from 0.56 to -12 and 0.79 to -85 for best and worst-performing scenarios against observed discharge and sediment data respectively. Full calibration remains an essential step prior to model application. However, the methodology presented provides a transparent, transferable approach to selecting the most robust suite of input data and hence minimising structural biases in model performance arising when calibration proceeds from low-quality initial assumptions. In regions where data are scarce, their quality is unregulated and survey resources are limited, such methods are essential in improving confidence in models which underpin critical water

  1. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  2. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  3. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  4. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  5. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    an important element in management and decision-making as problems in today's world are complex and require knowledge from many different domains and disciplines. Participation is also said to be a process of collective learning that changes the way people think and act which is a relevant point in forming appropriate region-specific climate adaptation strategies. The scenarios are based on an analysis of data on recent states and trends in major local sector developments concerning absolute and relative employment and value creation as well as on distinct socio-demographic developments in the region. Categories discussed in the scenario workshop cover inter alia institutions and governance, demographics, production and demand, markets, value-chains and trade, scientific and technological innovations, education and health. The derived stakeholder-based socio-economic scenarios were, in a second step, matched with the Shared Socio-economic reference Pathways (SSPs) in order to frame the locally produced scenarios with global narratives. Both strains were, in a third step, combined and backed-up by scientific literature in order to build the local socio-economic scenarios that served as background information in the analysis of risks, vulnerability and appropriate adaptation measures in the case-study region.

  6. Developing an analytical model to increase urban security from the Secured perspective by Designing (SBD Approach using fuzzy AHP method (case study: region 17 of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zabihi

    2013-01-01

    DiscussionThis study follows two targets: First, determining the relative importance of criteria and sub-criteria of SBD approach and second, evaluating urban security in four areas of the case study using the results of the previous step. The proposed fuzzy AHP model to achieve mentioned targets is composed of the following steps:Step 1: Identify the criteria and sub-criteria of each principle of SBD approach. Step 2: Structure the AHP model hierarchically based on the criteria and sub-criteria identified at Step 1Step 3: Determine the priorities of the main principles with respect to the goal by using pairwise comparison matrices (w1. This scale is proposed by Kahraman et al. (Kahraman, 2008 and used for solving fuzzy decision making problems (Dagdeviren & Yüksel, 2008; Kahraman, Ertay, & Buyukozkan, 2006; Tolga, Demircan, & Kahraman, 2005 in the literature. Pairwise comparison matrices of the components imported in Microsoft Excel workspace developed for solving FAHP matrices. Step 4: Determine the local weights of the criteria (w2 and sub-criteria (w3 (Local and alternatives. Step 5: Calculate the global weights for the sub-criteria (w3 (Global. Step 6: Compute the overall weight of each alternative (area and choose the best area. 4– ConclusionThis study has been proposed a hierarchical model to evaluate the rate of environmental security which decomposes the 5 principles of SBD into 12 criteria and 29 sub-criteria. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that factors affecting main principles of SBD are determined and prioritized. This may help urban designers to consider the most important factors affecting crime reduction in their designs and decision makings.This model is based on determining the most important factors affecting 5 principles of SBD which can lead to urban security in the case study. For this purpose, fuzzy AHP method is adopted in order to assess the relative importance of the factors and sub factors of the model. This method has the ability

  7. A Competence-Based Approach to the Design of a Teaching Sequence about Oral and Dental Health and Hygiene: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-López, Ángel; Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín; España-Ramos, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study to illustrate the design and implementation of a teaching sequence about oral and dental health and hygiene. This teaching sequence was aimed at year 10 students (age 15-16) and sought to develop their scientific competences. In line with the PISA assessment framework for science and the tenets of a context-based approach…

  8. Comparison of Empirical and Analytical Physical Assessment Approaches for Stream Restoration: A Case Study on Abrams Creek, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical assessment approach referred to as natural channel design (NCD) is commonly used today by stream restoration practitioners, which requires an empirical-based comparison between study and reference reaches. Use of available analytical tools, or models, into pre-design physical assessments...

  9. Towards spatial justice in urban health services planning : A spatial-analytic GIS-based approach using Dar es Salaam, Tanzania as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amer, S.

    2007-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study is to develop a GIS-based planning approach that contributes to equitable and efficient provision of urban health services in cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Its prime concern is with (i) the identification of theoretical and methodological constructs that can be used

  10. Headspace fingerprinting as an untargeted approach to compare novel and traditional processing technologies: A case-study on orange juice pasteurisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Grauwet, T.; Kebede, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2012-01-01

    As a rule, previous studies have generally addressed the comparison of novel and traditional processing technologies by a targeted approach, in the sense that only the impact on specific quality attributes is investigated. By contrast, this work focused on an untargeted strategy, in order to take in

  11. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  12. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  13. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  14. Investigation into a Layered Approach to Architecting Security-Informed Safety Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Netkachova, K.; Müller, K.; Paulitsch, M.; Bloomfield, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a layered approach to analysing safety and security in a structured way and creating a security-informed safety case. The approach is applied to a case study – a Security Gateway controlling data flow between two different security domains implemented with a separation kernel based operating system in an avionics environment. We discuss some findings from the case study, show how the approach identifies and ameliorates important interactions between safety and security and...

  15. A case study of cross-curricular dialogue as a part of teacher education in the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) approach

    OpenAIRE

    Horrillo Godino, Zoraida

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a large project on teacher education in the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) approach to teaching in Spanish secondary-education schools. The study departs from the assumptions that the professionals working on interdisciplinary environments such as CLIL education require an informed appreciation of the perspective of a complementary discipline — either a linguistic or content one (Newell in Chettiparamb 2007: 45) and that cross-curricular dialogue is a to...

  16. The affordances of using a flipped classroom approach in the teaching of mathematics: a case study of a grade 10 mathematics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Tracey; Geiger, Vince

    2016-03-01

    Teaching secondary mathematics has a number of challenges, including the expectations that teachers cover the prescribed curriculum, help students learn difficult concepts, prepare students for future studies, and, increasingly, that they do so incorporating digital technologies. This study investigates a teacher's, and his students', perceptions of the benefits or otherwise of a flipped classroom approach in meeting these challenges, within a prescribed curriculum context. Data collection instruments included a survey designed to investigate the nature of students' engagement with the flipped approach and semi-structured student and teacher interviews. Analysis of these data indicated that the teacher and students were positive about their experiences with a flipped classroom approach and that students were motivated to engage with the teacher-created online mathematics resources. The study adds to the limited research literature related to student and teacher perceptions of the affordances of the flipped classroom approach and has implications for secondary mathematics teachers who face the challenge of the twin demands of covering the prescribed curriculum and catering for a range of students' learning needs.

  17. EVALUATING SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE TESTING APPROACHES TO SUPPORT TEST CASE EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Othman Mohd Yusop; Suhaimi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Software Maintenance Testing is essential during software testing phase. All defects found during testing must undergo a re-test process in order to eliminate the flaws. By doing so, test cases are absolutely needed to evolve and change accordingly. In this paper, several maintenance testing approaches namely regression test suite approach, heuristic based approach, keyword based approach, GUI based approach and model based approach are evaluated based on software evolution taxonomy framework...

  18. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  19. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  20. Three-Capital Approach to the Study of Young People who Excel in Vocational Occupations: A Case of WorldSkills Competitors and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Chankseliani, Maia; James Relly, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the entrepreneurial inclinations of young people who achieved excellence in vocational occupations. We propose a three-capital approach to the study of entrepreneurship. Relying on the existing theories and original qualitative and quantitative data analyses, findings from interviews with 30 entrepreneurial and 10 non-entrepreneurial WorldSkills competitors show that psychological capital, social capital and human capital can be combined to explore how young people who exc...

  1. Detection of arbitrarily-shaped clusters using a neighbor-expanding approach: A case study on murine typhus in South Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan F Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic has been one of the most widely used statistical methods for automatic detection of clusters in spatial data. One limitation of this method lies in the fact that it has to rely on scan windows with predefined shapes in the search process, and therefore it cannot detect cluster with arbitrary shapes. We employ a new neighbor-expanding approach and introduce two new algorithms to detect cluster with arbitrary shapes in spatial data. These two algorithms are called the maximum-likelihood-first (MLF algorithm and non-greedy growth (NGG algorithm. We then compare the performance of these two new algorithms with the spatial scan statistic (SaTScan, Tango's flexibly shaped spatial scan statistic (FlexScan, and Duczmal's simulated annealing (SA method using two datasets. Furthermore, we utilize the methods to examine clusters of murine typhus cases in South Texas from 1996 to 2006. Result When compared with the SaTScan and FlexScan method, the two new algorithms were more flexible and sensitive in detecting the clusters with arbitrary shapes in the test datasets. Clusters detected by the MLF algorithm are statistically more significant than those detected by the NGG algorithm. However, the NGG algorithm appears to be more stable when there are no extreme cluster patterns in the data. For the murine typhus data in South Texas, a large portion of the detected clusters were located in coastal counties where environmental conditions and socioeconomic status of some population groups were at a disadvantage when compared with those in other counties with no clusters of murine typhus cases. Conclusion The two new algorithms are effective in detecting the location and boundary of spatial clusters with arbitrary shapes. Additional research is needed to better understand the etiology of the concentration of murine typhus cases in some counties in south Texas.

  2. A Case-Based Approach Increases Student Learning Outcomes and Comprehension of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…

  3. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Overweight Intervention Approaches: A Qualitative Case Study in Two Dutch Municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koperen, Tessa M; de Kruif, Anja; van Antwerpen, Lisa; Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Seidell, Jacob C; Schuit, Albertine J; Renders, Carry M

    2016-04-01

    To prevent overweight and obesity the implementation of an integrated community-wide intervention approach (ICIA) is often advocated. Evaluation can enhance implementation of such an approach and demonstrate the extent of effectiveness. To be able to support professionals in the evaluation of ICIAs we studied barriers to and facilitators of ICIA evaluation. In this study ten professionals of two Dutch municipalities involved in the evaluation of an ICIA participated. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 12), observed programme meetings (n = 4) and carried out document analysis. Data were analyzed using a thematic content approach. We learned that evaluation is hampered when it is perceived as unfeasible due to limited time and budget, a lack of evaluation knowledge or a negative evaluation attitude. Other barriers are a poor understanding of the evaluation process and its added value to optimizing the programme. Sufficient communication between involved professionals on evaluation can facilitate evaluation, as does support for evaluation of ICIAs together with stakeholders at a strategic and tactical level. To stimulate the evaluation of ICIAs, we recommend supporting professionals in securing evaluation resources, providing tailored training and tools to enhance evaluation competences and stimulating strategic communication on evaluation. PMID:27043600

  4. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  5. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) to the steel process chain: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the paper is to present the results of application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) data of Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) complex in Kraków, Poland. In order to assess the uncertainty, the software CrystalBall® (CB), which is associated with Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet model, is used. The framework of the study was originally carried out for 2005. The total production of steel, coke, pig iron, sinter, slabs from continuous steel casting (CSC), sheets from hot rolling mill (HRM) and blast furnace gas, collected in 2005 from MSP was analyzed and used for MC simulation of the LCI model. In order to describe random nature of all main products used in this study, normal distribution has been applied. The results of the simulation (10,000 trials) performed with the use of CB consist of frequency charts and statistical reports. The results of this study can be used as the first step in performing a full LCA analysis in the steel industry. Further, it is concluded that the stochastic approach is a powerful method for quantifying parameter uncertainty in LCA/LCI studies and it can be applied to any steel industry. The results obtained from this study can help practitioners and decision-makers in the steel production management. PMID:24290145

  6. [Proliferative diabetic retinopathy -- therapeutic approach (clinical case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcea, M; Muşat, Ovidiu; Mahdi, Labib; Gheorghe, Andreea; Spulbar, F; Gobej, I

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 54 year old pacient diagnosed with neglected insulin dependent diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Surgery was recommended and we practiced posterior vitrectomy, endolaser and heavy silicone oil endotamponade. Post-operative evolution was favorable.

  7. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  8. Case Study - "Marketing Christmas"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青青

    2011-01-01

    @@ The following is based on a real case but the name of the company has been changed and the source will only be revealed after the submission deadline.It is June in Eastern China and temperatures are over 30 degrees Celsius.In Huang Yi-Ju's wholesale showroom, based in Yiwu, model Father Christmases line the shelves, fill the floors and scale the walls.

  9. A comparison of methods for classifying clinical samples based on proteomics data: a case study for statistical and machine learning approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayle L Sampson

    Full Text Available The discovery of protein variation is an important strategy in disease diagnosis within the biological sciences. The current benchmark for elucidating information from multiple biological variables is the so called "omics" disciplines of the biological sciences. Such variability is uncovered by implementation of multivariable data mining techniques which come under two primary categories, machine learning strategies and statistical based approaches. Typically proteomic studies can produce hundreds or thousands of variables, p, per observation, n, depending on the analytical platform or method employed to generate the data. Many classification methods are limited by an n≪p constraint, and as such, require pre-treatment to reduce the dimensionality prior to classification. Recently machine learning techniques have gained popularity in the field for their ability to successfully classify unknown samples. One limitation of such methods is the lack of a functional model allowing meaningful interpretation of results in terms of the features used for classification. This is a problem that might be solved using a statistical model-based approach where not only is the importance of the individual protein explicit, they are combined into a readily interpretable classification rule without relying on a black box approach. Here we incorporate statistical dimension reduction techniques Partial Least Squares (PLS and Principal Components Analysis (PCA followed by both statistical and machine learning classification methods, and compared them to a popular machine learning technique, Support Vector Machines (SVM. Both PLS and SVM demonstrate strong utility for proteomic classification problems.

  10. Bioinformatics approaches for viral metagenomics in plants using short RNAs : model case of study and application to a Cicer arietinum population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter ePirovano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years deep sequencing experiments have opened novel doors to reconstruct viral populations in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. Currently a substantial number of studies have been performed which employ Next Generation Sequencing (NGS techniques to either analyze known viruses by means of a reference-guided approach or to discover novel viruses using a de novo-based strategy. Taking advantage of the well-known Cymbidium ringspot virus we have carried out a comparison of different bioinformatics tools to reconstruct the viral genome based on 21-27 nt short (sRNA sequencing with the aim to identify the most efficient pipeline. The same approach was applied to a population of plants constituting an ancient variety of Cicer arietinum with red seeds. Among the discovered viruses, we describe the presence of a Tobamovirus referring to the Tomato mottle mosaic virus (NC_022230, which was not yet observed on C. arietinum nor revealed in Europe and a virod referring to Hop stunt viroid (NC_001351.1 never reported in chickpea. Notably, a reference sequence guided approach appeared the most efficient in such kind of investigation. Instead, the de novo assembly reached a non-appreciable coverage although the most prominent viral species could still be identified. Advantages and limitations of viral metagenomics analysis using sRNAs are discussed.

  11. A grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed-integer programming approach for integrated electric-environmental management–A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a GFIPMIP (grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed-integer programming) approach was developed for supporting IEEM (integrated electric-environmental management) in Beijing. It was an attempt to incorporate an energy-forecasting model within a general modeling framework at the municipal level. The developed GFIPMIP model can not only forecast electric demands, but also reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the IEEM system in Beijing. Moreover, it can address issues regarding power supply, and emission reduction of atmospheric pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas). Optimal solutions were obtained related to power generation patterns and facility capacity expansion schemes under a series of system constraints. Two scenarios were analyzed based on multiple environmental policies. The results were useful for helping decision makers identify desired management strategies to guarantee the city's power supply and mitigate emissions of GHG and atmospheric pollutants. The results also suggested that the developed GFIPMIP model be applicable to similar engineering problems. - Highlights: • A grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed integer programming (GFIPMIP) approach was developed. • It could reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of an IEEM system. • The developed GFIPMIP approach was used for supporting IEEM system planning in Beijing. • Two scenarios were established based on different environmental policies and management targets. • Optimal schemes for power generation, energy supply, and environmental protection were identified

  12. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  13. Quantifying the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization along Urban-Rural Gradient with a Roadscape Transect Approach: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Suburb areas witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more efforts to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.

  14. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) to the steel process chain: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the results of application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) data of Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) complex in Kraków, Poland. In order to assess the uncertainty, the software CrystalBall® (CB), which is associated with Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet model, is used. The framework of the study was originally carried out for 2005. The total production of steel, coke, pig iron, sinter, slabs from continuous steel casting (CSC), sheets from hot rolling mill (HRM) and blast furnace gas, collected in 2005 from MSP was analyzed and used for MC simulation of the LCI model. In order to describe random nature of all main products used in this study, normal distribution has been applied. The results of the simulation (10,000 trials) performed with the use of CB consist of frequency charts and statistical reports. The results of this study can be used as the first step in performing a full LCA analysis in the steel industry. Further, it is concluded that the stochastic approach is a powerful method for quantifying parameter uncertainty in LCA/LCI studies and it can be applied to any steel industry. The results obtained from this study can help practitioners and decision-makers in the steel production management. - Highlights: • The benefits of Monte Carlo simulation are examined. • The normal probability distribution is studied. • LCI data on Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) complex in Kraków, Poland dates back to 2005. • This is the first assessment of the LCI uncertainties in the Polish steel industry.

  15. An Innovative Approach to Automatically Detect and Interpret Salient Spatiotemporal Features of a Numeric Field: A Case Study in Electrocardiographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironi, Liliana; Tentoni, Stefania

    2009-08-01

    The last decade has witnessed major advancements in the direct application of functional imaging techniques to several clinical contexts. Unfortunately, this is not the case of Electrocardiology. As a matter of fact, epicardial maps, which can hit electrical conduction pathologies that routine surface ECG's analysis may miss, can be obtained non invasively from body surface data through mathematical model-based reconstruction methods. But, their interpretation still requires highly specialized skills that belong to few experts. The automated detection of salient patterns in the map, grounded on the existing interpretation rationale, would therefore represent a major contribution towards the clinical use of such valuable tools, whose diagnostic potential is still largely unexploited. We focus on epicardial activation isochronal maps, which convey information about the heart electric function in terms of the depolarization wavefront kinematics. An approach grounded on the integration of a Spatial Aggregation (SA) method with concepts borrowed from Computational Geometry provides a computational framework to extract, from the given activation data, a few basic features that characterize the wavefront propagation, as well as a more specific set of features that identify an important class of heart rhythm pathologies, namely reentry arrhythmias due to block of conduction.

  16. Characterizing rainfall of hot arid region by using time-series modeling and sustainability approaches: a case study from Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Dayal, Devi

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at characterization of rainfall dynamics in a hot arid region of Gujarat, India by employing time-series modeling techniques and sustainability approach. Five characteristics, i.e., normality, stationarity, homogeneity, presence/absence of trend, and persistence of 34-year (1980-2013) period annual rainfall time series of ten stations were identified/detected by applying multiple parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Furthermore, the study involves novelty of proposing sustainability concept for evaluating rainfall time series and demonstrated the concept, for the first time, by identifying the most sustainable rainfall series following reliability ( R y), resilience ( R e), and vulnerability ( V y) approach. Box-whisker plots, normal probability plots, and histograms indicated that the annual rainfall of Mandvi and Dayapar stations is relatively more positively skewed and non-normal compared with that of other stations, which is due to the presence of severe outlier and extreme. Results of Shapiro-Wilk test and Lilliefors test revealed that annual rainfall series of all stations significantly deviated from normal distribution. Two parametric t tests and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test indicated significant non-stationarity in annual rainfall of Rapar station, where the rainfall was also found to be non-homogeneous based on the results of four parametric homogeneity tests. Four trend tests indicated significantly increasing rainfall trends at Rapar and Gandhidham stations. The autocorrelation analysis suggested the presence of persistence of statistically significant nature in rainfall series of Bhachau (3-year time lag), Mundra (1- and 9-year time lag), Nakhatrana (9-year time lag), and Rapar (3- and 4-year time lag). Results of sustainability approach indicated that annual rainfall of Mundra and Naliya stations ( R y = 0.50 and 0.44; R e = 0.47 and 0.47; V y = 0.49 and 0.46, respectively) are the most sustainable and dependable

  17. Improvements in dizziness and imbalance results from using a multi disciplinary and multi sensory approach to Vestibular Physical Therapy - A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R Gottshall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a case study of a 41 year old active duty male service member who sustained a motorcycle accident and head trauma and underwent multidisciplinary vestibular physical therapy for treatment. He was initially treated with traditional physical therapy applications of treadmill walking and standing balance with some symptom improvements, but was not able to maintain a running speed that would allow him to remain on active duty status. Further treatment utilizing a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN was performed in order to increase difficulty levels and recover more functionality. This treatment is able to elicit vestibular deficits seen in the community as it requires subjects to walk and balance while performing tasks within a virtual scenario with platform motion, visual surround and flow, and cognitive processing. After six weeks of therapy, twice weekly, improvements in clinical vestibular measures were observed as well as walking speed and patient confidence. The subject was able to return to full duty after treatment. This case study provides supportive evidence that multidimensional tasking in a virtual environment provides a safe but demanding form of vestibular therapy for patients needing more challenging tasks than those provided with traditional therapy techniques. Those persons requiring higher levels of performance before returning to work (e.g. pilots, special operators, etc. may find this type of therapy beneficial.

  18. Game theory and fuzzy programming approaches for bi-objective optimization of reservoir watershed management: a case study in Namazgah reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed.

  19. Game theory and fuzzy programming approaches for bi-objective optimization of reservoir watershed management: a case study in Namazgah reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed. PMID:25687606

  20. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  1. Study of Chunks Input Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to describe and investigate Chunks (Lexical Phrases ) Input Approach in vocabulary learning strategies by means of achievement tests,questionnaire surveys and interviews. The study is to reveal how different learners combine different vocabulary learning strategies in their learning process. With the data collected, the author of this paper discusses and summarizes learners' individual differences in selecting vocabulary learning strategies with the hope of giving new insights into English teaching and learning.

  2. OECD Approach to Interdisciplinary Studies

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Dehshiri

    2010-01-01

    The present article endeavours to examine, through a descriptive and analytical methodology, the approach taken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), regarding interdisciplinary studies in the field of Higher Education. The research explains the programmes and policies of this organization in the area of Higher Education and discusses the process of the evolution of interdisciplinary towards transdisciplinarity in the surveys and researches conducted by the orga...

  3. A new approach for near real-time micro-CHP management in the context of power system imbalances – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An aggregator consisting of micro-CHPs was proposed. • A near-real time balance optimization was developed. • A case study that resembles the actual situation of the Belgian energy market is studied. • Using the near-real time balance optimization a cost decrease between 2.5% and 5% can be achieved. - Abstract: In order to ensure reliable operation of the electric grid, it is required to keep the balance between total generation and consumption of power in real-time. This task is performed by the transmission system operator. Nowadays, with the large penetration of intermittent generation on the electric grid there is a need to increase the flexibility of the system in order to ensure the balance. The present study develops a methodology to provide near real-time balancing services making use of an aggregation of micro-CHP devices. The controller of the aggregator bids electricity into the day-ahead market using the expected heat demand and spot market prices. The main focus of this work is on the near real-time optimization which is performed during the actual day. This optimization provides the opportunity to obtain extra profits by rescheduling the operation of the aggregator. The rescheduling is done in order to compensate the total system imbalance. To achieve this, every time step, the aggregator evaluates the system demand for up or down regulation and decides if it is profitable to adjust its position to provide balancing services to the power system. The methodology is applied to a case study that resembles the actual situation of the energy market and CHP installations in Belgium. The results show that using the near real-time balancing optimization a total cost decrease of 5% can be achieved depending on the season. This conclusion is valid even if there is an increase of the gas prices and if the actual governmental support on CHPs is not taken into account

  4. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  5. Discrepancy in fine root turnover estimates between diameter-based and branch-order-based approaches: a case study in two temperate tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing-jue; GU Jia-cun; WANG Zheng-quan

    2012-01-01

    Fine root turnover plays a key role in carbon (C) budgets and nutrients cycles in forest ecosystems.However,the difference between branch-order-based and diameter-based approaches in estimating fine root turnover is still unclear.We studied root biomass turnover based on multiplying root standing biomass by turnover rate (inverse of median root longevity) in two Chinese temperate tree species,Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.and Larix gmelinii Rupr.The minirhizotron (MR) technique was used to estimate longevities for first and second order roots,and total roots (Rtotal) apparent on the MR tube surface.The corresponding biomass for each root group was estimated by soil monolith.The difference in biomass turnover between Rtotal and the sum of the first and second order roots was used to represent the discrepancy between diameter-and order-based approaches.First order roots had shorter life spans and higher biomass turnover rates than the second order roots in both species.Biomass turnover estimated by the order-based method for F.mandshurica and L.gmelinii were 155.4 g·m-2·a-1 and 158.9 g·m-2·a-1,respectively,in comparison with 99.5 g·m-2·a-1 and 117.7 g·m-2·a-1 estimated by the diameter-based method,indicating that the diameter-based approach underestimated biomass turnover.The most probable reason was that the order-based method enhanced separation of the heterogeneous root population into relatively homogenous root groups with varying turnover rates.We conclude that separating fine root pool into different branch orders can improve the accuracy of estimates for fine root turnover,as well as the understanding of the belowground C allocation and nutrient cycling at ecosystem level.

  6. A Hybrid Monte Carlo Method Based Artificial Neural Networks Approach for Rock Boundaries Identification: A Case Study from the KTB Bore Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saumen; Tiwari, R. K.

    2009-11-01

    Identification of rock boundaries and structural features from well log response is a fundamental problem in geological field studies. However, in a complex geologic situation, such as in the presence of crystalline rocks where metamorphisms lead to facies changes, it is not easy to discern accurate information from well log data using conventional artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Moreover inferences drawn by such methods are also found to be ambiguous because of the strong overlapping of well log signals, which are generally tainted with deceptive noise. Here, we have developed an alternative ANN approach based on Bayesian statistics using the concept of Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC)/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion scheme for modeling the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) well log data. MCMC algorithm draws an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) sample by Markov Chain simulation technique from posterior probability distribution using the principle of statistical mechanics in Hamiltonian dynamics. In this algorithm, each trajectory is updated by approximating the Hamiltonian differential equations through a leapfrog discrimination scheme. We examined the stability and efficiency of the HMC-based approach on “noisy” data assorted with different levels of colored noise. We also perform uncertainty analysis by estimating standard deviation (STD) error map of a posteriori covariance matrix at the network output of three types of lithofacies over the entire length of the litho section of KTB. Our analyses demonstrate that the HMC-based approach renders robust means for classification of complex lithofacies successions from the KTB borehole noisy signals, and hence may provide a useful guide for understanding the crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuity in many other tectonically critical and complex regions.

  7. A Restorative-Justice Approach On The Criminal Cases Of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiawati; M. Syukri Akub; Alma Munuputty; Farida Patittingi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to identify and understand the policy of the Indonesian criminal law on the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence the implementation of restorative justice on the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence and the concept of settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence that ideal through a restorative justice approach. Overall the study population was associated with the implementation of restorative justice approaches on the settlement of crim...

  8. A Visualization Approach to Air Pollution Data Exploration—A Case Study of Air Quality Index (PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, frequent occurrences of significant air pollution events in China have routinely caused panic and are a major topic of discussion by the public and air pollution experts in government and academia. Therefore, this study proposed an efficient visualization method to represent directly, quickly, and clearly the spatio-temporal information contained in air pollution data. Data quality check and cleansing during a preliminary visual analysis is presented in tabular form, heat matrix, or line chart, upon which hypotheses can be deduced. Further visualizations were designed to verify the hypotheses and obtain useful findings. This method was tested and validated in a year-long case study of the air quality index (AQI of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. We found that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 may be emitted by the same sources, and strong winds may accelerate the spread of pollutants. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was greater than the AQI value of 50 over the six-year study period. Furthermore, arable lands exhibited considerably higher concentrations of air pollutants than vegetation-covered areas. The findings of this study showed that our visualization method is intuitive and reliable through data quality checking and information sharing with multi-perspective air pollution graphs. This method allows the data to be easily understood by the public and inspire or aid further studies in other fields.

  9. Enhancing Students' Approaches to Learning: The Added Value of Gradually Implementing Case-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown the difficulty of enhancing students' approaches to learning, in particular the deep approach, through student-centred teaching methods such as problem- and case-based learning. This study investigates whether mixed instructional methods combining case-based learning and lectures have the power to enhance students'…

  10. Emerging issues on the sustainability of the community based rural water resources management approach in Zimbabwe: A case study of Gwanda District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulani Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable on-going debate about the suitability and sustainability of community based water resources management (CBWRM in Africa as a water provision strategy, evidence shows that this approach has gone a long way in promoting access to clean water amongst rural African communities. CBWRM provides an alternative approach to water provision for rural communities. This paper examines how the strategy has been operationalised in Gwanda District in Zimbabwe. The paper examines the experiences of rural communities in using CBWRM. Data was collected using focus group discussions, key informant in-depth interviews and a survey of 685 households in Gwanda district across five wards. The findings of this study are that 67% of the surveyed rural communities in Gwanda depended on community managed water resources mostly in the form of boreholes and protected wells. High rates of nun-functional sources were reported at 60-70% in most wards. Several system weaknesses were noted in the current CBWRM set-up including a depletion of committee memberships, inadequate community resources, limited agency and government support. This paper makes several recommendations on strengthening the capacity of CBWRM in Zimbabwe and Africa.

  11. Great Balls of Fire: A probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard related to ballistics - A case study at La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biass, Sébastien; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Bonadonna, Costanza; Di Traglia, Federico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Lestuzzi, Pierino

    2016-10-01

    We present a probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard posed by volcanic ballistic projectiles (VBP) and their potential impact on the built environment. A model named Great Balls of Fire (GBF) is introduced to describe ballistic trajectories of VBPs accounting for a variable drag coefficient and topography. It relies on input parameters easily identifiable in the field and is designed to model large numbers of VBPs stochastically. Associated functions come with the GBF code to post-process model outputs into a comprehensive probabilistic hazard assessment for VBP impacts. Outcomes include probability maps to exceed given thresholds of kinetic energies at impact, hazard curves and probabilistic isoenergy maps. Probabilities are calculated either on equally-sized pixels or zones of interest. The approach is calibrated, validated and applied to La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island (Italy). We constructed a generic eruption scenario based on stratigraphic studies and numerical inversions of the 1888-1890 long-lasting Vulcanian cycle of La Fossa. Results suggest a ~ 10- 2% probability of occurrence of VBP impacts with kinetic energies ≤ 104 J at the touristic locality of Porto. In parallel, the vulnerability to roof perforation was estimated by combining field observations and published literature, allowing for a first estimate of the potential impact of VBPs during future Vulcanian eruptions. Results indicate a high physical vulnerability to the VBP hazard, and, consequently, half of the building stock having a ≥ 2.5 × 10- 3% probability of roof perforation.

  12. Teaching the Holocaust through Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misco, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to the curricular challenges teachers face with Holocaust education, including cursory treatments and a lack of focus on individual experiences. First, the author argues for a case-study approach to help students reengage concrete and complex features of the Holocaust as a point of departure for subsequent inquiry. In…

  13. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  14. Modeling the impact of climate change on sediment transport and morphology in coupled watershed-coast systems:A case study using an integrated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achilleas GSAMARAS; Christopher GKOUTITAS

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is an issue of major concern nowadays. Its impact on the natural and human environment is studied intensively, as the expected shift in climate will be significant in the next few decades. Recent experience shows that the effects will be critical in coastal areas, resulting in erosion and inundation phenomena worldwide. In addition to that, coastal areas are subject to"pressures"from upstream watersheds in terms of water quality and sediment transport. The present paper studies the impact of climate change on sediment transport and morphology in the aforementioned coupled system. The study regards a sandy coast and its upstream watershed in Chalkidiki, North Greece; it is based on: (a) an integrated approach for the quantitative correlation of the two through numerical modeling, developed by the authors, and (b) a calibrated application of the relevant models Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and PELNCON-M, applied to the watershed and the coastal zone, respectively. The examined climate change scenarios focus on a shift of the rainfall distribution towards fewer and more extreme rainfall events, and an increased frequency of occurrence of extreme wave events. Results indicate the significance of climatic pressures in wide-scale sediment dynamics, and are deemed to provide a useful perspective for researchers and policy planners involved in the study of coastal morphology evolution in a changing climate.

  15. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Wildlife is part of the Patagonian rangelands sheep farming environment, with the potential of providing extra revenue to livestock owners. As sheep farming became less profitable, farmers and ranchers could focus on sustainable wildlife harvesting. It has been argued that sustainable wildlife harvesting is ecologically one of the most rational forms of land use because of its potential to provide multiple products of high value, while reducing pressure on ecosystems. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the most conspicuous wild ungulate of Patagonia. Guanaco ?bre, meat, pelts and hides are economically valuable and have the potential to be used within the present Patagonian context of production systems. Guanaco populations in South America, including Patagonia, have experienced a sustained decline. Causes for this decline are related to habitat alteration, competition for forage with sheep, and lack of reasonable management plans to develop livelihoods for ranchers. In this study we propose an approach to explicitly determinate optimal stocking rates based on trade-offs between guanaco density and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. The focus of our research is on finding optimal sheep stocking rates at paddock level, to ensure the highest production outputs while: a) meeting requirements of sustainable conservation of guanacos over their minimum viable population; b) maximizing soil carbon sequestration, and c) minimizing soil erosion. In this way, determination of optimal stocking rate in rangelands becomes a multi-objective optimization problem that can be addressed using a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (MOLP) approach. Basically, this approach converts multi-objective problems into single-objective optimizations, by introducing a set of objective weights. Objectives are represented using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships, enabling each objective function to adopt a value between 0 and 1. Each objective function indicates the satisfaction of

  16. Three-Capital Approach to the Study of Young People who Excel in Vocational Occupations: A Case of WorldSkills Competitors and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Chankseliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the entrepreneurial inclinations of young people who achieved excellence in vocational occupations. We propose a three-capital approach to the study of entrepreneurship. Relying on the existing theories and original qualitative and quantitative data analyses, findings from interviews with 30 entrepreneurial and 10 non-entrepreneurial WorldSkills competitors show that psychological capital, social capital and human capital can be combined to explore how young people who excel in vocational occupations develop entrepreneurial mindsets. We show that training for and participation in the largest vocational skills event globally - WorldSkills competition - develops selected aspects of three capitals. However, we also discover that the entrepreneurial motivation precedes competitors' involvement with WorldSkills.

  17. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  18. The Glauber approach in perturbative QCD: nucleon case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the shadowing corrections for the nucleon gluon distribution predicted from Glauber (Mueller) approach in perturbative QCD. This work is a digest for the nucleon case of the extended work prior presented by the authors

  19. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings The worst case approach

    CERN Document Server

    Takewaki, Izuru; Fujita, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Engineers are always interested in the worst-case scenario. One of the most important and challenging missions of structural engineers may be to narrow the range of unexpected incidents in building structural design. Redundancy, robustness and resilience play an important role in such circumstances. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach discusses the importance of worst-scenario approach for improved earthquake resilience of buildings and nuclear reactor facilities. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach consists of two parts. The first part deals with the characterization and modeling of worst or critical ground motions on inelastic structures and the related worst-case scenario in the structural design of ordinary simple building structures. The second part of the book focuses on investigating the worst-case scenario for passively controlled and base-isolated buildings. This allows for detailed consideration of a range of topics includin...

  20. Molecular Approaches to Studying Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Denitrification is carried out by a diverse array of microbes, mainly as an alternative mode of respiration that allows the organisms to respire using oxidized N compounds instead of oxygen. A common approach in biogeochemistry to the study of the regulation of denitrification is to assess activity by mass balance of substrates and products or direct rate measurements and has intrinsically assumed resource regulation of denitrification. Reported rates can vary significantly even among ecosystems characterized by similar environmental conditions, thus indicating that direct control by abiotic factors often is not sufficient to predict denitrification rates accurately in natural environments. Alternatively, a microbiological approach would proceed with the identification of the organisms responsible and an evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on the biochemical pathways involved. Traditional studies have relied on culturing techniques, such as most probable number enrichments, and have failed to assess the role of the predominately uncultivable members of the microbial community. A combination of biogeochemical measurements and the assessment of the microbial community is necessary and becoming increasingly possible with the development and application of molecular techniques. In order to understand how the composition and physiological behavior of the microbial community affects denitrification rates, we use a suite of molecular techniques developed for phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of denitrifying communities. Molecular tools available for quantifying denitrifying bacteria and assessing their diversity and activity are summarized. Their application is illustrated with examples from marine and freshwater environments. Emerging techniques and their application to ground water studies will be discussed.