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Sample records for case studies related

  1. Performance-Related Pay: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swabe, A. I. R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses performance-related pay and why the system was introduced, how it was negotiated, and how it has operated. The case study illustrated is in a British financial services company where the system was negotiated in 1986 and began in 1987. (JOW)

  2. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  3. Two Case Studies Related to Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Report on Two Case Studies related to Total Knee Arthroplasty Previously Discussed by AKS Members Methods: Case Series Case 1: A 76 year old woman requiring a right total knee replacement in the presence of marked dystrophic calcification affecting the quadriceps tendon on a background of having sustained a post operative quadriceps tendon rupture post left TKR in 2013 Case 2: Management issues related to performing a TKR in a 80 year old woman with a possible past history of TB affecting the joint Conclusion: Both procedures went smoothly and particularly as advice was given by AKS members, these are presented largely for feedback.

  4. Relations of power in public schools: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Custódia Jorge Rocha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on a few authors who see power as a substantive element – instituted power – and others who consider it as an action verb – instituting power (ROCHA, 2007 –, highlighting some types of power relevant in sociological and organizational research on schools, we present empirical data and institutional discourses, enabled by a case study of qualitative nature. Thus, we can say that relations of power in schools both allow the strengthening of hierarchical and asymmetrical relations of power that exist between institutional players and enable the creation of new “circles of power” that can be promptly activated or can be object of a modernization process held in a more or less generalized manner. This may be reinforced and introduced to players/students, our main target of study, as the most legitimate object, superseding all others but not canceling them. The key objective is to present school organization as a highly complex environment, especially when considered in the light of the multiple and cumulative relations of power that emerge and are materialized.

  5. Semantic relations between collocations: A Spanish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kolesnikova; Alexander Gelbukh

    2012-01-01

    Linguistics as a scientific study of human language intends to describe and explain it. However, validity of a linguistic theory is difficult to prove due to volatile nature of language as a human convention and impossibility to cover all real-life linguistic data. In spite of these problems, computational techniques and modeling can provide evidence to verify or falsify linguistic theories. As a case study, we conducted a series of computer experiments on a corpus of Spanish verb-noun colloc...

  6. Core and Periphery Relations: A Case Study of the Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available How do indigenous peoples relate to the core over the longue duree? In this paper, we explore the implications of colonialism from a world-systems perspective, examining interactions in the economic and political structures in addition to the effects of landlessness for indigenous peoples in one case: the Maya. After reviewing world-systems theory and applying it to indigenousness, we discuss Ragin’s (1992 conceptualization of cases and the comparative historical method. Then we introduce the relational concept, a tool that allows us to employ both the comparative historical method and world-systems theory in our analysis of the Maya and their relationship to the state of Mexico. We then present our data, which consist of the economic and political conditions, along with the cultural implications of landholding across time among the Maya and in Mexico. We analyze these data using the relational concept to understand the consequences of colonialism and globalization for the Maya people.

  7. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. PMID:24294002

  8. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome.

  9. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocourkova J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Keywords: Asperger syndrome, suicidal behavior, adolescence

  10. The Center for Civil-Military Relations / Spanish Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Bruneau

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Civil-Military Relations at the Naval Post-Graduate School (CCMR, Monterey, CA) is an implementing organization of the U.S. Department of Defense's Expanded-International Military Education and Training Program and has amassed both scholarly and practical expertise educating civilian and military defense professionals from more than 40 countries. CCMR was established in 1994 and is sponsored by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA). CCMR conducts civi...

  11. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  12. Intercultural differences in relational strategies at workplace meetings: a case study for two frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and proposes a research approach founded on linking two novel theoretical frameworks for analysing and explaining relational strategies at intercultural workplace meetings, namely, the Multi-Level Model (MLM) and Cultural Self Perception (CSP). The approach is tested through a case study of a problematic meeting in an intercultural workplace in China. At this meeting, the Chinese and western expatriate participants both carefully adopted a range of relational strategies fo...

  13. Semantic Relations between Legal Terms. A Case Study of the Intralingual Relation of Synonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matulewska Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to present a possibility of parametrising legal terminology in order to reveal semantic and systemic relations at the intralingual and interlingual levels. The scope of the research comprises selected legal terminology from the following legal systems: Polish, British, American and European Union. The research methods used include: (i the analysis of comparable texts, (ii the method of parametrisation of the legal linguistic reality, (iii the concept of adjusting translation to the communicative needs and requirements of the recipient community. The research hypothesis is that parametrisation of legal terminology in respect of semantic and systemic relations may be a useful tool in organising and comparing terminology for the purpose of legal translation. First the relation of synonymy binding terms at the intralingual and interlingual levels in the light of systemic and genre-related relations is discussed. The proposal is illustrated with examples of legal terms and the networks of relations binding them in English and Polish. The conclusions are that such an approach is systematic and provides a translator with information necessary to render communicatively efficient translations.

  14. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in...

  15. Preparing Public Relations and Advertising Students for the 21st Century: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert A.

    In 1993, the Task Force on Integrated Communications reported that public relations and advertising students would better be prepared to enter a changing communications industry through an "integrated" curriculum. This paper is a case study of how one university has attempted to meet that challenge. The work has resulted in the development of an…

  16. A Case Study of Conceptual Change in Special Relativity: The Influence of Prior Knowledge in Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a case study (one graduate physics tutor) demonstrate that a person's conceptions, which include metaphysical commitments, play a significant role in the way s/he understands complex subject matter such as Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. (Author/SK)

  17. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, Jochem; Habib, Mena; Keulen, van, S.

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis games’ results for two Grand Slam tennis tournaments from tweets. Analysis has been done to find to what extent it is useful to use semantic web, domain knowledge, facts repetition, and authors’ tr...

  18. Technology Strategy and Industrial Relations: Case Studies of Japanese Multinationals in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Duane Kujawa

    1983-01-01

    Eight case studies of U.S. manufacturing subsidiaries of Japanese multinationals are analyzed in terms of variations in competitive strategies and industrial relations practices. Based on data collected in 1980 on-site visits, each firm is reviewed in light of the technology contributions coming from the Japanese parent and is categorized as having product-, process-, and/or management-centered technology strategies. The industrial relations practices are also grouped according to similaritie...

  19. A new expansion in the international public relations: Albania case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Yıldırım Becerikli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Country case studies enrich international public relations literature day by day. Analyzing different countries in the context of public relations facilitates our understanding of various social, cultural, historical, and governmental aspects in different regions of the world. For researchers, Albania is a riveting country with a turbulent history. Albania left one century behind deriving from Ottoman era, nation-state building era, socialism era, and multiparty democracy era. This paper is a modest attempt to explore the evolution and the texture of public relations in Albania. Literature review, in-depth interview, and observation have been used as basic data collection methods for this research. Albania case study states that during the last decade, as a potential candidate for membership and being in the process of integration to European Union Albania gives special attention to building a modern public relations field particularly through public administration reforms, universities, and civil society organizations. The analysis of Albania case and public relations practices will prove beneficial to public relations and communication professionals who need to operate in diffent regions of the world.

  20. Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in greenlandic inuit: A case control study

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    Mulvad Gert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer for women in the western world. From very few cases an extraordinary increase in BC was observed in the Inuit population of Greenland and Canada although still lower than in western populations. Previous data suggest that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs might contribute to the risk of BC. Rat studies showed that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs cause significantly increase in mammary fibroadenomas. This study aimed at evaluating the association between serum levels of POPs/PFCs in Greenlandic Inuit BC cases and their controls, and whether the combined POP related effect on nuclear hormone receptors affect BC risk. Methods Thirty-one BC cases and 115 controls were sampled during 2000-2003 from various Greenlandic districts. The serum levels of POPs, PFCs, some metals and the combined serum POP related effect on estrogen- (ER, androgen- (AR and Ah-receptor (AhR transactivity were determined. Independent student t-test was used to compare the differences and the odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models. Results We observed for the very first time a significant association between serum PFC levels and the risk of BC. The BC cases also showed a significantly higher concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls at the highest quartile. Also for the combined serum POP induced agonistic AR transactivity significant association to BC risk was found, and cases elicited a higher frequency of samples with significant POP related hormone-like agonistic ER transactivity. The AhR toxic equivalent was lowest in cases. Conclusions The level of serum POPs, particularly PFCs, might be risk factors in the development of BC in Inuit. Hormone disruption by the combined serum POP related xenoestrogenic and xenoandrogenic activities may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer in Inuit. Further investigations are needed to document these study conclusions.

  1. Competition between word order and case-marking in interpreting grammatical relations: a case study in multilingual acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2011-09-01

    The study examines strategies multilingual children use to interpret grammatical relations, focusing on their two primary languages, Lajamanu Warlpiri and Light Warlpiri. Both languages use mixed systems for indicating grammatical relations. In both languages ergative-absolutive case-marking indicates core arguments, but to different extents in each language. In Lajamanu Warlpiri, pronominal clitics in a nominative-accusative pattern also indicate core arguments, and in Light Warlpiri word order in a nominative-accusative pattern partially does so. The study asks which sentence interpretation strategies children rely on most, when they learn to rely on them and whether cross-linguistic influences are seen. Children aged 5;0, 7;0 and 9;0 and adults saw paired, animated events simultaneously on video and heard a transitive sentence spoken. The participants pointed to the event depicted by the sentence heard. Adults used a case-marking strategy consistently in both languages. Children initially used both case-marking and word order strategies, but used case-marking more often as age increased.

  2. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  3. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio) to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk). The excess relative risk (ERR) used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices) is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense) between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices) in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided) using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  4. The importance of friends and relations in tourist behaviour : a case study on heterogeneity in Surinam

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, P.E.F.; Masurel, E.; P. Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    Tourism is becoming an important sector with a great impact on economic development. Tourists form a heterogeneous group of visitors with significantly different spending patterns. This paper addresses the economic importance of a particular class of tourists, viz. those visiting friends and relatives (VFR). After a review of the literature, this paper offers an empirical case study of VFR tourism with reference to Surinam. The findings show that the economic impacts of tourist visits to frie...

  5. Catholic Secondary Schools and Community Relations: A Case Study in East London 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of Catholic secondary school provision in the Inner London Borough of Tower Hamlets during the period 2000-2010. Its main emphasis is on the school/community relations during the period, indicating the Church’s concern to promote community cohesion while maintaining high standards of education, particularly in an inner-city borough noted for its areas of extreme poverty and the diversity of its immigrant population. By working collaboratively with the statutory aut...

  6. A Study on the Relation between Knowledge Management Strategies and Organization Performance (Case Study: ATA Airlines

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    Yahya Dadashkarimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the relation between knowledge management strategies and ATA Airlines performance. It studies whether there is a significant relation regarding the main hypothesis through gathering descriptive data by field research method. The statistical universe comprises 92 employees and managers of ATA Airlines who were selected by random sampling method and the computational formula explained in the research method section. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has been used to determine normality of the received responses. With regard to the significance level, the assumption of normal sample distribution was not rejected. To determine the relation between knowledge management strategies and organization performance, Pearson correlation coefficient test has been applied. This study tests only one main hypothesis (the relation between knowledge management strategies and organization performance. Also factor analysis method based on the new and advanced method of structured equations (partial least squares has been applied to analyze more important coefficients and factors, to estimate independent variables and to determine the effect of the subordinate independent variables on the dependent variable. Finally a mathematical function (regression model has been presented as the organization performance function by using subordinate variables of knowledge management strategies.

  7. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score history of ADHD significantly increased the odds of prolonged recovery (aOR 4.41, 95% CI 1.93-10.07 and aOR 3.87, 95% CI 1

  8. CYP17 gene polymorphism in relation to breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Rylander-Rudqvist, Tove; Humphreys, Keith; Ahlberg, Susanne; Jonasdottir, Gudrun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chia, Kee Seng; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Persson, Ingemar; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Wedrén, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The c.1-34T>C 5' promoter region polymorphism in cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogen, has been associated with breast cancer risk, but most previous studies have been relatively small. Methods We genotyped 1,544 incident cases of primary breast cancer and 1,502 population controls, all postmenopausal Swedish women, for the CYP17 c.1-34T>C polymorphism and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression ...

  9. Crisis-related observations in competition: a case study in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, M; Sachs, S; Tenenbaum, G; Pie, J S; Falk, B

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a unique observational approach to basketball, based on the theory of psychological performance crisis in competition. The approach used takes into account the responses of a player' s actions to significant social factors such as team-mates, spectators, the coach and the referees. The contribution of this approach beyond traditional observational techniques is discussed. In our investigation, a single case design was used, in which a professional basketball player was observed during 10 home and 3 away games of the regular season. The relations between the observations and the crisis concept are discussed in detail. In addition, some relevant methodological and applied aspects are presented. PMID:8960655

  10. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  11. Automated Neuroanatomical Relation Extraction: A Linguistically Motivated Approach with a PVT Connectivity Graph Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdeniz, Erinç; Özgür, Arzucan; Canbeyli, Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the relations among different regions of the brain is vital for a better understanding of how the brain functions. While a large number of studies have investigated the neuroanatomical and neurochemical connections among brain structures, their specific findings are found in publications scattered over a large number of years and different types of publications. Text mining techniques have provided the means to extract specific types of information from a large number of publications with the aim of presenting a larger, if not necessarily an exhaustive picture. By using natural language processing techniques, the present paper aims to identify connectivity relations among brain regions in general and relations relevant to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) in particular. We introduce a linguistically motivated approach based on patterns defined over the constituency and dependency parse trees of sentences. Besides the presence of a relation between a pair of brain regions, the proposed method also identifies the directionality of the relation, which enables the creation and analysis of a directional brain region connectivity graph. The approach is evaluated over the manually annotated data sets of the WhiteText Project. In addition, as a case study, the method is applied to extract and analyze the connectivity graph of PVT, which is an important brain region that is considered to influence many functions ranging from arousal, motivation, and drug-seeking behavior to attention. The results of the PVT connectivity graph show that PVT may be a new target of research in mood assessment.

  12. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

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    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  13. Methodologies Developed for EcoCity Related Projects: New Borg El Arab, an Egyptian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Antuña-Rozado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the methodologies described here is to propose measures and procedures for developing concepts and technological solutions, which are adapted to the local conditions, to build sustainable communities in developing countries and emerging economies. These methodologies are linked to the EcoCity framework outlined by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. for sustainable community and neighbourhood regeneration and development. The framework is the result of a long experience in numerous EcoCity related projects, mainly Nordic and European in scope, which has been reformulated in recent years to respond to the local needs in the previously mentioned countries. There is also a particular emphasis on close collaboration with local partners and major stakeholders. In order to illustrate how these methodologies can support EcoCity concept development and implementation, results from a case study in Egypt will be discussed. The referred case study relates to the transformation of New Borg El Arab (NBC, near Alexandria, into an EcoCity. The viability of the idea was explored making use of different methodologies (Roadmap, Feasibility Study, and Residents Energy Survey and Building Consumption Assessment and considering the Residential, Commercial/Public Facilities, Industrial, Services/Utilities, and Transport sectors.

  14. Investigation of the molecular similarity in closely related protein systems: The PrP case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi, Loriano; Paciotti, Roberto; Re, Nazzareno; Marrone, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    The amyloid conversion is a massive detrimental modification affecting several proteins upon specific physical or chemical stimuli characterizing a plethora of diseases. In many cases, the amyloidogenic stimuli induce specific structural features to the protein conferring the propensity to misfold and form amyloid deposits. The investigation of mutants, structurally similar to their native isoform but inherently prone to amyloid conversion, may be a viable strategy to elucidate the structural features connected with amyloidogenesis. In this article, we present a computational protocol based on the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and grid-based approaches suited for the pairwise comparison of closely related protein structures. This method was applied on the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as a case study and, in particular, addressed to the quali/quantification of the structural features conferred by either E200K mutations and treatment with CaCl(2), both able to induce the scrapie conversion of PrP. Several schemes of comparison were developed and applied to this case study, and made up suitable of application to other protein systems. At this purpose an in-house python codes has been implemented that, together with the parallelization of the GRID force fields program, will spread the applicability of the proposed computational procedure. PMID:26018750

  15. Employment Modes from Transactional and Relational Perspectives: An Exploratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Cheng-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study uses a case study approach to investigate why organizations allocate different kinds of employees We adopt relational (social exchange theory and transactional (agency theory perspectives to explain the increasing allocation of external employees, in contrast to previous scholars who only emphasize cutting operating costs as the main reason for hiring external employees. Our study shows that opportunism is assumed to be important ― not because everyone is opportunistic but because it is impossible to obtain reliable information concerning the opportunism of the partner. Therefore, to control risk, it is perhaps safer for an organization to hire external workers and then to shorten the cognitive distance between managers and new hires, thereby fostering opportunities for mutual understanding. When trust is built, long-term relationships are easier to maintain and turnover rates typically decrease.

  16. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  17. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  18. Evaluation of Candidate Genes in Case-Control Studies: A Statistical Method to Account for Related Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Slager, S. L.; Schaid, D J

    2001-01-01

    Traditional case-control studies provide a powerful and efficient method for evaluation of association between candidate genes and disease. The sampling of cases from multiplex pedigrees, rather than from a catchment area, can increase the likelihood that genetic cases are selected. However, use of all the related cases without accounting for their biological relationship can increase the type I error rate of the statistical test. To overcome this problem, we present an analysis method that i...

  19. Urban vulnerability and resiliency over water-related risks: a case study from Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroua, Najet

    2016-01-01

    The ad hoc management of natural environmental features and inappropriate social interventions could cause vulnerability of thriving urban ecosystems. For instance sub-aerial exposure, water-related hazards, urban intrinsic sensitivity, urban adaptation ability or flexibility and urban transformability factors could contribute a potential danger. In spite of seasonal climatic changes, the exposure indicates a significant geographical determinism whereas the other factors express its antithesis. The present paper aims to adapt a vulnerability-resilience indicators' multicriteria analysis to show the variability and contribution rate with regard to local water-related risks. The municipality of al-Harrash from Algiers has been selected as a case study. The urban vulnerability-resilience closely tied up with a sum of relevant indicators confirmed by the diagnosis items, which are relevant to the local urban and hydro systems. The cumulative sums are obtained from a classification process referring to several criteria implied in the water-related risks. These were formulated here for the purpose of a multicriteria analysis with the objective of assessing the urban vulnerability-resilience index and subsequently orientating the preventive strategy towards different levels of sustainable measures. With this respect the exposure and sensitivity received a significant score while adaptation ability and transformability scored very low. PMID:26942538

  20. Workplace Blame and Related Concepts: An Analysis of Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judy E; Agan, Donna L; Chakedis, Shannon; Skrobik, Yoanna

    2015-08-01

    Blame has been thought to affect quality by decreasing error reporting. Very little is known about the incidence, characteristics, or consequences of the distress caused by being blamed. Blame-related distress (B-RD) may be related to moral distress, but may also be a factor in burnout, compassion fatigue, lateral violence, and second-victim syndrome. The purpose of this article is to explore these related concepts through a literature review applied to three index critical care clinician cases. PMID:25928049

  1. The Time - Space Analysis of Social Pathologies Related to Drugs (Case Study: Tehran 12th District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zangiabadi

    2015-09-01

    th District have been considered as point events.     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   Among Iran's cities, Tehran has the highest rate of social pathologies because of specific, spatial, physical and social conditions. This positive relationship between population growth and increase in the rate of social Pathologies can be regarded as a result of quantitative increase in the city's population. So it is essential to, with scientific methods and new technologies, identify place-time circumstances in which crimes are committed in Tehran. Tehran's 12th district with 1600 hectares equivalent to 2/7 percent of the total area of Tehran has allocated according to statistics 3.17 percent of the total population of Tehran. Evaluation of the relative density of population in 12th district show that in these area 154.5 people live per hectare, while the relative density of population in Tehran is 131.6 people per hectare. Therefore relative density of population in district 12 of Tehran is greater than the average density in Tehran city.   The findings show that although district 12, only has allocated 2.7 percent of the land area, but the most percentage occurrence of social pathologies occurred in this area of Tehran. In other words, from 6006 cases of studied crime in this study that occurred in Tehran, about 560 cases, occurred in the 12th district.   Based on the time analysis which determines the type and extent of crime in the 12th district, the peak time and the time center of gravity of crimes is 13 and Wednesday, with frequency of 10-8 crime events in this hour and day. Also on the same time at 12:30 to 13:30, 8-6 cases of crime occurs. The findings show that the average center of crimes related to drugs on 12 district is coincided largely with the geographical center of this region, on the streets of Nasser Khosrow , leading to the 15 Khordad street. Standard deviation ellipse of this type of crimes has mode circle, which represents the geographic

  2. Anions Govern Cell Volume: A Case Study of Relative Astrocytic and Neuronal Swelling in Spreading Depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are ubiquitous in normal and pathological activity of the brain. Nevertheless, we know little about the dynamics of cell and tissue swelling, and the differential changes in the volumes of neurons and glia during pathological states such as spreading depolarizations (SD under ischemic and non-ischemic conditions, and epileptic seizures. By combining the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations, and simultaneous neuronal and astroglial volume changes into a comprehensive model, we elucidate why glial cells swell more than neurons in SD and the special case of anoxic depolarization (AD, and explore the relative contributions of the two cell types to tissue swelling. Our results demonstrate that anion channels, particularly Cl-, are intrinsically connected to cell swelling and blocking these currents prevents changes in cell volume. The model is based on a simple and physiologically realistic description. We introduce model extensions that are either derived purely from first physical principles of electroneutrality, osmosis, and conservation of particles, or by a phenomenological combination of these principles and known physiological facts. This work provides insights into numerous studies related to neuronal and glial volume changes in SD that otherwise seem contradictory, and is broadly applicable to swelling in other cell types and conditions.

  3. Eating and weight related cognitions in people with Schizophrenia : A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasset François

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG regularly report on unsuccessful dietary trials, which suggests strong biological weight gain drive that is extremely hard to overcome with thoughts, such that behaviour doesn't change despite some intent to change. The purpose of the present study was to assess cognitions specifically related to restrained eating in severely overweight patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. Methods Forty outpatients with schizophrenia and 40 controls without psychiatric disability were included. Both groups were composed of one subgroup severely overweight (defined as a BMI > 28, and a comparison sample (BMI Results Gender was significantly related to eating disorders cognition, women scoring higher than men. Patients with schizophrenia in general scored higher on the MAC-R total scale and on the MAC-R subscale 2, the latter score representing rigid weight regulation and fear of weight gain. When comparing the two groups of subjects with BMI Conclusion As is the case in weight gain of subjects without schizophrenia, the present results suggest that the cognitive distortions, as assessed by the MAC-R, may play an important role in weight gain also in patients with schizophrenia, and in weight gain associated with antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. Particular attention to these processes may help to improve the management of antipsychotic drugs induced weight gain.

  4. Not so ‘invisible’: A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Gender Relations and Farm Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Carolyn Mackrell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study explored farm management practices by women cotton growers who used computer-based information systems, most particularly the agricultural farm management software, CottonLOGIC, within the Australian cotton industry. This study found that, although gender differences and inequalities persist in rural parts of the region, the agency of women cotton growers ensures not only a sustainable future for themselves and their families, but also for the broader cotton industry as a whole. The use of farm management software by women cotton farmers was informed by Connell’s theoretical framework of gender relations (2002. The findings suggested that, women’s active participation in family farm partnerships and their acquisition of technological skills through the use of farm management software like CottonLOGIC, meant that all cotton growers benefit through the feminizing of specific farm management practices in family farm enterprises. This, therefore, has significant implications for developing the cotton industry into a truly sustainable entity.

  5. The effect on organizational change on relational coordination – a multi case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results from an original empirical study of 11 organizational change projects in different wards at two Danish hospitals. The purpose of the study was to study was to study changes in relation coordination as a consequence of organizational change. We measured relational...... coordination before and after the organizational change using the 7 question relational coordination questionnaire. A group of employees were interviewed after the change project to uncover the nature and extent of the changes. We find that organizations’ relational coordination score change very little – even...

  6. Case-control study of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian;

    2007-01-01

    exposed to gadodiamide develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 19 histologically verified cases and 19 sex- and age-matched controls. All subjects had chronic renal failure when exposed to gadodiamide. Clinical, biochemical and pharmacological data were...... retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Cases had been exposed to a mean gadodiamide dose of 0.29 mmol/kg (range 0.18-0.50) shortly before first signs of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Controls had been exposed to 0.28 mmol/kg (0.13-0.49). Cumulative gadodiamide exposure while in chronic kidney disease...

  7. A case-control study of GST polymorphisms and arsenic related skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiuddin Golam

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 impact detoxification of carcinogens by GSTs and have been reported to increase susceptibility to environmentally related health outcomes. Individual factors in arsenic biotransformation may influence disease susceptibility. GST activity is involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including catalyzing the formation of arsenic-GSH conjugates. Methods We investigated whether polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1 were associated with risk of skin lesions and whether these polymorphisms modify the relationship between drinking water arsenic exposure and skin lesions in a case control study of 1200 subjects frequency matched on age and gender in community clinics in Pabna, Bangladesh in 2001–2002. Results and discussion GSTT1 homozygous wildtype status was associated with increased odds of skin lesions compared to the null status (OR1.56 95% CI 1.10–2.19. The GSTP1 GG polymorphism was associated with greater odds of skin lesions compared to GSTP1 AA, (OR 1.86 (95%CI 1.15–3.00. No evidence of effect modification by GSTT1, GSTM1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms on the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesions was detected. Conclusion GSTT1 wildtype and GSTP1 GG are associated with increased risk of skin lesions.

  8. The timing of drug funding announcements relative to elections: a case study involving dementia medications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep S Gill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following initial regulatory approval of prescription drugs, many factors may influence insurers and health systems when they decide whether to add these drugs to their formularies. The role of political pressures on drug funding announcements has received relatively little attention, and elections represent an especially powerful form of political pressure. We examined the temporal relationship between decisions to add one class of drugs to publicly funded formularies in Canada's ten provinces and elections in these jurisdictions. METHODS: Dates of provincial formulary listings for cholinesterase inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, were compared to the dates of provincial elections. Medical journal articles, media reports, and proceedings from provincial legislatures were reviewed to assemble information on the chronology of events. We tested whether there was a statistically significant increase in the probability of drug funding announcements within the 60-day intervals preceding provincial elections. RESULTS: Decisions to fund the cholinesterase inhibitors were made over a nine-year span from 1999 to 2007 in the ten provinces. In four of ten provinces, the drugs were added to formularies in a time period closely preceding a provincial election (P = 0.032; funding announcements in these provinces were made between 2 and 47 days prior to elections. Statements made in provincial legislatures highlight the key role of political pressures in these funding announcements. CONCLUSIONS: Impending elections appeared to affect the timing of drug funding announcements in this case study. Despite an established structure for evidence-based decision-making, drug funding remains a complex process open to influence from many sources. Awareness of such influences is critical to maintain effective drug policy and public health decision-making.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM PHONOPHORESIS TO RESOLVE PAIN RELATED TO FACET SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Anap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A single case study design was used to investigate the effects sodium diclofenac (Voltaren Emulgel®, Novartis phonophoresis and back stabilization exercises for lumbar facet syndrome. A visual analogue scale was used to measure pain, Modified Oswestery disability questionnaire was used to measure disability and Sorensen test was used to measure back endurance. The study involved three phases in an ABC design. They were 1- week pre assessment, 2-treatment phase and 2 week post treatment assessment phase and 2 weeks follow up phase. The technique resulted in reduction in pain, reduction in disability and improvement in core muscle strength in case of Facet syndrome.Although single case study design limits generalization of the results, it does provide evidence of the beneficial response obtained by use of Phonophoresis and stabilization exercises in Facet syndrome patients.

  10. Familial aggregation of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one

  11. Frances Kelsey and Thalidomide in the US: A Case Study Relating to Pharmaceutical Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Lisa A.; Warren, Noreen

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study on the story of Dr. Frances Kelsey and the drug thalidomide, which was widely used in Europe for its therapeutic effects in the 1960s and later identified as having multiple effects on the body during development by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Describes the drug approval process in the United States and…

  12. Proportion of drug-related serious rare blood dyscrasias: estimates from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2004-11-01

    Drugs are an important cause of serious rare blood dyscrasias. To estimate the proportion of drug-related cases, we used data from the ongoing Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The analysis included a total of 171 cases. The number of cases in which a drug etiology was assessed as at least "possible" was n = 29 (97%) for acute agranulocytosis, n = 4 (0.21%) for aplastic anemia, n = 8 (26%) for immune hemolytic anemia, n = 20 (25%) for immune thrombocytopenia, and n = 2 (20%) for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our analysis suggests that a substantial fraction of blood dyscrasias may be attributable to drug therapy. PMID:15495238

  13. Review of practical implementation issues relating to international financial reporting standards: Case study on Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Reto; et al.

    2008-01-01

    This case study presents the context, application and enforcement of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) in Switzerland. It begins with an introduction to the Swiss legal framework by presenting the requirements for accounting, reporting, and auditing. It then examines the application and enforcement of IFRS in Switzerland, particularly for listed companies. It concludes with a summary and an overview of expected amendments to the legal framework. The study notes that the regul...

  14. Diet-related risk factors for leprosy: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Wagenaar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food shortage was associated with leprosy in two recent studies investigating the relation between socioeconomic factors and leprosy. Inadequate intake of nutrients due to food shortage may affect the immune system and influence the progression of infection to clinical leprosy. We aimed to identify possible differences in dietary intake between recently diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects.In a leprosy endemic area of Bangladesh, newly diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic situation, health and diet. Dietary intakes were recorded with a 24-hour recall, from which a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS was calculated. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS was filled out for every participant. Using logistic regression, a univariate, block wise multivariate, and an integrated analysis were carried out.52 leprosy cases and 100 control subjects were included. Food shortage was more common, dietary diversity was lower and household food insecurity was higher in the patient group. Patients consumed significantly less items from the DDS food groups 'Meat and fish' and 'Other fruits and vegetables.' Lower food expenditure per capita, lower BMI, lower DDS and absence of household food stocks are the main factors associated with an increased risk of having leprosy.Low income families have only little money to spend on food and consequently have a low intake of highly nutritious non-rice foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. Development of clinical leprosy could be explained by deficiencies of the nutrients that these foods normally provide.

  15. Monitoring of urban growth and its related environmental impacts: Niamey case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Spadafora, Francesco; Yadji, Guero; Konaté, Moussa

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution is about a preliminary study of the evolution of Niamey city (Niger) during last decades. Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burkina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. Recent advances in remote sensing, both in satellite hardware technology (i.e. image availability) and image processing algorithm development, provide opportunities for collection and analysis of multitemporal information on urban form and size that can be useful for policy and planning. In spite of these developments, there are also limitations to remote sensing and its application in practice. Some opportunities for, and limitations on, monitoring urban growth using remote sensing data are shown in the present contribution; moreover examples of environmental impacts of urban growth, as monitored with remote sensing, are provided. Niamey is the capital of Niger and is the first city in the country in size and economic importance. Its population increased gradually, from about 3,000 units in 1930 to about 30,000 in 1960, rising to 250,000 in 1980 and, according to estimates, to 800,000 units in 2000. Its patterns of population distribution, livelihoods, and its dominant role within the national economy of Niger make it a good representative case study for West Africa. This case study will consider the recent historical context of continued urban growth and will assess potential future impacts of settlement patterns. The rapid growth of Niamey in the last decades brought relative prosperity but it certainly affected patterns of land use within the city and the emerging urban system. After a preliminary sketch of the georesources in the city (qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates), an analyses of the urban growth and

  16. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  17. Student experiences of virtual reality - a case study in learning special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, D; McIntyre, T J; Savage, C M; Williamson, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of student learning through the use of virtual reality. A software package is used to introduce concepts of special relativity to students in a game-like environment where users experience the effects of travelling at near light speeds. From this new perspective, space and time are significantly different to that experienced in everyday life. The study explores how students have worked with this environment and how these students have used this experience in their study of special relativity. A mixed method approach has been taken to evaluate the outcomes of separate implementations of the package at two universities. Students found the simulation to be a positive learning experience and described the subject area as being less abstract after its use. Also, students were more capable of correctly answering concept questions relating to special relativity, and a small but measurable improvement was observed in the final exam.

  18. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING COMMUNICATION. CASE STUDY: STRENGTHENING OF THE RELATIONS WITH THE SHAREHOLDERS THROUGH MAFRKETING COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    NEAGOE, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Following the development of theoretical and practical aspects of great importance for the scientific approach of relation marketing, it is required to switch to a higher level by means of the intensive development of techniques and tactics of the communication with shareholders. In literature, namely the relation marketing communication, there is a shortage of articles, studies and research that address this issue systematically. The focus on the features of the communication imprinted by th...

  19. The role of public relations in the marketing mix. Case study : the Athenaeum InterContinental Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Μαρκέζη, Μ.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present dissertation is to examine the importance of the Public Relations (PR) in the Marketing Mix through a case analysis of the PR office at the Athenaeum InterContinental Athens and its multifunctional operation within the hotel. Initially, a quite detailed analysis of the PR advantages and disadvantages as well as its main objectives, methods, tools and tactics are presented. The second chapter introduces us to the Case Study of the Athenaeum InterContinental At...

  20. Relation between Rural Financial Development and Rural Economic Growth: A Case Study of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; XU; Lijia; HU

    2015-01-01

    Rural economy is an essential part of China’s national economy. It is necessary to study mutual relation between rural financial development and rural economic growth. In this study,panel VAR model was built. Based on time series data in 1995- 2010,it tested the relation between rural financial development and rural economic growth through ADF test,co-integration test and Granger causality test. Finally,it came up with policy recommendations,in the hope of promoting coordinated development of rural finance and rural economy.

  1. Formal Food-related Networks in Ireland: A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Henchion

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Strategic networking is of crucial importance for innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs as it enables these companies access external resources and overcome internal constraints. However, SMEs often lack the skills and competencies to engage in and benefit from networks. Consequently SMEs often fail in establishing strategic and efficient networks. To date, there is limited guidance available on the optimal design of such networks. Furthermore, limited guidance is available on the number of networks, and level of engagement therein, that companies should be involved with. Using case studies across a range of formal networks within the food sector in Ireland, insights into the success factors and barriers to network learning are presented, which provide a foundation for such guidelines. Three case studies were selected for analysis in Ireland. Up to ten in-depth interviews were scheduled with the network managers and key informants from the triple helix (i.e. policy, research and industry sectors within each formal network. Initially, interviewees were identified as a result of a review of secondary sources and personal knowledge of the authors. The snowball sampling technique was then employed to identify additional interviewees within each network. The findings from this study revealed that some formal networks had a strong institutional influence, including significant financial inputs, whilst others had bottom-up origins. Many networks had strong levels of interaction prior to formalisation, which provided solid trust-based foundations. Innovation and/or learning were not the expressed objectives of all networks at the outset. However, interviewees across all three networks felt that positive impacts had been achieved in these areas. Whilst being involved in a broad network can provide access to a wider range of ideas, these case studies suggest that being involved in a smaller, dense network, with high levels of IP

  2. Evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Volume 1. Analysis of case studies of supported projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorke, M.G.; Bronfman, L.M.; Soderstrom, E.J.

    1983-02-01

    This volume reports the analysis of the results of 30 case studies of grantees funded by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). ERIP is one of several federal programs supporting invention and innovation in the private sector. It is a relatively small program with an annual budget of $5 to 6 million that focuses its attention on the independent inventor or small business with an energy-related invention. Support to the inventory or small business comes primarily in the form of a grant. The overall goal of the program is to stimulate innovation by individuals and small businesses and to assist in the development of promising energy-related inventions for eventual commercialization. This volume is an aggregation and synthesis of the data gathered in the case studies. (Volume 2 contains the case studies.) The case studies explore in-depth the characteristics, perceptions, and experiences of inventors and agency personnel who have participated in the ERIP. Thus they are a rich source of information for use in evaluating the process by which the program's goals and objectives are implemented and for evaluating the program;s usefulness in producing the results intended by the legislative mandate.

  3. Siting issues related to radar and radiocommunication systems : process and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, J.D. [Helimax Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Helimax Energy Inc. has been conducting electromagnetic impact studies at its wind farms since 2004. More than 15 detailed studies have been conducted as part of its environmental assessment (EA) process. Wind turbines can have a significant impact on radiocommunication systems, impairing microwave links, radio-navigational aids, air traffic control radar, and over-the-air broadcasting systems. This presentation used a case study to demonstrate an electromagnetic evaluation process for wind turbines. On-site measurements for television broadcasting were conducted. Results of an electromagnetic interference study indicated a potential impact on television broadcasting reception for some dwellings. Models were then used to map the impacted areas as well to evaluate the number of impacted dwellings. A baseline study was conducted to obtain on-site measurements. Post-construction measurements were then taken in order to verify interference levels. It was concluded that the farm proponents made a commitment to restore broadcasting services to an acceptable level after the wind farm had been constructed. tabs., figs.

  4. Eating and weight related cognitions in people with Schizophrenia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal Y; Frésard E; Zimmermann G.; Morinière Trombert N; Pomini V.; Grasset F; Borgeat F; Zullino DF

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG) regularly report on unsuccessful dietary trials, which suggests strong biological weight gain drive that is extremely hard to overcome with thoughts, such that behaviour doesn't change despite some intent to change. The purpose of the present study was to assess cognitions specifically related to restrained eating in severely overweight patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: Forty outpat...

  5. Eating and weight related cognitions in people with Schizophrenia : A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Grasset François; Pomini Valentino; Trombert Nathalie; Zimmermann Grégoire; Frésard Emmanuelle; Khazaal Yasser; Borgeat François; Zullino Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG) regularly report on unsuccessful dietary trials, which suggests strong biological weight gain drive that is extremely hard to overcome with thoughts, such that behaviour doesn't change despite some intent to change. The purpose of the present study was to assess cognitions specifically related to restrained eating in severely overweight patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. Methods Forty outpatien...

  6. Motivation and performance related pay in the public sector: a case study of the Inland Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, David; Richardson, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Performance related pay has been extended to practically the whole of the Civil Service over the last few years, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer recently announced the Government's intention to enlarge its role even further. Almost no serious work on seems to have been published on whether the existing systems have succeeded. The present study, directed solely at the Inland Revenue, begins to fill the gap. Performance Pay was introduced for the majority of staff at the Inland Revenue in 1...

  7. A case study on relation between roughness, lubrication and fatigue life of rolling bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, M. R.; Tufescu, A.; Cretu, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    A spherical roller bearing under high radial loading, constant speed and imposed roughness for the contacting surfaces was chosen as case study. Different lubrication regimes were obtained by varying oil viscosity through the operating temperature. For bearings with especially machined contacting surfaces, λ-ratio is firstly determined and its value is used to estimate the particular value of the lubrication parameter κ. Using the λ-ratio approach the paper reveals the relationship between roughness amplitude and the modified rating life of rolling bearings. The roughness values corresponding to good manufacturing practice are possible to be determined for each particular case. Three groups of random Gaussian roughness were generated with the same values for the Ra parameter as used in the modified lives investigations. For medium and especially high radial loads, the contacts between rough surfaces develop, inside the shallow layer, von Mises equivalent stresses higher than the fatigue limit stress. For condition of lack of lubricant or starved lubrication, these findings explain the initiation of the rolling contact fatigue in the shallow layer, close to contacting surfaces.

  8. Time-related patient data retrieval for the case studies from the pharmacogenomics research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Tao, Cui; Ding, Ying; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-11-01

    There are lots of question-based data elements from the pharmacogenomics research network (PGRN) studies. Many data elements contain temporal information. To semantically represent these elements so that they can be machine processiable is a challenging problem for the following reasons: (1) the designers of these studies usually do not have the knowledge of any computer modeling and query languages, so that the original data elements usually are represented in spreadsheets in human languages; and (2) the time aspects in these data elements can be too complex to be represented faithfully in a machine-understandable way. In this paper, we introduce our efforts on representing these data elements using semantic web technologies. We have developed an ontology, CNTRO, for representing clinical events and their temporal relations in the web ontology language (OWL). Here we use CNTRO to represent the time aspects in the data elements. We have evaluated 720 time-related data elements from PGRN studies. We adapted and extended the knowledge representation requirements for EliXR-TIME to categorize our data elements. A CNTRO-based SPARQL query builder has been developed to customize users' own SPARQL queries for each knowledge representation requirement. The SPARQL query builder has been evaluated with a simulated EHR triple store to ensure its functionalities.

  9. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  10. Community relations and child-led microfinance: a case study of caregiving children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success. PMID:21161771

  11. Quality Service and its Relation with Global Satisfaction in Fast Food Consumers. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique IBARRA MORALES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the quality service perception and its relation with the satisfaction for the fast food consumers of hamburgers’ sector of the chain Burger King in Hermosillo, Sonora. By the application of Servperf of Cronin and Taylor methodology and a data regression method, through the coefficient of determination (R2 was determined that the independent variables explain the variability or variance of 82.9% in consumer satisfaction and that the explanatory variable which has the most influence in absolute value over the explained variable is reliability, due to its standardized beta is 0.301, being the highest score among the variables. To achieve the objective of this study, a quantitative and correlation investigation was designed, where data was collected from a survey structured by five dimensions, measured by 22 items. It was applied to a random and representative sample of 385 consumers, with a 95% level confidence and a ±5% of permissible error. An inferential statistical analysis allowed observing a positive relation between consumers’ satisfaction level and quality service. The results showed that Servperf is a valid instrument with psychometric characteristics of high reliability that makes it appropriate to measure quality service. The same way, it was observed an index of service global satisfaction of 69.27%, which according to the scale used implies clients are satisfied with the received service.

  12. A 3 year case study of alcohol related psychotic disorders at Hospital Seremban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Chin, C N

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the characteristics and psychopathology of alcohol dependents with alcohol induced psychotic disorder admitted to the Seremban Hospital. The method is that of a case study of all alcohol dependents with alcohol induced psychotic disorder admitted to the Psychiatric Ward, Hospital Seremban over 3 years (1993-1995). There were 34 subjects, 30 Indians, 3 Chinese and 1 Malay with a mean age of 43 years. 32 were men and predominantly of Social Class IV and V (91%). They had a mean duration of drinking of 14.2 years and had a mean weekly consumption of 69.5 units of alcohol. There was a family history of alcohol dependence in (44%). The majority (68%) consumed samsu with beer the second choice. Auditory hallucinations (26) and delusions (16) were common while visual hallucinations (3) and depression (2) were less frequent. Speech disorder occurred in 4 subjects. 2 developed delirium tremens and 1 died. Liver function test was normal in 55%. All except the death from delirium tremens responded to treatment with a combination of anxiolytics, thiamine and antipsychotics and were rapidly discharged. The mean stay was 7 days. However, (68%) did not return for follow up and only 4 were abstinent from alcohol at the time of follow up.

  13. A 3 year case study of alcohol related psychotic disorders at Hospital Seremban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Chin, C N

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the characteristics and psychopathology of alcohol dependents with alcohol induced psychotic disorder admitted to the Seremban Hospital. The method is that of a case study of all alcohol dependents with alcohol induced psychotic disorder admitted to the Psychiatric Ward, Hospital Seremban over 3 years (1993-1995). There were 34 subjects, 30 Indians, 3 Chinese and 1 Malay with a mean age of 43 years. 32 were men and predominantly of Social Class IV and V (91%). They had a mean duration of drinking of 14.2 years and had a mean weekly consumption of 69.5 units of alcohol. There was a family history of alcohol dependence in (44%). The majority (68%) consumed samsu with beer the second choice. Auditory hallucinations (26) and delusions (16) were common while visual hallucinations (3) and depression (2) were less frequent. Speech disorder occurred in 4 subjects. 2 developed delirium tremens and 1 died. Liver function test was normal in 55%. All except the death from delirium tremens responded to treatment with a combination of anxiolytics, thiamine and antipsychotics and were rapidly discharged. The mean stay was 7 days. However, (68%) did not return for follow up and only 4 were abstinent from alcohol at the time of follow up. PMID:10968157

  14. Travel-related venous thrombosis: results from a large population-based case control study (MEGA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C Cannegieter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population (MEGA study. We also assessed the combined effect of travel and prothrombotic mutations, body mass index, height, and oral contraceptive use. Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 y with a first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis. Of 1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 h in the 8 wk preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis 2-fold (odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of traveling by car, bus, or train. The risk was highest in the first week after traveling. Travel by car, bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in individuals with factor V Leiden (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.7-24.7, in those who had a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m(2 (OR 9.9; 95% CI 3.6-27.6, in those who were more than 1.90 m tall (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.4-15.4, and in those who used oral contraceptives (estimated OR > 20. For air travel these synergistic findings were more apparent, while people shorter than 1.60 m had an increased risk of thrombosis after air travel (OR 4.9; 95% CI 0.9-25.6 as well. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.

  15. Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns are related to pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Koohdani, Fariba; Mahaki, Behzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Yavari, Parvaneh; Shaibu, Osman Mohammed; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-09-01

    Pre-diabetes increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. Several studies have investigated the relationship between food intake and pre-diabetes morbidity, but the dietary patterns of pre-diabetes subjects were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and pre-diabetes. In this regard, 150 pre-diabetic subjects and 150 healthy controls, who attended the diabetes screening centre in Shahreza, Iran, were matched for age group and sex. The weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and blood glucose levels of all participants were measured. Dietary information was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Using factor analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: the vegetables, fruits and legumes (VFL) dietary pattern and the sweet, solid fat, meat and mayonnaise (SSMM) dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pre-diabetes and dietary patterns. After adjusting for age, education, physical activity, BMI and energy intake, the VFL dietary pattern was found to be negatively associated with lower pre-diabetes (OR 0·16; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·26). Furthermore, the SSMM dietary pattern was positively associated with pre-diabetes (OR 5·45; 95 % CI 3·22, 9·23). In conclusion, the VFL dietary pattern is inversely related to pre-diabetes, whereas the SSMM dietary pattern is associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes. PMID:27451983

  16. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage:Case Study on a Strategic R&D Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical researches are down within this field, especially case study on R&D strategic alliance from this perspective. On the other hand, when researching on Danish transnational corporations’ R&D in...

  17. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  18. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.

  19. Assessing molecular docking tools for relative biological activity prediction: a case study of triazole HIV-1 NNRTIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Tomasz; Siwek, Agata; Paneth, Piotr

    2013-12-23

    Molecular docking is a technique widely used in drug design. Many studies exist regarding the general accuracy of various docking programs, but case studies for a given group of related compounds are rare. In order to facilitate identification of novel triazole HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), several docking and scoring programs were evaluated for their ability to predict relative biological activity of 111 known 1,2,4-triazole and 76 other azole type NNRTIs. Glide, FlexX, Molegro Virtual Docker, AutoDock Vina, and Hyde were used. Different protocols, settings, scoring functions, and interaction terms were analyzed. We have found that the programs performance was dependent on the data set, indicating the importance of choosing good quality target data for any comparative study. The results suggest that after optimization and proper validation, some of the molecular docking programs can help in predicting relative biological activity of azole NNRTIs. PMID:24266618

  20. The Reporting Quality of Acupuncture-Related Infections in Korean Literature: A Systematic Review of Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe intervention when it is administered in appropriate clinical setting by well-educated and experienced practitioners. In this study, we reviewed observational studies on adverse events (AEs or complications relevant to acupuncture practice in Korean literature for assessing their reporting quality and suggested recommendations for future ones on acupuncture-related infections. Method. Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Korean studies Information Service System, DBpia, National Digital Science Library, and Korean National Assembly Library were searched until May 2015. Combination of keywords including “acupuncture” and “infection” were used for searching databases. Result. A total of 23 studies from 2,739 literature articles were identified from electronic database searching until May 2015. From this review, we found that most case studies did not report enough information for judging causality between acupuncture and the AEs (or complications as well as appropriateness of the acupuncture practice. In addition, acupuncture experts rarely participated in the reporting of these AEs (or complications. Conclusion. Based on these limitations, we suggest a tentative recommendation for future case studies on acupuncture-related infection. We hope that this recommendation would contribute to the improvement of the reporting quality of acupuncture-related AEs (or complications in the future.

  1. Membranous Nephropathy Associated With Immunological Disorder-Related Liver Disease: A Retrospective Study of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Maxime; Moktefi, Anissa; Rabant, Marion; Vigneau, Cécile; Kofman, Tomek; Burtey, Stephane; Corpechot, Christophe; Stehlé, Thomas; Desvaux, Dominique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Rouvier, Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frouget, Thierry; Daugas, Eric; Jablonski, Mathieu; Dahan, Karine; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Remy, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Chazouilleres, Oliver; Sahali, Dil; Audard, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and immunological disorder-related liver disease has not been extensively investigated, and the specific features of this uncommon association, if any, remain to be determined.We retrospectively identified 10 patients with this association. We aimed to describe the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of these patients and their therapeutic management. The possible involvement of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in these apparent secondary forms of MN was assessed by immunohistochemistry with renal and liver biopsy specimens.The mean delay between MN and liver disease diagnoses was 3.9 years and the interval between the diagnosis of the glomerular and liver diseases was PLA2R antibodies were detected in 4 out of 9 patients but the test was performed under specific immunosuppressive treatment in 3 out of 9 patients. Seven of the 9 patients with available renal tissue specimens displayed enhanced expression of PLA2R in glomeruli whereas PLA2R was not expressed in liver parenchyma from these patients or in normal liver tissue. The study of immunoglobulin (Ig) subclasses of deposits in glomeruli revealed that the most frequent pattern was the coexistence of IgG1 and IgG4 immune deposits with IgG4 predominating.Detection of PLA2R antibodies in glomeruli but not in liver parenchyma is a common finding in patients with MN associated with autoimmune liver disease, suggesting that these autoantibodies are not exclusively detected in idiopathic MN.

  2. Uptake of carbamazepine by cucumber plants--a case study related to irrigation with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Moshe; Harush, Daniella; Ben-Ari, Julius; Chefetz, Benny

    2011-02-01

    Reclaimed wastewater is an important source of irrigation in semiarid and arid zones. Here we report data on carbamazepine (CBZ) uptake by cucumber plants in hydroponic culture and greenhouse experiments using different soil types irrigated with fresh water or reclaimed wastewater. Data obtained from the hydroponic culture experiments suggest that CBZ is mainly translocated by water mass flow, and thus it is concentrated and accumulated to the largest extent in the mature/older leaves. Carbamazepine concentration in cucumber fruits and leaves was negatively correlated with soil organic matter content. The concentrations of CBZ in the roots and stems were relatively low, and most CBZ in the plant (76-84% of total uptake) was detected in the leaves. A greenhouse experiment using fresh water and reclaimed wastewater spiked, or not, with CBZ at 1 μg L(-1) (typical concentration in effluents) revealed that CBZ can be taken up and bioaccumulated from its background concentration in reclaimed wastewater. Bioaccumulation factor (calculated as the ratio of CBZ concentration in the plant to that in the soil solution) for the fruits (0.8-1) was significantly lower than the value calculated for the leaves (17-20). This study emphasizes the potential uptake of active pharmaceutical compounds by crops in organic-matter-poor soils irrigated with reclaimed wastewater and highlights the potential risks associated with this agricultural practice. PMID:21071061

  3. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  4. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, D.J.; Debeij, J.; Zaane, B. van; Dekkers, O.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Buller, H.R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Gerdes, V.E.; Cannegieter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin level

  5. Relating trends in streamflow to anthropogenic influences: a case study of Himayat Sagar catchment, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nune

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Catchment development has been identified as potentially causing major changes in streamflow in India. This paper tests for trends in rainfall and streamflow in Himayat Sagar catchment and shows major declines in streamflow without significant changes in precipitation. It then relates the streamflow trends to anthropogenic influences in Himayat Sagar catchment. A simple rainfall-runoff regression model was used to quantify the change in magnitude of rainfall-runoff relationship over the study period. Then, the anthropogenic changes in the catchment including land use, watershed development, groundwater abstractions and storages, and evapotranspiration were quantified. The changes in the components of the water balance were then compared. Streamflows were found to decline at a rate of 3.6 mm yr−1. The main land use change was found to be a conversion from rainfed to irrigated agriculture, fed by groundwater extractions. Irrigated area increased from 8% to 23% of the cropping area during the monsoon (Kharif season (June–November and from 8% to 16% of cropping area during the dry (Rabi season (December–March. Various estimates of changes in evapotranspiration/irrigation water use were made. Well inventories suggest groundwater extractions increase of 7.2 mm yr−1, typical irrigation practices suggests applied water increased by 10.8 mm yr−1, while estimates of evapotranspirations using AVHRR images showed an increasing rate of 4.1 mm yr−1. Surface water storage capacity for various small watershed development structures increased 2 mm over 7 yr. Taken together, the streamflow trends and groundwater information suggest the most plausible estimates of evapotranspiration changes comes from the AVHRR imagery.

  6. Importance of public relations in recycling strategies: principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer, Stefan; Isaac, Nicole A

    2002-07-01

    The separate collection of waste, and especially of recyclables with specific collection systems, would not be possible without the involvement of the users. Apart from the physical installations such as collection containers, collection points, etc., the motivation of the users is an essential component. Motivation can be reinforced through public relations work. In addition to the underlying technical considerations, this paper describes the difference between communication in general and public relations and specifically examines public involvement in recycling. Through the use of examples, we look at the targeted users and typical media employed. Furthermore, we analyzes the development of public involvement. The examples show that public relations for recycling strategies relies to a great extent on attitudes, habits, and access to the target group. Thus, standardized procedures cannot be developed. For these reasons, public relation activities must be planned carefully and professionally and include an analysis of the target group, choice of media, and verification of success.

  7. Unionization and Positive Employee Relations: The Cornell Experience--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 unionization of service and maintenance employees at Cornell University marked a growing trend. The university's policy and procedure throughout the process is chronicled and discussed from the perspective of maintaining good personnel relations. (MSE)

  8. Model Management Intergovernmental Relations Case Study Program Free Education In South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Suhardiman Syamsu; Sangkala; Armin; Hasniati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Looking for intergovernmental relations management model is a consequence of the decentralization of government from local to central government provincial and district city. Delivery of affairs to the position of actors in the region more involved than ever before. The actor was instrumental in determining the center of attention authority patterns and methods of conflict resolution when to initiate and conduct a free educational program cooperation. Intergovernmental relations man...

  9. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change.

  10. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change. PMID:27289287

  11. Comparing theories: the dynamics of changing vocabulary. A case-study in relativity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andréka, H

    2013-01-01

    There are several first-order logic (FOL) axiomatizations of special relativity theory in the literature, all looking essentially different but claiming to axiomatize the same physical theory. In this paper, we elaborate a comparison, in the framework of mathematical logic, between these FOL theories for special relativity. For this comparison, we use a version of mathematical definability theory in which new entities can also be defined besides new relations over already available entities. In particular, we build an interpretation of the reference-frame oriented theory SpecRel into the observationally oriented Signalling theory of James Ax. This interpretation provides SpecRel with an operational/experimental semantics. Then we make precise, "quantitative" comparisons between these two theories via using the notion of definitional equivalence. This is an application of logic to the philosophy of science and physics in the spirit of Johan van Benthem's work.

  12. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the application of the KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River valley, in Switzerland. Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including the city of Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. After characterizing the peculiarities of the specific case study, risk maps have been developed under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as baseline) for six identified relevant targets, exposed to flood risk in the Sihl valley, namely: people, economic activities (including buildings, infrastructures and agriculture), natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map, which allows to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis tools, has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the area of study. By means of a tailored participative approach, the total risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of the relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores and weights related to the receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher relative risks are concentrated in the deeply urbanized area within and around the Zurich city centre and areas that rely just behind to the Sihl River course. Here, forecasted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and high presence of old (vulnerable) people; inundated buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, the majority of them referring to the Zurich main

  13. Take note! Generating stakeholder awareness : Case Study: Public relations campaign in a nonprofit organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkerley, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In September 2014, international business association Amcham Finland expanded its oper-ations into the United States, opening an office in New York City. Establishing an office outside Finland was a major development for the nonprofit member association. Situation analysis conducted by management in March 2014 showed that the association’s stake-holders were not aware of the new office. To help inform stakeholders of the upcoming development, a targeted public relations campaign was developed...

  14. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  15. Relations between decision indicators for implementing technology in healthcare logistics – a bed logistics case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cost of healthcare is rising and reforms have been introduced across Europe to address the cost issue in healthcare. There is potential to improve logistical processes within healthcare to save costs and at the same time provide services that support high quality patient care. Re......-designing processes and implementing technology can improve the efficiency of processes and reduce costs. A relations diagram has been developed that identifies the effects between the constructs Logistics, Technology, Procedure and Structure. Knowledge about how these constructs affect each other is important when...... deciding how to re-design processes and which technologies to implement....

  16. Can we reconcile individualisation with relational ‘personhood: a case study from the Early Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman John

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we seek to discuss the tension between relational personhood, characterised by ‘dividuals’, and the individualisation of persons whose driving force was the creation of new embodied skills learnt to perform the wide range of new tasks which defined the farming way of life. This is, in effect, an exploration of the consequences of a vivid new world itself created by the interactions of a wider variety of individuals with different skills than had ever been seen before, including those required for domesticating animals, potting, building rectangular houses, growing cereals and pulses and polishing stone tools and ornaments.

  17. Inheritance and complementation : a case study of easy adjectives and related nouns

    OpenAIRE

    Flickinger, Dan; Nerbonne, John

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms for representing lexically the bulk of syntactic and semantic information for a language have been under active development, as is evident in the recent studies contained in this volume. Our study serves to highlight some of the most useful tools available for structured lexical representation, in particular, (multiple) inheritance, default specification, and lexical rules. It then illustrates the value of these mechanisms in illuminating one corner of the lexicon involving an unus...

  18. Family lifestyle factors related to children s congenital heart defects in China:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the multiple risk factors for family lifestyle of children with congenital heart defects(CHDs)in Shaanxi Province,China.Methods A 1∶1 case-control study was carried out to investigate 60 pairs of children and their parents.The univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the influence of risk factors related to parents' lifestyle on CHDs.Results Several possible risk factors were found for CHDs,including fever(OR=4.465,P=0.017),pesticides contact(OR=2.234...

  19. Measuring the relative performance in mining industry: A case study of cooperative Seif mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Lotfi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the performance of a salt refinery named Seif cooperative mining. The study uses Political–Economical-Social– Technological Analysis (PEST technique to evaluate opportunities and threats associated with external as well as internal factors influencing the firm. The study designs a questionnaire in Liket scale and asks decision maker to evaluate internal/external threats. In terms of external factors, there are four opportunities and ten threats associated with External factor evaluation (EFE factors. In terms of opportunities, existing potential for export has received the highest priority followed by easy access to national transportation and government support. On the threats part, firm’s dependency on importing necessary parts, global price reduction and mineral reserve termination in near future are the most important issues. In addition, in terms of internal factors, on the opportunity part, access to necessary utilities is considered as the most important factor followed by availability of high level lab equipment and sufficient assets and equities. On the threats, depreciation is considered as the most important issue followed by lack of optimum utilization of equipment and lack of enterprise resource planning. In addition, the study uses balanced score card (BSC technique to look at the performance of the firm in terms of learning and growth, internal process, customer and financials. The study determines the present and ideal status of the firm.

  20. Aerosol and gas-phase characteristics in relation to meteorology: Case studies in populated arid settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Ewan Colin

    Atmospheric aerosols and trace gases are a highly relevant component of the climate system affecting atmospheric radiative transfer and the hydrologic cycle. In arid and semi-arid regions, where cloud cover is often low and precipitation is generally scarce and sporadic, the driving processes accounting for the production, loss and transport of atmospheric constituents are often distinctly different from other climates. In arid regions, the same circulation dynamics that suppress cloud formation can be responsible for creating strong subsidence inversions, which cap atmospheric mixing and trap pollutants close to the surface, often placing populated arid regions high on global rankings of air pollution concerns. In addition, low soil moisture can encourage wind-blown dust emissions, which can be a significant fraction of the total aerosol loading in both coarse and fine modes on a mass basis. Three distinct focus regions are investigated over varying time scales, using a diverse set of techniques, and with wide-ranging primary goals. 1) the Tehran metropolitan area in Iran over a ten-year period from 2000-2009, 2) Tucson, Arizona over 2012-2014 with three intensive monitoring periods during summer 2014 and winter 2015 and 3) the San Joaquin Valley in California during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign during Jan-Feb 2013. However, in all cases, local and regional scale meteorology play a significant role in controlling the spatiotemporal variability in trace gas and aerosol concentrations. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding transport pathways due to the local wind patterns and the importance of key meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and solar radiation on controlling production and loss mechanisms. While low in magnitude, the precipitation pattern is still an important sink mechanism that modulates gas phase and particle abundances in all three regions, either through scavenging or by promoting vertical mixing. The reported measurements

  1. Argumentation as/in/for Dialogical Relation: A Case Study from Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation as a form of introducing children to science has received increasing attention over the past decade. Argumentation tends to be studied and theorized through the lens of individual speakers, who contribute to a conversation by means of opposing statements. M.M. Bakhtin and L.S. Vygotsky independently proposed a very different approach…

  2. Empowered teams : case-study analyses of the process of introducing empowered teams into organisations with a poor industrial relations history

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Lennon, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This research focuses on case-study analyses of the process of introducing empowered teams into organisations with a poor industrial relations history. The chosen research methodology is in the ethnographic mode and analogous to grounded theory; data was collected in five case-study organisations. The respondent data is presented for each case study in turn and then analysed in a cross-case manner, highlighting some critical themes/issues identified by respondents who were k...

  3. Use of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine related drugs and the risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    .02), liver 1.81 (95% CI 1.18, 2.80), lung 1.38 (95% CI 1.23, 1.54), pancreas 1.35 (95% CI 1.02, 1.79) and kidney 1.39 (95% CI 1.01, 1.91). For tobacco-related cancers, the OR was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09, 1.22) and for the remaining cancer sites 1.01 (95% CI 0.94, 1.08). Sub-group analyses revealed only small......AIM: Studies of the carcinogenic potential of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZRD) have been equivocal. A recent study reported a 35% excess cancer risk among users of hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. METHOD: Using Danish nationwide registers, we conducted a matched case-control study...... of the association between BZRD and cancer risk. During 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2009, we identified 152 510 cases with a first time cancer who were matched (1:8) by age and gender to 1,220,317 cancer-free controls. A new-user design was applied by excluding all subjects who had used anxiolytics, hypnotics...

  4. Epidemiology of yoga-related injuries in Canada from 1991 to 2010: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Gushue, Shantel; Richmond, Sarah; McFaull, Steven

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to describe the epidemiology of yoga injuries presenting to select Canadian emergency departments (EDs). Those who presented with a yoga injury to a Canadian ED participating in the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and had completed a data collection form between 1991 and 2010 were included. Demographic and injury characteristics were tabulated and injury profiles of children were compared to adults. Sixty-six individuals (48 female, 18 male) who sustained 67 injuries were included. The median age was 19 (intraquartile range: 13, 32) and 73% of individuals were injured after 2005 (p = 0.0003). Sprain was the most common injury (23/67, 34%) and the most common body region injured was the lower extremity (27/67, 42%). Significantly more children were injured while being instructed than adults (p = 0.003) but more adults required treatment (p = 0.023). Although yoga-related injuries presenting to an ED are not common, the number of injuries are increasing. PMID:25952761

  5. Inventory Performance Related to Financial Performance? A Case Study in Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chih Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    This study is to investigate the importance of inventory and the correlation to financial performance. The competitive marketplace has driven the supply chain environment complex and uncertain customer demand. The delivery speed is one of the significant factors to reach customer requirements in the manufacturing sector. The inability of delivering on time may cause the loss of business opportunities. Moreover, the inventory is a double edge sword to manufacturers, advantages and disadvantage...

  6. Multicriteria supplier selection by gray relational analysis: a case study in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdemir, Ali Ihsan; Deste, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The goal of selecting supplier could be defined as determining the suppliers which provide necessary things to businesses for their needs. Another words, it is a detailed comparision of the suppliers in terms of measurements which are defined by businesses. These comparisions could be done by using many different methods such as, lineer weighted methods, total cost models, mathematical and statistical models. In this study supplier performance evaluation problem is examined for a business wit...

  7. Study of ECG changes and its relation to mortality in cases of cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Purushothaman, Suja; Salmani, Deepalaxmi; Prarthana, Kaleramma Gopalakrishna; Bandelkar, Srinidhi Muddanna Gundappa; Varghese, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Its being long recognized about the highly debilitating and destructive nature of cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Around the world CVAs has posed as a major factor in medical morbidity and mortality. It has thrown up challenges with regards to their medical management and also towards posttreatment rehabilitation. It is well-known that neurologic disorder contributes variously towards varied electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and stroke is no exception. Objective: To study the ECG ...

  8. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  9. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  10. Reactive arthritis in relation to internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bodil; Holmlund, Anders; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah; Rosén, Annika

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if reactive arthritis was involved in the aetiology of chronic closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by looking for bacterial antigens in the synovial membrane of the TMJ, and by studying the antibody serology and carriage of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 in patients with chronic closed lock. Patients with reciprocal clicking and healthy subjects acted as controls. We studied a total of 43 consecutive patients, 15 with chronic closed lock, 13 with reciprocal clicking, and 15 healthy controls with no internal derangements of the TMJ. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects for measurement of concentrations of HLA tissue antigen and serology against Chlamydia trachomatis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Samples of synovial tissue from patients with closed lock and reciprocal clicking were obtained during discectomy and divided into two pieces, the first of which was tested by strand displacement amplification for the presence of C trachomatis, and the second of which was analysed for the presence of species-specific bacterial DNA using 16s rRNA pan-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of antibodies against M pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. or Y enterocolitica. No patient had antibodies towards C trachomatis or C jejuni. We found no bacterial DNA in the synovial fluid from any patient. The HLA B27 antigen was present in 2/15 subjects in both the closed lock and control groups, and none in the reciprocal clicking group. In conclusion, reactive arthritis does not seem to be the mechanism of internal derangement of the TMJ.

  11. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight.

  12. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Gao, Lu; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Yilin; Wu, Yue; Fang, Ligang; Deng, Kan; Yao, Yong; Lian, Wei; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI) were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight.

  13. Impact of relative humidity on visibility degradation during a haze event: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Tan, Haobo; Li, Fei; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P W; Xu, Hanbing; Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Dui

    2016-11-01

    Light scattering of aerosols depends on ambient relative humidity (RH) since hygroscopic particles absorb significant water at high RH, and this results in low visibility. This paper used custom-made parallel nephelometers (PNEPs) to measure aerosol light scattering enhancement factor ƒ(RH), and utilized data including visibility, PM2.5, black carbon, water-soluble ions mass concentrations and surface meteorological parameters, in conjunction with background weather conditions, to analyze a haze event in Guangzhou during 8th-15th Dec. 2013. Unfavorable weather conditions, such as high RH and low wind speed, were observed during the haze event. The hourly average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 127μg/m(3), with concentration of 192.4μg/m(3) on 9th and 196μg/m(3) on 13th. The ƒ(RH) did not exhibit significant changes during this haze process, with value of ƒ(80%)=1.58±0.07. Although the mass fraction of water-soluble ions to PM2.5 decreased after 12th Dec., the aerosol hygroscopicity might not have changed significantly since the mass fraction of nitrate became more dominant, which has stronger ability to take up water. The best-fitted parameterized function for ƒ(RH) is ƒ(RH)=0.731+0.1375∗(1-RH/100)(-1)+0.00719∗(1-RH/100)(-2). Combining the fixed parameterization of ƒ(RH) above, the visibility was calculated with the measured light scattering and absorption coefficient of particles and gas under dry condition, as well as ambient RH. The predicted visibility range agrees well with the measurements without precipitation. Using ISORROPIA II model, the calculated aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) at ambient RH varied consistently with the PM2.5 under lower RH, while it was more influenced by high RH. This work also show that high RH accompanied with precipitation will enhance aerosol hygroscopic growth effect, leading to further visibility degradation, even if PM2.5 mass decreased due to precipitation. PMID:27395081

  14. Impact of relative humidity on visibility degradation during a haze event: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Tan, Haobo; Li, Fei; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P W; Xu, Hanbing; Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Dui

    2016-11-01

    Light scattering of aerosols depends on ambient relative humidity (RH) since hygroscopic particles absorb significant water at high RH, and this results in low visibility. This paper used custom-made parallel nephelometers (PNEPs) to measure aerosol light scattering enhancement factor ƒ(RH), and utilized data including visibility, PM2.5, black carbon, water-soluble ions mass concentrations and surface meteorological parameters, in conjunction with background weather conditions, to analyze a haze event in Guangzhou during 8th-15th Dec. 2013. Unfavorable weather conditions, such as high RH and low wind speed, were observed during the haze event. The hourly average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 127μg/m(3), with concentration of 192.4μg/m(3) on 9th and 196μg/m(3) on 13th. The ƒ(RH) did not exhibit significant changes during this haze process, with value of ƒ(80%)=1.58±0.07. Although the mass fraction of water-soluble ions to PM2.5 decreased after 12th Dec., the aerosol hygroscopicity might not have changed significantly since the mass fraction of nitrate became more dominant, which has stronger ability to take up water. The best-fitted parameterized function for ƒ(RH) is ƒ(RH)=0.731+0.1375∗(1-RH/100)(-1)+0.00719∗(1-RH/100)(-2). Combining the fixed parameterization of ƒ(RH) above, the visibility was calculated with the measured light scattering and absorption coefficient of particles and gas under dry condition, as well as ambient RH. The predicted visibility range agrees well with the measurements without precipitation. Using ISORROPIA II model, the calculated aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) at ambient RH varied consistently with the PM2.5 under lower RH, while it was more influenced by high RH. This work also show that high RH accompanied with precipitation will enhance aerosol hygroscopic growth effect, leading to further visibility degradation, even if PM2.5 mass decreased due to precipitation.

  15. The epidemiology of infectious gastroenteritis related reactive arthritis in U.S. military personnel: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Jennifer A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive arthritis (ReA is a recognized sequela of infectious gastroenteritis (IGE. However, the population-based incidence of IGE-related ReA is poorly defined, and the risk of disease has not previously been characterized in a military population. The intent of this study was to provide estimates of the incidence and morbidity associated with IGE-related ReA in the U.S. military population. Methods Using active duty US military medical encounter data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System, we conducted a matched case-control study to assess the risk of ReA following IGE. Both specific and nonspecific case definitions were utilized to address ICD-9 coding limitations; these included specific ReA (Reiter's Disease or postdysenteric arthritis and nonspecific arthritis/arthralgia (N.A.A (which included several related arthropathy and arthralgia diagnoses. Incidence was estimated using events and the total number of active duty personnel for each year. Results 506 cases of specific ReA were identified in active duty personnel between 1999 and 2007. Another 16,365 cases of N.A.A. were identified. Overall incidence was 4.1 (95% CI: 3.7, 4.5 and 132.0 (95% CI, 130.0-134.0 per 100,000 for specific ReA and N.A.A, respectively. Compared to the youngest age category, the incidence of both outcomes increased 7-fold with a concurrent increase in symptom duration for cases over the age of 40. Specific IGE exposures were documented in 1.4% of subjects. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was a significant association between IGE and ReA (specific reactive arthritis OR: 4.42, 95% CI: 2.24, 8.73; N.A.A OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.49, 2.07. Conclusions Reactive arthritis may be more common in military populations than previously described. The burden of ReA and strong association with antecedent IGE warrants continued IGE prevention efforts.

  16. Identification of the Risk Related to a Process on Hospital Emergency Service: a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Carlos; Ferreira, Carla; Tribolet, José

    2011-01-01

    This paper, framed in a vast investigation, describes the application of techniques and methodologies in Organizational Engineering connected to the associated risk to the processes developed in an Emergency Service of an important Portuguese Hospital. The transactions performed in an emergency service and the consequent risk identification (negative behaviour associated to those transactions) is done based on static and dynamic models, developed during the business modelling. Any non-trivial system is better portrayed trough a small number of reasonably independent models. From this point of view it is important to look at the systems from a "micro" perspective, which allows us to analyse the system at the transaction level. All processes have some associated risk (inherent risk). Its identification will be decisive for future analysis and for the consequent decision over the need, or not, to study internal control mechanisms. This decision will depend on the risk level that the organization considers accept...

  17. The variability of processes involved in transgene dispersal - case studies from Brassica and related genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.;

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... of results from gene-flow analysis. Main features Many independent experiments were performed on the individual processes in gene flow. The results comprise information both from laboratory, growth chambers and field trials, and they were generated using molecular or phenotypic markers and analysis......, pharmaceutical genes). This calls for a thorough risk assessment. However, in Brassica, the limited and uncertain knowledge on gene flow is an obstacle to this. Modelling of gene flow should be optimised, and modelling outputs verified in targeted field studies and at the landscape level. Last but not least...

  18. MISUNDERSTANDINGS IN THE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION: CASE STUDY OF TURKISH – ARMENIAN RELATIONS FROM 1991 TO PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Sarı GÜVEN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the content of communication between cultures consist essentially of culture and communication word and requires at least two components. Because it requires reciprocal communication. The definition of culture is very different uses in society and beha vioral studies will be used in the context of linguistic and intellectual norms. Given that a large number of cultures around the world must be in contact with each other as well cultures for each culture to communicate with each other. Advances in technol ogy, particularly in communications and transportation; increase of the world population; globalization; tourism and trade; migration and cross - country training programs focused on intercultural communication requirements of mobility. In this study, the di fferent cultural backgrounds of the two neighboring countries, Turkey and Armenia will focus on what is happening in intercultural communication barriers. Both the country's tangible and intangible cultural heritage of movement commonalities and difference s will be revealed by determining the level of communication situations. Elements that prevent contact between the two countries will be made in the solutions one by one. Departing from the point of revealing the communicative dimension of Turkey - Armenia c ommunication will be reviewed. Linguistic communication, nonverbal communication, communication with the two countries will be discussed in socio - cultural and strategic competencies will be examined through these support points. Historical societies, then linguistic communication, geographical, economic, socio - cultural and strategic nature of sameness and difference significant. Two different ethnic groups in the same territory for centuries have created, they are tangible and the two neighboring countries as of 1991, although the spiritual dimension common elements began a communication process. Hence Turkey and Armenia to communicate the judgment to have been

  19. Legislative Gaps in Implementation of Health related Millennium Development Goals: a case study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Rabia; Toru, Shehryar Khan; Ahmed, Vaqar

    2016-06-01

    Numerous health legislations concerning child mortality, maternal health and life-threatening diseases such as polio and tuberculosis are crafted in the health sector of Pakistan. A critical assessment of health legislations points to their in-effective or sub-optimal implementation. By engaging with the concept of public law, there is a strong relationship of public health and health legislations. While the basic purpose of health legislations is to craft and enforce essential health legislations for improving public health, an examination of health legislations across Pakistan indicate an extensive health engagement which is facing certain challenges indicating traditional health practices, enforcement constraints arising due to political compulsions and complexities, and systematic problems in the health sector, reflecting issue of governance. Through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews held with policy-makers, senior health officials private health entities and parliamentarian tasks forces on millennium development goals, this study engages with health-sector legislations. In so doing, it focuses on the problematic health sector and interventions. It is observed that unless an overarching legislative framework and a shift from programmatic approach to a human rights approach is adopted, the targets of millennium development goals 4, 5 and 6 would remain off-track in Pakistan. PMID:27339577

  20. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  1. The Impact of the Prior Density on a Minimum Relative Entropy Density: A Case Study with SPX Option Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Neri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of finding probability densities that match given European call option prices. To allow prior information about such a density to be taken into account, we generalise the algorithm presented in Neri and Schneider (Appl. Math. Finance 2013 to find the maximum entropy density of an asset price to the relative entropy case. This is applied to study the impact of the choice of prior density in two market scenarios. In the first scenario, call option prices are prescribed at only a small number of strikes, and we see that the choice of prior, or indeed its omission, yields notably different densities. The second scenario is given by CBOE option price data for S&P500 index options at a large number of strikes. Prior information is now considered to be given by calibrated Heston, Schöbel–Zhu or Variance Gamma models. We find that the resulting digital option prices are essentially the same as those given by the (non-relative Buchen–Kelly density itself. In other words, in a sufficiently liquid market, the influence of the prior density seems to vanish almost completely. Finally, we study variance swaps and derive a simple formula relating the fair variance swap rate to entropy. Then we show, again, that the prior loses its influence on the fair variance swap rate as the number of strikes increases.

  2. Elements related to attrition of women faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pooja

    Recent studies have shown that the number of women faculty in academic medicine is much lesser than the number of women that are graduating from medical schools. Many academic institutes face the challenge of retaining talented faculty and this attrition from academic medicine prevents career advancement of women faculty. This case study attempts to identify some of the reasons for dissatisfaction that may be related to the attrition of women medical faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. Data was collected using a job satisfaction survey, which consisted of various constructs that are part of a faculty's job and proxy measures to gather the faculty's intent to leave their current position at the University of Pittsburgh or academic medicine in general. The survey results showed that although women faculty were satisfied with their job at the University of Pittsburgh, there are some important factors that influenced their decision of potentially dropping out. The main reasons cited by the women faculty were related to funding pressures, work-life balance, mentoring of junior faculty and the amount of time spent on clinical responsibilities. The analysis of proxy measures showed that if women faculty decided to leave University of Pittsburgh, it would most probably be due to better opportunity elsewhere followed by pressure to get funding. The results of this study aim to provide the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh with information related to attrition of its women faculty and provide suggestions for implications for policy to retain their women faculty.

  3. Rotordynamic Stability Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Pranabesh

    2004-01-01

    In this article case studies are presented involving rotordynamic instability of modern high-speed turbomachinery relating the field data to analytical methods. The studies include oil seal related field problems, instability caused by aerodynamic cross-coupling in high-pressure, high-speed compressors, and hydrodynamic bearing instability resulting in subsynchronous vibration of a high-speed turbocharger. It has been shown that the analytical tools not only help in problem diagnostics, bu...

  4. KULTURisk regional risk assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of the KULTURisk regional risk assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River basin, in northern Switzerland. Flood-related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in an urban area, by calibrating the methodology to the site-specific context and features. Risk maps and statistics have been developed using a 300-year return period scenario for six relevant targets exposed to flood risk: people; economic activities: buildings, infrastructure and agriculture; natural and semi-natural systems; and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the target area and, therefore, to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tools. Through a tailored participatory approach, risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores weighting for the different receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher (relative) risk scores are spatially concentrated in the deeply urbanized city centre and areas that lie just above to river course. Here, predicted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and to the presence of vulnerable people; flooded buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, most of them in regards to the Zurich central station (Hauptbahnhof) are at high risk of inundation, causing severe indirect damage. Moreover, the risk pattern for agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage is relatively

  5. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had no

  6. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  7. Under-reporting of work-related disorders in the workplace: a case study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pransky, G; Snyder, T; Dembe, A; Himmelstein, J

    1999-01-01

    Accurate reporting of work-related conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety, and to identify the interventions that are most needed. Reporting systems may be designed primarily for external agencies (OSHA or workers' compensation) or for the employer's own use. Under-reporting of workplace injuries and illnesses is common due to a variety of causes and influences. Based on previous reports, the authors were especially interested in the role of safety incentive programmes on under-reporting. Safety incentive programmes typically reward supervisors and employees for reducing workplace injury rates, and thus may unintentionally inhibit proper reporting. The authors describe a case study of several industrial facilities in order to illustrate the extent of under-reporting and the reasons for its occurrence. A questionnaire and interview survey was administered to 110 workers performing similar tasks and several managers, health, and safety personnel at each of three industrial facilities. Although less than 5% of workers had officially reported a work-related injury or illness during the past year, over 85% experienced work-related symptoms, 50% had persistent work-related problems, and 30% reported either lost time from work or work restrictions because of their ailment. Workers described several reasons for not reporting their injuries, including fear of reprisal, a belief that pain was an ordinary consequence of work activity or ageing, lack of management responsiveness after prior reports, and a desire not to lose their usual job. Interviews with management representatives revealed administrative and other barriers to reporting, stemming from their desire to attain a goal of no reported injuries, and misconceptions about requirements for recordability. The corporate and facility safety incentives appeared to have an indirect, but significant negative influence on the proper reporting of workplace injuries by workers. A variety of influences

  8. STUDYING THE RELATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING WITH EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT: A CASE STUDY AT TEHRAN SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dealing with the study of Organizational Learning and Employees' impowerment and assessment of the rate of employees' empowerment feeling and specifying context of Security Organization in view of organizational learning. To do so, two learning and empowerment standard questionnaires have been used. Statistical society of this research includes 500 managers, experts and employees of Social Security Organization of Tehran city. Statistical sample of the research was estimated to be 220 persons. Nevertheless, 240 questionnaires were distributed and 220 questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that there is a significant relation between learning on empowerment. Based on data analysis and the conclusions extracted, Social Security organization's staff are equipped with required empowerment and the following criteria including feeling of work meaningfulness, feeling of deserving forcefulness, feeling of choice, feelings of effectiveness and feeling of trusting on colleagues, are founded in the employees of social security organization, among which feeling of deserving competence gains the higher grade and feeling of choice and trusting on colleagues, the lowest grade. Context of Social Security Organization was determined in regard to organizational learning and it was found that there is a gap between desirable context of organizational learning and current status of company based on data analysis and extracted results. Among fourfold factors perspective, organizational learning and then organizational culture have obtained the lowest degree needing to further overview.

  9. Relationship between life style-related factors with cardiac ischemia among inpatients: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than seventeen millions people die due to cardiovascular diseases which account for one third of death worldwide. Half of 60% of all mortality caused by acquired diseases throughout the world is due to heart disorders and this ratio will augment to 73% by 2020. It is known that individual lifestyle has a great influence on the well-being of cardiovascular system. Seven of the top ten etiologies leading to death are related to the pattern of lifestyle. This study explored various lifestyle-related factors affecting ischemic conditions. Method: This study was performed as a case control investigation on 65 subjects along with 65 controls who were all admitted at Sevome Shaaban hospital in Damavand town of Iran. All data demographic and life-style variables were gathered, using three different types of questionnaire obtained from each person. p< 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Age, marriage status, smoking, physical activities, diet and mental health condition were shown to have a significant effect on ischemia (P <0.001. Insufficient physical activities, fatty and low fiber food as well as impaired psychology conditions were among the risk factors that contributed to Ischemic heart disease. Conclusion: Insufficient physical activities, fatty and low fiber food as well as impaired psychology conditions were among the risk factors that contribute to ischemic heart disease.

  10. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  11. Integrating a health-related-quality-of-life module within electronic health records: a comparative case study assessing value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology (HIT applications that incorporate point-of-care use of health-related quality of life (HRQL assessments are believed to promote patient-centered interactions between seriously ill patients and physicians. However, it is unclear how willing primary care providers are to use such HRQL HIT applications. The specific aim of this study was to explore factors that providers consider when assessing the value added of an HRQL application for their geriatric patients. Methods Three case studies were developed using the following data sources: baseline surveys with providers and staff, observations of staff and patients, audio recordings of patient-provider interactions, and semi-structured interviews with providers and staff. Results The primary factors providers considered when assessing value added were whether the HRQL information from the module was (1 duplicative of information gathered via other means during the encounter; (2 specific enough to be useful and/or acted upon, and; (3 useful for enough patients to warrant time spent reviewing it for all geriatric patients. Secondary considerations included level of integration of the HRQL and EHR, impact on nursing workflow, and patient reluctance to provide HRQL information. Conclusions Health-related quality of life modules within electronic health record systems offer the potential benefit of improving patient centeredness and quality of care. However, the modules must provide benefits that are substantial and prominent in order for physicians to decide that they are worthwhile and sustainable. Implications of this study for future research include the identification of perceived "costs" as well as a foundation for operationalizing the concept of "usefulness" in the context of such modules. Finally, developers of these modules may need to make their products customizable for practices to account for variation in EHR capabilities and practice

  12. Drugs with potential chemopreventive properties in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer--a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Paper 1, and 4103 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 58,706 controls in Papers 2 and 3. We used the Danish Prescription Registry to assess use (≥2 prescriptions on separate dates) of paracetamol, non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), low-dose aspirin, and statins. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer associated with use of the study drugs, with adjustment for potential confounding factors selected a priori. We performed detailed analyses according to duration, intensity, and continuity of study drug use, and the analyses were stratified according to specific histologic types of epithelial ovarian cancer. In all studies, non-use (study drugs was defined as the reference group. A striking result of the PhD thesis was a strong inverse association between prescription use of paracetamol and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The risk estimates decreased with increasing duration and intensity of paracetamol use, reaching a more than 50% reduction for the longest duration (>10 years) and the highest doses (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.24-0.86). In contrast, we did not observe an inverse association between use of non-aspirin NSAIDs and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Moreover, this thesis provides further evidence that use of low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. In particular, long-term (≥5 years) continuous use of low-dose aspirin, defined as overlapping prescription coverage periods, was associated with a large reduction in risk (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Finally, we found no apparent association between statin use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk, although the analysis by histologic type suggested an inverse association with the risk of mucinous tumors. The results of this PhD thesis add important knowledge to the area of chemoprevention in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer. As for any observational

  13. Travel-Related Venous Thrombosis: Results from a Large Population-Based Case Control Study (MEGA Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Houwelingen, van Hans C.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. Methods and Findings We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel o

  14. The relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman Kenneth J; Bonvicini Francesca; Vinceti Marco; Vescovi Luciano; Wang Feiyue

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-match...

  15. Intake of dietary fat and vitamin in relation to breast cancer risk in Korean women: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Min Hee; Lee, Sang Sun; Jung, Pa Jong; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    To investigate association between breast cancer risk and nutrients intake in Korean women, a case-control study was carried out, at Seoul, Korea. Incident cases (n=224) were identified through the cancer biopsy between February 1999 and December 2000 at two University hospitals in Seoul. Hospital-based controls (n=250) were selected from patients in the same hospitals, during the same periods. Food intake was investigated semiquantitative frequency questionnaire (98 items) by trained dietiti...

  16. Energy and Water Use Related to the Cultivation of Energy Crops: a Case Study in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bindi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of agrobiomasses, as a source of energy, to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was confirmed by several studies. Biomass from agriculture represents one of the larger and more diverse sources to exploit and in particular ethanol and diesel have the potential to be a sustainable replacement for fossil fuels, mainly for transport purposes. However, the cultivation of energy crops dedicated to the production of biofuels presents some potential problems, e.g., competitiveness with food crops, water needs, use of fertilizers, etc., and the economic, energy, and environmental convenience of such activity depends on accurate evaluations about the global efficiency of the production system. In this study, the processes related to the cultivation of energy crops were analyzed from an energy and water cost perspective. The crops studied, maize (Zea mais and sunflower (Helianthus annuus, were identified for their different water requirements and cultivation management, which in turns induces different energy costs. A 50-year climatic series of meteorological data from 19 weather stations scattered in the Tuscany region was used to feed the crop model CropSyst for the simulation of crop production, water requirement, and cultivation techniques. Obtained results were analyzed to define the real costs of energy crop cultivation, depending on energy and water balances. In the energy crop cultivation, the only positive energy balance was obtained with the more efficient system of irrigation whereas all the other cases provided negative balances. Concerning water, the results demonstrated that more than 1.000 liters of water are required for producing 1 liter of bioethanol. As a consequence, the cultivation of energy crops in the reserved areas of the region will almost double the actual water requirement of the agricultural sector in Tuscany.

  17. A social work study on detecting organizational and job related factors creating stress: A case study of hydro power employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates different factors influencing people to have more stress in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. Since there were only 81 people working for customer service section of this company and the proposed study tries to focus only on this part of the firm we have decided to distribute questionnaires among all of them. The questionnaire consists of two parts, in the first part, we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there are 66 questions, which include all the important factors influencing employees' stress. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.946, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results of our ANOVA tests shows that among different factors, difficulty of working condition as well as work pressure are two most important factors increasing stress among employees. The other findings indicate that there is not a significant difference on work stress among different groups of employees in terms of their job title, educational level, employment type and gender (P>0.05. The other finding indicates that there is a meaningful difference between different groups of people with various ages, marital status and job experience (P>0.05.

  18. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  19. Pregnancy-Related Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical Features, Outcome and Risk Factors of Disease Flares — A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Huaxia Yang; Hui Liu; Dong Xu; Lidan Zhao; Qian Wang; Xiaomei Leng; Wenjie Zheng; Fengchun Zhang; Fulin Tang; Xuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, outcome, and risk factors of disease flares in patients with pregnancy-related lupus (PRL). METHODS: Medical charts of 155 consecutive PRL inpatients were systematically reviewed, including demographic data, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment, complications, and outcome. RESULTS: PRL cases were divided into active (a-PRL) (n = 82, 53.0%) and stable lupus (s-PRL) (n = 73, 47.0%). Compared with nonpregnant active female systemic lu...

  20. Health Related Quality of Life May Increase when Patients with a Stoma Attend Patient Education – A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen; Jacob Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to living with a stoma is complex, and studies have shown that stoma creation has a great impact on patients' health related quality of life. The objective was to explore the effect of a structured patient education program on health related quality of life. Therefore, we implemented interventions aimed at increasing health related quality of life during and after hospital admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a case/control study aimed at adult patients admit...

  1. Redefining University Roles in Regional Economies: A Case Study of University-Industry Relations and Academic Organization in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging field of nanotechnology has created a new frontier for the convergence of university and industrial research. In the United States, major federal investments provided a massive boom for this field over the decade. This paper reports on a case study of how the University at Albany came to establish the first college of nanotechnology…

  2. Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

  3. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuijver, Danka J F; Debeij, Jan; van Zaane, Bregje; Dekkers, Olaf M; Smit, Jan W A; Büller, Harry R; Rosendaal, Frits R; Gerdes, Victor E A; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin levels were determined in 2,068 patients with VT and 2,785 age- and sex matched control subjects. The relation between levels of coagulation factors and prolactin was studied among the controls. In addition, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for the risk of VT for different cut-off points of prolactin levels based on percentiles determined in the controls. Restricted analysis was performed among cases in whom blood was sampled within six months after VT. We found a rise in factor VIII and von Willebrand factor with increasing levels of prolactin in the controls. An increased risk of VT was observed when blood was sampled within six months after thrombosis (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.1-8.1) for prolactin levels above the 99th percentile (42.6 μg/l) relative to levels between the 20th to 80th percentile. When blood was sampled more than six months after VT no clear association could be observed (OR 1.3, 95%CI 0.7-2.3). In conclusion, we found a modest association between prolactin and symptomatic venous thromboembolism, particularly when blood was sampled close to the event. This may be explained by a causal relation or by prolactin being a marker of stress due to the thrombotic event.

  4. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  5. Antibodies against six human herpesviruses in relation to seven cancers in black South Africans: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with certain human herpesviruses have been established as risk factors for some cancer types. For example, Epstein-Barr Virus is considered a cause of Burkitt's lymphoma and other immunosuppression related lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Several other human herpesviruses have been linked to cancers but the totality of evidence is inconclusive. Methods We conducted a systematic sub-study from within an ongoing case control study of adult black South Africans to investigate the relationship between antibodies to six human herpesviruses and seven cancer groups that may be caused by infectious agents. Subjects had incident cancers of the oral cavity(n = 88, the cervix(n = 53, the prostate(n = 66, Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 83, non-Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 80, multiple myeloma(n = 94 or leukaemia(n = 203. For comparison, patients with other cancers(n = 95 or cardiovascular disease(n = 101 were randomly selected from within the study. Patients were interviewed and their blood was tested for IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV-EBNA, CMV and HHV-6 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Because these viruses are highly prevalent in this population, optical density results from the assays were used as an indirect, quantitative measure of antibody level. Results There was significant variation in the mean log antibody measures for HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HHV-6 between the disease groups. However, none of the specific cancer groups had significantly higher mean log antibody measures for any of the viruses compared to either control group. In a more detailed examination of seven associations between cancers and herpesviruses for which there had been prior reports, two statistically significant associations were found: a decreasing risk of myeloid leukaemia and an increasing risk of oral cancer with increasing tertiles of antibodies against HHV-6 compared to all other patients (p-trend = 0.03 and 0

  6. The Teacher and the Community: A Case Study of Teacher-Community Relations among the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…

  7. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  8. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed

  9. Cognitive bias salience in patients with schizophrenia in relation to social functioning: A four-case observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Papsuev, Oleg O; Shmukler, Alexander B; Movina, Larisa G; Storozhakova, Yanina A; Kiryanova, Elena M

    2016-03-01

    Neurocognition and social cognition are the core deficits influencing social outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits are present in the prodromal phase, throughout the illness and in first-degree relatives. They are considered in the framework of neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative models as well as candidates for endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Four clinical cases with patients reflecting different cognitive profiles were chosen to demonstrate heterogeneity of cognitive biases and their influence on social function in vivo. The patients had undergone a number of neurocognitive and social cognitive measures. Better functioning was observed in patients with less affected domains of emotional processing and theory of mind, while neurocognitive statuses were incongruent to levels of social functioning. Further investigation on large samples concerning capacity for empathy and its role in social functioning is needed.

  10. Strategies Formulation for Sports and Youth Ministry`s Public Relations Department in Iran: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ali Abadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design sports and youth ministry`s public relations department strategic plan .This research was survey research done in analytical method and the method of collecting data was field study. In terms of objective, it is an applied - developmental research in which the required information was obtained through library research and the researcher-made questionnaire. Also, this research was of strategic studies in which the qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data analysis. Statistical population included sports media managers and journalists, public relations directors of the sports federations, sport management professionals, staff specialists of the Ministry of Sport and National Olympic Committee and public relations staff consisting of 144 persons as the study sample. In this study, a questionnaire in two parts was used that included demographic data and determination of the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of Department of public relations in Youth and Sports ministry. To determine its validity, professors and experts were consulted and after applying all revised recommendations and changes necessary to comply with the conditions and characteristics of the study population, it was used, accordingly. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure the reliability. Therefore, Cronbach's alpha reliability was obtained 0.99. Coefficient obtained from the questionnaire indicated high reliability of the questionnaire. In data analysis, descriptive statistics was used to describe demographic variables in the research community. Friedman rank test was used for ranking the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Finally, SWOT analysis was used for developing the Ministry of Youth and Sports ministry`s public relations department`s strategy. The results indicated that the scores sum in this matrix was less than 2.5 (2.42.This suggested that it was weak in terms of internal

  11. SWOT Analysis of Strategic Position of Sport and Youth Ministry`s Public Relations Department in Iran: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ali Abadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design sports and youth ministry`s public relations department strategic plan .This research was survey research done in analytical method and the method of collecting data was field study. In terms of objective, it is an applied - developmental research in which the required information was obtained through library research and the researcher-made questionnaire. Also, this research was of strategic studies in which the qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data analysis. Statistical population included sports media managers and journalists, public relations directors of the sports federations, sport management professionals, staff specialists of the Ministry of Sport and National Olympic Committee and public relations staff consisting of 144 persons as the study sample. In this study, a questionnaire in two parts was used that included demographic data and determination of the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of Department of public relations in Youth and Sports ministry. To determine its validity, professors and experts were consulted and after applying all revised recommendations and changes necessary to comply with the conditions and characteristics of the study population, it was used, accordingly. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure the reliability. Therefore, Cronbach's alpha reliability was obtained 0.99. Coefficient obtained from the questionnaire indicated high reliability of the questionnaire. In data analysis, descriptive statistics was used to describe demographic variables in the research community. Friedman rank test was used for ranking the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Finally, SWOT analysis was used for developing the Ministry of Youth and Sports ministry`s public relations department`s strategy. The results indicated that the scores sum in this matrix was less than 2.5 (2.42.This suggested that it was weak in terms of internal

  12. The Reporting Quality of Acupuncture-Related Infections in Korean Literature: A Systematic Review of Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Hun Kim; Jung Won Kang; Wan-Soo Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe intervention when it is administered in appropriate clinical setting by well-educated and experienced practitioners. In this study, we reviewed observational studies on adverse events (AEs) or complications relevant to acupuncture practice in Korean literature for assessing their reporting quality and suggested recommendations for future ones on acupuncture-related infections. Method. Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochra...

  13. University Students' Knowledge of Services and Programs in Relation to Satisfaction: A Case Study of a Private University in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi N.; Khoury, Bechara; Abouchedid, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to survey students on their satisfaction with university services and programs in a coeducational Lebanese Catholic higher education institution. The study attempts to relate self-assessed knowledge of the university procedures, rules and regulations on six dimensions of satisfaction, being: academic…

  14. How physics teachers approach innovation: An empirical study for reconstructing the appropriation path in the case of special relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Ambrosis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers’ education and how to foster fruitful interactions between research and school practice via the construction of networks of researchers and teachers. In the paper, the problems related to innovation are addressed by focusing on the phase during which teachers analyze an innovative teaching proposal in the perspective of designing their own paths for the class work. The proposal analyzed in this study is Taylor and Wheeler’s approach for teaching special relativity. The paper aims to show that the roots of problems known in the research literature about teachers’ difficulties in coping with innovative proposals, and usually related to the implementation process, can be found and addressed already when teachers approach the proposal and try to appropriate it. The study is heuristic and has been carried out in order to trace the “appropriation path,” followed by the group of teachers, in terms of the main steps and factors triggering the progressive evolution of teachers’ attitudes and competences.

  15. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  16. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  17. From Data to Bonuses: A Case Study of the Issues Related to Awarding Teachers Pay on the Basis of Their Students' Progress. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "From Data to Bonuses: A Case Study of the Issues Related to Awarding Teachers Pay on the Basis of their Students' Progress"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Daniel McCaffrey, Bing Han, and J.R. Lockwood of the RAND Corporation discuss the complex process of designing…

  18. Learning as It Relates to Addiction Recovery: A Case Study of the Learning Experiences of Men in a Faith-Based Addiction Recovery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Thomas J. K.

    2013-01-01

    This case study is about learning as it relates to addiction recovery within the Men's Ministry (a pseudonym) program at an urban, faith-based mission, hereafter referred to as WCM (an acronym). The program is free and long-term residential. Its purpose is to be a "life transformation ministry for troubled men whose lives are out of control…

  19. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities: a case study in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study

  20. GLOBALIZATION AND RESPONSE OF LARGE STATED OWNED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUS TRIES: COMPANY CASE STUDIES FROM CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using interview data from three large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in agriculture related industries, this paper reveals that SOEs in inland area are much slow in response to globalization. Although they pursued some strate gies to adjust themselves, they are far behind the position to utilize the opportunities generated by economic globaliza tion. Most of them are still out of the networks of transnational corporations. The strategies they adopted are quite differ ent from SOEs in the coastal area. They overlook the importance of information infrastructure, well-educated personnel, and collaboration with the competitive leaders in their industries. The lagging situation is related to isolated location, tradi tional culture, and slow progress in enterprise reform. International comparison shows that the case companies did follow the general patterns that globalization promotes extension of company′s networks of linkages but in a rather slow phase. The decision makers should encourage intra-regional linkages between SOEs, between SOEs and private, foreign owned companies, as well as inter-regional linkages among them. The latter appears particularly important given the enlarging gaps between coastal and inland areas.

  1. Modeling effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies on heat-related morbidity: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Humberto R; Phelan, Patrick E; Golden, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. In addition to modeling mitigation strategies, we present how the model can be utilized to evaluate human health vulnerability from excessive heat-related events, based on heat-related emergency service data from 2002 to 2006. The 24-h average heat index is shown to have the greatest correlation to heat-related emergency calls in the Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to a 48% reduction in annual heat-related emergency service calls, where increasing the albedo is the single most effective UHI mitigation strategy.

  2. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled wit...

  3. Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from these devices. Methods: A case-control study of 1105 patients with newly diagnosed acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) and 2145 controls...... exposure at five years before the reference date were also done to allow for a possible longer latent period. Results: The odds ratio (OR) of acoustic neuroma with ever having been a regular mobile phone user was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.04). The OR for ≥10 years after first regular mobile...... decile of cumulative hours of use. Conclusions: There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due...

  4. Can even minimal news coverage influence consumer health-related behaviour? A case study of iodized salt sales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Chapman, Simon; Agho, Kingsley; Eastman, Creswell J

    2008-06-01

    Lack of iodine in the diet can cause a spectrum of conditions, known as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). While iodized salt has been retailed in Australia since the 1960s, sales have remained low, at approximately 10% of total edible salt sales. Salt has never been promoted, advertised or discounted by retailers or manufacturers. Extensive news coverage of health issues has often been shown to influence consumer behaviour. But can even modest news coverage generate changes in consumer health-related behaviour? We report a significant increase (5.2%) in national iodized salt sales after a brief period of television and newspaper reports about IDD and the benefits of using iodized salt during and after the Australian National Iodine Nutrition Study in 2003 and 2004. We conclude that even brief news media exposure can influence health-related decisions.

  5. Are local plague endemicity and ecological characteristics of vectors and reservoirs related? A case study in north-east Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne LAUDISOIT; Simon NEERINCKX; Rhodes H.MAKUNDI; Herwig LEIRS; Boris R.KRASNOV

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of plague endemicity in Tanzania is characterized by continuous re-appearance of the disease in some locations, while in other neighbouring villages the disease has never or seldom been observed. To understand the reasons for this pattern, we studied small mammal and flea species composition, diversity and relative abundances in two plague-endemic and two plague-free locations. We asked (a) whether fleas more abundant in plague-endemic locations differ in their characteristic abundance and the degree of their host specificity from fleas more abundant in plague-free locations and (b) whether hosts most abundant in plagne-endemic locations differ in the diversity of their flea assemblages from hosts most abundant in plague-free locations. We characterized (a) each host species by species richness and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its flea assemblages and (b) each flea species by its mean abundance and size, and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its host spectrum and compared their relative abundances between locations. No significant difference between plague-endemic and plague-free locations in either host density or any variable related to flea abundance or diversity was found. However, there was marginally significant effect of taxonomic distinctness of a flea assemblage harboured by a host on its probability to be more abundant in either plague-endemic or plague-free locations. Furthermore, hosts more abundant in plague-endemic locations tended to harbeur closely-related fleas. Finally, while opportunistic and specialist fleas were equally distributed in both sets of locations, fleas exploiting distantly-related hosts were found mainly in plague-free locations during the rainy season. We suggest that the observed patterns might arise due to seasonal and spatial differences in local microclimatic conditions and landscape connectivity.

  6. The impact of inter-organizational management control systems on performance: a longitudinal case study of a supplier relation in automotive.

    OpenAIRE

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether appropriate management control design of supplier relations is associated with better performance. Although management control systems (MCSs) are found to be contingent on situational characteristics, it remains unclear whether this contingency fit contributes to performance. In order to illustrate the existence and refine the dynamics of the fit-performance association, we perform a longitudinal case study of an exemplary automotive manufacturer-su...

  7. STATISTICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GEOMORPHIC PARAMETERS- A CASE STUDY OF THE YUNNAN REACH OF THE LANCANGJIANG RIVER IN SOUTHWESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiji WANG; Shaohong WU; Erfu DAI

    2007-01-01

    The properties of rivers and their catchments can be expressed by statistical relationships between geomorphic parameters. These statistical relationships may reveal some inherent differences in geomorphic evolution for different reaches or different order tributaries of a river basin. A case study was undertaken of the Yunnan reach of the Langcangjiang River. The catchment area, channel length and gradient of the first-, second- and third-order tributaries all with catchment areas larger than 100 km2 in the Yunnan reach were the main geomorphic parameters evaluated. The correlation between catchment area and channel length as well as between catchment area and channel gradient with respect to the total tributaries, different reach tributaries, and different order tributaries were revealed using statistical methods. In general, the channel length as a function of catchment area, was best expressed by a quadratic function where channel length increases with increasing catchment area (half parabola), while the channel gradient as a function of catchment area is best expressed by an exponential decay function. Comparison of the best-fit formulas revealed the following phenomena: the lower Yunnan reach tributaries and the first-order tributaries have a dominant effect on geomorphic parameters of the total tributaries. In addition, the statistical relationships indicate that the river geomorphic system in the upper and lower Yunnan reaches evolved differently. This study method used to differentiate river characteristics by determining statistical relationships between geomorphic parameters may be extended to other rivers and their catchments.

  8. Dosimetry Support of the Ukrainian-American Case-control Study of Leukemia and Related Disorders Among Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Kryuchkov, Victor; Bakhanova, Elena; Babkina, Natalya; Bazyka, Dimitry; Gudzenko, Natalya; Hatch, Maureen; Trotsuk, Natalya; Zablotska, Lydia; Golovanov, Ivan; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes dose reconstruction for a joint Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia that was conducted in a cohort of 110,645 male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to various radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. Individual bone-marrow doses due to external irradiation along with respective uncertainty distributions were calculated for 1,000 study subjects using the RADRUE method, which employed personal cleanup history data collected in the course of an interview with the subject himself if he was alive or with two proxies if he was deceased. The central estimates of the bone-marrow dose distributions range from 3.7 × 10(-5) to 3,260 mGy, with an arithmetic mean of 92 mGy. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic dose estimates can be approximated by lognormal distributions; the average geometric standard deviation is 2.0. PMID:26313587

  9. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  10. Uranium mining and heap leaching in India and related safety measures - A case study of Jajawal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration and exploitation of uranium involves drilling, mining, milling and extraction processes including heap leaching in some cases. At the exploration stage, the country's laws related to statutory environmental clearance covering forest and sanctuaries or Coastal Regulatory Zones (CRZ) are equally applicable for atomic minerals. At the developmental mining or commercial exploitation stage in addition to the environmental impact assessment, the provisions of Atomic Energy (working of Mines, Minerals and handling of Prescribed Substances) Rules 1984 are also to be followed which covers radiation monitoring, pollution control and other safety measures which are enforced by licensing authorities and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) of India. In India, Jaduguda, Bhatin, Narwapahar in Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB), Asthota and Khiya in Siwaliks, Domiasiat in Cretaceous sandstones, Bodal and Jajawal in Precambrian crystallines, are some of the centres where mining has been carried out up to various underground levels. Substantial amount of dust and radon gas are generated during mining and milling operations. Though uranium mining is considered as hazardous for contamination by radionuclides, it is observed that many non-uranium mines have registered up to 100 mWL radon concentration, e.g. copper mines in STB area show up to 900 mewl in a few cases. Compared to this the Uranium mines in India have not shown any increase over the limits prescribed by AERB. Specific problems associated with mining include release of radon and other radioactive pollutants like Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210, substantial dust generation, ground water contamination, proximity of population to working mines and environmental surveillance. These problems are adequately handled by periodical monitoring of various radiological parameters such as radon daughter working level, long lived alpha activity and concentration of radionuclides in gaseous, liquid and solid medium. Pre

  11. Pregnancy-related systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical features, outcome and risk factors of disease flares--a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxia Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, outcome, and risk factors of disease flares in patients with pregnancy-related lupus (PRL. METHODS: Medical charts of 155 consecutive PRL inpatients were systematically reviewed, including demographic data, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment, complications, and outcome. RESULTS: PRL cases were divided into active (a-PRL (n = 82, 53.0% and stable lupus (s-PRL (n = 73, 47.0%. Compared with nonpregnant active female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, a-PRL including new-onset lupus (n-PRL and flare lupus (f-PRL (n = 41 respectively, had a higher incidence of renal and hematological involvement but less mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal involvement (p<0.05. The incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia, fetal loss, and preterm birth were significantly higher in a-PRL than in s-PRL (p<0.05. Despite receiving a more vigorous glucocorticoid treatment, a-PRL mothers had a poorer prognosis (p<0.001. Five (6.1% of them died and 13 (15.9% developed severe irreversible organ failure, whereas none of these events was observed in the s-PRL group. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that a history of lupus flares and serological activity (hypocomplementemia and/or anti-dsDNA positivity at the time of conception were associated with lupus flares in PRL mothers. CONCLUSIONS: SLE patients with a flare history and serological activity at the time of conception were at an increased risk of disease flares during pregnancy and puerperium. a-PRL patients were more prone to renal and hematological involvement, pregnancy complications, and a poorer prognosis despite more vigorous glucocorticoid treatment.

  12. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  13. GLOBALIZATION AND RESPONSE OF LARGE STATED OWNED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUS TRIES: COMPANY CASE STUDIES FROM CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiao-jian

    2001-01-01

    [1]AMIN A, THRIFT N, 1994. Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe [M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[2]CHEN A, 1998. Inertia in reforming China′s state-owned enterprises: the case of Chongqing [J]. World Development, 26(3): 479-495.[3]CFTGC (China First Tractor Group Co. Ltd. ), 2000. A Report of the Impact of China′s Entry to WTO on CFTGC [R] . CFFGC.[4]DICKEN P, 1998. Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy [M]. 3rd ed. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.[5]DONG Fu-reng, TANG Zong-kun, DU Hai-yan eds., 1995. Institutional Reform of China′ s Stated Owned Enterprises [M].Beijing: People′s Press. (in Chinese)[6]HARLAND C M, 1995. Networks and Globalization: A Review of Research [M]. Warwick Business School, University of Warwick.[7]HIRSCHMAN A O, 1958. The Strategy of Economic Development [M]. Yale University Press, New Haven.[8]LI Shan-tong, ZAI Fan, XU Lin, 2000. Impact on China′s economy after membership of WTO [J]. World Economy 2:3-14.[9]LI Wen-yan, LU Da-dao (eds.), 1995. Industrial Geography of China [M]. Beijing and New York: Science Press.[10]LI Xiao-jian, 1998: Enterprise reform and its impact on regional development: the ease of Henan Province [J]. Economic Geography 18(3): 1-6. (in Chinese)[11]LI Xiao-jian, 1999. Foreign direct investment and its impact on economic development of Coastal China [J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 54(5): 420-430. (in Chinese)[12]LI Xiao-jian, 2000. Institutional reform of state-owned enterprises. In: LU Da-dao et al. (ed.). China Regional Development Report 1999 [C]. Beijing: Commercial Press. (in Chinese)[13]LI Xiao-jian, YEUNG Y M, 1998. Transnational corporations and theirimpact onregional economi cdevelopment: evidence from China [J]. Third World Planning Reviem 20(4): 351-373.[14]LI Xiao-jian, YEUNG Y M, 1999. Inter-firm linkages and regional impact of transnational corporations: company case studies from Shanghai, China [J

  14. Båth's law and its relation to the tectonic environment: A case study for earthquakes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Zúñiga, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    We studied 66 mainshocks and their largest aftershocks in the Mexican subduction zone and in the Gulf of California with magnitudes in the range of 5.2 aftershock sequences, we analyze the physics of the mainshock-largest aftershock relationship (Båth's law). The partitioning of energy during a mainshock-aftershock sequence shows that about 96-97% of the energy dissipated in a sequence is associated with the mainshock and the rest is due to aftershocks. Our results for radiated seismic energy and energy-to-moment ratio are partially in agreement with worldwide studies supporting the observation of mechanism dependence of radiated seismic energy. The statistical tests indicate that the only significant difference is for shallow thrust and strike-slip events for these parameters. The statistical comparison of stress drop of shallow thrust versus that of inslab events shows a strongly significant difference with a confidence better than 99%. The comparison of stress drop of shallow thrust events with that of strike-slip events, also indicates a strongly significant difference. We see no dependence of stress drop with magnitude, which is strong evidence of earthquake self-similarity. We do not observe a systematic depth dependence of stress drop. The results also reveal differences in the earthquake rupture among the events. The magnitude difference between the mainshock and the largest aftershock for inslab events is larger than interplate and strike-slip events suggesting focal mechanism dependence of Båth's law. For the case of this parameter, only that for inslab and strike-slip events present a significant difference with 95% confidence.

  15. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  16. 8q24 sequence variants in relation to prostate cancer risk among men of African descent: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanCleave Tiva T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human chromosome 8q24 has been implicated in prostate tumorigenesis. Methods Consequently, we evaluated seven 8q24 sequence variants relative to prostate cancer (PCA in a case-control study involving men of African descent. Genetic alterations were detected in germ-line DNA from 195 incident PCA cases and 531 controls using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Inheritance of the 8q24 rs16901979 T allele corresponded to a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of developing PCA for our test group. These findings were validated using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and permutation testing (p = 0.038. The remaining 8q24 targets were not significantly related to PCA outcomes. Conclusions Although compelling evidence suggests that the 8q24 rs16901979 locus may serve as an effective PCA predictor, our findings require additional evaluation in larger studies.

  17. How to Make Diagnosis Related Groups Payment More Feasible in Developing Countries- A Case Study in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given limited health sources, how to make DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups more feasible is a big question in developing countries. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service and DRGs during the transitional period of payment reform.From 2008 to 2012, 20740 patients with cirrhosis or duodenal ulcer disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the interrelationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay (LOS, region and economic level of the hospitals were examined.The main findings were 1 length of stay (LOS and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with cirrhosis or duodenal ulcer disease. Meanwhile gender is not a significant factor for both of them. 2 Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases.Based on picking out common diseases and their key factors, Simplification of the DRGs setting process will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the developing world.

  18. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. PMID:25389361

  19. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11 March and the 11 May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. (authors)

  20. The effect of performance-related pay of hospital doctors on hospital behaviour: a case study from Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Anne

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recognition that public hospitals are often productively inefficient, reforms have taken place worldwide to increase their administrative autonomy and financial responsibility. Reforms in China have been some of the most radical: the government budget for public hospitals was fixed, and hospitals had to rely on charges to fill their financing gap. Accompanying these changes was the widespread introduction of performance-related pay for hospital doctors – termed the "bonus" system. While the policy objective was to improve productivity and cost recovery, it is likely that the incentive to increase the quantity of care provided would operate regardless of whether the care was medically necessary. Methods The primary concerns of this study were to assess the effects of the bonus system on hospital revenue, cost recovery and productivity, and to explore whether various forms of bonus pay were associated with the provision of unnecessary care. The study drew on longitudinal data on revenue and productivity from six panel hospitals, and a detailed record review of 2303 tracer disease patients (1161 appendicitis patients and 1142 pneumonia patients was used to identify unnecessary care. Results The study found that bonus system change over time contributed significantly to the increase in hospital service revenue and hospital cost recovery. There was an increase in unnecessary care and in the probability of admission when the bonus system switched from one with a weaker incentive to increase services to one with a stronger incentive, suggesting that improvement in the financial health of public hospitals was achieved at least in part through the provision of more unnecessary care and drugs and through admitting more patients. Conclusion There was little evidence that the performance-related pay system as designed by the sample of Chinese public hospitals was socially desirable. Hospitals should be monitored more closely

  1. Importance of relative humidity in the oxidative ageing of organic aerosols: case study of the ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Gallimore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many important atmospheric aerosol processes depend on the chemical composition of the aerosol, e.g. water uptake and particle cloud interactions. Atmospheric ageing processes, such as oxidation reactions, significantly and continuously change the chemical composition of aerosol particles throughout their lifetime. These ageing processes are often poorly understood. In this study we utilize an aerosol flow tube set up and an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometer to explore the effect of relative humidity (RH in the range of <5–90% on the ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosol which is employed as model organic aerosol system. Due to the slow reaction kinetics relatively high ozone concentrations of 160–200 ppm were used to achieve an appreciable degree of oxidation of maleic acid. The effect of oxidative ageing on the hygroscopicity of maleic acid particles is also investigated using an electrodynamic balance and thermodynamic modelling. RH has a profound effect on the oxidation of maleic acid particles. Very little oxidation is observed at RH < 50% and the only observed reaction products are glyoxylic acid and formic acid. In comparison, when RH > 50% there are about 15 oxidation products identified. This increased oxidation was observed even when the particles were exposed to high humidities long after a low RH ozonolysis reaction. This result might have negative implications for the use of water as an extraction solvent for the analysis of oxidized organic aerosols. These humidity-dependent differences in the composition of the ozonolyzed aerosol demonstrate that water is both a key reactant in the oxidation scheme and a determinant of particle phase and hence diffusivity. The measured chemical composition of the processed aerosol is used to model the hygroscopic growth, which compares favourably with water uptake results from the electrodynamic balance measurements. A reaction mechanism is presented which takes into account the RH dependent

  2. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Diemling Markus; Rudisch Ansgar; Moncayo Roy; Kremser Christian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Methods Preliminary experiments re...

  3. CASE STORAGE BASED ON RELATIONAL DATABASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper focused on the integration of case base and relational database management system (RDBMS). The organizational and commercial impact will be far greater if the case-based reasoning (CBR) system is integrated with main stream information system, which is exemplified by RDBMS. The scalability, security and robustness provided by a commercial RDBMS facilitate the CBR system to manage the case base.The virtual table in relational database (RDB) is important for CBR systems to implement the flexibility of case template. It was discussed how to implement a flexible and succinct case template, and a mapping model between case template and RDB was proposed. The key idea is to build the case as the virtual view of underlying data.

  4. Case studies related to the management of soil acidity and infertility in the West-African Moist Savannah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the soil pH and base status of the soils in the West African Moist Savannah Zone (MSZ) are usually favourable, their buffer capacity is usually low, indicating that while soil acidity may not be a problem initially, inappropriate management of these soils may induce soil-acidity-related problems in the medium to long term. The current paper addresses 3 topics that are closely related to the management of soil pH (acidity) in the West African MSZ. A first experiment addressed the release of P from low reactivity phosphate rock (PR) by mixing it with various N fertilizers. Mixing ammonium-sulphate, urea, and calcium-ammonium nitrate with PR substantially enhanced the soil Olsen-P content, but not for soils with an initial pH above 5.5, while potassium nitrate did not change the Olsen-P content. Changes in soil pH could be predicted based on the production of nitrate from ammonium (nitrification) and the soil buffer capacity. A second experiment examined the changes in topsoil pH as affected by long term management based on the application of organic inputs derived from hedgerow trees (Leucaena leucocephala and Senna siamea), fertilizer, or both. Maize crop yields declined steadily over the 16 years studied, but the least so in the Senna + fertilizer treatment where in 2002 still 2.2 t ha-1 of maize were obtained. The fertilizer only treatment led to a yield of 0.4 t ha-1 in 2002, while the absolute control without any inputs yielded a mere 40 kg ha-1 in the same year. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was usually higher in the Senna treatment compared to the control or the Leucaena treatment. Interactions between fertilizer and organic matter additions were negative for the Leucaena treatments in the first three years, and positive for the Senna treatment in the last 6 years. Trees had a positive effect on the maintenance of exchangeable cations in the topsoil. Exchangeable Ca, Mg and K - and hence ECEC - were only slightly reduced after 16 years of

  5. Hypervigilance or avoidance of trigger related cues in migraineurs? - A case-control study using the emotional stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puschmann Anne-Katrin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Negative affect" is one of the major migraine triggers. The aim of the study was to assess attentional biases for negative affective stimuli that might be related to migraine triggers in migraine patients with either few or frequent migraine and healthy controls. Methods Thirty-three subjects with frequent migraine (FM or with less frequent episodic migraine, and 20 healthy controls conducted two emotional Stroop tasks in the interictal period. In task 1, general affective words and in task 2, pictures of affective faces (angry, neutral, happy were used. For each task we calculated two emotional Stroop indices. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVAs. Results The expected attentional bias in migraine patients was not found. However, in task 2 the controls showed a significant attentional bias to negative faces, whereas the FM group showed indices near zero. Thus, the FM group responded faster to negative than to positive stimuli. The difference between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusions The findings in the FM group may reflect a learned avoidance mechanism away from affective migraine triggers.

  6. Spatial prevalence of intellectual disability and related socio-demographic factors in Iran, using GWR: Case study (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.

  7. The shaping of environmental concern in product chains: analysing Danish case studies on environmental aspects in product chain relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Companies and governments, particularly in the industrialised countries are increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of production, and ‘greening activities’ have increasingly played a role in company strategy and government policy. This has also been the case in Denmark, and the Dani...

  8. A cohort study of recurrence patterns among more than 54,000 relatives of oral cleft cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Dorthe; Chevrier, Cécile; Skytthe, Axel;

    2010-01-01

    does have an effect on recurrence in first degree relatives and the type of cleft is predictive of the recurrence type. Highly reliable estimates of recurrence have been provided for first cousins in addition to more accurate estimates for first and second degree relatives. These results...

  9. Factors affecting rate of stroke-related death in elderly male military population A 23-year cohort study of 1 268 cases in Xi'an, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua Li; Yu Sun; Xiaoyong Sai; Yao He; Qiang Wu; Yongping Yan; Ke Men; Liangshou Li

    2011-01-01

    The study is the first long-term cohort study examining stroke and its subtypes among a population of Chinese elderly male retired military veterans. We reported on a 23-year cohort study examining stroke in 1 268 elderly male patients living in Xi'an, China since 1987. The stroke-related mortality rate in this cohort was 361.50/1 × 106 per year. Cerebral hemorrhage was the dominant cause of death, with 28 cases of fatal cerebral infarction and 49 cases of fatal cerebral hemorrhage among 77 stroke-related deaths. Independent risk factors for stroke mortality included age, blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, family history of hypertension, past medical history of stroke, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Among them, ischemic stroke mortality correlated with age, smoking, family history of hypertension and past medical history of stroke, while hemorrhagic stroke was related to blood pressure, body mass index and past medical history of hypertension. Our results indicated that maintaining appropriate levels of blood pressure and body mass, smoking cessation and prevention of hyperlipidemia can reduce the risk of stroke-related death in elderly males who are retired from military service.

  10. Applying DNA Barcodes to Identify Closely Related Species of Ferns: A Case Study of the Chinese Adiantum (Pteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan-Hong; Lu, Jin-Mei; Wen, Jun; Ebihara, Atsushi; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a fast-developing technique to identify species by using short and standard DNA sequences. Universal selection of DNA barcodes in ferns remains unresolved. In this study, five plastid regions (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and rps4-trnS) and eight nuclear regions (ITS, pgiC, gapC, LEAFY, ITS2, IBR3_2, DET1, and SQD1_1) were screened and evaluated in the fern genus Adiantum from China and neighboring areas. Due to low primer universality (matK) and/or the existence of multiple copies (ITS), the commonly used barcodes matK and ITS were not appropriate for Adiantum. The PCR amplification rate was extremely low in all nuclear genes except for IBR3_2. rbcL had the highest PCR amplification rate (94.33%) and sequencing success rate (90.78%), while trnH-psbA had the highest species identification rate (75%). With the consideration of discriminatory power, cost-efficiency and effort, the two-barcode combination of rbcL+ trnH-psbA seems to be the best choice for barcoding Adiantum, and perhaps basal polypod ferns in general. The nuclear IBR3_2 showed 100% PCR amplification success rate in Adiantum, however, it seemed that only diploid species could acquire clean sequences without cloning. With cloning, IBR3_2 can successfully distinguish cryptic species and hybrid species from their related species. Because hybridization and allopolyploidy are common in ferns, we argue for including a selected group of nuclear loci as barcodes, especially via the next-generation sequencing, as it is much more efficient to obtain single-copy nuclear loci without the cloning procedure.

  11. Detecting land-cover change using mappable vegetation related indices: A case study from Sinharaja Man and the Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BD Madurapperuma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates multi-year changes of vegetation in the Sinharaja Man and the Biosphere (MAB reserve using mappable vegetation related indices viz., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Burn Index (BI. Land-cover changes in the Sinharaja MAB reserve were detected using Landsat 7 ETM+ images for 1993, 2001, and 2005. Seven individual bands of each image were converted to new multiband files by layer stacking using ENVI® 4.5. Then the multiband files were re-projected to UTM Zone 44 North, WGS-84 Datum. Each data set was exported to ENVI® EX software package to detect the changes between time steps based on NDVI and BI using an image difference tool. Land-cover data, which were obtained from the DIVA GIS web portal, were compared with Landsat image data. Results of BI showed that the Sinharaja MAB reserve fringe was vulnerable to forest fire. For example, from 1993- 2001, 160 ha identified as burned area. In contrast, from 2001-2005, 79 ha burned, and for the entire period of 1993-2005, 10 ha burned. NDVI resulted in a 962 ha increase of vegetation prime at the western Sinharaja from 2001-2005. In addition, there was a 15 ha decrease in vegetation from 1993-2005. The results were visualized using an embedded 3D render window of Google Earth and 2D view of ArcGIS explorer online. In conclusion, in-situ ground truthing data is needed for the fire-influenced area for implementing sustainable forest resource management at the Sinharaja MAB reserve. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Examining Participation in Relation to Students' Development of Health-Related Action Competence in a School Food Setting: LOMA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Bruun-Jensen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how students' participation in an integrated school food program was related to the development of components of food and health-related action competence (F & HRAC). These components were understood to be the knowledge, insight, motivation, ownership and social skills that made students able to…

  13. A case study of the development of trust in a business relation: Implications for a dynamic theory of trust

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yimin; Wilkinson, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    We examine and conceptualize the dynamics of trust in business relationships, including its dimensions, processes and determinants, based on an in-depth case history of a 10-year sponsorship relationship between Chinese and Western firms. A contribution of this research is the distinction between trusting attitudes and trusting actions that underlie the dynamics of trust. An analytical framework is developed to show how these two dimensions evolve through distinct but connected processes that...

  14. Approach to the research and the situation of Public Relations in Europe. Comparative study between German and Spanish cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. María Isabel Míguez González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of bring near to the spanish academic field the european approaches of Public Relations, this article makes a compared revision of the situation of this subject and profession in Germany and Spain. This revision shows important resemblances on the use of the term “public relations”, the confusion of this subject with other communicative activities, the professional development and the problems of the field in both countries. However, it also shows that Germany has more tradition on public relations research than Spain and, therefore, it has a more extensive corpus of theories about this subject. For this reason, since important resemblances exist in other aspects, german research on public relations could be interesting for the spanish academic field both to explain the situation of public relations in Spain and to motivate theoretical development in our country.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups confer differences in risk for age-related macular degeneration: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenney M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD. We also assessed for gender bias and additive risk with known high risk nuclear gene SNPs, ARMS2/LOC387715 (G > T; Ala69Ser, rs10490924 and CFH (T > C; Try402His, rs1061170. Methods Total DNA was isolated from 162 AMD subjects and 164 age-matched control subjects located in Los Angeles, California, USA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion were used to identify the J, U, T, and H mitochondrial haplogroups and the ARMS2-rs10490924 and CFH-rs1061170 SNPs. PCR amplified products were sequenced to verify the nucleotide substitutions for the haplogroups and ARMS2 gene. Results The JTU haplogroup cluster occurred in 34% (55/162 of AMD subjects versus 15% (24/164 of normal (OR = 2.99; p = 0.0001. This association was slightly greater in males (OR = 3.98, p = 0.005 than the female population (OR = 3.02, p = 0.001. Assuming a dominant effect, the risk alleles for the ARMS2 (rs10490924; p = 0.00001 and CFH (rs1061170; p = 0.027 SNPs were significantly associated with total AMD populations. We found there was no additive risk for the ARMS2 (rs10490924 or CFH (rs1061170 SNPs on the JTU haplogroup background. Conclusions There is a strong association of the JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD. In our Southern California population, the ARMS2 (rs10490924 and CFH (rs1061170 genes were significantly but independently associated with AMD. SNPs defining the JTU mitochondrial haplogroup cluster may change the retinal bioenergetics and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  16. A BSC-DEA approach to measure the relative efficiency of service industry: A case study of banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Aryanezhad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation plays an important role in determining faults and difficulties of any organization as well as attempting to increase capabilities and improve activities. Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a non-parametric method, has been one of the most important and significant management tools for measuring output or efficiency. In this paper, we propose a method to utilize balanced score card (BSC as a tool for designing performance evaluation indices of an organization. The integrated BSC-DEA has been applied as an empirical case for a major private bank organization and the results are analyzed.

  17. Review of Studies Related to Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Context of Science Teacher Education: Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Boz, Yezdan

    2012-01-01

    As a review study, the present study was carried out in order to introduce PCK construct to researchers and evaluate which aspects of PCK were studied in our country, and, finally, make recommendations in light of the analysis of the studies for further research. For this purpose, ERIC database, YOK (Higher Education Council) database were…

  18. Conducting Field Research on Gender Relations in a Gender Repressive State: A Case Study of Gender Research in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the experience of conducting fieldwork and the gendering of research within the context of a gender repressive state. The Islamic Republic of Iran has consistently enacted discriminatory policies regarding gender relations since 1979. These regressive measures have made the state apprehensive and sensitive towards any…

  19. The Association Between Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing and Medication-Related Hospital Admissions in Older Patients: A Nested Case Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, C.A.K.; Vermeulen Windsant-van den Tweel, A.M.A.; Egberts, A.C.G.; van den Bemt, P.M.L.A.; Leendertse, A.J.; Hermens, W.A.J.J.; van Marum, R.J.; Derijks, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication-related problems can cause serious adverse drug events (ADEs) that may lead to hospitalization of the patient. There are multiple screening methods to detect and reduce potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). Whether this will

  20. Causal Judgments of Positive Mood in Relation to Self-Regulation: A Case Study with Flemish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-Vogel, Salome; van Petegem, Peter

    2008-01-01

    To examine students' causal judgements of positive mood in relation to self-regulation, 128 participants from two different schools representing two distinct educational environments (Technical/Vocational School (TSO/BSO): N = 63; General Secondary School (ASO): N = 65) were asked to judge 45 statements containing three possible relationships (A…

  1. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  2. Nucleoplasty as a therapeutic option for lumbar disc degeneration related pain: a retrospective study of 396 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lourenço Kallás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To make a retrospective analysis and evaluate a clinical response to the control of disc degeneration related pain of 396 patients submitted to percutaneous lumbar nucleoplasty; and to make a record of visual analogical scale (VAS up to a three-year follow-up after the surgical procedure. METHODS: Analysis of VAS score in 396 patients with lumbar disc degeneration related pain, according to anamnesis, clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, without improvement of previous clinical treatment, submitted to percutaneous nucleoplasty. RESULTS: A total of 26% of the patients presented 100% remission of pain or paresthesia, of whom 75% showed at least 50% of pain improvement. The median VAS pain improvement was about 67%. CONCLUSIONS: The median VAS improvement in inferior disc levels was higher than four points. The VAS showed improvement of the pain and paresthesia up to a three-year follow up after the surgical procedure.

  3. Challenges related to storage and transfer of solar energy with a case study on long distance power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Kvernevik, Eirik Bøhn

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that will be discussed in this thesis are two-fold; the problems related to trans- mission of power over long distances, and the need for energy storage, especially at night. Both of the issues are accentuated by solar power where the distance between production cite and consumer may become large. The need for storage is a consequence of the intermittent nature of solar power, which relies upon the presence of the sunlight. These two concerns differ clearly from ...

  4. Case study of the public relations program of U. S. Steel's Utah fluorosis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuiddy, A.R.

    1958-01-01

    In the 1950s, fluoride emissions were determined to be a problem at US Steel's Geneva Steel Works in Utah. Neighboring farms were affected, in that fluorosis was found in cattle. The problem was settled in litigation, and US Steel installed state-of-the-art pollution control technology on the steel mill in order to eliminate recurrence. The investigations that led to the elucidation of fluorides as the problem, the installation of pollution control equipment, and the public relations efforts on the part of the company are described. 22 references.

  5. DNA barcoding in closely related species: A case study of Primula L.sect.Proliferae Pax (Primulaceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Fei YAN; Gang HAO; Chi-Ming HU; Xue-Jun GE

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a method of identifying species by analyzing one or a few short standardized DNA sequences. There are particular challenges in barcoding plants, especially for distinguishing closely related species. Hence, there is an urgent need to evaluate the performance of candidate loci for distinguishing between species, especially closely related species, to complement the rbcL + matK combination suggested as the core barcode for land plants. We sampled 48 individuals representing 12 species in Primula sect. Proliferae Pax in China to evaluate the performance of eight leading candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoCl, trnH-psbA, psbK-psbI, atpFatpH, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)). The core combination rbcL + matK gave only 50% species resolution in sect. Proliferae. In terms of intraspecies and interspecies divergence, degree of monophyly, and sequence similarity, ITS, trnH-psbA, and psbK-psbI showed good performance as single-locus barcodes. Internal transcribed spacer displayed the highest genetic divergence and best discriminatory power, both alone and in combination with rbcL +matK (83.3% species resolution). We recommend evaluating the use of ITS for barcoding in other species. Low or single copy nuclear regions would provide more sophisticated barcoding tools in the long term, even though further research is required to find suitable loci.

  6. Research on Model of Guiding Rural Residents’ Relatively Centralized Residence——A Case Study of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the status quo of rural residents’ residence, the thesis notes that influenced by the weak foundation of rural economy, the characteristic of mountain landscape, smallholder consciousness, shortage of capital and other factors, the rural residents in Chongqing City mainly live scattered. In addition to opportunities of the expansion and drive of city, rural market development, rural resources development, rural industrial development, and rural ecological migration, the model of urban development promotion, the model of market development drive, the model of land development drive, the model of rural industry construction and the model of resettlement and reconstruction are advocated in order to guide the rural residents to adopt relative centralized residence. The suggestions concerning guiding rural residents’ relative centralized residence are put forward as follows: firstly, act according to circumstances and conduct scientific planning and design; secondly, propagate extensively and activate famers’ willingness; thirdly, first experiment and exert the exemplary guide; fourthly, perfect policy and guarantee farmers’ benefit; fifthly, strengthen leadership and decrease the risk of centralized residence; sixthly, boost gradually and realize moderate centralized residence.

  7. Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

  8. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  9. Research on Social Issues and Related Planning Theory of Major Resettlement Project: A Case Study on Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Secondary disasters and crises such as disordered development and environmental pollution occurring amid the human resettlement process have been a heated academic focus in the field of urban and rural planning. However, the social issues involved in this process have not been given enough attention. This paper studies secondary man-caused disasters with respect to the natural environment and the social and cultural systems, which are linked together by the rapid urbanization process, in order to provide references for future theoretical and practical urban and rural planning studies. The study reveals that during resettlement, typical social issues such as societal anomie, social stratification, and individual poverty have occurred in the Three Gorges Area. The primary cause is that stimulated by rapid urbanization, human settlement development and social evolution have formed a double helix model composed of time and space that is similar to a DNA model, and any mismatched occurrences on either side will likely lead to a social structural problem. As an academic response to the significant urbanization process that is taking place in China, this study reflects the political and economic trends in global environmental change research, as well as the technology trends in humanity studies.

  10. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area. PMID:21713493

  11. A study of the relation between the spatial structure of the city and the quality of urban development using Space Syntax A case study of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbaszadegan

    2012-01-01

    components, because numerous studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between changes in integration value and pedestrian movement in the city.3– DiscussionAccording to the main question and the basic theory of this research, the development quality of 136 neighborhoods in Mashhad has been analysed based on 20 indicators such as economical, social, and physical and welfare groups. The method used for analyzing data and determining the quality of development, is the integration of factor analysis with numerical taxonomy analysis. Space syntax is the analyzing method of Mashhad neighborhoods’ spatial structure. Accordingly, the axial map of Mashhad was prepared and it was analyzed by space syntax theory. In this study, the integration value was investigated at three radiuses including Rn, R3, and R-R for 136 neighborhoods in Mashhad. By finding the results for quality of development and integration value in each neighborhood, the hypothesis of this research has been examined using the statistical methods such as correlation.4– ConclusionThere is indeed, a direct meaningful relation between the integration value resulted from space syntax analysis and their quality of developement in all mentioned radius in Mashhad neighborhoods. So, neighborhoods with high Radius- radius integration value which also have a significant relation with city spatial structure are more developed and in other words, their development is more sustainable.Among the development criteria, the social and economic factors had a more meaningful relation with integration values than welfare and environmental factors. Thus, with changes in household economical condition (e.g. increasing household income per capita and social condition (e.g. job promotion and increscent of household education level, people mostly tend to move and reside in neighborhoods with high integration value, so this displacement leads to physical and welfare development increase in those neighborhoods.5– Suggestions

  12. Exploring Alternative Ways of Assessing Prior Knowledge, Its Components and Their Relation to Student Achievement: A Mathematics Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailikari, Telle; Nevgi, Anne; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates how different types of prior knowledge influence student achievement and how different assessment measures influence the observed effect of prior knowledge. We introduce a model of prior knowledge that distinguishes between different types of prior knowledge and uses different assessment measures to assess different types…

  13. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  14. : Case studies: France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonerandi, Emmanuelle; Santamaria, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on territorial governance : urban region of Lyon (France) and the "Pays" policy (France) in the framework of the ESPON 2.3.2 project Études de cas sur la gouvernance territoriale : région urbaine de Lyon et politique des pays

  15. Nuclear power-related facilities and neighboring land price: a case study on the Mutsu-Ogawara region, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Fumihiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Asano, Kota

    2011-12-01

    From the perspective of risk, nuclear-power-related facilities (NPRFs) are often regarded as locally undesirable land use. However, construction of NPRFs contributes to social infrastructural improvement and job creation in the host communities. This raises a question: How large are these positive and negative effects? To approach this question from an economic viewpoint, we estimated the hedonic land price function for the Mutsu-Ogawara region of Japan from 1976 to 2004 and analyzed year-by-year fluctuations in land prices around the NPRFs located there. Land prices increased gradually in the neighborhood of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities (NFCFs) in Rokkasho Village, except for some falling (i) from 1982 to 1983 (the first official announcement of the project of construction came in 1983), (ii) from 1987 to 1988 (in 1988, the construction began and opposition movements against the project reached their peak), and (iii) from 1998 to 1999 (the pilot carry-in of spent fuels into the reprocessing plant began in 1998). Land prices around the Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant decreased during the period 1981-1982, when the Tohoku Electric Power Corp. and Tokyo Electric Power Corp. announced their joint construction plan. On the other hand, we obtained some results, even though not significant, indicating that land prices around Ohminato and Sekinehama harbors changed with the arrival and departure of the nuclear ship Mutsu, which suffered a radiation leak in 1974. PMID:21488926

  16. Heavy carbon travertine related to methane generation: A case study of the Big Tarkhan cold spring, Kerch Peninsula, Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Svetlana N.; Shnyukov, Yevgeny F.; Sokol, Ella V.; Novikova, Sofya A.; Kozmenko, Olga A.; Semenova, Dina V.; Rybak, Elena N.

    2015-07-01

    The Big Tarkhan cold spring is located within the Bulganak zone of mud volcanism in the northern Kerch Peninsula (Crimea). The spring waters mainly have Cl-HCO3-Na-Ca chemistry and temperatures from 18 to 23 °C. Active travertine deposition at the site produces abundant calcite and minor amounts of siderite, halite, tincalconite, trona, gaylussite, northupite and amorphous iron hydroxides. Calcite contains the impurities of 0.26-2.16 wt.% MgO, up to 0.87 wt.% FeO, 0.15-0.73 wt.% SrO, 0.28-0.98 BaO, up to 0.43 wt.% MnO, and 0.09-0.60 Na2O. Active travertines are depleted in REE (ΣREE = 2.6-4.8 ppm) compared to the inactive ones. The Kerch travertine calcite shows unusual carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (+ 8.1 ÷ + 12.5‰ VPDB δ13C and + 10.1 ÷ + 12.9‰ VPDB δ18O). Their isotopic and trace element signatures (including REE patterns) suggest their relation to basinal waters and origin from the organic-rich clayey Maikop Fm., which is the principal source rock of the area. The Big Tarkhan travertine deposits are associated with thermogenic methane production.

  17. Is the desire for amputation related to disturbed emotion processing? A multiple case study analysis in BIID

    OpenAIRE

    Bottini, G.; Brugger, P; Sedda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterized by the overwhelming desire to amputate one or more healthy limbs or to be paraplegic. Recently, a neurological explanation of this condition has been proposed, in part on the basis of findings that the insular cortex might present structural anomalies in these individuals. While these studies focused on body representation, much less is known about emotional processing. Importantly, emotional impairments have been found in psychiatric d...

  18. Innate immunity and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL related genes in a nested case-control study for gastric cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue K Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genetic variants regulating the host immune system may contribute to the susceptibility for the development of gastric cancer. Little is known about the role of the innate immunity- and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL-related genes for gastric cancer risk. This nested case-control study was conducted to identify candidate genes for gastric cancer risk for future studies. METHODS: In the Discovery phase, 3,072 SNPs in 203 innate immunity- and 264 NHL-related genes using the Illumine GoldenGateTM OPA Panel were analyzed in 42 matched case-control sets selected from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC. Six significant SNPs in four innate immunity (DEFA6, DEFB1, JAK3, and ACAA1 and 11 SNPs in nine NHL-related genes (INSL3, CHMP7, BCL2L11, TNFRSF8, RAD50, CASP7, CHUK, CD79B, and CLDN9 with a permutated p-value <0.01 were re-genotyped in the Replication phase among 386 cases and 348 controls. Odds ratios (ORs for gastric cancer risk were estimated adjusting for age, smoking status, and H. pylori and CagA sero-positivity. Summarized ORs in the total study population (428 cases and 390 controls are presented using pooled- and meta-analyses. RESULTS: Four SNPS had no heterogeneity across the phases: in the meta-analysis, DEFA6 rs13275170 and DEFB1 rs2738169 had both a 1.3-fold increased odds ratio (OR for gastric cancer (95% CIs = 1.1-1.6; and 1.1-1.5, respectively. INSL3 rs10421916 and rs11088680 had both a 0.8-fold decreased OR for gastric cancer (95% CIs = 0.7-0.97; and 0.7-0.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that certain variants in the innate immunity and NHL-related genes affect the gastric cancer risk, perhaps by modulating infection-inflammation-immunity mechanisms that remain to be defined.

  19. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  20. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  1. Risk of stillbirth in the relation to water disinfection by-products: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Fang Hwang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies that have assessed the relation between water disinfection by-products (DBPs and the risk of stillbirth provide inconsistent results. The objective was to assess the relation between exposure to water disinfection by-products and the risk of stillbirth. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3,289 cases of stillbirth and a random sample of 32,890 control subjects from 396,049 Taiwanese newborns in 2001-2003 using information from the Birth Registry and Waterworks Registry in Taiwan. We compared the risk of stillbirth in four disinfection by-product exposure categories based on the levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs representing high (TTHMs 20+ µg/L, medium (TTHMs 10-19 µg/L, low exposure (TTHMs 5-9 µg/L, and 0-4 µg/L as the reference category. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the results from the present and 5 previous studies focusing on stillbirth. FINDINGS: In logistic regression analysis adjusting for gender, maternal age, plurality, conception of season and population density of the municipality where the mother lived during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR for stillbirth was 1.10 (95% CI 1.00-1.21 for medium exposure and 1.06 (95% 0.96-1.17 for high exposure compared to reference category. In the meta-analysis, the summary odds ratio for stillbirth (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19 was consistently elevated. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is consistent with the hypothesis that the risk of stillbirth is related to prenatal exposure to disinfection by-products. This finding on stillbirth is consistent with previous epidemiologic studies, which strengthens the weight of evidence.

  2. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between the species composition of flower visitors and plants in the semi-natural xerothermic grasslands in southern and central Poland. Thirty 10 × 10 m permanent plots were laid out in total, mainly in nature reserves. The vegetation units studied were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet system; these were phytocoenoses of the Festuco-Brometea classes Inuletum ensifoliae, Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati and the transitional plant community. Entomological research was performed using the Pollard method within the same plots. A particular site was visited only once and different sites were studied between April and August 2008. We applied, among others, co-correspondence-analysis Co-CA, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and redundancy analysis (RDA to investigate the co-occurrence patterns of plants and flower visitors and their biotopic requirements. We found that the species composition of flower visitors cannot be predicted by floristic composition when the duration of the study is restricted to one day (but under similar weather conditions; however, there is a positive relationship between the species richness of insects and plants and a positive relationship between the number of plant species and the abundance of flower visitors. The Ellenberg moisture index and the cover of meadow species significantly explained the species composition of insects. The three various vegetation units and five dominant xerothermic species, i.e. Adonis vernalis, Anemone sylvestris, Inula ensifolia, Linum hirsutum and Carlina onopordifolia that were studied across time differed in the species richness of insects. Our results demonstrate that possible patterns in the species composition and the assembly rules of flower visitors are not apparent when the Pollard method is applied. Based on the data obtained using this method, the flower visiting assemblages seem not to be driven by competition and they primarily

  3. Is the desire for amputation related to disturbed emotion processing? A multiple case study analysis in BIID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Gabriella; Brugger, Peter; Sedda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterized by the overwhelming desire to amputate one or more healthy limbs or to be paraplegic. Recently, a neurological explanation of this condition has been proposed, in part on the basis of findings that the insular cortex might present structural anomalies in these individuals. While these studies focused on body representation, much less is known about emotional processing. Importantly, emotional impairments have been found in psychiatric disorders, and a psychiatric etiology is still a valid alternative to purely neurological accounts of BIID. In this study, we explored, by means of a computerized experiment, facial emotion recognition and emotional responses to disgusting images in seven individuals with BIID, taking into account their clinical features and investigating in detail disgust processing, strongly linked to insular functioning. We demonstrate that BIID is not characterized by a general emotional impairment; rather, there is a selectively reduced disgust response to violations of the body envelope. Taken together, our results support the need to explore this condition under an interdisciplinary perspective, taking into account also emotional connotations and the social modulation of body representation. PMID:24679146

  4. De termine the Relation between Perception of Organization al Justice and Level of Organizational Commitment: Study Case of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research the relationship between teachers’ perception of organizational justice and their organizational commitment levels was investigated. The scope of research is comprised of teachers serving in public and foundation schools affiliated with Ministry of National Education in Turkey. A sample was taken due to the difficulty in reaching study group. The teachers in study group were enrolled from Marmara, Central Anatolia, Aegean, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia regions. A simple coincidental sampling formula was utilized while determining the number of sample. In this research the relationship between perception of organizational justice and organizational commitment applied to 679 teachers serving in public and foundatin schools ffiliated with Ministry of National Education was analyzed through using data obtained from answers given to survey questions. As a result of research it was established that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ perception of organizational justice and organizational commitment levels, the strongest relationship was present between interactional justice and organizational commitment levels; however, there were significant relationships between perception of organizational justice and their organizational commitment levels in terms of certain demographic variables.

  5. Relation between aerosol particles and their optical properties: a case study for São Paulo-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Regina; Andrade, Maria de Fatima

    2013-04-01

    from mineral dust (Al, Si, Ca, Fe), anthropogenic particles and the burning of diesel (S), as well as from industries and residual oil combustion. Considering the trace element values obtained through EDXRF analysis, Angstron coefficients and Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT 500 nm) were correlated (Pearson Correlation) to particulate and chemical elements. Soil elements have a positive correlation, fine particles are strong correlated to AOT. Elements like Fe, Si and Ca are usually related to larger particles and lower Angstron coefficients.

  6. Risk factors for alcohol-related liver injury in the island population of China: A population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Shen; You-Ming Li; Chao-Hui Yu; Yi Shen; Lei Xu; Cheng-Fu Xu; Jin-Jin Chen; Hua Ye; Gen-Yun Xu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of alcohol dose,duration of drinking and obesity with abnormal alcoholrelated liver injury indicators, the prevalence of alcoholrelated liver injury in the island population of China.METHODS: Randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling from the island population of China was used in the population-based case-control study. Then interview,physical examination, laboratory assessments and ultrasonography were done.RESULTS: Daily alcohol intake≥20 g, duration of drinking ≥ 5 years and obesity were closely related to alcohol-related liver injury (P < 0.05). The odds-ratio (OR) (95% CI) was 1.965 (1.122-3.442), 3.412 (1.789-6.507) and 1.887 (1.261-2.824), respectively. The prevalence rate of alcohol-related liver injury in ≥ 20 g daily alcohol intake group and < 20 g daily alcohol intake group was 37.14% and 12.06%, respectively. The prevalence rate of alcohol-related liver injury in ≥ 5 years drinking group and < 5 years drinking group was 34.44% and 8.53%,respectively. No significant dose-response relation was found between daily alcohol intake and abnormal alcohol-related liver injury indicators as well as between duration of drinking and abnormal alcohol-related liver injury indicators. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of alcohol-related liver injury between beer drinking group and yellow rice wine drinking group,hard liquor drinking group, multiple drinking group.CONCLUSION: The risk threshold of daily alcohol intake is 20 g and duration of drinking inducing alcohol-related liver injury 5 years in the island population of China.liver injury induced by obesity should be concerned.(c)2008 WIG. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining participation in relation to students’ development of health- related action competence in a whole school food setting: Insights from the ‘LOMA’ case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg;

    2015-01-01

    applied, including an action research component, where researcher and teachers examined how students developed action competence. The program was based on a whole school approach with the aim of improving F&HRAC. As a way to obtain this, students participated in planning, preparing, cooking and serving...... with professionals and peers. Additionally, the study points to the importance of capacity building among teachers. The IVACE matrix is suggested as a relevant tool for monitoring forms of participation, that contributes to students’ development of F&HRAC. Practical implications: There were indications of how...... that intend to apply the LOMA approach. However, more research is needed, where teachers, students, staff and other stakeholders collaborate in an action research process. This could promote students’ health and support other initiatives regarding public health, sustainable development and democracy...

  8. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  9. Homogeneity analysis of localities in the city of Rio de Janeiro in relation to rental prices: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Glaucio de Oliveira Costa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the application of Homogeneity analysis as an alternative to the analysis of qualitative data. Homogeneity analysis is a multivariate technique that has two basic purposes: dimensionality reduction and structural analysis. The work examined actual values of average rents for residential sites in 24 districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro in December 2010 for living room and bedroom, living room and two bedrooms and living room and three bedrooms. The study aimed at the grouping of localities due to similarity in their average rents. As the result of the analysis, we identified 3 homogeneous groups, coexisting in the same space. Profile 1 is formed by neighborhoods with rents in lower ranges. Most of the neighborhoods in this profile are on the westside and northside. Profile 2 is formedby neighborhoods with rents in the intermediate ranges. They include the south zone and Barra. Profile 3 is formedby neighborhoods with rents in higher ranges. They include only neighborhoods in the South side. These results are important to highlight the importance of Homogeneity analysis as to decisions by real estate administrators.

  10. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  11. Dance-related concussion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Kinney, Susan A; McCrystal, Tara; Carew, Elizabeth A; Bottino, Nicole M; Meehan Iii, William P; Micheli, Lyle J

    2014-01-01

    Sport-related concussion is a topic of increasing public and media attention; the medical literature on this topic is growing rapidly. However, to our knowledge no published papers have described concussion specifically in the dancer. This case series involved a retrospective chart review at a large teaching hospital over a 5.5-year period. Eleven dancers (10 female, 1 male) were identified who experienced concussions while in dance class, rehearsal, or performance: 2 in classical ballet, 2 in modern dance, 2 in acro dance, 1 in hip hop, 1 in musical theater, and 3 were unspecified. Dancers were between 12 and 20 years old at the time of presentation. Three concussions occurred during stunting, diving, or flipping. Three resulted from unintentional drops while partnering. Two followed slips and falls. Two were due to direct blows to the head, and one dancer developed symptoms after repeatedly whipping her head and neck in a choreographed movement. Time to presentation in the sports medicine clinic ranged from the day of injury to 3 months. Duration of symptoms ranged from less than 3 weeks to greater than 2 years at last documented follow-up appointment. It is concluded that dancers do suffer dance-related concussions that can result in severe symptoms, limitations in dance participation, and difficulty with activities of daily living. Future studies are needed to evaluate dancers' recognition of concussion symptoms and care-seeking behaviors. Additional work is also necessary to tailor existing guidelines for gradual, progressive, safe return to dance. PMID:24844421

  12. A Comparative Study of The Regular Pattern of Syndrome and Treatment of Lung-intestine Related Diseases in Ancient and Modern Medical Cases Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Fang Mo; Le-Peng Wang; Si-Hua Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the similarities and differences of the applications of “the lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related”between the ancient and modern clinical practices, and to reveal the theory meaning. Method: Based on the ancient and modern medical cases database, 245 ancient medical records and 373 modern medical records were studied with the general statistical description and analysis of association rules, and the results were compared to summarize the similarities and differences of the regular pattern of syndrome and treatment on lung-large intestine related diseases in ancient and modern medical records. Results: In modern medical cases, intestinal diseases appeared with the main symptom of constipation due to deficiency of lung qi and qi stagnation of large intestine were always treated by purgation together with replenishing and restoring lung qi. In ancient medical cases, large intestine heat was always caused by lung heat and a variety of diarrhea symptoms appeared. They were always treated by clearing heat and moistening lungs. In addition, the symptom of bound stool caused by qi stagnation of large intestine due to lung qi stagnation was always treated by lowering lung qi to regulate and smooth large intestine qi. And Armeniae Amarum Semen was used by both as a core medicinal herb. Conclusion: Ascending-descending of qi movement is the core of the lung and large intestine relationship. In other words, the lung and the large intestine communicate through qi.

  13. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  14. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  15. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Elements for the Design of a Decision-making Information System for activities related to genetically modified organisms: Contributions from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Colombia, decisions related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must be supported by assessment of the risk to biodiversity, human health and agricultural production. Based on this assessment, authorities can make decisions involving authorization or denial of the requested activities. The rationality of the decision-making process is very well established with respect to human health, particularly toxicity and allergenicity, but that is not the case for biodiversity issues. One of the biggest problems in this area is the lack of definition of a decision-making methodology, which leads to decisions made in an intuitive and non-systematic manner. Authorities in the field have recognized the need for a decision-making information system to help solve this situation. A proposal for the basic structure of a decision-making information system oriented to authorities involved in the process is presented. The proposal was developed based on a review of the main existing methodologies for GMO risk assessment and on a case study of the gene flow from GMOs to wild relatives. The structure is presented as a broad entity-relationship model from which the detailed design of the system can be developed. The proposal emphasizes the documentation of the decision protocols and the rationality of use of the information inputs.

  17. Resource allocation for mitigating regional air pollution–related mortality: A summertime case study for five cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important issue of regional air quality management is to allocate air quality management funds to maximize environmental and human health benefits. In this study, we use an innovative approach to tackle this air quality management issue. We develop an innovative resource allocation model that allows identification of air pollutant emission control strategies that maximize mortality avoidances subject to a resource constraint. We first present the development of the resource allocation model and then a case study to show how the model can be used to identify resource allocation strategies that maximize mortality avoidances for top five Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Philadelphia) in the continental United States collectively. Given budget constraints in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Air Act assessment, the results of the case study suggest that controls of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbon (PC) emissions from EPA Regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9 would have significant health benefits for the five selected cities collectively. Around 30,800 air pollution–related mortalities could be avoided during the selected 2-week summertime episode for the five cities collectively if the budget could be allocated based on the results of the resource allocation model. Although only five U.S. cities during a 2-week episode are considered in the case study, the resource allocation model can be used by decision-makers to plan air pollution mitigation strategies to achieve the most significant health benefits for other seasons and more cities over a region or the continental U.S.Implications: Effective allocations of air quality management resources are challenging and complicated, and it is desired to have a tool that can help decision-makers better allocate the funds to maximize health benefits of air pollution mitigation. An innovative resource allocation model developed in

  18. Case-control study on beneficial effect of regular consumption of apples on colorectal cancer risk in a population with relatively low intake of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Popiela, Tadeusz; Kulig, Jan; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Sowa, Agata; Musial, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory in-vitro studies and animal experiments showing the potential health benefits from apples raises the question to what extent the regular consumption of apples in humans may have a beneficial effect on colorectal cancer risk. A total of 592 incident cases of colorectal cancer have been enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study. The comparison group included 765 controls chosen from the patients of the same hospital without history of cancer and admitted for treatment of nonneoplastic conditions. Interviews of both cases and controls were conducted in the hospital setting by trained interviewers. The median intake of fruits among cases was lower than in controls (9.5 vs. 11 servings/week) and the difference was statistically significant. Apples were the most frequent fruit consumed by the study participants and about 80% of variability in the total fruit consumption resulted from the intake of apples. We did not observe any significant statistical differences in consumption of berries, citrus, or stone fruits and other kinds of fruits across cases and controls. The adjusted estimates of colorectal cancer risk related to the daily consumption of apples (in quintiles) were based on the unconditional multivariate logistic model, which considered the set of potential confounding variables such as demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, place of residency, marital status, tobacco smoking), total energy intake, intake of vegetables and fruits without apples. The results of the logistic analysis showed that the adjusted risk of colorectal cancer inversely correlated with daily number of apple servings. The reduced risk of colorectal cancer of border significance level was already observed at the consumption of at least one apple a day (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI: 0.39-1.09), but at the intake of more than one apple a day the risk was reduced by about 50% (odds ratio=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79). Neither the consumption of vegetables nor other

  19. Risk factors related to female breast cancer in regions of Northeast China: a 1:3 matched case-control population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-gang; JIA Cun-xian; GENG Cui-zhi; TANG Jin-hai; ZHANG Jin; LIU Li-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China,but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females.This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China.Methods A 1:3 matched,case-control study was conducted.All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years.Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer.Results Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors:economic status,social status,family annual income,bean product consumption,body mass index (BMI),family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree,number of miscarriages,menstrual pattern,benign breast disease history,nipple leakage,inverted nipple,history of diabetes mellitus,history of hypertension,history of ovarian cyst,physical exercise,current and global quality of life satisfaction,healthy behavior and prevention,and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge.After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10),six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer,of which the ORs and 95%C/s were:BMI,1.696 (1.169-2.460,P=0.005); benign breast disease history,2.672 (0.848-8.416,P=0.093); family history of breast cancer,7.080 (1.758-28.551,P=0.006); number of miscarriages,1.738 (1.014-2.978,P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction,3.044 (1.804-5.136,P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention,3.294 (1.692-6.412,P=0.000).Conclusions A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified.Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle,especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.

  20. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  1. A Study of the Social Construction of Work-Related Accidents “A Case study: workers of the coal mines of Koohbanan in Kerman and Tabas”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Movahed Majd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In safety sciences, accidents are unintended and non-scheduled events happening as one or more consecutive incidents as a result of unsafe acts or unsafe conditions, or both. Despite growing improvements in safety sciences in recent decades, the concept of accident, as a non-social phenomenon, is defined as neutral and meaningless, which occurs in an unintended and non-scheduled way through workers or machines. A significant amount of the research carried out in this field, following the tradition of epidemiology and behavioral psychology and by reducing the problem of safety and work health to a technical issue, emphasizes the role of individuals’ risk factors and human error in the occurrence of accidents. These studies neglect social, economic, cultural and institutional contexts in the analysis of accidents and take no advantage of interdisciplinary findings, as a result of which such reports only provide a list of risk factors and the statistical distribution of events in terms of quantitative and demographic variables; thus, they disregard the process of the social construction of accidents and the problematic nature of the concept of accidents. Therefore, the present study intends to expose the limitations of safety sciences and its conventional technical approaches in the unilateral and one-dimensional explanation of work-related accidents. For this purpose, in this research, qualitative methodology has been used as the dominant methodology, and critical ethnography has been utilized for the research process, and also thematic analysis has been employed for data analysis. The findings of the study include seven main categories which are shown in the form of the social construction cycle of accidents. Finally, the results show that work-related accidents are mainly due to the conditions governing the organization, unequal power relations and workers’ experiences of work environment than carelessness and the individual and

  2. Analysis on the Work-Relate d Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD’s Based on Ergonomic Study in Case of Industry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, Mohd Norzaimi Che Ani, A. R. Ab-Kadir, Mohd Hairizal Osmand

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of loss-based data (1993, ergonomic-related injuries are the single greatest source of lost-time in the workplace today. Currently, these injuries account for between 33% and 40% of total worker compensation spending. As the work force ages and healthcare cost continue to rise, these percentages are expected to hit 50% by the end of the century. The study has been conducted at small medium industry (SME is in the beverage industry where it produces, bottles, and distributes a variety of products

  3. A 3' UTR SNP in COL18A1 is associated with susceptibility to HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese: three independent case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidences indicate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis related genes are associated with risk of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. COL18A1 encodes the precursor of endostatin, which is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor, and we speculate that SNPs in COL18A1 may be associated with susceptibility to HCC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a 2-stage association study in 3 independent case-control groups in a total of 1067 chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and 808 hepatitis B virus (HBV related HCC patients in Han Chinese. Four SNPs which can represent all potential functional SNPs with MAF>0.1 recorded in HapMap database were genotyped using TaqMan methods. Levels of total COL18A1 mRNA were also examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We found that rs7499 located in 3'-UTR to be strongly associated with HBV related HCC (P(combined = 0.0000005, OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.63-0.82. COL18A1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased as the disease progressed (P = 0.000026. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that COL18A1 rs7499 may contribute to the risk of HCC in Han Chinese.

  4. Number of addictive substances used related to increased risk of unnatural death: A combined medico-legal and case-record study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Anna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders have repeatedly been found to lead to premature death, i.e. drug-related death by disease, fatal intoxications, or trauma (accidents, suicide, undetermined suicide, and homicide. The present study examined the relationship between multi-drug substance use and natural and unnatural death. Methods All consecutive, autopsied patients who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö University Hospital from 1993 to 1997 inclusive were investigated. Drug abuse was investigated blindly in the case records and related to the cause of death in 387 subjects. Results Every substance apart from alcohol used previously in life added to the risk of unnatural death in a linear way. There were independent increased risks of fatal heroin overdoses or undetermined suicide. Death by suicide and violent death were unrelated to additional abuse. Conclusion The number of drugs used was related to an increased risk of unnatural death by undetermined suicide (mainly fatal intoxications and heroin overdose.

  5. Coffee consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer: Evidence from a case-control study of female hormone-related cancers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Kaoru; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Toru; Tajima, Kazuo

    2007-03-01

    Coffee has become a popular beverage worldwide. Caffeine, a major ingredient of coffee, has been proposed to have a favorable affect on the modulation of circulating estrogen levels and therefore may be of importance in developments on hormone-related cancers. However, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the relationship between intake of coffee and hormone-related cancer risk among Japanese women using data from the hospital-based epidemiological research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). In total, 2122 breast, 229 endometrial and 166 ovarian cancer cases were included, and 12 425 women, confirmed as free of cancer, were recruited as the control group. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. A statistically significant inverse association between risk of endometrial cancer and coffee consumption was noted in Japanese women, with no clear association evident for breast and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to non-drinker, the OR of daily drinking of 1-2 cups and 3 or more cups per day for endometrial cancer were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43-0.94) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.19-0.87), respectively, and the linear trend was also statistically significant (P cancer. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of endometrial cancer in Japanese subjects. Given the scarcity of studies of coffee intake and endometrial cancer and other hormone-dependent cancer risk, additional investigations are warranted. PMID:17270030

  6. The need for providing pharmaceutical care in geriatrics: A case study of diagnostic errors leading to medication-related problems in a patient treatment plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geriatric patients are more prone to suffer from medication related problems (MRPs. It may be due to comorbidity of chronic illnesses and/or number of medications prescribed to them as compared to other age groups. Illnesses are sometimes misdiagnosed or left undiagnosed due to aging. Pharmacists have the knowledge about the disease and medication therapy in geriatrics and can provide pharmaceutical care (PC which can supplement decision making of physician, reduce MRPs and improve treatment outcomes. Introduction: This case study highlights the need to provide PC to geriatrics. A diabetic patient presented with hypoglycemia and suspected electrolyte imbalance to the emergency room (ER and was prescribed a treatment plan which had the potential to result in MRPs. Case Presentation: An 80 years old male geriatric patient presented to ER with hypoglycemia. Past medical history revealed Type I DM and CABG. The treatment plan was more focused on resolving signs and symptoms for which no relevant laboratory and diagnostic tests were conducted. Medication therapy was prescribed to the patient on suspected diagnosis and more than one drug of the same therapeutic class was prescribed to the patient making him prone to suffer from MRPs. Conclusion: Incorporating a pharmacist driven PC can help prescribers in establishing diagnosis, selecting rational therapies for co morbidities in geriatrics. It can eliminate unnecessary drug therapy, concomitant use of similar drugs and also reduce the chances of MRPs thereby improving treatment outcomes.

  7. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  8. A case of trauma related Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, A G M; Faridah, H; Yusof, S; Norazah, A; Nakisah, M A

    2004-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is an uncommon cause of keratitis but one of the most severe because of the prolonged and painful course of the disease and poor visual outcome. Although contact lens use is the principal risk factor, about 10% of cases occur following trauma and exposure to contaminated soil or water. Two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis involving women contact lens wearers have previously been reported in Malaysia but this is the first time, a non contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis is reported. The case involved a 28 year old Indonesian male construction worker who had a trauma of the right eye during work. His eye was struck by sand and dust particles after which he quickly washed with water from an open tank at the construction site. He experienced pain, redness, glaring and blurring of vision of the right eye three days later. The diagnosis was missed at initial presentation but culture of the corneal scraping had proven Acanthamoeba as the aetiological agent. The history and clinical findings of this trauma related Acanthamoeba keratitis are briefly discussed.

  9. Mining literature for a comprehensive pathway analysis: A case study for retrieval of homocysteine related genes for genetic and epigenetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Anubha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is also known to be associated with a variety of complex disorders. While there are a large number of independent studies implicating homocysteine in isolated pathways, the mechanism of homocysteine induced adverse effects are not clear. Homocysteine-induced modulation of gene expression through alteration of methylation status or by hitherto unknown mechanisms is predicted to lead to several pathological conditions either directly or indirectly. In the present manuscript, using literature mining approach, we have identified the genes that are modulated directly or indirectly by an elevated level of homocysteine. These genes were then placed in appropriate pathways in an attempt to understand the molecular basis of homocysteine induced complex disorders and to provide a resource for selection of genes for polymorphism screening and analysis of mutations as well as epigenetic modifications in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia. We have identified 135 genes in 1137 abstracts that either modulate the levels of homocysteine or are modulated by elevated levels of homocysteine. Mapping the genes to their respective pathways revealed that an elevated level of homocysteine leads to the atherosclerosis either by directly affecting lipid metabolism and transport or via oxidative stress and/or Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER stress. Elevated levels of homocysteine also decreases the bioavailability of nitric oxide and modulates the levels of other metabolites including S-adenosyl methionine and S-adenosyl homocysteine which may result in cardiovascular or neurological disorders. The ER stress emerges as the common pathway that relates to apoptosis, atherosclerosis and neurological disorders and is modulated by levels of homocysteine. The comprehensive network collated has lead to the identification of genes that are modulated by homocysteine indicating that homocysteine exerts its

  10. Common immune-related exposures/conditions and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study of disease-discordant twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Mack, Thomas M; Hamilton, Ann S; Hwang, Amie E; Nathwani, Bharat N; Masood, Kamil; Buchanan, Laura H; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis M; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Cozen, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the association between common immune system-altering experiences and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk using a case-control study of 162 like-sex twin pairs discordant for NHL, identified from the International Twin Study. Information on medical history and evidence of childhood exposure to microbes was obtained by questionnaire from 1998 to 2002. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intra-twin-pair agreement between twins on individual exposures was high (76%-97%). A negative association between NHL and seasonal hay fever (odds ratio (OR) = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 0.75) and certain allergies (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.68) was observed. The number of atopic diseases was negatively associated with NHL (P for trend = 0.0003). A history of infectious mononucleosis was negatively associated with NHL risk (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.90). NHL risk was associated with more frequent childhood exposure to microbes during early life (P for trend = 0.04). No differences in association by NHL subtype were observed, although statistical power for these comparisons was low. These observations support the hypothesis that immune-related exposures, especially atopy, are associated with decreased NHL risk. Use of the within-twin-pair study design mitigates confounding by genome, family structure, and unmeasured characteristics of early childhood factors.

  11. Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-twentieth century, case study Galtür

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keiler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria. Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-twentieth century are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.

  12. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemling Markus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Methods Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. Results In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Conclusion Through an

  13. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in relation to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yoshikazu; Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fukamachi, Kayoko; Sato, Ikuro; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    An association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk has been hypothesized. However, results from previous studies have been inconsistent. This case-control study investigated the association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk in terms of estrogen-receptor/progesterone-receptor (ER/PgR) status. From among female patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2011, 1,263 breast cancer cases (672 ER+/PgR+, 158 ER+/PgR-, 22 ER-/PgR+, 308 ER-/PgR- and 103 missing) and 3,160 controls were selected. History of smoking (ever, never), some smoking-related measures, and passive smoking from husbands (ever, never) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Polytomous logistic regression and tests for heterogeneity across ER+/PgR + and ER-/PgR- were conducted. For any hormone receptor subtype, no significant association was observed between history of smoking (ever, never) and breast cancer risk. Analysis of smoking-related measures revealed that starting to smoke at an early age of ≤19 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal ER-/PgR- cancer (odds ratio = 7.01, 95% confidence interval: 2.07-23.73). Other measures of smoking such as the number of cigarettes per day, the duration of smoking, and start of smoking before the first birth were not associated with breast cancer risk for any receptor subtype. There was no association between passive smoking (ever, never) and breast cancer risk for any of the four subtypes. These results indicate that history of smoking and passive smoking from husbands may have no overall effect on breast cancer risk for any hormone receptor subtype. However, it is possible that women who start to smoke as teenagers may have a higher risk of developing postmenopausal ER-/PgR- cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify the association of smoking with breast cancer risk, especially the role of starting to smoke at an early age. PMID

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in south Indian patients with psoriasis vulgaris and the relation between disease severity and metabolic syndrome: A hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Madanagobalane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and joints with an increased cardiovascular risk. Previous studies have shown a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in psoriatic patients. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of MS in patients with psoriasis and healthy controls, and to determine the relation between disease severity and the presence of MS. Materials and Methods: We performed a hospital-based case-control study on 118 adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 120 controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. MS was diagnosed by the presence of three or more of the South Asian Modified National Cholesterol Education Program′s Adult Panel III criteria. Results: MS was significantly more common in psoriatic patients than in controls (44.1% vs. 30%, P value = 0.025. Psoriatic patients also had a higher prevalence of triglyceridemia (33.9% vs. 20.8%, P value = 0.011, abdominal obesity (34.7% vs. 32.5%, P value = 0.035 and elevated blood sugar. There was no difference in the high density lipoprotein (HDL levels and presence of hypertension among patients with psoriasis and normal controls. There was no correlation between the severity and duration of psoriasis with MS. Conclusion: MS is frequent in patients with psoriasis. We have found no relationship between disease severity and presence of MS. Hence, we suggest that all patients must be evaluated for the MS, irrespective of the disease severity.

  15. Environmental and Psycho-social Factors Related to Prostate Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population:a Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei Ling; GUO Jian Ming; XU Dan Feng; THOMPSON Timothy C; CAO Guang Wen; ZHANG Hong Wei; LIN Ji; HOU Jian Guo; XU Lei; CUI Xin Gang; XU Xing Xing; YU Yong Wei; HAN Xue; WANG Guo Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the risk environmental and psycho-social factors associated to prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese population. Methods 250 PCa patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Information was collected and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95%confidence intervals (95% CI) for relationship between lifestyle, eating habits and psycho-social factors with PCa risk. Results Green vegetables and green tea were associated with a decreased risk of PCa (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.28-0.53; OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.87, respectively). Family history of PCa (OR=7.16, 95% CI:2.01-25.49), history of prostate diseases (OR=2.28, 95%CI:1.53-3.41), alcohol consumption (OR=1.97, 95%CI:1.33-2.90), red meat consumption (OR=1.74, 95%CI:1.20-2.52), barbecued (OR=2.29, 95%CI:1.11-4.73) or fried (OR=2.35, 95%CI:1.24-4.43) foods were related with increased PCa risk. Negative psycho-social factors including occupational setbacks (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59), marital separation (OR=1.94, 95%CI:1.29-2.91), self-contained suffering (OR=2.37, 95%CI:1.58-3.55), and high sensitivity to the personal comments (OR=1.73, 95%CI:1.18-2.54) were related to PCa. Conclusion Regular consumption of green vegetables and green tea may suggest protective effects on PCa. Alcohol consumption, red meat consumption and barbecued or fried foods were associated with PCa. Negative psycho-social factors may also play a role in the incidence of PCa in Chinese population.

  16. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  17. Splenectomy versus Partial Splenic Embolization for Massive Splenomegaly Secondary to Hepatitis B-Related Liver Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Both splenectomy (SP and partial splenic embolization (PSE are used to treat massive splenomegaly (MSM secondary to hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis (HB-LC. This retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare the effects of SP and PSE on these patients. Methods. From July 2004 to January 2012, patients with MSM secondary to HB-LC who underwent SP or PSE were 1 : 1 : 1 matched with similar nonsurgery patients, respectively. Intraoperative situation, hematological indices, liver function, HBV DNA level, HBeAg seroconversion rate, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively were compared. Results. Operative time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion rate, severe pain, postoperative stay, and portal vein thrombosis (PVT rate in the PSE group were significantly superior to the SP group, although SP and PSE were similar in liver function improvement, HBV suppression, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively, and SP even improved WBC and PLT counts higher than PSE. Conclusion. Both SP and PSE are effective in improving liver function, increasing WBC and PLT counts, and suppressing replication of HBV for MSM secondary to HB-LC. Although postoperative improvement in WBC and PLT counts by SP can be higher than PSE, PSE is simple and minimally invasive and has a lower incidence of PVT.

  18. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands: a population based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Cleft Registry and a population-based birth defects registry (Eurocat) of children and foetuses born in the Northern Netherlands between 1997 and 2009. Cases were live-born infants with non-syndromic clefts (n = 367) and controls were infants or foetuses with chromosomal/syndromal (n = 924) or non-folate related anomalies (n = 2,021). We analyzed type/timing/duration of supplement use related to traditional cleft categories as well as to their timing (early/late embryonic periods) and underlying embryological processes (fusion/differentiation defects). Consistent supplement use during the aetiologically relevant period (weeks 0–12 postconception) was associated with an increased risk of clefts (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95 % confidence interval 1.19–2.49), especially of cleft lip/alveolus (3.16, 1.69–5.91). Further analysis systematically showed twofold to threefold increased risks for late differentiation defects—mainly clefts of the lip/alveolus—with no significant associations for early/late fusion defects. Effects were attributable to folic acid and not to other multivitamin components, and inclusion of partial use (not covering the complete aetiologically relevant period) generally weakened associations. In conclusion, this study presents several lines of evidence indicating that periconceptional folic acid in the Northern Netherlands is associated with an increased risk of clefts, in particular of cleft lip/alveolus. This association is strengthened by the specificity, consistency, systematic pattern, and duration of exposure-response relationship of our findings, underlining the need to evaluate public health strategies regarding folic acid and to

  19. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  20. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in relation to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, Yoshikazu; Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fukamachi, Kayoko; Sato, Ikuro; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    An association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk has been hypothesized. However, results from previous studies have been inconsistent. This case-control study investigated the association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk in terms of estrogen-receptor/progesterone-receptor (ER/PgR) status. From among female patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2011, 1,263 breast cancer cases (672 ER+/PgR+, 158 ER+/PgR-, 22 ER-/PgR+, 308 ...

  1. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  2. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  3. Association of JAK-STAT pathway related genes with lymphoma risk: results of a European case-control study (EpiLymph)

    OpenAIRE

    Butterbach, Katja; Beckmann, Lars; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Benavente, Yolanda; Becker, Nikolaus; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadié, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Staines, Anthony; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Nieters, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested an important role of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway in tumour development. Therefore, we explored genetic variants in JAK-STAT pathway associated genes with lymphoma risk. In samples of the EpiLymph case-control study we genotyped 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using GoldenGate BeadArrayTM Technology (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Here, we report the associations between selected SNPs and haplotypes of the JAK-STAT pathway and risk...

  4. Systematic investigation of gridding-related scaling effects on annual statistics of daily temperature and precipitation maxima: A case study for south-east Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia B. Avila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using daily station observations over the period 1951–2013 in a region of south-east Australia, we systematically compare how the horizontal resolution, interpolation method and order of operation in generating gridded data sets affect estimates of annual extreme indices of temperature and precipitation maxima (hottest and wettest days. Three interpolation methods (natural neighbors, cubic spline and angular distance weighting are used to calculate grids at five different horizontal gridded resolutions ranging from 0.25° to 2.5°. In each case the order of operation in which the grid values of the hottest and wettest day are calculated is varied: either they are estimated from daily grids or from station points and then gridded. We find that the grid resolution-despite showing more regional detail at high resolution – has relatively limited effect when considering regional averages. However, the interpolation method and the order of operation can substantially influence the actual gridded values. And while the difference due to the order of operation is not substantial when using natural neighbor and cubic spline interpolation, it is particularly apparent for indices calculated from daily gridded estimates using the angular distance weighting method. As expected given the high spatial variability of precipitation fields, precipitation extremes are most sensitive to method, but temperature extremes also exhibit substantial differences. For the annual maximum values averaged over the study area, the differences may be up to 2.8 °C for temperature and 60 mm (about a factor 2 for precipitation. Differences are seen most prominently in return period estimates where a 1 in 100 year return value calculated using the angular distance weighting daily gridded method is equivalent to about a 1 in 5 year return value in most of the other methods. Despite substantial differences in the actual values of gridded extremes, analyses suggest that the

  5. Case Study - "Marketing Christmas"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青青

    2011-01-01

    @@ The following is based on a real case but the name of the company has been changed and the source will only be revealed after the submission deadline.It is June in Eastern China and temperatures are over 30 degrees Celsius.In Huang Yi-Ju's wholesale showroom, based in Yiwu, model Father Christmases line the shelves, fill the floors and scale the walls.

  6. Risk factors and outcome of transfusion-related acute lung injury in the critically ill : A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Prins, David; van Stein, Danielle; Hofstra, Jorrit J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of transfusion-related acute lung injury in a cohort of critically ill patients. Design: In a retrospective cohort study, patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury were identified using the consensus criteria of acute lung i

  7. A new post-processing tool for the source-related element tracing in biogeochemical models: A case study for the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große, Fabian; Kreus, Markus; Pätsch, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    -processing software which uses the standard 'bulk' output of a regular model simulation for the TBNT calculation. This output includes the 3D fields of all state variables containing the traced element and all fluxes transforming these state variables into each other. Besides this the tool only requires standardised information about the model grid and the involved state variables and fluxes. Thereby, the new software avoids direct changes in the model code, and therefore provides a model-independent tool for the application of the TBNT method. The basic functioning and the main features of the new software are presented in a North Sea case study using ECOHAM.

  8. A case study comparing the relative benefit of optimizing beam weights, wedge angles, beam orientations and tomotherapy in stereotactic radiotherapy of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, M.; Khoo, V. S.; Rowbottom, C. G.; Bedford, J. L.; Webb, S.

    1998-08-01

    A treatment-planning case study has been performed on a patient with a medium-sized, convex brain tumour. The study involved the application of advanced treatment-plan optimization techniques to improve on the dose distribution of the `standard plan' used to treat the patient. The standard plan was created according to conventional protocol at the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, and consisted of a three-field (one open and two wedged) non-coplanar arrangement, with field shaping to the beam's-eye view of the planning target volume (PTV). Three optimized treatment plans were created corresponding to (i) the optimization of the beam weights and wedge angles of the standard plan, (ii) the optimization of the beam orientations, beam weights and wedge angles of the standard plan, and (iii) a full fluence tomotherapy optimization of 1 cm wide (at isocentre), 43/8/010/img8.gif" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> arcs. (i) and (ii) were created on the VOXELPLAN research 3D treatment-planning system, using in-house developed optimization algorithms, and (iii) was created on the PEACOCK tomotherapy planning system. The downhill-simplex optimization algorithm is used, in conjuction with `threshold-dose' cost-function terms enabling the algorithm to optimize specific regions of the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The `beam-cost plot' tool is presented as a visual aid to the selection of beneficial beam directions. The methods and pitfalls in the transfer of plans and patient data between the two planning systems are discussed. Each optimization approach was evaluated, relative to the standard plan, on the basis of DVH and dose statistics in the PTV and organs at risk (OARs). All three optimization approaches were able to improve on the dose distribution of the standard plan. The magnitude of the improvement was greater for the optimized beam-orientation and tomotherapy plans (up to 15% and 30% for the maximum and mean OAR doses). A smaller improvement was observed in the beam-weight and wedge

  9. A Sociological Study of Tendency towards Beauty by Plastic Surgery and Its Related Factors (Case Study: 16- 64- Year-Old Women and Girls in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbaszadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, especial attention is given to medical issues in medical sociology. One of the important issues is beauty as it is pursued by plastic surgery. Since in modern society appearance has become very important and some beauty standards are given extraordinary importance (whether right or wrong, a lot of people undergo many problems and difficulties to achieve beauty by plastic surgery. The present study provides a sociological analysis of tendency towards beauty as it is followed by plastic surgery. Research method is survey and measurement tool is questionnaire. Research population includes all 16- 64 year-old women and girls of Tabriz, whose number according to the national census of 1385 is 457845. Using Cochran formula, 385 individuals were randomly selected by stratified random sampling. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The results of the study show that there are meaningful relationships between variables such as age, cultural capital, religious beliefs and the tendency toward beauty. Overall, our independent variables, namely, social capital, cultural capital and religious beliefs were able to explain 22% of the variance of dependable variable.

  10. Job-Related Basic Skills: Cases and Conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Sticht, Thomas G.; Mikulecky, Larry

    1984-01-01

    This monograph describes the job-related basic skills requirements of the work force and explores ways of developing and improving the reading, writing, and computational abilities of workers. The paper first examines trends that are influencing the demand for basic skills, such as the decline in youth population and the increase in service and technology-related occupations, changing the nature of job skills requirements. The middle section presentsthree case studies of basic skills trainin...

  11. Greigite-related complex magnetic polarity records unraveled through an integrated rock magnetic analysis: A case study on Neogene sections in East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, F. M.; Bakker, R. R.; Dekkers, M. J.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Harris, R. A.; Zachariasse, J.; Duffy, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    , therefore deemed to carry a reliable nearly syn-depositional signal. The third suite, residing in a few clay levels, consists of late diagenetic greigite intergrown between sheet silicates, resulting in anomalously high magnetizations. A revised magnetostratigraphy of the Viqueque Type section is obtained by using reliable sample levels containing early diagenetic greigite only. This magnetostratigraphy shows a polarity pattern consistent with biostratigraphy and is correlated unequivocally to the GPTS. This case study shows that a well-designed rock magnetic research combined with microscopy can unravel complex and seemingly inconsistent polarity patterns related to greigite. End-member modelling of IRM-acquisition curves by itself cannot distinguish the subtle differences between the various greigite populations but is nonetheless crucial to the integrated approach because it enables to categorize samples for dedicated microscopy study. We recommend this approach to assess the veracity of the polarity of greigite-bearing strata.

  12. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  13. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  14. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  15. Alcohol effects on family relations: a case study Repercussiones del alcoholismo en las relaciones familiares: estudio de caso acerca del tema Repercussões do alcoolismo nas relações familiares: estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Márcia dos Santos Reinaldo; Sandra Cristina Pillon

    2008-01-01

    Problems related to alcohol abuse have been associated to different factors, regardless of the causes attributed to this phenomenon. Alcohol consumption and dependence is considered a public health problem and deserve attention because of the social, work, family, physical, legal and violence-related risks it represents. This study aimed to identify the effects of alcoholism on family relations and, by means of case management, to encourage the recovery of these relationships. The results sho...

  16. A nested case-control study of intrauterine exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants in relation to risk of type 1 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rignell-Hydbom; Maria Elfving; Ivarsson, Sten A.; Christian Lindh; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Per Olofsson; Lars Rylander

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe is increasing at a rate of about 3% per year and there is also an increasing incidence throughout the world. Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have been suggested as a triggering factor for developing childhood type 1 diabetes. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible impacts of in utero exposure to POPs on type 1 diabetes...

  17. A case-control study of the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Stephanie E; Gould, Michael N.; Hampton, John M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Background Overexpression of the HER2 proto-oncogene in human cancer cells has been associated with a poor prognosis, and survival improves with therapy targeting the HER2 gene. Animal studies and protein modeling suggest that the Ile655Val polymorphism located in the transmembrane domain of the HER2 protein might influence breast cancer development by altering the efficiency of homodimerization. Methods To investigate this genetic polymorphism, incident cases of invasive breast cancer (N = 1...

  18. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-ming Guo; Xue-ning Duan; Shu-de Cui; Fu-guo Tian; Xu-chen Cao; Cui-zhi Geng; Zhi-min Fan; Xiang Wang; Shu Wang; Hong-chuan Jiang; Jian-guo Zhang; Feng Jin; Jin-hai Tang; Hong Liang; Zhen-lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family...

  19. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  20. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  1. Investigating the Effect of Job-Related Motivational Factors on the Employee and Organizational Performance through Mediating Role of Organizational Participation (Entekhab Industrial Group Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashallah Valikhani; Ebrahim Hashempoor; Bahador Moradi Vastegani

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect job-related motivations on the employee and organizational performance through mediating role of organizational participation. For this purpose, a conceptual model has been developed and tested. In this regard, a main hypothesis (the effect job-related motivations on the employee and organizational performance through mediating role of organizational participation) and nine secondary hypotheses (the effects of organizational rewards on the emp...

  2. International flight-related transmission of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: an historical cohort study of the first identified cases in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nicholas; Pebody, Richard; Smith, Gillian; Olowokure, Babatunde; Shankar, Giri; Hoschler, Katja; Galiano, Monica; Green, Helen; Wallensten, Anders; Hogan, Angela; Oliver, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Transporting over two billion passengers per year, global airline travel has the potential to spread emerging infectious diseases, both via transportation of infectious cases and through in-flight transmission. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidance recommends contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of a case of influenza during air travel. Objectives The objectives of this study were to describe flight-related transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during a ...

  3. Related Factors of Elective Cesarean Section: A Case-Control Study%选择性剖宫产的相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳芳; 李越游; 林黛

    2010-01-01

    目的 总结广州市番禺区妇幼保健院在过去十年剖宫产率的变化和趋势,分析2009年该院病人相关的和医师相关的因素与选择性剖宫产的关系.方法 这是一个病例对照研究,病例是应病人自己要求或手术指征不明确的选择性剖宫产分娩的妇女,对照则是有明确手术指征的剖宫产分娩妇女.PS power软件用于计算样本量,通过分层随机抽样的方法,在4176个2009年住院分娩的病历中随机抽取709个总样本(其中病例数是348个,对照是361个).通过病历回顾,收集所有与病人相关的及与医生相关的非医学因素.采用SPSS 16.0软件进行数据处理,运用卡方检验和Logistic回归方程进行检测.结果 该院的剖宫产率从2000年的41.8%到2009年的59.9%,总体呈一个线性的提高.选择性剖宫产更多发生在正常上班时间,产检次数越多的病人越容易在无手术指征的情况下选择剖宫产.结论 在本研究人群中,产科医师的偏好影响病人对剖宫产的选择,医师便利及害怕医疗纠纷可能是医师选择治疗方式的主要驱动因素.因此,选择性剖宫产率的控制措施应更侧重于改变医师的行为模式,而不仅仅是患者教育.%Objective To summarize the trend of CSR at a district public hospital in Guangzhou in the past decade and to identify patient and physician-related factors for elective cesarean section in 2009.Methods This was a case-control study. All available non-medical risk factors were collected from inpatient medical records. PS power software was used to calculate sample size. Cases were women who underwent Cesarean delivery at maternal recquest or for unclear obstetric indication and controls were women who underwent Cesarean delivery with one or more medical indications. A total sample size of 709 (348 cases and 361 controls) was obtained via stratified random sampling from 4176 in-patient delivery records in 2009.Risk factors for CS were examined

  4. A nested case-control study of intrauterine exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants in relation to risk of type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rignell-Hydbom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe is increasing at a rate of about 3% per year and there is also an increasing incidence throughout the world. Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs have been suggested as a triggering factor for developing childhood type 1 diabetes. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible impacts of in utero exposure to POPs on type 1 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed as a case-control study within a biobank in Malmö, a city located in the Southern part of Sweden. The study included 150 cases (children who had their diagnosis mostly before 18 years of age and 150 controls, matched for gender and day of birth. 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153 and the major DDT metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p'-DDE were used as a biomarkers for POP exposure. When comparing the quartile with the highest maternal serum concentrations of PCB-153 with the other quartiles, an odds ratio (OR of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42, 1.27 was obtained. Similar results was obtained for p,p'-DDE (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.29, 1.08. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that in utero exposure to POPs will trigger the risk for developing type 1 diabetes was not supported by the results. The risk estimates did, although not statistically significant, go in the opposite direction. However, it is not reasonable to believe that exposure to POPs should protect against type 1 diabetes.

  5. Urban expansion assessment by using remotely sensed data and the relative Shannon entropy model in GIS: A case study of Tripoli, Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr A. A. ALSHARIF; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shattri MANSOR; Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd SHAFRI

    2015-01-01

    Urban growth is a spatial dynamic phenomenon that indicates population growth, economic expansion, city importance level, and so on. The use of current and historical data in urbanization analysis is necessary in urban spatial studies and future urban planning. This research aims to study, examine, and assess the urban expansion of Tripoli spatially and temporally by using remotely sensed data, geographic information systems (GIS), and the statistical relative Shannon entropy model. Remotely ...

  6. A case-control study of the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of the HER2 proto-oncogene in human cancer cells has been associated with a poor prognosis, and survival improves with therapy targeting the HER2 gene. Animal studies and protein modeling suggest that the Ile655Val polymorphism located in the transmembrane domain of the HER2 protein might influence breast cancer development by altering the efficiency of homodimerization. To investigate this genetic polymorphism, incident cases of invasive breast cancer (N = 1,094) and population controls of a similar age (N = 976) were interviewed during 2001 to 2003 regarding their risk factors for breast cancer. By using DNA collected from buccal samples mailed by the participants, the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism was evaluated with the Applied Biosystems allelic discrimination assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression adjusted for numerous breast cancer risk factors. Analysis was restricted to women with self-reported European descent. Prevalence of the Val/Val genotype was 5.6% in cases and 7.1% in controls. In comparison with the Ile/Ile genotype, the Ile/Val genotype was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.18), whereas the Val/Val genotype was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.92). This inverse association seemed strongest in older women (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.89 for women aged more than 55 years), women without a family history of breast cancer (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84), postmenopausal women with greater body mass index (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.91 for a body mass index of 25.3 kg/m2 or more), and cases diagnosed with non-localized breast cancer (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.90). Although results from our population-based case-control study show an inverse association between the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism and risk of invasive breast cancer, most other studies of this single-nucleotide polymorphism suggest an overall null

  7. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  8. Relations between Teachers' Classroom Goals and Values: A Case Study of High School Teachers in Far North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudelko, Claudia E.; Boon, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is an empirical gap in the evidence of the relations between teachers' classroom goals and values, two key variables linked to students' achievement motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate this relationship in an Australian teacher sample. We surveyed 102 high school teachers from seven schools in Cairns,…

  9. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands : a population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Anna M; van Essen, Anthonie J; te Meerman, Gerard J; Bakker, Marian K; van der Biezen, Jan J; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M; Vermeij-Keers, Christl; de Walle, Hermien E K; te Meerman, Gerhardus

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Clef

  10. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, ca...

  11. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  12. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  13. Traffic-related air pollution and the onset of myocardial infarction: disclosing benzene as a trigger? A small-area case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bard

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic is an established risk factor for the triggering of myocardial infarction (MI. Particulate matter, mainly emitted by diesel vehicles, appears to be the most important stressor. However, the possible influence of benzene from gasoline-fueled cars has not been explored so far.We conducted a case-crossover study from 2,134 MI cases recorded by the local Coronary Heart Disease Registry (2000-2007 in the Strasbourg Metropolitan Area (France. Available individual data were age, gender, previous history of ischemic heart disease and address of residence at the time of the event. Nitrogen dioxide, particles of median aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10, ozone, carbon monoxide and benzene air concentrations were modeled on an hourly basis at the census block level over the study period using the deterministic ADMS-Urban air dispersion model. Model input data were emissions inventories, background pollution measurements, and meteorological data. We have found a positive, statistically significant association between concentrations of benzene and the onset of MI: per cent increase in risk for a 1 µg/m3 increase in benzene concentration in the previous 0, 0-1 and 1 day was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 3-18.2, 10.7 (2.7-19.2 and 7.2 (0.3-14.5, respectively. The associations between the other pollutants and outcome were much lower and in accordance with the literature.We have observed that benzene in ambient air is strongly associated with the triggering of MI. This novel finding needs confirmation. If so, this would mean that not only diesel vehicles, the main particulate matter emitters, but also gasoline-fueled cars--main benzene emitters-, should be taken into account for public health action.

  14. LANDFORM MORPHOLOGIC RELATIONS BETWEEN INTER-GULLIED AND GULLIED LAND AREAS--A CASE STUDY OF THE WANGJIAGOU WATERSHED IN THE WEST OF SHANXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on erosional relations between inter-gullied and gullied lands have mainly concentrated on exploration of water and sediment relations, with few quantitative studies of evolution relations between inter-gullied land and gullied landform erosion in small catchments. This paper, using information from a 1:5000 digital orthophotomap (DOM), digital elevation model(DEM), and topographic map of the same period and of the same scale, quantitatively analyzes the impact and interactions of inter-gullied and gullied land geomorphologic characteristics on the dissected extent of a catchment using orthogonal polynomial regression analysis. Results indicate that gullies play a leading role in the catchment morphologic evolution and extent of cracked ground surface. When inter-gullied land areas are the same, a 0. 1 km2 gullied land area has the maximum effect on the erosive evolution intensity of the catchment cracked degree. The smaller the catchment area is, the greater the extent of cracked ground surface and gully intensity would be. The geomorphologic evolution mechanism of gullied catchments can be explained as a function of geomorphologic indicators of inter-gullied and gullied land characteristics.

  15. Interaural cross correlation of event-related potentials and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of auditory processing disorder: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Martin, Jeffrey; McColl, Roderick

    2004-01-01

    In a previous publication (Jerger et al, 2002), we presented event-related potential (ERP) data on a pair of 10-year-old twin girls (Twins C and E), one of whom (Twin E) showed strong evidence of auditory processing disorder. For the present paper, we analyzed cross-correlation functions of ERP waveforms generated in response to the presentation of target stimuli to either the right or left ears in a dichotic paradigm. There were four conditions; three involved the processing of real words for either phonemic, semantic, or spectral targets; one involved the processing of a nonword acoustic signal. Marked differences in the cross-correlation functions were observed. In the case of Twin C, cross-correlation functions were uniformly normal across both hemispheres. The functions for Twin E, however, suggest poorly correlated neural activity over the left parietal region during the three word processing conditions, and over the right parietal area in the nonword acoustic condition. Differences between the twins' brains were evaluated using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). For Twin E, results showed reduced anisotropy over the length of the midline corpus callosum and adjacent lateral structures, implying reduced myelin integrity. Taken together, these findings suggest that failure to achieve appropriate temporally correlated bihemispheric brain activity in response to auditory stimulation, perhaps as a result of faulty interhemispheric communication via corpus callosum, may be a factor in at least some children with auditory processing disorder. PMID:15030103

  16. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  17. Cannabis-dependence risk relates to synergism between neuroticism and proenkephalin SNPs associated with amygdala gene expression: case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Jutras-Aswad

    Full Text Available Many young people experiment with cannabis, yet only a subgroup progress to dependence suggesting individual differences that could relate to factors such as genetics and behavioral traits. Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and proenkephalin (PENK genes have been implicated in animal studies with cannabis exposure. Whether polymorphisms of these genes are associated with cannabis dependence and related behavioral traits is unknown.Healthy young adults (18-27 years with cannabis dependence and without a dependence diagnosis were studied (N = 50/group in relation to a priori-determined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the DRD2 and PENK genes. Negative affect, Impulsive Risk Taking and Neuroticism-Anxiety temperamental traits, positive and negative reward-learning performance and stop-signal reaction times were examined. The findings replicated the known association between the rs6277 DRD2 SNP and decisions associated with negative reinforcement outcomes. Moreover, PENK variants (rs2576573 and rs2609997 significantly related to Neuroticism and cannabis dependence. Cigarette smoking is common in cannabis users, but it was not associated to PENK SNPs as also validated in another cohort (N = 247 smokers, N = 312 non-smokers. Neuroticism mediated (15.3%-19.5% the genetic risk to cannabis dependence and interacted with risk SNPs, resulting in a 9-fold increase risk for cannabis dependence. Molecular characterization of the postmortem human brain in a different population revealed an association between PENK SNPs and PENK mRNA expression in the central amygdala nucleus emphasizing the functional relevance of the SNPs in a brain region strongly linked to negative affect.Overall, the findings suggest an important role for Neuroticism as an endophenotype linking PENK polymorphisms to cannabis-dependence vulnerability synergistically amplifying the apparent genetic risk.

  18. Sternocleidomastoid syndrome: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Missaghi, Babak

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a patient diagnosed with dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, a condition which can result in head and face pain, nausea, dizziness, coryza, and lacrimation. In this particular case, the SCM muscle had developed tightness and weakness with presence of multiple trigger points within both heads. A combination of passive and active treatments were utilized to successfully treat this condition.

  19. Case studies on selected natural food antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Mendiola, J. A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, a broad description of several case studies related to common antioxidants found in food-related products is presented. In this regard, special attention is put on the novel advanced environmentally-friendly extraction methods nowadays employed to extract and purify those potent antioxidants from natural matrices. A brief description of these extraction processes is provided together with some of the instrumentation needed. Besides, the studies carried out so f...

  20. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  1. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent’s family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Results Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35 compared to controls (122 ± 28 (p  0.05. Conclusions Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  2. Social Determinants of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Related Lifestyle and Behaviors among Urban Men in China: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Changcai; Chen, Liang; Han, Qingrong; Ye, Huarong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In order to find key risk factors of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) among urban men in China, an age-matched case-control study was performed from September 2012 to May 2013 in Yichang, Hubei Province, China. Methodology. A total of 279 patients and 558 controls were recruited in this study. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire, including demographics, diet and lifestyle, psychological status, and a physical exam. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze collected data. Results. Chemical factors exposure, night shift, severity of mood, and poor self-health cognition were entered into the regression model, and result displayed that these four factors had odds ratios of 1.929 (95% CI, 1.321-2.819), 1.456 (95% CI, 1.087-1.949), 1.619 (95% CI, 1.280-2.046), and 1.304 (95% CI, 1.094-1.555), respectively, which suggested that these four factors could significantly affect CP/CPPS. Conclusion. These results suggest that many factors affect CP/CPPS, including biological, social, and psychological factors. PMID:27579305

  3. Kenya Groundwater Governance Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mumma, Albert; Lane, Michael; Kairu, Edward; Tuinhof, Albert; Hirji, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case study on groundwater governance in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (a) describe groundwater resource and socioeconomic settings for four selected aquifers; (b) describe governance arrangements for groundwater management in Kenya; and (c) identify the relevance of these arrangements for planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures. The ...

  4. Controlling the didactic relation: a case in process engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, Juha

    2014-07-01

    A case study was conducted during 1994-2013 on several groups of process engineering students to see what was needed to transform a single course from a teacher-centred to a student-centred learning environment (SCLE). Development work was done incrementally, using Herbart's didactic triangle as a theoretical framework. The effects of the changes in learning environment were analysed using quantitative (student attendance, pass rate, attrition, grades) and qualitative data (student feedback). Guiding the didactic relation, i.e. the studying done by students, by continuous assessment was found to be very useful. Using SCLEs that emphasise student responsibility and activity in learning has been found in this case to enhance student learning considerably.

  5. PSInSAR Analysis in the Pisa Urban Area (Italy: A Case Study of Subsidence Related to Stratigraphical Factors and Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Solari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI has been used to detect and characterize the subsidence of the Pisa urban area, which extends for 33 km2 within the Arno coastal plain (Tuscany, Italy. Two SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar datasets, covering the time period from 1992 to 2010, were used to quantify the ground subsidence and its temporal evolution. A geotechnical borehole database was also used to make a correspondence with the detected displacements. Finally, the results of the SAR data analysis were contrasted with the urban development of the eastern part of the city in the time period from 1978 to 2013. ERS 1/2 (European Remote-Sensing Satellite and Envisat SAR data, processed with the PSInSAR (Permanent Scatterer InSAR algorithm, show that the investigated area is divided in two main sectors: the southwestern part, with null or very small subsidence rates (<2 mm/year, and the eastern portion which shows a general lowering with maximum deformation rates of 5 mm/year. This second area includes deformation rates higher than 15 mm/year, corresponding to small groups of buildings. The case studies in the eastern sector of the urban area have demonstrated the direct correlation between the age of construction of buildings and the registered subsidence rates, showing the importance of urbanization as an accelerating factor for the ground consolidation process.

  6. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  7. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  8. Thinking Relationally about Studying "Up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…

  9. The Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Performance Of Female Barbers in Relation to Job's Environmental Health: A Case Study of Malayer City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Almasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene disregarding and usage of contaminated tools leads to viral infections, fungal, bacterial and skin diseases, eczema, warts, tetanus and so on. Thus assessment of knowledge, attitudes and performance of barbers in order to ensure the security and public health is really necessary. This study is aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and performance of female barbers in relation to job's environmental health in Malayer city. In present descriptive- analytical study, 75 female barbers sampling of Malayer city were selected by clusters – systematic method. The data were obtained through questionnaires for completion and checklist. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 21 statistical software. The result showed, 86.66% of people have attained correct awareness of regulations and 92.28% had positive attitude toward regulations and 86.38% of people in this study showed appropriate health practice. In order to, compare the average knowledge level in regard to parameters such as age, work experiences and income situation showed a statistically significant difference. In attitude and performance section, the difference between age and mentioned parameters was not statistically significant (P≥ 0.05. Despite the desirable level of knowledge, attitude and practice of barbers female in Malayer city, in order to improve the situation, to be better the presence of barbers in special guilds courses to train seriously.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment in Building: A Case Study on the Energy and Emissions Impact Related to the Choice of Housing Typologies and Construction Process in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ángel Rodríguez Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While there exists an international trend to develop zero or near zero emissions building solutions by 2020, and European governments continuously update their building regulations to optimize the building envelope and energy systems to achieve this during the building use stage, at least in Spain the building regulations do not take into account the impact of emissions resulting from urbanization and construction activities prior to building use. This research studies in detail the entire emissions balance (and how it may be related to energy efficiency in a newly built residential cluster project in Mancha Real (Jaén, Spain, and influences due to the choice of different urban typologies. For comparison, terraced housing and low-density, four-floor, multi-family housing alternatives have been studied. The present work assessed the life cycle of the building with the help of commercial software (CYPE, and the energy efficiency and emissions according to the legal regulations in Spain with the official software LIDER and CALENER VYP. After a careful choice of building and systems alternatives and their comparison, the study concludes that the major emissions impact and energy costs of urbanization and building activity occurs during construction, while later savings due to reductions in building use emissions are very modest in comparison. Therefore, deeper analysis is suggested to improve the efficiency of the construction process for a significantly reduced emission footprint on the urban environment.

  11. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  12. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  13. Analysis of the relation between emotional intelligence of leaders of different sectors of a big multinational organization and the organizational climate: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos Deschauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The business community has been marked, in the last decades, by an incessant quest for competitiveness in order to survive and grow in a globalized world. Companies have had to revamp their structures, find new paths and make economic changes. Managers have been forced to undertake increased responsibilities and commitment to their organizations, they also had to adjust their profiles and review their individual abilities and competences, mostly because of their impact on the organizational climate perceived by employees. In this sense, the object of this study is to identify relations between emotional quotient of managers at different hierarchical levels within the organization and the organizational climate as perceived by each manager’s team of collaborators. In addition to new surveys on the leader’s emotional intelligence and organizational climate, this study points to the need for programs focusing on the development of managers’ emotional abilities, as a way of improving organizational climate and, as a result, keeping up the company’s intellectual capital as a strategy for organizational success.

  14. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  15. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  16. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective: This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results: 1 Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2 Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3 Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4 Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5 Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological

  17. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation—a case study using triplex-forming LNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Sujay P.; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (Keq) and association/dissociation rate constants (kon and koff). The ‘fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement’ (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs. Briefly described, relative rate constants are determined from fluorescence intensity changes upon: (i) TFO-mediated displacement of pre-intercalated and fluorescent ethidium from dsDNA targets (triplex association) and (ii) Watson–Crick complement-mediated displacement of the TFO and replacement with ethidium (triplex dissociation). The assay is used to characterize triplexes between purine-rich dsDNA targets and TC-motif TFOs modified with six different locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, i.e. conventional and C5-alkynyl-functionalized LNA and α-L-LNA pyrimidine monomers. All of the studied monomers increase triplex stability by decreasing the triplex dissociation rate. LNA-modified TFOs form more stable triplexes than α-L-LNA-modified counterparts owing to slower triplex dissociation. Triplexes modified with C5-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-LNA-U monomer Z are particularly stable. The study demonstrates that three affinity-enhancing features can be combined into one high-affinity TFO monomer: conformational restriction of the sugar ring, expansion of the pyrimidine π-stacking surface and introduction of an exocyclic amine. PMID:22855561

  18. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation--a case study using triplex-forming LNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Sujay P; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2012-11-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (K(eq)) and association/dissociation rate constants (k(on) and k(off)). The 'fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement' (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs. Briefly described, relative rate constants are determined from fluorescence intensity changes upon: (i) TFO-mediated displacement of pre-intercalated and fluorescent ethidium from dsDNA targets (triplex association) and (ii) Watson-Crick complement-mediated displacement of the TFO and replacement with ethidium (triplex dissociation). The assay is used to characterize triplexes between purine-rich dsDNA targets and TC-motif TFOs modified with six different locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, i.e. conventional and C5-alkynyl-functionalized LNA and α-L-LNA pyrimidine monomers. All of the studied monomers increase triplex stability by decreasing the triplex dissociation rate. LNA-modified TFOs form more stable triplexes than α-L-LNA-modified counterparts owing to slower triplex dissociation. Triplexes modified with C5-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-LNA-U monomer Z are particularly stable. The study demonstrates that three affinity-enhancing features can be combined into one high-affinity TFO monomer: conformational restriction of the sugar ring, expansion of the pyrimidine π-stacking surface and introduction of an exocyclic amine. PMID:22855561

  19. The relative roles of climate and land use in the degradation of a terrestrial ecosystem: a case study from Kjarardalur, West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Around AD 870 the virgin environment of Iceland became populated by humans and mammal land herbivores. Since then, the island has lost nearly all of its native birch woodland, resulting in dramatic degradation of landscapes and ecosystems, attributed mainly to over-exploitation of woodlands and late-medieval climate deterioration. As part of policy making in agriculture, a heated debate is ongoing over limitations to sheep grazing in pastures suffering from long-term degradation. In this context the history of climate and land use is of great importance. Those who consider grazing a minimal attribute to land degradation argue that the harsh climate conditions of the little ice age are the primary mechanism behind the current degraded landscape. Others err on the side of caution and propose a careful approach to grazing. This study forms a contribution to the historical context of the impact of grazing upon the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem. Using the analyses of pollen and spores from coprophilous fungi as principal methods, we present data about historical environmental change from within two different land holdings in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland. One dataset comes from within a landholding governed by the chieftain farm Reykholt, the other comes from within the land of the indipendent farm, Norðtunga. In the past the valley was used primarily as a pasture, associated with shielings (organised seasonal grazing). Pollen data from the pasture in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland, demonstrate a rapid loss of birch (Betula pubescens) woodland from grazing areas owned by the major farm and institution, Reykholt. The suppressive nature of grazing is demonstrated by the expansion of woodland as soon when animal stocks are reduced, probably as a consequence of the bubonic plague after AD 1402. Resumed exploitation of resources eventually depleted all birch woodland from the Reykholt landholding and precipitated soil erosion. The trajectory of environmental change

  20. Association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence: a case-control study in young patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and unaffected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanck Michael W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. There is growing evidence that DTNPB1 contributes to intelligence and cognition. In this study, we investigated association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the DTNBP1 gene and intellectual functioning in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (first-episode psychosis, FEP, their healthy siblings, and unrelated controls. Methods From all subjects IQ measurements were obtained (verbal IQ [VIQ], performance IQ [PIQ], and full scale IQ [FSIQ]. Seven SNPs in the DTNBP1 gene were genotyped using single base primer extension and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser deionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF. Results Mean VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores differed significantly (p Conclusion Although preliminary, our results provide evidence for association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence in patients with FEP and their unaffected siblings. Genetic variation in the DTNBP1 gene may increase schizophrenia susceptibility by affecting intellectual functioning.

  1. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  2. Can You Judge a Disease Host by the Company It Keeps? Predicting Disease Hosts and Their Relative Importance: A Case Study for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher R.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg; Rebollar-Tellez, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Domingo Balcells, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Ibarra López, Martha Pilar; Iñiguez Dávalos, Luis Ignacio; Ramírez Martínez, María Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Zoonoses are an important class of infectious diseases. An important element determining the impact of a zoonosis on domestic animal and human health is host range. Although for particular zoonoses some host species have been identified, until recently there have been no methods to predict those species most likely to be hosts or their relative importance. Complex inference networks infer potential biotic interactions between species using their degree of geographic co-occurrence, and have been posited as a potential tool for predicting disease hosts. Here we present the results of an interdisciplinary, empirical study to validate a model based on such networks for predicting hosts of Leishmania (L.) mexicana in Mexico. Using systematic sampling to validate the model predictions we identified 22 new species of host (34% of all species collected) with the probability to be a host strongly dependent on the probability of co-occurrence of vector and host. The results confirm that Leishmania (L.) mexicana is a generalist parasite but with a much wider host range than was previously thought. These results substantially change the geographic risk profile for Leishmaniasis and provide insights for the design of more efficient surveillance measures and a better understanding of potential dispersal scenarios. PMID:27716833

  3. Process-related deformation monitoring by PSI using high resolution space-based SAR data: a case study in Düsseldorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TerraSAR-X satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar scenes have been analysed using Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI approach to monitor a tunnelling process in Düsseldorf, Germany. The aim of this work is to detect the deformation of ground surface and structures above the tunnelling line during the tunnel excavation. In this study, the PSI approach integrated in the open source software package Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS was employed since it has shown significant advantages in obtaining Persistent Scatterers (PS. In order to protect the historic buildings in this region from subsidence-induced damages, a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM was used to restrain serious displacements during the tunnelling excavation, as well as compensation injections. Both surface uplifting and subsidence were observed during this tunnelling process, by a levelling survey and a validated PSI observation. It is concluded that sub-centimetre accuracy observations are achievable for process-related monitoring in urban areas, using the open source software package.

  4. Soil Fertility in relation to Landscape Position and Land Use/Cover Types: A Case Study of the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majaliwa Mwanjalolo Jackson-Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the change and distribution of land-uses/covers along the landscape, and evaluated the nutrient status of the top soil layer in the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site (LKPLS benchmarked micro-catchments. Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using triplicate soil samples collected from each land-use/cover at two depths (0–15 and 15–30 cm in three LK PLS Learning Innovation Platform (IP sites (Bufundi in Uganda, Mupfuni-Shanga in D.R. Congo, Gataraga in Rwanda. Small scale agriculture has increased in all the benchmarked micro-catchments at the expense of other land-uses/covers. In the settlement areas land-use/cover distribution along the landscape varied across sites and countries; the major one being eucalyptus woodlots, wetland, and perennials and annuals crops in Bufundi; annuals and perennials crops in Mupfuni-Shanga; and annuals crops in Gataraga. Perennial crops tended to occur at the footslope and valley bottoms, while the annuals occurred at the upper backslopes and summits. Available P and K were relatively higher and C/N ratio (7.28 was the lowest in Mupfuni Shanga. Annual crops had the lowest available P and N across site (P<0.05. The key nutrients N, P and K were below the critical values for plant growth for Bufundi.

  5. Late Quaternary environmental change inferred from phytoliths and other soil-related proxies: Case studies from the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, C.E.; Johnson, W.C.; Mandel, R.D.; Palmer, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates stable carbon isotopes (??13C), opal phytolith assemblages, burnt phytoliths, microscopic charcoal and Sporormiella spores from modern soils and paleosols in Kansas and Oklahoma. Grass and dicot phytoliths in combination with ??13C are used as proxies for reconstructing the structure of grasslands and woodlands. Burnt grass phytoliths and microscopic charcoal are evaluated as proxies for reconstructing paleofire incidence. Concentrations of the fungal spore Sporormiella are used as a proxy for assessing large herbivore activity. These proxies were tested on various modern grassland communities of the central and southern Great Plains, including areas with bison, cattle, and small herbivores, and areas under different fire frequencies.Opal phytolith assemblages and ??13C values show that before cal 11ka, C3 grasses and woody plants predominated in areas that today are dominated by C4 grasses. The origin of the shortgrass prairie dates back to about cal 10ka. The origin of the tallgrass prairie, however, is not clear as phytolith data show variable assemblages throughout the Holocene (mixed-grass, tallgrass, and tallgrass-woodland mosaic). Different proxies (burnt phytoliths vs. charcoal) reveal different fire frequencies, but it is apparent that microfossil evidence for fire incidence is closely related to the abundance of woody plants in the landscape.Before cal 12. ka, soils show somewhat elevated concentration of Sporormiella, but lower concentrations than the modern high-density bison and cattle grazing areas. Throughout the Holocene, Sporormiella frequencies are low, which suggests lower large ungulate densities and perhaps high mobility. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fold-related fractures - a brittle tectonic case study of the Helvetic zone in Vorarlberg (western Austria) and Upper Allgäu (Bavaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerlauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Michael Zerlauth1,2 , Marcel Schulz1,2 , Hugo Ortner1 , Bernhard Fügenschuh1, Christian Zangerl2 1 Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Leopold Franzens Universität, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria 2 alpS-Gmbh, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria In the eastern Alps the Helvetic units exposed at the surface form a narrow belt restricted to the westernmost part of Austria and the northerly adjacent southernmost part of Bavaria. The Helvetic zone represents a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt made up of Jurassic to Cretaceous shelf sediments deposited on the European margin of the Eurasian plate. In the course of an industry-funded project, the potential of these units for deep hydro-geothermal energy is investigated. Potential targets for hydrothermal exploration are more or less thick carbonate sequences that can be traced throughout the Helvetic zone, namely the Late Jurassic Quinten Limestone and the Early Cretaceous Schrattenkalk-Fm. In depths of at least 3000m below sea level, that have to be drilled to gain water with at least 90°C, uncemented fractures at any scale are the only cavities within these carbonates to be expected. Therefore, brittle structures are studied at differing scales of observation; aerial photos and surface outcrops are analyzed as well as thin sections. All the data obtained so far were collected in areas deformed homogenously: measuring stations were located outside large scale shear zones and either in fold-limbs or hinge zones. A constantly geometrical relationship between the orientation of the various fractures, the sedimentary layering and the trace of the axial planes can be inferred, as already stated by Hancock (1985). Besides extension fractures, veins and stylolithes, conjugated hybrid and shear fractures are quite common, indicating layer-parallel shortening normal to the axial planes as well as axial elongation. Hence, all of the structures observed can be genetically linked with thrusting and folding during regional N-S compressional

  7. Integrating Ethics into Case Study Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking.  Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks.  Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components.  I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should." and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  8. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  9. Applying the nominal group technique in an employment relations conflict situation: A case study of a university maintenance section in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis (Kees S. van der Waal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a breakdown in employment relations in the maintenance section of a higher education institution, the authors were asked to intervene in order to try and solve the employment relations conflict situation. It was decided to employ the Nominal Group Technique (NGT as a tool in problem identification during conflict in the workplace. An initial investigation of documentation and interviews with prominent individuals in the organisation was carried out. The NGT was then used in four focus group discussions to determine the important issues as seen by staff members. The NGT facilitates the determination of shared perceptions and the ranking of ideas. The NGT was used in diverse groups, necessitating adaptations to the technique. The perceived causes of the conflict were established. The NGT can be used in a conflict situation in the workplace in order to establish the perceived causes of employment relations conflict.

  10. Studies relating to human intrusion into a repository. Report pertaining to work package 11. Preliminary safety case of the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuth, Thomas; Buhmann, Dieter; Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Moenig, Joerg; Ruebel, Andre; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Charlier, Frank [international nuclear safety engineering gmbh (nse), Aachen (Germany); Baltes, Bruno

    2014-10-15

    The question of the long-term safety of a repository system is inseparably linked with the intensive technical examination of the possible future evolution of the site and the repository system e. g. as a result of climatic, geologic, waste-related and repository-related processes. Here, the possible evolutions to be considered are those that have the potential to have a negative impact on the intended, furthest-possible, immediate, and lasting isolation of the radioactive waste in a defined area around the underground workings of the repository mine in salt rock, which is referred to as the containment-providing rock zone (CPRZ).

  11. Studies relating to human intrusion into a repository. Report pertaining to work package 11. Preliminary safety case of the Gorleben site (VSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the long-term safety of a repository system is inseparably linked with the intensive technical examination of the possible future evolution of the site and the repository system e. g. as a result of climatic, geologic, waste-related and repository-related processes. Here, the possible evolutions to be considered are those that have the potential to have a negative impact on the intended, furthest-possible, immediate, and lasting isolation of the radioactive waste in a defined area around the underground workings of the repository mine in salt rock, which is referred to as the containment-providing rock zone (CPRZ).

  12. Unusual cough related stress injuries - two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of unusual cough related stress injuries of the ribs are described. Both were detected on a 2h delay bone scan. To our knowledge, cough stress injuries have been not previously described scintigraphically. (orig.)

  13. The Relative Quality and Cost-Effectiveness of Private and Public Schools for Low-Income Families: A Case Study in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Shamsan, Yarim; Schagen, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The "mushrooming" of private schools for low-income families has been widely noted in the literature; however, very little is known about the quality of these schools. This research explored the relative quality of private unaided (recognised and unrecognised) and government schools in low-income areas of Hyderabad, India. A preliminary census to…

  14. Social Media-Related Geographic Information in the Context of Strategic Environmental Assessment of Municipal Masterplans: A Case Study Concerning Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Floris

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a discussion concerning the use of social media-related geographic information in the context of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA of Sardinian Municipal masterplans (MMPs. We show that this kind of information improves, substantially, the SEA process since it provides planners, evaluators, and the local communities with information retrieved from social media that would have not been available otherwise. This information integrates authoritative data collection, which comes from official sources, and enlightens tastes and preferences of the users of services and infrastructure, and their expectations concerning their spatial organization. A methodological approach related to the collection of social media-related geographic information is implemented and discussed with reference to the urban context of the city of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy. The results are very effective in terms of provision of information, which may possibly increase the spatial knowledge available for planning policy definition and implementation. In this perspective, this kind of information discloses opportunities for building analytical scenarios related to urban and regional planning and it offers useful suggestions for sustainable development based on tourism strategies.

  15. Method for identifying drivers, barriers and synergies related to the deployment of a CO2 pipeline network : A case study for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Niels; Cabal, Helena; Gouveia, João Pedro; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a method to identify drivers, barriers and synergies (DBS) related to the deployment of a CO2 pipeline network. The method was demonstrated for the West Mediterranean region (WMR) (i.e. Spain, Portugal and Morocco). The method comprises a literature review, analysis of

  16. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  17. The Relative Impacts of Design Effects and Multiple Imputation on Variance Estimates: A Case Study with the 2008 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey collects data on office-based physician care from a nationally representative, multistage sampling scheme where the ultimate unit of analysis is a patient-doctor encounter. Patient race, a commonly analyzed demographic, has been subject to a steadily increasing item nonresponse rate. In 1999, race was missing for 17 percent of cases; by 2008, that figure had risen to 33 percent. Over this entire period, single imputation has been the compensation method employed. Recent research at the National Center for Health Statistics evaluated multiply imputing race to better represent the missing-data uncertainty. Given item nonresponse rates of 30 percent or greater, we were surprised to find many estimates’ ratios of multiple-imputation to single-imputation estimated standard errors close to 1. A likely explanation is that the design effects attributable to the complex sample design largely outweigh any increase in variance attributable to missing-data uncertainty.

  18. Neuropathology of supercentenarians - four autopsy case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Masaki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Arai, Yasumichi; Mihara, Ban; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Supercentenarians (aged 110 years old or more) are extremely rare in the world population (the number of living supercentenarians is estimated as 47 in the world), and details about their neuropathological information are limited. Based on previous studies, centenarians (aged 100-109 years old) exhibit several types of neuropathological changes, such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease pathology, primary age-related tauopathy, TDP-43 pathology, and hippocampal sclerosis. In the present study, we provide results from neuropathological analyses of four supercentenarian autopsy cases using conventional and immunohistochemical analysis for neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, we focused on the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease, as well as the status of hippocampal sclerosis, TDP-43 pathology, aging-related tau astrogliopathy, and cerebrovascular diseases. Three cases were characterized as an "intermediate" level of Alzheimer's disease changes (NIA-AA guideline) and one was characterized as primary age-related tauopathy. TDP-43 deposits were present in the hippocampus in two cases. Neither Lewy body pathology nor hippocampal sclerosis was observed. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy was consistently observed, particularly in the basal forebrain. Small vessel diseases were also present, but they were relatively mild for cerebral amyloid-beta angiopathy and arteriolosclerosis. Although our study involved a small number of cases, the results provide a better understanding about human longevity. Neuropathological alterations associated with aging were mild to moderate in the supercentenarian brain, suggesting that these individuals might have some neuroprotective factors against aging. Future prospective studies and extensive molecular analyses are needed to determine the mechanisms of human longevity. PMID:27590044

  19. The importance of scale in Occupy movement protests: a case study of a local Occupy protest as a tool of communication through Public Relations and Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ana ADI; Moloney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the persuasive communications (public relations and branding through social media) of a micro Occupy event, namely a nine-day appearance of the global protest movement at Bournemouth University (BU), on the south coast of the UK. It reflects on how student and town protesters used digital and social media in comparison to the wider and more successful UK movement. It interviews the student leader, and asks questions about the role social networks like Occupi...

  20. Mapping Urbanisation-related Landscape Change near Roads Using Spatial Gradients: A Case Study from Estonia. GI_Forum 2014 – Geospatial Innovation for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    Sisas, Eveli; Uuemaa, Evelyn; Reimets, Ramon; Oja, Tõnu; MANDER, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of landscape patterns and the changes caused by suburbanisation processes is essential to the understanding of the causes and consequences of the humaninduced spatial patterns. By using spatial gradients along main roads near cities, we attempted to quantify the influence of roads on the suburbanisation process and settlement structure in Estonia. Results showed that the urbanisation-related fragmentation of landscapes decreases with distance from the road. Distance from th...

  1. JARID1A, JMY, and PTGER4 polymorphisms are related to ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese Han patients: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chai

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS is largely genetically determined. JARID1A, JMY and PTGER4 have recently been found to be associated with AS in patients of western European descent. We aim to examine the influence of JARID1A, JMY, and PTGER4 polymorphisms on the susceptibility to and the severity of ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese ethnic majority Han population. This work can lead the clinical doctors to intervene earlier. Blood samples were drawn from 396 AS patients and 404 unrelated healthy controls. Both the AS patients and the controls are Han Chinese. The AS patients are classified based on the severity of the disease. Thirteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in JARID1A, JMY and PTGER4 are selected and genotyped. Frequencies of different genotypes and alleles are analyzed among the different severity AS patients and the controls. The rs2284336 SNP in JARID1A, the rs16876619 and rs16876657 SNPs in JMY are associated with susceptibility of AS. The rs11062357 SNP in JARID1A, the rs2607142 SNP in JMY and rs10440635 in PTGER4 are related to severity of AS. Haplotype analyses indicate PTGER4 is related to susceptibility to AS; JARID1A and JMY are related to severity of AS.

  2. Organizational Learning from Cross-Cultural Experiences: An Ethnomethodological Case Study Examining the Relative Importance of Social Structure and Cultural Values during Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldecker, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how social structure and cultural values dynamically interact in collective learning between two religious organizations cooperating in a joint project. It further explored the enablers of and impediments to collective learning in this context. The study employed the theoretical framework provided by the Organizational Learning…

  3. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA’s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  4. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  5. Being a trainer in the French vocational training system: a case study of job status and working conditions in relation to perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgoulet, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents part of an international project focused on the work of trainers from an ergonomics perspective. The objective is to identify in the French vocational training system the various types of job status of trainers and their impact on working conditions and health. In order to explore this issue, we met with 11 trainers, all volunteers, working in the music or human resources sectors. Semi-structured interviews and transcriptions of two weeks of the trainers' professional schedules form the data collected. The analyses show that trainers have various job statuses as trainers and sometimes hold down several jobs at the same time. These working situations create freedom but lack security. With very long daily or weekly working hours, the relationships with trainees and clients are qualified as both very interesting, but also one of the most difficult aspects of the work. The 11 trainers, who considered themselves to be in good health, do however declare infra-pathological disorders, which they often relate to their working conditions. These findings are discussed with regard to the literature and raise issues relating to ergonomic methods in activity analysis and situated action.

  6. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in relation to the risk of developing acute coronary syndromes; the CARDIO2000 case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between diet and human health has long been investigated. The aim of this work is to evaluate the association between CHD risk and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, in a large sample of cardiac patients and controls. Methods Stratified sampling from all Greek regions, consisted of 848 (700 males, 58 ± 10 years old and 148 females, 65 ± 9 years old randomly selected patients, admitted to the cardiology clinic for a first event of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. In addition we selected 1078 frequency paired, by sex-age-region, controls in the same hospitals but without any clinical suspicion of CHD. Using validated food-frequency questionnaires we assessed total diet, including fruit and vegetable intake, on a weekly basis. Multiple logistic regression analysis estimated the relative risk of developing ACS by level of fruits and vegetables intake after taking into account the effect of several potential confounders. Results Data analysis revealed that the benefit of fruit or vegetable consumption increases proportionally by the number of servings consumed (P for trend Conclusions Consumption of fruits and vegetables seems to offer significant protection against CHD.

  7. Interaction of Gender and Situation in Relation to Leadership behaviors of Female Managers: Case-studies in Construction and Nursing Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Gudeta, Samrawit Nigussie; Atik Gümüscü, Sezen

    2010-01-01

    Leadership has been one of the most interesting research areas for academicians and practitioners for many years. (Hughes et al, 2006, p. 22) defined leadership as an interaction process of leader, follower and situation that showed its complex character. Within this complexity, a leader behavior was studied in the past with different dimensions of behaviors. The behavior of leaders can have an impact on the performance and effectiveness of organizations. Leadership behaviors have been studie...

  8. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Noor; Manaf Zahara; Azizan Noor

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising...

  9. An open GIS framework for recording and analysing post-occupancy changes in residential buildings - a climate-related case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etzion, Y.; Portnov, B.A.; Erell, E.; Meir, I.; Pearlmutter, D. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Unit of Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Sede-Boker (Israel)

    2001-12-01

    A GIS-based method is proposed, which simplifies recording and analysis of post-occupancy changes in residential buildings. Each modification is considered as a unique record in a database, and has a string assigned to it in a multi-parametric matrix. Its position in the matrix is determined by functional relationships with other housing modifications, orientation, adjacent inner and outer spaces, building materials and physical size. The method was tested in three residential neighbourhoods in two towns in the Negev desert of Israel, with the intention of (a) highlighting modifications related to the climatic performance of buildings and (b) developing a set of recommendations aimed at improving the design of new residential buildings. In the buildings surveyed, post-occupancy changes were made primarily in ground-level apartments and in outdoor private spaces. Building modifications appear to vary in different functional areas of the dwelling units, suggesting a connection between dweller preferences and climatic response. (Author)

  10. The Relation between Financial Expenditure for Agriculture( FEA) and Per Capita Net Income of Farmers( PCIF):A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural development is indispensible to financial support. On the basis of data of the financial expenditure for agriculture( FEA) and per capita net income of farmers( PCIF) of Jiangsu Province in 1990-2012,with the aid of software R,this paper established the linear regression model for the relation between financial expenditure for agriculture and per capita net income of farmers through the function lm. Using the function summary,this paper obtained the summary statistical data,and made diagnostic check of regression model from image command plot and variance analysis table. Finally,it came up with pertinent recommendations including increasing financial expenditure for agriculture,optimizing expenditure structure,and balancing regional development.

  11. PR Students, Teachers Welcome Corporate Case Study Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Glen M.; Ferguson-De Thorne, Mary Ann

    1978-01-01

    Reports on an actual public relations problem that was used to introduce students to the practice of corporate public relations. Shows both positive and negative reaction to use of the case study in college classes. (RL)

  12. Serum leptin, neuron specific enolase and S-100B in relation to post-stroke depression in a prospective nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-ying ZHAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of leptin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S-100B in patients of stroke and the incidence of post-stroke depression (PSD. Methods The clinical data of 121 cases of acute ischemic stroke, admitted to Zhengzhou Central Hospital affiliated to Zhengzhou University from Jun. 2010 to Dec. 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. After six months of follow-up 42 patients were diagnosed as suffering from PSD (Hamilton Depression Scale score ≥8. Another 42 participants with available matching data on onset time, age, gender and lesions of brain were selected. The serum samples were collected from all patients at time of discharge, and the concentrations of serum leptin, NSE and S-100B were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Correlation and efficiency of diagnosing PSD among them was validated by receptor operator curve (ROC. Results The concentration of serum leptin, NSE, and S-100B in PSD group (25.84±13.80, 2.59±1.48 and 25.03±8.24μg/L, respectively was higher than that in the control group (8.67±6.17, 2.27±1.84 and 22.40±6.84μg/L, respectively. No obvious correlation was found between serum leptin and the NSE and S-100B in PSD patients. Based on the ROC curve, the area under the curve of serum leptin in PSD patients was 0.935 (95%CI 0.885-0.984, and the optimal cutoff value of serum leptin level was 16.17μg/L, which was an indicator for predicting of PSD with 81.0% sensitivity and 90.1% specificity. Conclusion Elevation of serum leptin level at admission was found to be associated with PSD, and it may act as a new marker for predicting the occurrence of PSD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.11

  13. Instilling Service Learning to Undergraduate Business Students: A Case Study Approach to Understanding Business-Related Concepts with the Use of Kiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotrian-Ryan, Sheri; Ryan, Kyle; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education continues to place an emphasis on service-learning, specifically within business and management sciences (Kenworthy-U'Ren & Peterson, 2005). A local academic business organization at a small institution chose to embark on a service-learning endeavor. The purpose of this study was for business majors, active in Phi Beta Lambda…

  14. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  15. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  16. Bridging the Performance Gap with Ergonomics: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethaber, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Faced with increased incidences of work-related strain and sprain injuries and OSHA-recordable injuries, the organization in this case study details how it resolved these performance-related issues. This case study also demonstrates the effectiveness of Thomas Gilbert's (1978) Behavior Engineering Model as a tool for analyzing, defining, and…

  17. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  18. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Desiree [UCD School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s Campus, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: desiree.oleary@ucd.ie

    2005-05-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion.

  19. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  20. Explaining the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Dimensions of Learning Organizations (Case study: Education Organization in Boroojerd County and the Related Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mehrabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey has been conducted to explain the relationship between organizational structure and dimensions of learning organizations. It was conducted using descriptive-field method. The statistical population included employees of Education Organization in Borujerd County and the related departments. Sample volume was selected through random sampling method and was equal to 140 persons using Morgan table. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed through content validity by professors and the clear-sighted. Its reliability was measured using pre-test and calculating Cronbach alpha. Pierson correlation coefficient, Friedman test and bi-nominal test using SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results of Pierson correlation coefficient test show there is a significant and negative relationship between organizational structure and fulfillment degree of learning organizations. This relationship is significant about all dimensions of learning organization. Given to results of Friedman test, the most important dimension of learning organizations is the component of team learning based on the viewpoint of employees of the Education Organization. According to results of bi-nominal test, there is only one variable in the statistical population and that is mental models. Also according to results of correlation coefficient matrix of research variables team learning and shared vision have the highest correlation.

  1. The effects of poverty on child health in relation to thesocioeconomic status of mothers : a case study of Nakawe divison, Kampala district, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Semyalo, Viola Bwanika Namazzi Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study has its basis on the Millennium Development Goal 4 that has to do with reduction of the under five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015 (United Nations 2009; 24). Children from developing countries are more likely to die within the first five years of life than children in industrialized countries. About half of the deaths of children in the developing world are in Sub-Saharan Africa; many of these deaths are caused by preventable diseases like diarrhea...

  2. Underwater cultural heritage risk assessment related to mean and extreme storm events: A modelling case study in the Bay of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Montblanc, Tomás; Izquierdo, Alfredo; Bethencourt, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Underwater cultural heritage (UCH) risk assessment due to mean and extreme storms was conducted at Bucentaure and Fougueux shipwreck sites. Storms representative of mean and extreme conditions were simulated using numerical modeling tools. Temporal series of sea level, waves, fraction breaking and maximum bed shear stress were obtained at the studied sites. The type of sediment transport and the hypothetical critical size of an archaeological object to be moved was established....

  3. Technologies of Intelligence and Their Relation to National Security Policy: A Case Study of the U.S. and the V-2 Rocket

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, John McKinney, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    While government intelligence"knowledge to support policy decision making"is often characterized as an art or science, this dissertation suggests it is more akin to what Science and Technology Studies call a "technological system" or a" sociotechnical ensemble". Such a policy support tool is a mechanism socially constructed for the production of policy-relevant knowledge through integration of social and material components. It involves organizational and procedural innovations as much as it ...

  4. Excess Heat-Related Mortality in Micro-Urban Heat Islands: A Case-only Study in Barcelona. GI_Forum 2013 – Creating the GISociety|

    OpenAIRE

    Glutting, John-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme heat events (EHE) are of increasing public health concern. In urban areas, micro-urban heat islands (MUHI) raise the possibility of increased mortality risk. This study identified MUHI in the city of Barcelona, Spain, using Landsat 7 thermal infrared imagery and overlaid them onto at-home deaths between 2000-2003, identified from a mortality registry and geocoded using the Google API. Hot days were defined as days with mean minimum temperatures above the 90th percentile of...

  5. The Perception of the stakeholders influences strategies and its relation with the generic strategy: case study in small business enterprises of the north coast of Santa Catarina State

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Freitas; Valmir Emil Hoffmann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the relationship between the stakeholders’ influence strategy perception and the generic strategy in the small business enterprises in the cities of the North Coast of Santa Catarina, according to the typologies proposed. The work, which has a predominantly quantitative nature, was realized in 148 (one hundred and forty-eight) business enterprises and services, by means of the application of three questionnaires in each company. The results fou...

  6. Using Statistical Downscaling to Quantify the GCM-Related Uncertainty in Regional Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study of Swedish Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of sources of uncertainty in regional climate change scenarios. When statistical downscaling is used to obtain regional climate change scenarios, the uncertainty may originate from the uncertainties in the global climate models used, the skill of the statistical model, and the forcing scenarios applied to the global climate model. The uncertainty associated with global climate models can be evaluated by examining the differences in the predictors and in the downscaled climate change scenarios based on a set of different global climate models. When standardized global climate model simulations such as the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2) are used, the difference in the downscaled variables mainly reflects differences in the climate models and the natural variability in the simulated climates. It is proposed that the spread of the estimates can be taken as a measure of the uncertainty associated with global climate models. The proposed method is applied to the estimation of global-climate-model-related uncertainty in regional precipitation change scenarios in Sweden. Results from statistical downscaling based on 17 global climate models show that there is an overall increase in annual precipitation all over Sweden although a considerable spread of the changes in the precipitation exists. The general increase can be attributed to the increased large-scale precipitation and the enhanced westerly wind. The estimated uncertainty is nearly independent of region. However, there is a seasonal dependence. The estimates for winter show the highest level of confidence, while the estimates for summer show the least.

  7. RELATION OF HYPERTENSION TO DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS-A PAIR MATCHED CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯旭宏; 王建华; 冯凭

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To assess the role of hypertension and family history of hypertension in the development of nephropathy in patients with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Methods.A retrospective analysis was done on 2 groups of NIDDM patients,one group without proteinuria (urine protein< 300mg/24h,n=106) and the other group with proteinuria (urine protein≥ 500mg/24h,n=106).The 2 groups were matched by age(≤± 3yrs),sex,ethnic and resident place.Some information of these subjects including demographic;history of disease,family history of diseases,lifestyle and behavior style variables was obtained by questionnaire;some variables were measured,including systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure (DBP),fasting blood glucose (FBG),quantity of protein in 24h urine.Then conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. Results.Some factors,including history of hypertension,longer duration of hypertension,higher levels of the past highest SBP and DBP,were independently associated with the occurrence risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN).Their corresponding odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.00(1.17~3.43),1.25(1.08~1.46),1.38(1.15~1.66),and 1.33(1.09~1.62) respectively,but family history of hypertension was not significantly associated with the development of DN.When the above mentioned relations were respectively adjusted by some possible confounding factors,they still existed. Conclusions.History of hypertension,longer duration of hypertension,higher levels of the past highest SBP and DBP are independent risk factors for DN in Chinese NIDDM patients.

  8. Assessing vulnerability in stream channel evolution in relation with morphological transformations and hydrodynamic behavior. Case Study: the Subcarpathian Prahova Valley, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Câmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the

  9. In infectious endocarditis patients mortality is highly related to kidney function at time of diagnosis: a prospective observational cohort study of 231 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    function at the time of admittance. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study data from 235 consecutive IE patients were collected at 2 tertiary heart centres in Copenhagen. Kidney function was evaluated as Estimated Endogenous Creatinine Clearance (EECC) calculated at the time of admission......BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a serious disease with a high mortality even with optimal treatment and care. A number of complicating conditions are known to be of importance for the outcome. But only few data are available in IE patients on the independent prognostic value of kidney....... Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their EECC: 1) >90 ml/min, 2) 60-90 ml/min, 3) 30-60 ml/min and 4) analysis was then applied. RESULTS: >Gender: 70.2% male, mean age: 61.3+/-SD 15.0. The most common pathogens were streptococcus species (32...

  10. Environmental contracting: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiak, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The end of cold war levels of defense expenditures has promoted the reduction in the number of defense-related companies, creating potential monopolistic economic scenarios for defense procurement. This thesis studies one methodology to deal with these scenarios, based on the Baron-Myerson monopolist regulation mechanisms. The Baron-Myerson mechanism provides a tool to regulate monopolists when their costs are unknown or cannot be measure...

  11. Desmin-related myopathy: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Protein Surplus Myopathies (PSM are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates, identifiable ultrastructurally, resulting due to mutations of the encoding genes. Desmin-related myopathies (DRM are a form of PSM characterized by mutations of the desmin gene resulting in the formation of protein aggregates comprising mutant protein desmin and disturbance of the regular desmin intermediate network in the muscle fibers. We describe a rare case of DRM in a 23-year-old man who presented with complaints of difficulty in climbing stairs and running since the age of 5 years. EMG studies revealed a myopathic pattern. Muscle biopsy showed the features of muscular dystrophy with bluish rimmed vacuoles and sarcoplasmic inclusions, which were immunoreactive to desmin. Ultrastructural examination showed sarcoplasmic bodies and granulofilamentous inclusions. Although rare, the possibility of DRM/desminopathy should be considered in the presence of bluish rimmed vacuoles on light microscopy and characteristic ultrastructural inclusions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of DRM/desminopathy reported from India.

  12. Great Balls of Fire: A probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard related to ballistics - A case study at La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biass, Sébastien; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Bonadonna, Costanza; Di Traglia, Federico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Lestuzzi, Pierino

    2016-10-01

    We present a probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard posed by volcanic ballistic projectiles (VBP) and their potential impact on the built environment. A model named Great Balls of Fire (GBF) is introduced to describe ballistic trajectories of VBPs accounting for a variable drag coefficient and topography. It relies on input parameters easily identifiable in the field and is designed to model large numbers of VBPs stochastically. Associated functions come with the GBF code to post-process model outputs into a comprehensive probabilistic hazard assessment for VBP impacts. Outcomes include probability maps to exceed given thresholds of kinetic energies at impact, hazard curves and probabilistic isoenergy maps. Probabilities are calculated either on equally-sized pixels or zones of interest. The approach is calibrated, validated and applied to La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island (Italy). We constructed a generic eruption scenario based on stratigraphic studies and numerical inversions of the 1888-1890 long-lasting Vulcanian cycle of La Fossa. Results suggest a ~ 10- 2% probability of occurrence of VBP impacts with kinetic energies ≤ 104 J at the touristic locality of Porto. In parallel, the vulnerability to roof perforation was estimated by combining field observations and published literature, allowing for a first estimate of the potential impact of VBPs during future Vulcanian eruptions. Results indicate a high physical vulnerability to the VBP hazard, and, consequently, half of the building stock having a ≥ 2.5 × 10- 3% probability of roof perforation.

  13. Soil fungistasis and its relations to soil microbial composition and diversity: a case study of a series of soils with different fungistasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Minna; ZHANG Huiwen; LI Xinyu; ZHANG Yan; SU Zhencheng; ZHANG Chenggang

    2008-01-01

    Fungistasis is one of the important approaches to control soil-borne plant pathogens. Some hypotheses about the mechanisms for soil fungistasis had been established, which mainly focused on the soil bacterial community composition, structure, diversity as well as function. In this study, the bacterial community composition and diversity of a series of soils treated by autoclaving, which coming from the same original soil sample and showing gradient fungistasis to the target soil-borne pathogen fungi Fusarium graminearum, was investigated by soil bacterial 16S rDNA-PCR (polymerance chain reaction) Cloning, Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing. The results showed that the soil fungistasis capacity was closely correlated with soil bacterial community composition and diversity, i.e., soil fungistasis declined with the decrease of soil bacterial diversity. Meanwhile, the bacterial community composition and structure were significantly different along the gradient of soil fungistasis tested. α-Proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria, Flexibacter and some uncultured soil bacteria were contributed to soil fungistasis in combination with some other special bacteria (Pseudomonas and Acidobacteria) which were know to be key species in suppression of fungal growth.

  14. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  15. Regional assessment of cadmium pollution in agricultural lands and the potential health risk related to intensive mining activities:A case study in Chenzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Limei; LIAO Xiaoyong; CHEN Tongbin; YAN Xiulan; XIE Hua; WU Bin; WANG Lixia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soil and its potential risk for people.Soils,rice,and vegetables from Chenzhou City,Southern China were sampled and analyzed.In the surface soils.the 95% confidence interval for the mean concentration of Cd varied between 2.72 and 4.83 mg/kg (P<0.05) in the survey, with a geometric mean concentration of 1.45 mg/kg.Based on the GIS map,two hot spot areas of Cd in agricultural soils with high Cd concentrations were identified to be located around the Shizhuyuan,Jinshiling,and Yaogangxian mines,and the Baoshan and Huangshaping mines,in the center of the city.About 60% of the total investigated area, where the agricultural soil Cd concentration iS above 1 mg/kg, is distributed in a central belt across the region.The critical distances, at which the soil Cd concentration were increased by the mining activities, from the mines of the soils were 23 km for the Baoshan mine,46 km for the Huangshaping mine,and 63 km for the Shizhuyuan mine,respectively.These are distances calculated from models.The Cd concentrations in rice samples ranged from 0.01 to 4.43 mg/kg and the mean dietary Cd intake from rice for an adult was 191 μg/d.Results of risk indexes showed that soil Cd concentrations possessed risks to local residents whose intake of Cd from rice and vegetables grown in soils in the vicinity of the mine was 596 μg/d.

  16. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  17. Collagenous ileitis: a study of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Blake Hugh; McClymont, Kelly; Brown, Ian

    2011-08-01

    Collagenous ileitis (CI), characterized by subepithelial collagen deposition in the terminal ileum, is an uncommon condition. The few cases reported to date have been associated with collagenous colitis (CC) or lymphocytic colitis. Thirteen cases of CI retrieved over a 9-year period were retrospectively studied. There were 7 female and 6 male patients, with an age range of 39 to 72 years (mean, 64 y). Two groups were identified: (1) CI associated with collagenous or lymphocytic disease elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract and (2) CI as an isolated process. Diarrhea was the presenting symptom in 11 cases. Most patients had no regular medication use. Subepithelial collagen thickness ranged from 15 to 100 μm (mean, 32 μm) and involved 5% to 80% of the subepithelial region of the submitted biopsies. Six cases had >25 intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)/100 epithelial cells, and villous blunting was observed in 11 cases. Chronic inflammation of the lamina propria was present in 9 cases, and focal neutrophil infiltration was identified in 3 cases. In biopsies taken from other sites, 7 of 13 colonic biopsies showed CC, 4 of 9 gastric biopsies showed collagenous gastritis, and 2 of 10 duodenal biopsies were abnormal with collagenous sprue (n=1) and partial villous atrophy and increased IELs (n=1) (both celiac disease related). Resolution of the subepithelial collagen deposition was found in the 1 case in which follow-up of terminal ileal biopsies were taken. There was partial or complete resolution of symptoms in 6 of 9 patients for whom follow-up information was available. PMID:21716082

  18. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  19. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  20. Using Case Studies To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Connie

    Using case studies in science instruction develops problem solving and enhances listening and cooperative learning skills. Unlike other disciplines such as law and medicine, the case study method is rarely used in science education to enrich the curriculum. This study investigates the use of content-based case studies as a means of developing…

  1. Relational Constraint Driven Test Case Synthesis for Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a relational constraint driven technique that synthesizes test cases automatically for web applications. Using a static analysis, servlets can be modeled as relational transducers, which manipulate backend databases. We present a synthesis algorithm that generates a sequence of HTTP requests for simulating a user session. The algorithm relies on backward symbolic image computation for reaching a certain database state, given a code coverage objective. With a slight adaptation, the technique can be used for discovering workflow attacks on web applications.

  2. Obsessional Slowness in College Students: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta

    2014-01-01

    Cases of obsessional slowness, a variant of obsessive compulsive disorder, have been documented in case literature regarding relatively low functioning populations. However, obsessional slowness can also present in higher functioning populations, including college and graduate students, as illustrated here by three case examples from a competitive…

  3. EU external relations law : text, cases and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, Bart; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2014-01-01

    This major new textbook for students in European law uses a text, cases and materials approach to explore the law, politics, policy and practice of EU external relations, and navigates the complex questions at the interface of these areas. The subject is explored by explaining major constitutional p

  4. Relations between institutionalization and organizational decision making: a case study - Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL; As relacoes da institucionalizacao com a tomada de decisao organizacional: um estudo de caso - Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcos de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: marcos.freitas@copel.com; Campos, Luciana Vital de; Machtura, Angela Cristina Pachu [Faculdades Integradas do Brasil (UniBrasil), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    This article identifies the institutionalization of relations with the decision making in an organization. The varied reactions from individuals to institutional procedures have led to this study. The research has the basic assumption that the information from pre established procedures may compromise the decision and critical analysis on the part of individuals. The variability is a human factor to be considered in the process of institutionalization, standardization and the addition of bureaucratization. As for methodology, a study was conducted in the case of Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL from the reference of the principal characteristics of institutionalization and decision-making by looking at the coincidences. The analysis of content occurred from structured interviews conducted with 10 managers and bibliographic documentary. The report described gives evidence of reflections on the action and participation of people in the use of standards that guide the conduct organizational. The institutionalization and decision-making relate to each other, and are interdependent concepts such as bureaucracy and organizational culture, contributing to the perception of individuals in their relations within organizations. (author)

  5. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  6. A HARD CHOICE (CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    KRAVCHENKO NATALIYA A.; KUZNETSOVA SVETLANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The case describes the problems of strategic choice: a small company successfully working in the engineering market (automation of technological processes) in the electric power industry has to make a decision on its further development in a changing external environment and increased competition. The case was carried out to be used in training programs of different levels within the courses “Strategic Management”, “Innovation Management”, “Strategic Analysis Methods”, “Change Management” whe...

  7. Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.

  8. Using the Case Study Method in Teaching College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2016-01-01

    The case study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates) and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case study method should be considered by…

  9. The Case Study: A Strategy for Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Edward T.

    1982-01-01

    Using the case study method as the primary teaching strategy in law-related education is particularly appropriate with gifted students because of its emphasis on critical thinking and independent learning. Steps in the case study approach are reviewed, and a sample clasroom application of the approach is offered. (Author/SW)

  10. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  11. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  12. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...... by one and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution...

  13. SCMAI Case Report: Librarians in Faculty Unions--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Lynn

    1979-01-01

    The problems of librarians in faculty unions in relation to status, salary, and salary calculation are covered in this case study brought before the American Library Association Staff Committee on Mediation, Arbitration, and Inquiry (SCMAI) in 1977. (Author/MBR)

  14. A new expansion in the international public relations: Albania case studyUluslararası halkla ilişkilerde yeni bir açılım: Arnavutluk örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Yıldırım Becerikli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Country case studies enrich international public relations literature day by day. Analyzing different countries in the context of public relations facilitates our understanding of various social, cultural, historical, and governmental aspects in different regions of the world. For researchers, Albania is a riveting country with a turbulent history. Albania left one century behind deriving from Ottoman era, nation-state building era, socialism era, and multiparty democracy era. This paper is a modest attempt to explore the evolution and the texture of public relations in Albania. Literature review, in-depth interview, and observation have been used as basic data collection methods for this research. Albania case study states that during the last decade, as a potential candidate for membership and being in the process of integration to European Union Albania gives special attention to building a modern public relations field particularly through public administration reforms, universities, and civil society organizations. The analysis of Albania case and public relations practices will prove beneficial to public relations and communication professionals who need to operate in diffent regions of the world. ÖzetUluslararası halkla ilişkiler literatürü, ülke örnekleri çalışmalarıyla gün geçtikçe zenginleşmektedir. Ülke örnekleri analizleri yoluyla dünyanın farklı coğrafyalarında, farklı yönetim biçimleri, farklı tarihler, farklı kültürler ve farklı toplum yapılarına sahip yerlerde halkla ilişkilerin gelişim seyrini daha iyi kavramamız mümkün olmaktadır. Yüzyılı aşkın çalkantılı tarihiyle araştırmacılar için ilginç bir ülke olan Arnavutluk; Osmanlı dönemini, ulus-devlet inşa sürecini, sosyalizm dönemini ve çok partili demokrasi dönemini deneyimlemiştir. Bu çalışmada Arnavutluk örneği üzerinden, ülkedeki halkla ilişkilerin gelişim seyri ve dokusu analiz edilmeye

  15. A Case of Capgras Syndrome Related to Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Aisha; Stewart, Jonathan T; Catalano, Glenn

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions, most commonly depression and cognitive impairment, but up to 5% to 15% of symptomatically hypothyroid patients may develop a nonaffective psychosis, classically referred to as "myxedema madness." We report the case of a woman who developed Capgras syndrome in the context of hypothyroidism, and whose psychosis rapidly resolved with levothyroxine supplementation. To date, very few cases of Capgras syndrome related to hypothyroidism have been reported. The pathophysiology of this condition remains unclear but it may be related to global cerebral hypometabolism or possibly to increased cerebral dopamine. Given the robust response of "myxedema madness" to thyroid replacement, psychiatrists should remain vigilant for covert hypothyroidism in patients with psychosis and atypical histories or presentations.

  16. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  17. Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jin Woo [College of Dentistry, Gangneung Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Bisphosphonates are compounds used to treat osteoporosis and malignant bone metastasis. Despite the benefits related to the use of these medications, osteonecrosis of the jaws is a significant complication in a subset of patients receiving these drugs. This complication occurs either spontaneously or after a simple dento-alveolar surgery. Recently there were two patients who showed the features of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in Gangneung Wonju National University Dental Hospital. The patients revealed the clinical and radiological features of classical osteomyelitis. This report presents two cases of BRONJ which were examined by plain radiography and computed tomography.

  18. Relational Constraint Driven Test Case Synthesis for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational constraint driven technique that synthesizes test cases automatically for web applications. Using a static analysis, servlets can be modeled as relational transducers, which manipulate backend databases. We present a synthesis algorithm that generates a sequence of HTTP requests for simulating a user session. The algorithm relies on backward symbolic image computation for reaching a certain database state, given a code coverage objective. With a slight adaptation, the technique can be used for discovering workflow attacks on web applications.

  19. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  20. Relation between aftershock parameters and geodetic slip models: Case study of the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule (Chile) and the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki (Japan) earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Olga; Hainzl, Sebastian; Lange, Dietrich; Enescu, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of local stresses, which represents as well crustal heterogeneity, is the main factor for aftershock triggering. Though neither local stresses nor crustal heterogeneity are known in detail, some information of their distribution is implicitly represented by slip and coupling values on the mainshock fault interface. Taking these two concepts as the main assumptions, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the relation between aftershock characteristics and geodetic measurements on the mainshock fault interface. As a case study we select two megathrust events, the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule (Chile) and the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki (Japan), due to the availability of rich aftershock data as well as of geodetic inversion models. To investigate the dependency between these data sets we firstly estimated the aftershock parameter distribution, using a modified ETAS model, which allows to take into account the mainshock rupture extension. Secondly we calculate the correlation between aftershock parameters and coseismic/postseismic slip and interseismic coupling. We find: (1) aftershocks tend to occur in the areas of high coseismic slip gradient, afterslip and interseismic coupling; (2) aftershock seismic moment is released preferentially in regions of large coseismic slip, coseismic slip gradient and interseismically locked areas; (3) anomalous aftershock parameters occur in the areas of reactivated fault systems. Moreover, we show that modified ETAS model outperforms the classical one in the cases when the mainshock rupture extension cannot be neglected and represented as a point source. One of the main restriction in the presented analysis is related to the large uncertainties of the inversion models, which limit the significance of our results.

  1. Microvascular Complications in Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Mellitus: a Case Report.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott AIR; Clarke BE; Healy H; D'Emden M; Bell SC

    2000-01-01

    CONTEXT, The prevalence of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus is increasing and is associated with increased survival from cystic fibrosis. CASE REPORT, This study describes a case of the premature onset of disabling and widespread microvascular complications resulting from cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus. Previously asymptomatic retinopathy was diagnosed on recognition of diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS, The treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has become more complex due ...

  2. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  3. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  4. Weakly linear systems of fuzzy relation inequalities: The heterogeneous case

    CERN Document Server

    Ignjatović, Jelena; Damljanović, Nada; Jančić, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    New types of systems of fuzzy relation inequalities and equations, called weakly linear, have been recently introduced in [J. Ignjatovi\\'c, M. \\'Ciri\\'c, S. Bogdanovi\\'c, On the greatest solutions to weakly linear systems of fuzzy relation inequalities and equations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (2010) 3081--3113.]. The mentioned paper dealt with homogeneous weakly linear systems, composed of fuzzy relations on a single set, and a method for computing their greatest solutions has been provided. This method is based on the computing of the greatest post-fixed point, contained in a given fuzzy relation, of an isotone function on the lattice of fuzzy relations. Here we adapt this method for computing the greatest solutions of heterogeneous weakly linear systems, where the unknown fuzzy relation relates two possibly different sets. We also introduce and study quotient fuzzy relational systems and establish relationships between solutions to heterogeneous and homogeneous weakly linear systems. Besides, we point out ...

  5. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordyke Katrina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103 and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483 answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94. However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3% compared to referent boys (18.8% (Adjusted OR 0

  6. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  7. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  8. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  9. Controlling the Didactic Relation: A Case in Process Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, Juha

    2014-01-01

    A case study was conducted during 1994-2013 on several groups of process engineering students to see what was needed to transform a single course from a teacher-centred to a student-centred learning environment (SCLE). Development work was done incrementally, using Herbart's didactic triangle as a theoretical framework. The effects of the…

  10. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0

  11. Interactions between diet, lifestyle and IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2/COX-2 gene polymorphisms in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective Danish case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diet contributes to colorectal cancer development and may be potentially modified. We wanted to identify the biological mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis by assessment of diet-gene interactions. METHODS: The polymorphisms IL10 C-592A (rs1800872, C-rs3024505-T, IL1b C-3737T (rs4848306, G-1464C (rs1143623, T-31C (rs1143627 and PTGS2 (encoding COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466, G-765C (rs20417, and T8473C (rs5275 were assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and interaction with diet (red meat, fish, fibre, cereals, fruit and vegetables and lifestyle (non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug use and smoking status was assessed in a nested case-cohort study of nine hundred and seventy CRC cases and 1789 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. RESULTS: IL1b C-3737T, G-1464C and PTGS2 T8473C variant genotypes were associated with risk of CRC compared to the homozygous wildtype genotype (IRR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97, p=0.02, and IRR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.44, p=0.02, IRR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, p=0.04, respectively. Interactions were found between diet and IL10 rs3024505 (P-value for interaction (P(int; meat=0.04, fish=0.007, fibre=0.0008, vegetables=0.0005, C-592A (P(int; fibre=0.025, IL1b C-3737T (Pint; vegetables=0.030, NSAID use=0.040 and PTGS2 genotypes G-765C (P(int; meat=0.006, fibre=0.0003, fruit 0.004, and T8473C (P(int; meat 0.049, fruit=0.03 and A-1195G (P(int; meat 0.038, fibre 0.040, fruit=0.059, vegetables=0.025, and current smoking=0.046. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically determined low COX-2 and high IL-1β activity were associated with increased risk of CRC in this northern Caucasian cohort. Furthermore, interactions were found between IL10, IL1b, and PTGS2 and diet and lifestyle factors in relation to CRC. The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  12. Academic Planning: Four Institutional Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    As part of a project studying intrainstitutional planning, management, and evaluation, four case studies were undertaken in 1976 of academic planning at Villa Maria College, Kansas City Metropolitan Community College District, West Virginia University, and Western Washington University. The case studies were part of an ongoing project, the…

  13. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  14. A case-control study on related risk factors of female infertility%女性不孕相关危险因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高商; 袁聚祥; 韩宝生

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨女性不孕的相关危险因素.方法:应用病例对照对女性不孕的相关危险因素进行研究和分析,选择228例不孕妇女为病例组,同期早孕妇女225例为对照组;采用问卷调查的方式收集数据,应用条件logistic回归分析从差异有统计学意义的结果中分析出不孕相关危险因素.结果:肥胖、受教育程度低、无工作、睡眠质量不高、入睡障碍、睡眠时间不足可能是导致不孕症的危险因素.结论:应加强对育龄期妇女的生殖健康知识教育,增强育龄期妇女体质,鼓励全职主妇进入社会工作,控制肥胖,改善睡眠以降低不孕症的发生率.%Objective:To explore the related risk factors of female infertility.Methods:A case-control study was conducted to research and analyze the related risk factors of female infertility; 228 infertile women were selected as case group,225 healthy early pregnant women during the same period were selected as control group.The data was collected by questionnaire survey,conditional Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the related risk factors of female infertility among the results with statistical significance.Results:Obesity,low educational level,unemployed,poor sleeping,sleep initiation and maintenance disorders,and sleep deprivation were probable risk factors of infertility.Conclusion:Reproductive health education knowledge should be offered to the women of childbearing age,their constitution should be enhanced,the housewives are encouraged to get a job,obesity should be controlled,sleep should be improved to reduce the incidence rate of infertility.

  15. Case-control study on relation between life events and occurance of esophagus cancer%生活事件与食管癌发生的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 张卫东; 郗园林

    2001-01-01

    To study the relation between life events and occurance ofesophagus cancer. Methods: 1:2 case-controlstudy. The cases were all patients diagnosed by cytology and pathology from an investigation of esophagus cancer in Anyang countryin December, 1997. They all suffered from squamous cell cancer. The controls were chosen fiom the remains in the same investigation. The conditions of control were:① same sex with the case;②same age ( ≤ ± 5 years) with the case;③living in same placewith the case. Results: Negative event rates in case group(33.9% ) were signitieantly higher than that in control group( 14.3 %).By single factor analysis and Logistic model regress analysis, haimony with neighbors ( OR = 0.15 ), bereavement of one' s spouse(OR = 19 ),family's suffering intensive disease or death( OR = 5.63), economic status depravation( OR = 4.46 ) were significantlyrelated with esophagus cancer. Conclusior: Harmony with neighbors is a protective factor of esophagus cancer, bereavement ofone's spouse, family's suffering intensive disease or death, economic status depravation are risk factors. Negative events are riskfactors%目的:探讨生活事件与食管癌发生的关系。方法:采用l:2配对病例对照研究。病例组为1997年12月安阳县某3个乡食管癌普查中发现的全部现症食管癌患者。全部病例经细胞学和病理学确诊,且全部为鳞癌。对照组从普查中的非食管癌患者中选取。配比条件:①与病例同性别。②年龄相近,与病例年龄相差小于5岁。③居住地相同,与病例同村。结果:病例组负性事件发生率(33.9%)显著高于对照组(14.3%);经单因素和Logstic回归分析发现邻里和睦(OR=0.15)、丧偶(OR=19)、家属重病或亡故(OR=5.63)、经济状况恶化(OR=4.46)与食管癌发生有显著联系。结论:邻里和睦为食管癌保护因素,丧偶、家属重病或亡故、经济状况恶化为食管癌危险因素。负性事件为食管癌的危险因素。

  16. Deep Venous Thrombosis with Pulmonary Embolism Related to IVIg Treatment: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Flannery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IVIg therapy has potentially been related to arterial and venous therapy. We performed an Ovid review focusing on IVIg and thrombotic events. While a few case reports were reviewed case series and case control studies were particularly reviewed in relation to thrombotic events. Outcomes demonstrate a correlation between underlying cardiovascular risk factors with predominately arterial events which typically occurred within 4–24 hours of infusion. While venous events occurred less commonly they were associated with traditional risk factors and occurred later, typically, 1–7 days following infusion of IVIg. Potential causation of thrombotic events was discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. Methods Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1 genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls. The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. Results There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic

  18. Multi-disciplinary data organization and visualization models for clinical and pre-clinical studies: A case study in the application of proton beam radiosurgery for treating spinal cord injury related pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.

    2016-03-01

    An increasing adoption of electronic medical records has made information more accessible to clinicians and researchers through dedicated systems such as HIS, RIS and PACS. The speed and the amount at which information are generated in a multi-institutional clinical study make the problem complicated compared to day-to-day hospital workflow. Often, increased access to the information does not translate into the efficient use of that information. Therefore, it becomes crucial to establish models which can be used to organize and visualize multi-disciplinary data. Good visualization in turn makes it easy for clinical decision-makers to reach a conclusion within a small span of time. In a clinical study involving multi-disciplinary data and multiple user groups who need access to the same data and presentation states based on the stage of the clinical trial or the task are crucial within the workflow. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the conceptual system design and system workflow, we will be presenting a clinical trial based on application of proton beam for radiosurgery which will utilize our proposed system. For demonstrating user role and visualization design purposes, we will be focusing on three different user groups which are researchers involved in patient enrollment and recruitment, clinicians involved in treatment and imaging review and lastly the principle investigators involved in monitoring progress of clinical study. Also datasets for each phase of the clinical study including preclinical and clinical data as it related to subject enrollment, subject recruitment (classifier), treatment (DICOM), imaging, and pathological analysis (protein staining) of outcomes.

  19. Case Studies in Computer Control

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, J B

    1981-01-01

    This document brings together under one cover details relating to the computer control of three vert different processes, these being (i) Longwall coal cutting (ii)Electric vehicle testing (iii) A pilot distillation column These applications all pose very interesting problems of process modelling and control systems design and provide a good test of modern control theory. It is chiefly for these reasons that the processes have formed the core of the author's r...

  20. Comparison of methodological and reporting quality: A systematic review of case-control studies related Chinese nursing field%中文护理专业病例对照研究质量的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉芳; 王媛媛; 王娟娟; 王泓午; 窦昊颖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the methodological and reporting quality of case-control studies published in higher impacted nursing periodicals,other nursing journals and compositive medical journals.Methods All nursing specialization and integrative journals in China mainland were searched from the inception till December 2013.The methodological and reporting quality was assessed according to NewcastleOttawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) and strengthening the reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement (STROBE) respectively.Results The systematic literature search yielded 3 579 publications potentially relevant studies.Then,a total of 94 hteratures met the inclusion criteria were identified.The average score of methodological quality and reporting quality were(4.86±1.33) and (16.11±2.41) respectively.Additionally,there was no significant difference in methodological quality and reporting quality among higher impacted nursing periodical,other nursing journals and compositive medical joumal.Condusions The number of case-control studies in Chinese nursing field revealed an increasing tendency,and these literatures addressed a wide range of research fields.However,most quality of the case-control studies published in China were rela-tively poor,and both methodological and reporting quality should be further improved.%目的 对发表在护理核心期刊、护理非核心期刊和综合性医学期刊上的中文护理专业病例对照研究文献的方法学质量和报告质量进行系统评价.方法 计算机检索中文护理专业病例对照研究的文献,并采用Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS)和Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology(STROBE)量表对文献进行方法学和报告质量评价.结果 检索得到3 579篇文献,根据纳入与排除标准共纳入94篇文献;纳入文献的NOS量表评分为(4.86±1.33)分,STROBE量表评分为(16.11±2.41)分;发表在护理核心期刊上、护理非核心期刊上和

  1. A Fatal Case of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia-Methotrexate Related or Primary Autoimmune Disease Related: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Kaeley, Nidhi; Gupta, Priyanka; Gupta, Vibha; Bhatia, Rohan

    2016-03-01

    Methotrexate is being used for many years in the treatment of chronic medical disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis since 1951. It has been associated with various systemic toxicities and complications including bone marrow suppression and lymphomas. The development of leukaemia in a patient of chronic rheumatoid arthritis is either related with the primary disease or due to the drugs which are used in the treatment like cyclophosphamide. In our present case, a 70-year-old female who was a known case of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and was on methotrexate once a week orally for the past 20 years presented with complaints of loss of appetite, loss of weight and anaemia since 2 months. After thorough examination and investigation, she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-M4) with bilateral chest consolidation. PMID:27134915

  2. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  3. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade;

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented......, highlighting the most relevant results. A brief chapter concludes the document, giving an outlook on the follow-up activities of the RES4LESS project. This summary is intended not only as an introduction to the RES4LESS cases studies, but also as a guideline to read and interpret the in-depth analysis carried...... out in the final documents that describe the case studies in detail. These documents will be published in September 2012 on the RES4LESS website, www.res4less.eu....

  4. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  5. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  6. Telepractice for pediatric Dysphagia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Roth, Melissa; Sheppard, Justine Joan

    2014-01-01

    A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger's Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. Over the four-week intervention period, the patient demonstrated substantial improvements in: oral acceptance of eating-related objects and a variety of foods (behavioral variable), timing of voluntary saliva swallows and aerophagia levels (swallowing variables) and quality of life. Follow-up interview analysis showed that most skills were retained or improved one-month post intervention. This intensive telepractice program proved to be feasible and effective for this pediatric patient with dysphagia. PMID:25945217

  7. Telepractice for Pediatric Dysphagia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia A. Malandraki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger’s Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. Over the four-week intervention period, the patient demonstrated substantial improvements in: oral acceptance of eating-related objects and a variety of foods (behavioral variable, timing of voluntary saliva swallows and aerophagia levels (swallowing variables and quality of life. Follow-up interview analysis showed that most skills were retained or improved one-month post intervention. This intensive telepractice program proved to be feasible and effective for this pediatric patient with dysphagia.

  8. Unmasking Cleckley's psychopath: assessing historical case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated original case descriptions of psychopathy (Cleckley, 1941) in relation to current conceptualizations and general personality traits. Attorneys, forensic psychologists and clinical faculty members completed ratings of psychopathy and personality after reading vignettes based on Cleckley's descriptions of a psychopath. The results suggest that professionals' ratings are consistent with current conceptualizations of psychopathy. Furthermore, the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits of the vignettes aligned with the current literature on the FFM and psychopathy (i.e. low neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness). The results further supported that a general trait model, like the FFM, may be well suited to describe the underlying personality traits of psychopathy. Gender differences were also examined. PMID:26931520

  9. Rebranding: a Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Size, Maria, (Thesis)

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore how and why companies implement rebranding campaigns. The study stemmed from a realisation by the author that the area of rebranding is very much under-researched academically although anecdotal evidence indicates and increase in the occurrence of the phenomenon in recent years. Therefore the purpose of this research is to add to the insufficient body of literature on rebranding through exploring it from a corporate perspective. The two chapte...

  10. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  11. The first case of atrial fibrillation-related graft kidney infarction following acute pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Native renal infarction is uncommon in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)-related thromboembolism. Graft infarction is also rare, with such cases mostly occurring in the main graft artery postoperatively. To date, there have been no studies of AF-related graft kidney infarction. We herein describe the first case of AF-related graft kidney infarction. The clinical manifestations of this condition mimic and follow those of acute pyelonephritis; therefore, these diseases should be differentially diagnosed as early as possible using lactic dehydrogenase testing and computed tomography. Aggressive treatment with intravascular thrombolysis should be administered, even when the diagnosis is delayed, in order to restore a viable renal function.

  12. Outage management: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

  13. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  14. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  15. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  16. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  17. A Case Study of Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuo

    In Engineering Ethics Class at Shizuoka University, the Code of Ethics and Cases for Electrical Engineers by IEEJ Ethics committee is used to promote for high education effect to correspond large number of students (140students). In this paper, a case study in the class, and survey results for ethics value of students are presented. In addition, some comments for role playing act on the case of virtual experiences by students are described.

  18. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  19. Odontoma: a retrospective study of 73 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical findings and treatment results for impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas. We retrospectively investigated 73 odontomas in 72 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from April 2004 through November 2011. The study was performed using medical records, panoramic radiographs, and pathological reports. Data gathered included age, gender, location, chief complaints, effects on dentition, and treatment of odontoma and the impacted tooth associated with odontoma. Most compound odontomas (46.7%) were found in the second decade and complex odontomas were not related to age. Odontomas showed no gender predilection. Fifty-five cases (75.3%) of odontomas were detected on routine dental radiographs. Sixty percent of compound odontomas occurred in the canine area and 57.1% of complex odontomas in the molar areas. Impaction of permanent teeth (61.6%) was the most common complication on the adjacent teeth. Most odontomas (84.9%) were removed surgically and impacted permanent teeth were managed by surgical removal (53.2%), orthodontic treatment (25.5%), or surgical repositioning (6.4%). There was a statistically significant relation between age and preservation of the impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas (p<0.01). Early detection and treatment of odontomas increase the possibility of preservation of the impacted tooth. Therefore, it would be suggested that periodic panoramic examination during the first and second decade of life might be beneficial for the early detection and better prognosis of odontomas.

  20. A Case-control Study of Mother-related Factors for Late Preterm Births%晚期早产母源性因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳锡永; 刘小媚; 金志彪; 徐兰飞; 吴燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨晚期早产发生的母源性影响因素。方法选取2012年1月至2013年12月住院分娩的970例晚期早产产妇为研究对象,并以同期早期早产(207例)和全部足月产(11985例)产妇为对照,比较分析晚期早产的母源性影响因素。结果年龄<20岁、外来流动人口、小学及以下文化程度、无业人员、双胎妊娠、无定期产前检查、胎膜早破、前置胎盘、胎盘早剥、妊娠合并肝内胆汁淤积与晚期早产和早期早产均有关(P<0.01);流产次数≥3次、胚胎移植术妊娠、妊娠合并高血压与晚期早产有关(P<0.05、0.01);妊娠合并贫血与早期早产有关(P<0.01)。结论除早产共有的影响因素外,流产次数≥3次、胚胎移植术妊娠、妊娠合并高血压是晚期早产独有的母源性因素,应采取针对性的措施减少和预防晚期早产的发生。%Objective To investigate the mother-related factors of late preterm births.Methods A case-control study of mother-related factors for late preterm births from January 2012 to December 2013 was performed, 970 women with late preterm birth as the case group, 207 women with early preterm birth and 11985 women with term birth as the control group.Results Age below 20 years old, the lfoating population, primary school education, the unemployed, twin pregnancies, without regular prenatal examination, premature rupture of fetal membranes, placenta praevia, placental abruption and pregnancy with intrahepatic cholestasis were associated with late preterm birth and early preterm birth(P<0.01). More than 3 abortion, regnancy embryo thansplantation and pregnancy with hypertension were associated with late preterm birth(P<0.05 and 0.01). Pregnancy with anemia was associated with early preterm birth(P<0.01).Conclusion In addition to the common inlfuencing factors of preterm birth, more than 3 abortion, regnancy embryo transplantation and pregnancy with

  1. Marketing-Indonesia case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Iwan; Roshetko, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research are (1) to identify the potential VAF species or products for Nanggung Farmers; (2) identify market channels & marketing problems; (3) enhances farmers' understanding of market mechanism; and (4) identify opportunities to improve the quantity & quality of VAF. The study was conducted on Sept-Oct 2006. Data and information are collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in each village that attended both men and women. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetabl...

  2. Linguistic Overgeneralization: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Nazar Al-Baldawi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study described a single child’s language acquisition. The importance of this study resided in the circumstances and the environment in which the child lived. He came from a family in which the parents were from different countries and cultures; spoke different Arabic dialects and who lived in a country in which English is spoken. The child was in his critical period of language acquisition. He seemed to have established a unique way of communicating with people surrounding him to cope with all the linguistic varieties around him. The study showed that the child had semantic, syntactic and morphological overgeneralized structures. The data and results showed that overgeneralization and language acquisition were primarily an innate faculty of the human mind and that imitation did played a primary role in language acquisition.It showed, nevertheless, that imitation and behaviorist approaches could not fully account for language acquisition nor did the generative approach. The results went in favor of an Emergentist approach of language acquisition where both innateness and imitations were crucial constituents of children’s acquisition of linguistic forms.

  3. Pleural plaques related to “take-home” exposure to asbestos: An international case series

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Alon; Van Hee, Victor C.; Kramer, Mordechai R.; Pitlik, Silvio; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    Context: While a large number of studies indicate the risks of high-level exposures to asbestos in the workplace setting, a relatively small number of studies describe the risk of pleural disease related to “take-home” asbestos brought into the household by workers exposed to asbestos. Consequently, the risk of pleural disease in family members of asbestos-exposed workers is likely underappreciated. Case presentations: Two families of siblings, one in Israel and one in the US, were evaluated ...

  4. Radiative damping: a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Spohn, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    We are interested in the motion of a classical charge coupled to the Maxwell self-field and subject to a uniform external magnetic field, B. This is a physically relevant, but difficult dynamical problem, to which contributions range over more than one hundred years. Specifically, we will study the Sommerfeld-Page approximation which assumes an extended charge distribution at small velocities. The memory equation is then linear and many details become available. We discuss how the friction equation arises in the limit of "small" B and contrast this result with the standard Taylor expansion resulting in a second order equation for the velocity of the charge.

  5. Brick handling: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  6. Ownership and Control Structures: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on separation of ownership and control in Southeast Europe, and in particular it is a case study of Macedonia. For structured analysis of this case study we use the World Bank Microdata Library, specifically the Enterprise Surveys which contains firm-level data of a representative sample of economies private sectors. What we are interested in are the ties of ownership and control and whether such linkages contribute to the development of domestic firms and the overall ec...

  7. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  8. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  9. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  10. Mining Product Data Models: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies used to prove the validity of some data-flow mining algorithms. We proposed the data-flow mining algorithms because most part of mining algorithms focuses on the control-flow perspective. First case study uses event logs generated by an ERP system (Navision) after we set several trackers on the data elements needed in the process analyzed; while the second case study uses the event logs generated by YAWL system. We offered a general solution of data-flow m...

  11. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  12. A tapentadol related fatality: Case report with postmortem concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee; Mallett, Phyllis; Aldridge, Lenore; Verilhac, Kimi; McIntyre, Iain M

    2016-09-01

    Tapentadol (TAP) is an analgesic agent indicated for the management of different types of pain. It has a novel mechanism of action in that it induces analgesia via both μ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. Although deaths associated with TAP use have been reported, there is a paucity of published literature regarding TAP concentrations in biological samples obtained from TAP-associated fatalities. We report a case of TAP toxicity resulting in death with postmortem peripheral and central blood concentrations, liver, vitreous, urine, and gastric contents. A 41-year-old female was found slumped over a sink at home following a welfare check by police. She was transported to a local hospital where she was pronounced dead despite all resuscitative measures. The autopsy was remarkable only for pulmonary edema and signs of aspiration pneumonia. Postmortem concentrations of TAP were confirmed in peripheral blood at 1.1mg/L, central blood 1.3mg/L, liver 9.9mg/kg, vitreous humor 0.94mg/L, urine 88mg/L, and the gastric contained 2mg. Also of note, oxycodone was found in the decedent's blood at a concentration of 0.58mg/L. We report a death related to an intentional ingestion of TAP and oxycodone-the cause and manner of death were determined to be mixed drug intoxication; suicide. We hope that the variety of TAP concentrations identified in this case provide valuable points of reference for future cases of TAP intoxication. PMID:27568082

  13. Structural logical relations with case analysis and equality reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp; Filinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    requires the assertion logic to be extended with reasoning principles not present in the original presentation of the formalization method. We address this by generalizing the assertion logic to include dependent sorts, and demonstrate that the original cut elimination proof continues to apply without......Formalizing proofs by logical relations in the Twelf proof assistant is known to be notoriously difficult. However, as demonstrated by Schürmann and Sarnat [In Proc. of 23rd Symp. on Logic in Computer Science, 2008] such proofs can be represented and verified in Twelf if done so using a Gentzen......-style auxiliary assertion logic which is subsequently proved consistent via cut elimination. We demonstrate in this paper an application of the above methodology to proofs of observational equivalence between expressions in a simply typed lambda calculus with a call-by-name operational semantics. Our use case...

  14. Energy Audit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This India is the Fifth largest producer of Electricalenergy in the world. Despite such achievements the gapbetween demand and supply of electrical energy is increasingevery year and power sector is highly capital – intensive. Thusthe deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10000MWper year.So the gap between demand and supply is continuouslyincreasing day by day. An energy audit is a study of a plant orfacility to determine how and where energy is used and toidentify methods for energy savings. The opportunities lie inthe use of existing renewable energy technologies, greaterefforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of thesetechnologies and options. This thesis provides an overview of ageneral energy conservation measures (ECMs that can becommonly recommended for NIT Hamirpur. It should be notedthat the Energy auidut presented in this paper does not pretendto be exhaustive nor comprehensive. It provides merely toindicate some of the options that energy auditor can considerwhen performing an analysis of this institute. Energyconservation and exploration of new energy avenues are thewell accepted solution to fulfil the demand in future. The totalcost of energy plays a vital role in determining the product costof a commodity. Therefore the identification of potential energysavings and implementation for a given institutional facility isunimportant to ensure its competitive advantage over otherinstitute. This paper work presents such energy saving methodsin a methodological approach, experienced during a detailedenergy audit of NIT Hamirpur.

  15. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  16. Case studies in intelligent computing achievements and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Issac, Biju

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of intelligent systems has grown rapidly in recent years, there has been a need for a book that supplies a timely and accessible understanding of this important technology. Filling this need, Case Studies in Intelligent Computing: Achievements and Trends provides an up-to-date introduction to intelligent systems.This edited book captures the state of the art in intelligent computing research through case studies that examine recent developments, developmental tools, programming, and approaches related to artificial intelligence (AI). The case studies illustrate successful ma

  17. Single case studies as a means for developing psychological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. PMID:26663629

  18. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    health professionals, and as the gold standard for educational supervision.2,4-6 Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine: if strugglers in specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to controls (non-strugglers), and which performance indicators during...... not identified as cases in the case extraction period. We aimed at a case-control ratio of 1:4 and intend to match on graduation year. Ten different performance measures relating to medical school admission, first year performance and overall program performances will be examined, such as: pre-university exam...

  19. Using the case-study method in teaching college physics

    OpenAIRE

    Burko, Lior M.

    2016-01-01

    The case-study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates), and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case-study method should be considered by physics faculty as part of the effort to transition the teaching of college physics from the traditional frontal-lecture format to other formats that...

  20. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  1. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    .The book presents case studies explaining actual applications of KM in a different oforganizational and global settings. Different subjects and issues associated withconstruction of KM system in different kinds of organizations are explored within eachsection. Organizational learning (OL, knowledge, culture and productivity are some ofthe issues tackled with construction of KM system in a variety of organizational andglobal settings.The book is organized into seven sections; KM in support of organizational learning,knowledge management in support of retaining organizational knowledge, knowledgemanagement strategy, issues in knowledge management, KM is support of knowledgetransfer, KM in support of projects, KM outcomes. Each section is related with an area KMresearch.In section I, there are two cases discussing KM in support of OL. The first case is fromLynne P. Cooper, Rebecca L. Nash, Tu-Anh T. Phan, and Teresa R. Bailey and describesdevelopment and operation of knowledge system in order to support learning oforganizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in USA. It presents in detailimplementation and rollout of the system and argues the results from performance andusage data collected over 19 weeks. The second case is from Brigette McGregor-MacDonald and describes the work of global organizations in its KM efforts to sustain andtransfer learning from global leadership curriculum. It mainly focuses on KM solution162developed to support employees to sustain their learning, to enable them to share theirinsights and experiences with others, and thus increase organizational capability.Section 2 explores using KM to support the retention of organizational knowledge inorganizations where the work forces are in transition. In third chapter in this section HaniAbdel-Aziz, and Khaled Wahba discuss the building of organizational memory informationsystem (OMIS in an Egyptian Professional Services company suffering from knowledgeloss due to high rate of employee turnover

  3. Educational Potential of Case-Study Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorinova, Zoya Vladimirovna; Vorobyeva, Viktoriya Vladimirovna; Malyanova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of phenomenological and typological analysis of case-study technology educational potential. The definition “educational potential of case-study technology” is given, the main characteristics of which are changed in communication and collaborative activity quality, appearance of educational initiatives, change of participants’ position in learning process, formation of “collective subject” in collaborative activity, increase of learning (subject) results. Dep...

  4. TOP-10 DATA MINING CASE STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    GABOR MELLI; XINDONG WU; PAUL BEINAT; FRANCESCO BONCHI; LONGBING CAO; RONG DUAN; CHRISTOS FALOUTSOS; RAYID GHANI; BRENDAN KITTS; BART GOETHALS; GEOFF MCLACHLAN; JIAN PEI; ASHOK SRIVASTAVA; OSMAR ZAÏANE

    2012-01-01

    We report on the panel discussion held at the ICDM'10 conference on the top 10 data mining case studies in order to provide a snapshot of where and how data mining techniques have made significant real-world impact. The tasks covered by 10 case studies range from the detection of anomalies such as cancer, fraud, and system failures to the optimization of organizational operations, and include the automated extraction of information from unstructured sources. From the 10 cases we find that sup...

  5. Child Survivor of War: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysircar, Gargi

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of a Bosnian survivor of war living in the U.S. using the extended case method. Clinical issues related to acculturative stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and identity are analyzed. Suggested treatment includes existential therapy and its cognitive--behavioral applications, didactic education on trauma,…

  6. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  7. Microvascular Complications in Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Mellitus: a Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott AIR

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT, The prevalence of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus is increasing and is associated with increased survival from cystic fibrosis. CASE REPORT, This study describes a case of the premature onset of disabling and widespread microvascular complications resulting from cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus. Previously asymptomatic retinopathy was diagnosed on recognition of diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS, The treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has become more complex due to the nephrotoxic potential of intravenous aminoglycoside drugs which are frequently used to control chronic Pseudomonas infection in cystic fibrosis.

  8. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  9. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  10. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Horstmann, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  11. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  12. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  13. RELATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND PERFORMANCE ADIYAMAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ALKIŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the idea that justice perception in the workplace is one of the most important factors that affect working performance of employees. In this sense, it has been studied that whether the levels of organizational justice perception of teachers in Adiyaman differ or not according to their demographic features. In addition the relation between organizational justice and working performance has been investigated. The sample group of the study is composed of 345 randomly selected teachers among 3300 teachers who worked in Adıyaman in 2013-2014 academic year. Quantitative research method was used in this study and data were obtained using descriptive-relational data model. attitude scales of organizational justice and performance were used as data collection tool. Factor analysis in analyzing the data, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, T-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests were used. The study shows that there is no difference in the perception of organizational justice by means of gender, marital status, union membership status, age, education level, length of service and length of service in the profession in schools vary according to the variable, but some differences have been found according to subject, monthly fee,the number of teachers in school and school type. In addition to these results, it can said that there is a weak relationship between performance and organizational justice in the same direction.

  14. Alcohol effects on family relations: a case study Repercussiones del alcoholismo en las relaciones familiares: estudio de caso acerca del tema Repercussões do alcoolismo nas relações familiares: estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Márcia dos Santos Reinaldo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to alcohol abuse have been associated to different factors, regardless of the causes attributed to this phenomenon. Alcohol consumption and dependence is considered a public health problem and deserve attention because of the social, work, family, physical, legal and violence-related risks it represents. This study aimed to identify the effects of alcoholism on family relations and, by means of case management, to encourage the recovery of these relationships. The results show that the problems caused by alcohol abuse impose profound suffering to family members, which contributes to high levels of interpersonal conflict, domestic violence, parental inadequacy, child abuse and negligence, financial and legal difficulties, in addition to clinical problems associated to it.Los problemas relacionados al uso de alcohol han sido asociados a diversos factores, independiente de las causas atribuidas al fenómeno en cuestión. Cuando consideramos que el consumo y la dependencia de alcohol incrementan el riesgo para problemas sociales, de trabajo, familiares, físicos, legales y con violencia, podemos afirmar que merece atención y se configura como un problema de salud pública. La finalidad del estudio fue identificar las repercusiones del alcoholismo en las relaciones familiares y, por medio de la gestión de casos, incentivar el rescate de esas relaciones. Se trata de un estudio de caso. Los resultados demuestran que los trastornos que resultan del uso de alcohol penalizan enormemente los miembros de la familia, contribuyendo para altos niveles de conflicto interpersonal, violencia doméstica, inadecuación parental, abuso y negligencia infantil, dificultades financieras y legales y problemas clínicos relacionados al uso del alcohol.Os problemas relacionados ao uso do álcool têm sido associados a diversos fatores, independente das causas atribuídas ao fenômeno em questão. Quando consideramos que o consumo e a dependência do

  15. CUSTOMER RELATIONS INFLUENCE AND IT’S RELATIONSHIP WITH CORE COMPETENCE : A CASE OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mussa, Emmanuel M Mwanakatwe; Joachim N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to study and show how a customer relation through its strategic key elements is related to Core competence. Design and Methodology: This is a case study approach involving multiple cases for mobile telecommunication service providers from two countries namely, Tanzania and Zambia employing a qualitative research design. Literature review and theoretical framework resulted into a proposal of a theoretical model of relationship between Customer relations a...

  16. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  17. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  18. 引起牙周病相关影响因素的病例对照研究%Cause periodontal disease related influencing factors of case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾薇

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨影响牙周病的相关因素及预防对策.方法 将134例牙周病患者作为观察组,选择同期134例健康体检人群作为对照组,比较两组性别、年龄、教育程度、经济收入、吸烟、牙周疾病知识、自身口腔健康状况评价、定期接受口腔检查、近2个月内是否存在精神压力、营养不良、糖尿病方面的差异.结果 单因素分析显示,9个因素差异均有统计学意义(均P < 0.05),Logistic回归分析显示影响牙周病危险因素主要是缺少牙周病知识(OR = 3.70)、吸烟(OR = 3.39)、营养不良(OR = 3.01)、糖尿病(OR = 2.78).结论 牙周病是多因素疾病,预防需从多方面考虑,防止病情发生和发展:开展口腔卫生宣教、戒烟、合理调整营养、控制血糖水平.%Objective To study relative factors and prevention countermcasures of periodontal disease. Methods 134 patients with periodontal disease were collected as observation group, at the same time 134 cases of healthy persons were collected as control group, reference and combining with the actual working condition, gender, age, education level, economic income, smoking, periodontal disease knowledge, oral health evaluation, regular oral examination, mental stress of nearly 2 months, malnutrition, diabetes of the two groups were compared. Results Single factor analysis, there were significant differences in the nine factors (all P < 0.05), Logistic regression analysis influence periodontal disease risk factors: the lack of periodontal disease knowledge (OR=3.70), smoking (OR=3.39), malnutrition (OR= 3.01), diabetes (OR=2.78). Conclusion Periodontal disease is a disease with more factors, prevention from various aspects to consider, prevent disease occurrence and development: conducting oral hygiene mission, to give up smoking, reasonable adjustment nutrition, control blood sugar levels.

  19. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  20. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  1. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  2. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged......In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school......-community approach to influencing determinants of healthy and balanced growing up’. Qualitative case study research was carried out in a school in the Netherlands. Data sources included project documents, interviews and observations. Thematic analysis was carried out combining the different data sources. The case...

  3. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  4. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's.

  5. Jazz improvisers’ shared understanding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Schober

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard (It Could Happen to You on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner’s musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener’s statements more than their partner’s argues against a simple notion that performers’ interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider’s.

  6. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  7. VINCRISTINE INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: STUDY OF 75 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Arzanian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConcern for side-effects of therapy related to treatment of childhood malignancies is becoming an increasingly important topic. In this study, we evaluated extent of vincristine (VCR induced neurotoxicity in a group of children who underwent chemotherapy, with VCR being part of the regimen.Materials & MethodsIn this investigation, for 75 children (54% boys, 46% girls, aged between 1 to 14 (mean 6.5±4.3 years, serial weekly neurological examinations were performed; of the 75, 70 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 5 Wilm's tumor. All patients were on a chemotherapy protocol of at least 4 consecutive VCR (1.5mg/m2 injections.ResultsDecreased deep tendons reflexes were seen in the Achilles reflex in 78%, and the patellar reflex in 53% of patients. Muscle weakness was found in 70% of patients, being mild in 76% of them. Four  percent of patients showed severe weakness. Petosis, jaw pain, hoarseness, abdominal pain and constipation were seen in 15%, 6%, 12%, 12% and 12% respectively. Paresthesia was observed in 32 of 52 patients, over 4 years old. No cases of foot drop, urinary retention or facial nerve palsy were seen in this patient group.ConclusionChildren on usual doses of vincristine regimen may have neuropathic side effects but most of these side effects are mild and not troublesome.Key words: Vincristine, neuropathy, neurotoxicity, side effect

  8. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  9. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Report of a case using conservative protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggendorn, Fabiano Luiz; Leite, Taiana Campos; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Junior, Arley Silva; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; da Costa, Karla Bianca Fernandes Fontes; Dias, Eliane Pedra

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been the first-line treatment option for osteometabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis, hypercalcaemia in malignant bone diseases, and in bone metastasis. It is possible to observe a growing number of cases of osteonecrosis of the jaws in patients using this medication, called bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The purpose of this study was to report a conservative treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws--Stage 2, using antibacterial solution and low-level laser therapy. At the end of the treatment, the patient presented improvement of the lesion with the healing of the mucosa. The literature still lacks successful definite protocols, thus the present case may contribute with another option for conservative management for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. More research is necessary in order to develop a good protocol management for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. PMID:26782365

  10. Mining Product Data Models: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies used to prove the validity of some data-flow mining algorithms. We proposed the data-flow mining algorithms because most part of mining algorithms focuses on the control-flow perspective. First case study uses event logs generated by an ERP system (Navision after we set several trackers on the data elements needed in the process analyzed; while the second case study uses the event logs generated by YAWL system. We offered a general solution of data-flow model extraction from different data sources. In order to apply the data-flow mining algorithms the event logs must comply a certain format (using InputOutput extension. But to respect this format, a set of conversion tools is needed. We depicted the conversion tools used and how we got the data-flow models. Moreover, the data-flow model is compared to the control-flow model.

  11. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  12. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.

  13. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  14. Explaining improvement of bilateral relations : the case of Vietnam's relations with China, 1985-2001

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Focus of study The research question guiding the study is: Improvements in Sino-Vietnamese relations were made possible by external factors while domestic needs in both countries made it desirable. Theoretical approach: The theoretical framework of the thesis is based upon two distinct, but at the same time intersected and complementary theoretical contributions. The English School represented by Hedley Bull and his seminal distinction between international society and internation...

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Björkqvist, Kira

    2012-01-01

    The importance of taking responsibility for the common environmental and social welfare has become of essence in the business world of the 21st century. This thesis provides the reader with knowledge on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and shows the reader a comparative study on how CSR is reported on in three case study companies chosen for this thesis. This thesis is a descriptive study that uses the research method of content analysis to determine the commonalities and differences...

  16. Pacemaker Related Infective Endocarditis from Staphylococcus Lugdunensis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a common skin flora not typically associated with infection. There are, however, several cases reported in the literature of Staphylococcus lugdunensis as a causative bacterium of various infections. This paper reports an additional case of pacemaker associated endocarditis with Staphylococcus lugdunensis as the causative bacterium.

  17. Using the Case Study Method in Teaching College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2016-10-01

    The case study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates) and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case study method should be considered by physics faculty as part of the effort to transition the teaching of college physics from the traditional frontal-lecture format to other formats that enhance active student participation. In this paper we endeavor to interest physics instructors in the case study method, and hope that it would also serve as a call for more instructors to produce cases that they use in their own classes and that can also be adopted by other instructors.

  18. Using the case-study method in teaching college physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burko, Lior M

    2016-01-01

    The case-study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates), and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case-study method should be considered by physics faculty as part of the effort to transition the teaching of college physics from the traditional frontal-lecture format to other formats that enhance active student participation. In this paper we endeavor to interest physics instructors in the case-study method, and hope that it would also serve as a call for more instructors to produce cases that they use in their own classes and that can also be adopted by other instructors.

  19. Microbial study of meningitis and encephalitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heba S; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Rakha, Magda E; Yingst, Samuel L; Baskharoun, Magda F

    2007-01-01

    Meningitis and/or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem especially during outbreaks. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for effective earlier treatment. This study aimed to identify the possible microbial causes of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases. CSF and serum samples were collected from 322 patients who had signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis and/or encephalitis. Out of 250 cases with confirmed clinical diagnosis, 83 (33.2%) were definitely diagnosed as bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis cases (by using CSF culture, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and CSF stain), 17 (6.8%) were definitely diagnosed as having viral causes ( by viral isolation on tissue culture, PCR and ELISA), and one (0.4%) was diagnosed as fungal meningitis case (by India ink stain, culture, and biochemical tests). Also, there was one encephalitis case with positive serum ELISA IgM antibodies against Sandfly scilian virus. N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia and M. tuberculosis were the most frequently detected bacterial agents, while Enteroviruses, herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster viruses were the most common viral agents encountered. Further studies are needed to assess the role of different microbial agents in CNS infections and their effective methods of diagnosis.

  20. The Effects of Macroglossia on Speech: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Abebayehu Messele

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of speech production in a 14-year-old Amharic-speaking boy. The boy had developed secondary macroglossia, related to a disturbance of growth hormones, following a history of normal speech development. Perceptual analysis combined with acoustic analysis and static palatography is used to investigate the specific…